Rohit Deshpande - Faculty & Research - Harvard Business School
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Rohit Deshpande

Sebastian S. Kresge Professor of Marketing

Rohit Deshpandé is Sebastian S. Kresge Professor of Marketing at Harvard Business School, where he has been teaching in the Program for Leadership Development, the Owner/President Management Program and in other executive education offerings. He has also taught global branding, international marketing, and first year marketing in the MBA program as well as a doctoral seminar in marketing management. He is the faculty chair of the Global Colloquium for Participant-Centered Learning and has previously been coordinator for Marketing faculty recruiting, coordinator for Marketing doctoral program admissions, and faculty chair of the Strategic Marketing Management  executive program at Harvard Business School. In addition to teaching marketing, he was a part of the design and delivery team that created the Leadership and Corporate Accountability (LCA) MBA required course at HBS focusing on ethics and corporate governance and was faculty chair of the LCA in India executive program. In 2008-2009 Deshpande was recognized as the Henry B. Arthur Fellow for Business Ethics and in 2015 received the Robert F. Greenhill award for outstanding contributions to the HBS community.

Deshpandé introduced the concept of “customer-centricity” at an American Marketing Association meeting talk in 1998 well before the term "customer-centricity" became the strategic focus of leading corporations worldwide. In a series of research papers he has profiled high performance, customer-centric companies in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. He has published several technical articles, cases, and monographs and was cited in an American Marketing Association study as one of the most highly published full professors in the marketing field. His recent work on this topic is published in the “Core Readings in Marketing Series: Customer Centricity.” He is now extending Customer-Centricity into Audience Engagement in arts and culture organizations with case studies on the marketing of jazz (“Wynton Marsalis & Jazz at Lincoln Center”), theater (“American Repertory Theater”), media/entertainment (“Tyra Banks: Personal Branding”), and classical music ("The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra: Cultural Entrepreneurship"). 

He has served on the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of International Marketing, the International Journal of Rese arch in Marketing, the Journal of Business Research, and the Asian Journal of Marketing. He is on the Executive Directors Council of the Marketing Science Institute and has served on the Board of Directors of the American Marketing Association.

Deshpandé has also been a principal in a marketing research consulting firm and an electronics manufacturing company. He is an elected member of Beta Alpha Phi and Omicron Delta Kappa and is listed in Who's Who in America. He has consulted with and taught executive seminars in a variety of organizations in the U.S., Europe, and Asia and has received several recognitions for both executive and MBA teaching. At Harvard, he serves on the Harvard University Committee on the Arts, the Harvard Initiative for Learning and Teaching, the Harvard Murthy Classical Library of India Committee, and is on the advisory boards of the American Repertory Theater and the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies.

Before coming to Harvard, Deshpandé was the E. B. Osborn Professor of Marketing at the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration at Dartmouth College. He has also held appointments as Associate and Assistant Professor of Marketing at the University of Texas at Austin, Visiting Professor and Scholar at the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University and Thomas Henry Carroll Ford Foundation Visiting Professor of Business Administration at Harvard University. He served as Executive Director of the Marketing Science Institute from 1997-1999. He has a B.Sc. (Hons. Dist.) and M.M.S. from the University of Bombay, an M.B.A. from Northwestern University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh, where he received the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2008.

Cases and Teaching Materials
  1. Yo-Yo Ma and Silkroad

    Rohit Deshpandé, Paul A. Gompers and Scott Duke Kominers

    Silkroad — a cross-cultural music collaboration that world-famous cellist Yo-Yo Ma had spearheaded since 1998, was preparing to celebrate its twentieth anniversary. In parallel, Ma was stepping back from his role as the organization’s Artistic Director. Silkroad had come of age, gaining international recognition for its uniquely global music, which blended musical traditions from across the world — especially Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and America. The Ensemble had also forged strong partnerships with universities, local governments, and civic groups, and developed an array of outreach programs to help people understand and express themselves through music. Ma was confident that there could be no better time to hand over leadership. But the transition was bittersweet: He felt a deep personal connection both to the Ensemble as a whole and to every one of its performers and staff members. And he wondered how reducing his involvement would affect the organization’s sustainability.

    Keywords: Cultural entrepreneurship; Managing diverse teams; Leadership transitions; Global innovation; nonprofit organizations; music; Cultural Entrepreneurship; Nonprofit Organizations; Music Entertainment; Leadership; Transition;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Paul A. Gompers, and Scott Duke Kominers. "Yo-Yo Ma and Silkroad." Harvard Business School Case 818-110, March 2018.  View Details
  2. The Dubai International Film Festival

    Rohit Deshpandé and Alpana Thapar

    This case follows the conception and emergence of the Dubai International Film Festival (DIFF). In an already crowded and highly competitive industry, Abdulhamid Juma was attempting to define and establish a unique brand positioning for DIFF. Committed to its vision, Juma led the introduction of various initiatives over the years and was able to effectively grow the festival’s profile amid emerging regional and well-established global players like the Cannes, Sundance, and Toronto film festivals. By the end of 2016, Juma found himself at a crossroads. Could he continue to follow the historical strategy, or was it time to consider a change in order to take it the next level? What would be the best strategy for ensuring DIFF’s survival for many years to come?

    Keywords: brand positioning; underdog brand building; business models; competitive strategy; decision making; non-profit; managing multiple stakeholders; Film Entertainment; Brands and Branding; Business Model; Competitive Strategy; Decision Making; Growth and Development Strategy; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Motion Pictures and Video Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Alpana Thapar. "The Dubai International Film Festival." Harvard Business School Case 517-110, May 2017.  View Details
  3. Tequila Patrón

    Rohit Deshpandé, Carlos Castellanos Rodríguez, Silvia Cacho-Elizondo, Samantha Rullán and Fernanda Miguel

    Tequila Patrón was one of the most successful tequila marketers in the United States. Patrón needed to grow, and in Mexico, the second largest market for tequila, the brand was perceived as American. What portfolio and branding strategy would best serve Patrón to conquer the Mexican market? Furthermore, what would expanding in Mexico imply for the company’s marketing operations?

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Growth and Development Strategy; Mexico;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Carlos Castellanos Rodríguez, Silvia Cacho-Elizondo, Samantha Rullán, and Fernanda Miguel. "Tequila Patrón." Harvard Business School Case 517-108, March 2017.  View Details
  4. Expanding Ecommerce at Technos

    Thales Teixeira, Rohit Deshpande, Ruth Costas and Priscilla Zogbi

    Technos was the market leader in the Brazilian watch market. Its CEO had made a firm commitment of evolving the company’s marketing and commercial practices by focusing less on pushing product to retail clients and more on branding to end consumers to pull watches from retailers. In 2016, the company was about to re-launch its master brand’s website. But the more time passed, the greater were the discrepancies between what the marketing, commercial (sales) and retail divisions of the company envisioned as an ideal ecommerce-enabled Technos website. What should be the fundamental role(s) of our master brand’s website?

    Keywords: technos; watch; wristwatch; ecommerce; online shopping; Distribution; website; marketing; Brazil; Latin America; e-commerce; branding; trade; marketplace; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Web Sites; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Brazil;


    Teixeira, Thales, Rohit Deshpande, Ruth Costas, and Priscilla Zogbi. "Expanding Ecommerce at Technos." Harvard Business School Case 517-078, January 2017.  View Details
  5. Godiva Japan: Think Local, Scale Global

    Rohit Deshpandé, Esel Cekin and Akiko Kanno

    This case tracks Jerome Chouchan’s strategies and execution for a successful turnaround of Godiva Japan’s operations, which were experiencing a decline in sales when he became the managing director of the company in 2010. Through various initiatives and innovations, Godiva Japan had targeted a variety of demographic segments in different sales points, acquired new customers, and created a moment of luxurious consumption for all ages. Accordingly, within Godiva’s global enterprise, Godiva Japan had become number two in worldwide sales and number one in profits. It exported made-in-Japan products and concepts to Godiva’s other markets. How could Chouchan keep the momentum and sustain Godiva Japan’s top-line and bottom-line growth going forward? Would he be able to keep the balance between aspirational and accessible? How much of the success in Japan might contribute to the growth of Godiva's global sales?

    Keywords: branding; internationalization; Product; innovation; positioning; customer segmentation; occasion-based segmentation; Execution; Talent; change management; customer-focused strategies; Product Positioning; Globalized Firms and Management; Change Management; Talent and Talent Management; Customer Focus and Relationships; Product; Segmentation; Innovation and Invention; Brands and Branding; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Japan;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Esel Cekin, and Akiko Kanno. "Godiva Japan: Think Local, Scale Global." Harvard Business School Case 517-056, January 2017. (Revised January 2017.)  View Details
  6. The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra: Cultural Entrepreneurship

    Rohit Deshpande and Annelena Lobb

    The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra (LA Phil), under the leadership of Deborah Borda, had enjoyed great successes in the 2000s and 2010s, even as other U.S. orchestras faltered. The architecturally acclaimed Walt Disney Concert Hall had opened its doors. The institution's finances looked healthy after years of operating losses. A celebrity music director, Gustavo Dudamel, had joined the team. The LA Phil had launched its Youth Orchestra of Los Angeles (YOLA), a classical-music outreach program. Yet the LA Phil still faced real challenges, as all U.S. orchestras did--an aging subscriber base, concern around appeal to younger audiences, and development of a pipeline of donors for the future. How could Borda continue to position the orchestra for success?

    Keywords: Product Positioning; Arts; Music Entertainment; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Cultural Entrepreneurship; Music Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Los Angeles;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Annelena Lobb. "The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra: Cultural Entrepreneurship." Harvard Business School Case 517-006, October 2016. (Revised July 2017.)  View Details
  7. Singapore Airlines: Premium Goes Multi-Brand

    Rohit Deshpande and Dawn H. Lau

    Singapore Airlines had long been considered the gold standard for its innovative customer service. However, the company was faced with new sources of competition, from the rapid growth of Southeast Asian low-cost carriers on the one hand, to the expansion of premium Gulf carriers on the other. The company, therefore, decided to launch a low-cost airline of its own called Scoot, the fourth brand in its portfolio. Now CEO Goh Choon Phong must consider how to grow all four airlines without cannibalizing its own market share or diluting the sterling brand of the parent airline.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Management Teams; Brands and Branding; Air Transportation Industry; Travel Industry; Singapore;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Dawn H. Lau. "Singapore Airlines: Premium Goes Multi-Brand." Harvard Business School Case 517-017, August 2016. (Revised July 2017.)  View Details
  8. India's Amul: Keeping Up with the Times

    Rohit Deshpandé, Tarun Khanna, Namrata Arora and Tanya Bijlani

    Amul is an Indian dairy cooperative founded in 1947—eight months before India's independence from British rule—and owned by over three million farmers in the state of Gujarat. It is India's largest food product marketing organization, selling 46 products, including pouched milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, and infant food through a million retailers across the country, and is the market leader in almost all the categories in which it operates. Amul is well known among Indian consumers for offering high-quality products at reasonable prices, and runs a highly popular advertising campaign that spoofs current events. It offers its farmers 80% of the consumer's dollar for milk, compared with 35%–40% typical in some Western markets. Amul's cooperative dairy model has been replicated across several Indian states, thereby helping increase the incomes of 80–100 million farmer families across the country. However, despite its success, Amul is beginning to come under increasing pressure. Multinationals like Nestlé and Unilever are increasing their presence in India and competing fiercely with Amul in value-added products like yogurt. The entry of large multi-brand retailers like Walmart and Carrefour in the Indian market threatens to squeeze Amul's margins and undermine its low-cost distribution network. India's large young rural population is shying away from dairy farming in favor of urban jobs, leaving questions about future procurement. Finally, Amul's farmers form a large vote bank in the state of Gujarat, and its cooperative structure risks being compromised by vested political interests. Should Amul continue with the business model that has served it so well for decades, or should it change its strategy in order to keep up with India's changing social, political, and economic landscape?

    Keywords: globalization; Expansion; Dairy; india; Cooperatives; milk; leadership; Agriculture; Agribusiness; Competition; Marketing; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; India;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Tarun Khanna, Namrata Arora, and Tanya Bijlani. "India's Amul: Keeping Up with the Times." Harvard Business School Case 516-116, May 2016. (Revised June 2017.)  View Details
  9. Fair & Lovely vs. Dark is Beautiful

    Rohit Deshpande and Saloni Chaturvedi

    Women of Worth (WOW) is an organization that seeks to empower women through training and workshops. The organization has also fought against discrimination based on the color of a person's skin through its “Dark is Beautiful” campaign—endorsed by well-known actor-director Nandita Das. However, despite the recent guidelines on advertising of skin-lightening products, many Indians still aspire to have fair skin. The sale of fairness creams continues to contribute to over 50% of the facial care market. Given this, what should WOW do to fight skin-color based discrimination?

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Race; Marketing; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Saloni Chaturvedi. "Fair & Lovely vs. Dark is Beautiful." Harvard Business School Case 516-079, March 2016. (Revised March 2017.)  View Details
  10. Wynton Marsalis & Jazz at Lincoln Center

    Rohit Deshpandé

    Under the leadership of artistic director Wynton Marsalis, Jazz at Lincoln Center (JALC) hosts performances and education events year-round for audiences in New York and across the United States. Despite the popularity of JALC's events, however, the U.S. audience for jazz is small and aging relative to other music genres. This case asks students to apply marketing principles to the challenge that JALC faces in seeking to expand the reach of and appreciation for jazz music despite a shrinking audience. The case features a multimedia format of audio and video clips in order to engage students directly with JALC protagonists and with jazz music—the real protagonist of the case. The case is ideal for a first year marketing course and is also suitable for courses in branding, nonprofit management, and arts and culture management.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Nonprofit Organizations; Music Entertainment; Brands and Branding; Growth and Development Strategy; Music Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit. "Wynton Marsalis & Jazz at Lincoln Center." Harvard Business School Multimedia/Video Case 515-701, November 2015.  View Details
  11. Building a Social Media Culture at Dell

    Rohit Deshpandé and Michael Norris

    As Michael Dell refocused his newly-private company on services and solutions, the entire corporation was pushed to embrace social media.

    Keywords: social media; technology; Marketing Strategy; Technology Industry; United States;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Michael Norris. "Building a Social Media Culture at Dell." Harvard Business School Case 514-096, January 2014. (Revised April 2015.)  View Details
  12. Building Brand Infosys

    Rohit Deshpandé and Vidhya Muthuram

    Infosys Limited was India's second largest exporter of IT services with annual revenues of $7 billion and a market capitalization of nearly $26 billion in 2012. The company, headquartered in Bangalore, India, had built its reputation as the Indian IT bellwether whose credo was to "under-promise and over-deliver." Throughout its 31-year history, Infosys and its iconic co-founder, N.R. Narayana Murthy, were admired and respected for delivering excellence while conducting business in a legal, transparent, and ethical manner. It was one of the few software companies that recognized the value of a strong brand in the business-to-business (B2B) market and chose to develop its brand not through expensive advertising but by building core values, client trust, and leveraging Murthy's personal integrity and principles. In 2011, the company introduced its new brand positioning, Infosys 3.0. A key component of the new brand positioning was the Products, Platforms, and Services (PPS) business, headed by Sanjay Purohit. This case focuses on the company's efforts to makeover its brand in the U.S. market amidst several challenges.

    Keywords: Marketing; Information Technology; Information Technology Industry; India;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Vidhya Muthuram. "Building Brand Infosys." Harvard Business School Case 513-003, October 2012. (Revised January 2014.)  View Details
  13. Branding Yoga

    Rohit Deshpande, Kerry Herman and Annelena Lobb

    Yoga, an ancient discipline, has become popular worldwide. The marketing of yoga and dispute over its origins have led to debate as to whether yoga should be branded at all. Some yoga instructors have gone so far as to copyright their varieties of yoga; others in the yoga community say it is a religious and/or spiritual practice and as such should not be claimed as intellectual property.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Marketing;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Kerry Herman, and Annelena Lobb. "Branding Yoga." Harvard Business School Case 512-025, December 2011. (Revised February 2013.)  View Details
  14. Cipla 2011

    Rohit Deshpande, Sandra J. Sucher and Laura Winig

    Dr. Yusuf Hamied, head of the Indian pharma and generics manufacturing company Cipla, is weighing options for how to continue to support the global fight against HIV/AIDS while positioning his company for growth in a changing regulatory landscape.

    Keywords: pharmaceutical industry; corporate strategy; leadership; Leading Change; Leadership Style; Management Teams; Governance Compliance; Corporate Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Sandra J. Sucher, and Laura Winig. "Cipla 2011." Harvard Business School Case 511-050, April 2011. (Revised April 2015.)  View Details
  15. The Swatch Group

    Rohit Deshpandé, Karol Misztal and Daniela Beyersdorfer

    In March 2011, Nicolas Hayek, the CEO of the leading Swiss watch manufacturer Swatch Group, reflected on the positioning of Omega, its revived flagship brand. Which marketing strategy would best allow it to confront its main competitor Rolex? And how would potential adjustments to Omega's product, pricing, distribution, and promotion strategies impact the sales of the Swatch Group's other 18 watch brands?

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Brands and Branding; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Karol Misztal, and Daniela Beyersdorfer. "The Swatch Group." Harvard Business School Case 512-052, January 2012. (Revised January 2014.)  View Details
  16. Hengdeli: The Art of Coexistence

    Rohit Deshpandé and Nancy Hua Dai

    In October 2011, Zhang Yuping, founder and chairman of Hengdeli, the largest Swiss watch retailer in the world, wondered how to work more closely with its key suppliers—Swatch Group, Richemont Group, LVMH Group, and Rolex Group—to maintain strong growth in the Greater China region. Specifically, how could Hengdeli manage the relationship with these suppliers to ensure getting more supply in a market where demand outgrew supply? How could Hengdeli balance the needs of these competing suppliers without being overreliant on one or two suppliers? How could it continue to expand its retail network to enhance its value and position? How could Hengdeli rationalize the portfolio management to maximize the return in the long-term?

    Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Retail Industry; China;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Nancy Hua Dai. "Hengdeli: The Art of Coexistence." Harvard Business School Case 512-058, January 2012. (Revised January 2014.)  View Details
  17. The American Repertory Theater

    Rohit Deshpande, Allen S. Grossman and Ryan Johnson

    When Diane Paulus, artistic director and CEO of the American Repertory Theater (A.R.T.) first started in 2008, she attracted media coverage around an aesthetic that aimed to give the audience more ownership over the theater experience, excited theatergoers by experimenting with new venues and received critical recognition for the breadth and range of the work she staged. Paulus also recognized the changing realities in theater, which included dropping subscription numbers and an increase in single ticket buyers. Paulus, inspired by the mission of the A.R.T.—to expand the boundaries of theater—hastened a shift in the A.R.T. business model. Her new plans included operating two unique segmented venues, creating and presenting varied content that aimed to be both challenging and popular, and driving a sales and marketing campaign focused on single ticket buyers, memberships and dynamic pricing. Early results showed some promise; the A.R.T. was closer to break-even than in previous years. However, some questioned if the A.R.T. was beginning to look like a commercial theater, focused on presenting theater that sold, rather than truly expanding boundaries. Despite the questioning, Paulus remained committed to fulfilling her vision of the A.R.T. mission in order to solidify A.R.T. as a leading and financially stable not-for-profit regional theater.

    Keywords: Advertising Campaigns; Arts; Business Model; Leading Change; Media; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Nonprofit Organizations; Competitive Strategy; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; North and Central America;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Allen S. Grossman, and Ryan Johnson. "The American Repertory Theater." Harvard Business School Case 512-026, October 2011. (Revised May 2015.)  View Details
  18. Singapore Airlines: Customer Service Innovation

    Rohit Deshpande and Hal Hogan

    The members of Singapore Airlines' (SIA) management committee needs to decide whether to cancel the implementation of the new lie-flat seats in business class after the effects of the global recession on the travel industry in September 2001. SIA was considered the gold standard for its innovative customer service, and the $100 million new seats project for the international market was planned to bolster that reputation. But with increased competition in the airline industry and the dramatic drop in travel after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the main agenda item for the management committee was how to cut costs.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Management Teams; Brands and Branding; Air Transportation Industry; Travel Industry; Singapore;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Hal Hogan. "Singapore Airlines: Customer Service Innovation." Harvard Business School Case 504-025, July 2003. (Revised April 2011.)  View Details
  19. Taj Hotels, Resorts and Palaces

    Rohit Deshpande and Mona Sinha

    The Taj Hotels, Palaces, and Resorts introduced a new brand architecture to counter lack of differentiation and confused positioning of its mixed bag of brands. After launching an economy and an upscale brand, it dithered over the launch of its upper upscale and luxury brands. The case illustrates the marketing and organizational challenges of a hybrid brand extension strategy that lies in between a "house of brands" and a "branded house."

    Keywords: Growth Management; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Luxury; Accommodations Industry; India;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Mona Sinha. "Taj Hotels, Resorts and Palaces." Harvard Business School Case 511-039, September 2010. (Revised April 2015.)  View Details
  20. Corona Beer

    Rohit Deshpande, Gustavo Herrero and Kirsten O'Neil Massaro

    In early June 1997, the CEO and vice chairman of Grupo Modelo were reviewing the performance of Corona beer in the U.S. market. Despite a much higher sales volume growth rate, Corona still trailed Heineken, the #1 imported beer brand in the U.S. market. Could Corona overtake Heineken and, if so, what marketing strategy changes needed to be made? Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Sales; Competitive Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Mexico; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Gustavo Herrero, and Kirsten O'Neil Massaro. "Corona Beer." Harvard Business School Case 502-023, November 2001. (Revised March 2011.)  View Details
  21. Terror at the Taj Bombay: Customer-Centric Leadership

    Rohit Deshpande

    On November 26, 2008, heavily armed terrorists launched a series of attacks throughout the western-Indian city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay). One of the locations attacked was the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower, which was occupied by the terrorists for over three days, resulting in the deaths of 34 people and 28 people injured. However, the Taj received praise in the aftermath of the attacks for the selfless actions of the staff in placing the safety of the hotel's guests before their own and working to save the lives of its guests. This case seeks to address how leaders develop a customer-centric organization, as well as how an organization saves its flagship brand after a crisis.

    Keywords: Safety; Leadership; National Security; Service Delivery; Organizational Culture; Crisis Management; Customer Focus and Relationships; Brands and Branding; Accommodations Industry; Mumbai;


    Deshpande, Rohit. "Terror at the Taj Bombay: Customer-Centric Leadership." Harvard Business School Multimedia/Video Case 511-703, March 2011.  View Details
  22. Rebranding Gallagher

    Rohit Deshpande and Keith Chi-ho Wong

    Steve Tucker, the Deputy CEO of Gallagher Group Limited (GGL), the world's largest electric fence company, was about to present a new branding strategy to the company's senior managers and Bill Gallagher, Jr., CEO. After spending more than 18 months with brand consultants, Tucker devised an umbrella brand strategy that would instill a uniform brand across all three business units: Animal Management Systems, Security Management Systems, and Fuel Pumps, which marketed themselves under the respective brand names of Gallagher, Cardax, Powerfence, and PEC. However, Tucker knew that the unit heads believed the differences in their clienteles, product categories, and distributor relationships made it impractical to adopt one single brand. GGL's overseas distributors had also raised concerns about a uniform brand. In many cases, GGL only owned minority interests in these distributors and retained limited control over their activities.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Distribution; Industrial Products Industry;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Keith Chi-ho Wong. "Rebranding Gallagher." Harvard Business School Case 511-098, January 2011. (Revised January 2014.)  View Details
  23. Concha y Toro

    Rohit Deshpande, Gustavo A. Herrero and Ezequiel Reficco

    Chile's largest wine producer faces a price versus value positioning problem. Its highest quality wines are not priced competitively at retail because "Made in Chile" connotes great value and low price.

    Keywords: Price; Brands and Branding; Product Positioning; Value; Food and Beverage Industry; Chile;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Gustavo A. Herrero, and Ezequiel Reficco. "Concha y Toro." Harvard Business School Case 509-018, August 2008. (Revised June 2010.)  View Details
  24. Chocolates El Rey

    Rohit Deshpandé, Gustavo Herrero and Regina Garcia-Cuellar

    In late November 2006, Jorge Redmond, CEO of Chocolates El Rey, called a meeting with senior management to discuss the company's growth strategy. A relatively small firm with sales of around $14 million, El Rey produced top quality chocolate made with single origin Venezuelan cocoa beans. The firm sold its chocolates in four different segments—food services, industry, retail, and beverages—and exported 17% of its production, mostly to the United States, Europe, and Japan. El Rey needed to grow, but Redmond wondered how to achieve growth and how to market the "El Rey" brand to its different target segments and international markets. With only 0.5% of the cocoa's world production, was it worth the effort to try and establish a country-of-origin image for Venezuelan chocolate? If so, how could El Rey go about it?

    Keywords: Family Business; Globalized Markets and Industries; Growth and Development Strategy; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Segmentation; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Venezuela;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Gustavo Herrero, and Regina Garcia-Cuellar. "Chocolates El Rey." Harvard Business School Case 508-052, January 2008. (Revised February 2010.)  View Details
  25. Tata Consultancy Services

    Rohit Deshpande and Seth Schulman

    As CEO of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), S. "Ram" Ramadorai had grown the company into an emerging IT services powerhouse, with marquee clients such as General Electric, offices in 32 countries, and revenues of nearly $2 billion dollars. Now, he was about to steer TCS through an initial public offering--the largest ever by a private Indian company. Despite his excitement, Ramadorai knew that in some ways the timing of the IPO was not ideal. TCS had profited tremendously from corporate America's willingness to outsource IT and business process functions to overseas providers. But outsourcing had recently come under attack, with some politicians and labor leaders denouncing it as a threat to American jobs and America's economic dominance. In addition, TCS was facing rising labor costs in India and competition from emerging IT industries in East Asia, South America, and elsewhere. How would Ramadorai address these issues to ease investors' concerns on the eve of the IPO?

    Keywords: Initial Public Offering; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Labor; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology; Consulting Industry; India; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Seth Schulman. "Tata Consultancy Services." Harvard Business School Case 505-058, January 2005. (Revised November 2009.)  View Details
  26. Citigroup: Re-Branding in 2007 (A)

    Rohit Deshpandé and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    With its history of growth through acquisition, Citigroup has a conglomeration of sub-brands that need to be integrated and rationalized. Ajay Banga, CEO of Citi's Global Consumer Group International, chairs a task force to work through the process of re-branding the entire Citi house of brands while maintaining a focus on being focused on customers. The case describes the history of branding and re-branding at Citigroup at a time of increasing global competition in financial services.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Conglomerates; Customer Focus and Relationships; Globalization; Growth Management; Brands and Branding; Organizational Culture; Competitive Strategy; Financial Services Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Citigroup: Re-Branding in 2007 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 508-010, February 2008. (Revised April 2009.)  View Details
  27. Citigroup: Re-Branding in 2007 (B)

    Rohit Deshpandé and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    Follow-up to "Citigroup: Re-Branding in 2007" (A), describing the development of a new brand identity for Citigroup.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Financial Services Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Citigroup: Re-Branding in 2007 (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 508-011, March 2008. (Revised April 2009.)  View Details
  28. AIDS in Brazil

    Rohit Deshpande and Ricardo Reisen de Pinho

    Abbott Labs has reached an impasse with the Brazilian government in negotiations over the pricing of a new anti-AIDS drug, Kaletra. The Brazilian government threatens compulsory licensing unless Abbott drastically reduces the price of Kaletra.

    Keywords: Price; Government and Politics; Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Rights; Negotiation; Business and Government Relations; Pharmaceutical Industry; Brazil;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Ricardo Reisen de Pinho. "AIDS in Brazil." Harvard Business School Case 506-062, February 2006. (Revised February 2009.)  View Details
  29. Flying J (A)

    Rohit Deshpande and Lauren Barley

    The largest retailer of diesel fuel in the U.S., Flying J, is rethinking its growth strategy as the economy goes into a recession. Its major customer base, owner-operated truck drivers, are facing increasing costs of doing business. Yet Flying J is considering whether to increase its price of diesel fuel.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Growth and Development Strategy; Price; Consumer Behavior; Non-Renewable Energy; Energy Industry; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Lauren Barley. "Flying J (A)." Harvard Business School Case 508-074, April 2008. (Revised March 2014.)  View Details
  30. Russian Standard

    Rohit Deshpande and Seth Schulman

    In September 2006, Russian billionaire Roustam Tariko, founder and owner of Russian Standard, needed to develop a strategy for introducing Russia's most popular brand of premium vodka (RSO) to American consumers. In the past year, he had introduced Imperia, the firm's flagship ultra-premium vodka, in the U.S. market; lined up American importation and distribution partners for Russian Standard; and had worked hard to build excitement for the brand. Beyond establishing RSO's stylishness, Tariko needed to carve out a space for the brand in the crowded American market. Imperia's marketing had emphasized two attributes, superior quality and Russian-ness. In articulating RSO's advertising strategy and tagline, Tariko would need to decide once and for all which attribute to emphasize. He would also need to decide how to articulate this attribute so as to develop discrete identities for each of the two brands. Would Americans respond better to a claim of authenticity, or to a claim of unparalleled purity? And which were RSO and Imperia best equipped to exploit?

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Food and Beverage Industry; Russia; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Seth Schulman. "Russian Standard." Harvard Business School Case 508-053, November 2007. (Revised April 2008.)  View Details
  31. Tiger-Tread

    Rohit Deshpande and Richard Cardozo

    Describes an innovative product launch for which a marketing plan and a breakeven analysis are needed. To introduce students to breakeven analysis and the essentials of developing a marketing plan.

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Innovation and Invention; Product Launch; Planning;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Richard Cardozo. "Tiger-Tread." Harvard Business School Case 507-077, May 2007. (Revised April 2008.)  View Details
  32. Hewlett-Packard (A)

    Rohit Deshpande and Seth Schulman

    Since its controversial merger with Compaq, Hewlett-Packard had been under pressure by analysts and some stockholders to divest itself of its low-margin PC business. For CEO Carly Fiorina and others on HP's management team, however, PCs seemed integral to the company's broader strategy of becoming more customer focused. In May 2004, with HP's stock substantially undervalued, Mike Winkler, HP's chief marketing officer, was asked to weigh in on the company's PC strategy going forward. Could HP serve its customers better with PCs or without them? And if HP stayed in PCs, how should the company price them?

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Customer Focus and Relationships; Mergers and Acquisitions; Hardware; Business Strategy; Price; Computer Industry;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Seth Schulman. "Hewlett-Packard (A)." Harvard Business School Case 505-065, February 2005. (Revised November 2006.)  View Details
  33. Cipla

    Rohit Deshpande and Laura Winig

    The head of Cipla, a $325-million-dollar Indian pharmaceutical company and seller of low-cost AIDS drugs to South Africa, must decide what to do about Cipla's future. With India poised to enforce international patents in only two years, much of Cipla's product line could become unsaleable (given that it is based on product patents protected in industrialized countries). Describes Cipla's role in forcing global pharmaceutical companies to lower their prices for AIDS drugs.

    Keywords: Trade; Price; Global Strategy; Health Care and Treatment; Patents; Leadership; Marketing Strategy; Health Industry; South Africa; India;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Laura Winig. "Cipla." Harvard Business School Case 503-085, June 2003. (Revised May 2006.)  View Details
  34. Modi-Revlon

    Rohit Deshpande and Seth Schulman

    The head of the Indian subsidiary of cosmetics firm Revlon faces a crucial turnaround situation for the company. After a high-profile product launch, sales were very disappointing and Revlon was trying to decide whether it should pull out of India. The Indian majority partners in the joint venture were determined to save the company by reexamining the price-value equation and the need for continuous product innovation tailored to the local consumer needs.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Marketing Strategy; Product Launch; Product Design; Value Creation; India;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Seth Schulman. "Modi-Revlon." Harvard Business School Case 503-104, June 2003. (Revised March 2006.)  View Details
  35. Kikkoman Corporation: Consumer Focused Innovation

    Rohit Deshpande and Hal Hogan

    In May 2003, the president and CEO of Kikkoman Corp. sat in his Tokyo office weighing various options for strengthening the company's long-term growth. Kikkoman was the world's largest producer of soy sauce, largely due to its pioneering role since the 1950s as the leading promoter of the product, particularly in non-Asian markets. But times had changed. The domestic Japanese market was saturated, competition had increased, and Kikkoman needed to think of innovative ways to increase revenue.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Innovation Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Adaptation; Competitive Strategy; Japan;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Hal Hogan. "Kikkoman Corporation: Consumer Focused Innovation." Harvard Business School Case 504-067, January 2004. (Revised August 2005.)  View Details
  36. Branding Citigroup's Consumer Business

    Rohit Deshpande and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    In Spring 1998, Citicorp and Travelers merged to create a financial powerhouse that united the bank with Travelers' consumer finance and brokerage businesses, including Salomon Smith Barney and Primerica. It was the first U.S. financial services company to combine banking, insurance, and investments under one umbrella. Both entities historically had very different cultures, driving a radically different approach to branding. During completion of the merger, a team of managers was responsible for recommending to top management a new brand identity that would unite the entire organization and provide it with a strategic focus. The new brand also had to inform customers and shareholders of Citigroup's new financial capabilities and allow cross-selling without sacrificing the power of component brands. In a tense post-merger situation, decisions must be made early and decisively to prevent damaging brand equity.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Customer Relationship Management; Decisions; Asset Management; Investment Banking; Management Teams; Brands and Branding; Relationships; Business and Shareholder Relations; Banking Industry; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Branding Citigroup's Consumer Business." Harvard Business School Case 504-023, July 2003. (Revised April 2005.)  View Details
  37. Cafe de Colombia

    Rohit Deshpande and Alexandra de Royere

    Discusses sustaining brand equity after a highly successful commodity-product branding ad campaign.

    Keywords: Globalization; Brands and Branding; Advertising Campaigns; Product; Goods and Commodities; Colombia;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Alexandra de Royere. "Cafe de Colombia." Harvard Business School Case 502-024, September 2001. (Revised June 2004.)  View Details
  38. Sony PlayStation2 (A)

    Rohit Deshpande and Seth Schulman

    In early 1999, the president of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc., had to determine the appropriate U.S. launch strategy for the next-generation video game player, Sony PlayStation2. Despite the success of the original PlayStation1, new competitors and an uncertain consumer environment make the launch difficult. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Globalization; Marketing Strategy; Product Launch; Risk and Uncertainty; Competitive Strategy; Technology; Computer Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; United States;


    Deshpande, Rohit, and Seth Schulman. "Sony PlayStation2 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 502-016, August 2001. (Revised September 2002.)  View Details
  39. Worldzap

    Rohit Deshpande, Carin-Isabel Knoop, Suma Raju and David Kiron

    In February 2001, the CEO of a new technology start-up had to decide how to present his firm's value proposition to future clients, customers, and business partners. The technology allowed distribution of full-motion video clips of sports highlights to "third generation" (3G) mobile phones. The plan was to target sports enthusiasts initially in Europe along with mobile phone companies, sports leagues, and networks.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Forecasting and Prediction; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Distribution; Technology Adoption; Value Creation; Information Technology Industry; Europe;


    Deshpande, Rohit, Carin-Isabel Knoop, Suma Raju, and David Kiron. "Worldzap." Harvard Business School Case 502-007, August 2001. (Revised May 2002.)  View Details
  40. Creating Value

    Rohit Deshpande

    Creating value involves understanding consumers/customers and bringing this knowledge into the organization. Market-driven and market-driving strategies are contrasted in the context of new product development.

    Keywords: Knowledge Use and Leverage; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Product Development; Value Creation;


    Deshpande, Rohit. "Creating Value." Harvard Business School Background Note 501-039, October 2000.  View Details
Journal Articles
  1. Achievement Motivation, Strategic Orientations and Business Performance in Entrepreneurial Firms: How Different are Japanese and American Founders?

    Rohit Deshpandé, Amir Grinstein, Elie Ofek and Sang-Hoon Kim

    Purpose: There is lack of research on the link between the personal disposition of an entrepreneurial firm's founder, the firm's strategic orientation, and its performance outcomes. Also, there is lack of cross-national research on entrepreneurial firms' strategic orientations. This paper addresses these gaps by exploring the differences in strategic orientation choices and their performance outcomes for American and Japanese entrepreneurial firms, focusing on founders' achievement motivation as a key personal disposition. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted among 397 Japanese founders and 189 American ones. Findings: Our key counterintuitive finding is that Japanese and American founders of entrepreneurial firms are more similar than is often suggested. We first find that in both Japan and the U.S. achievement motivation is positively related to customer orientation and cost orientation while not related to technological orientation. Second, we find that the adoption of customer orientation is positively related to the profitability of both Japanese and American entrepreneurial firms, although the effect is stronger in the U.S. We also find that the adoption of technology orientation is negatively related to the profitability of both Japanese and American firms, although the effect is less negative in Japan. We finally find that the adoption of cost orientation does not have an impact on the profitability of both Japanese and American firms.

    Keywords: motivation; entrepreneurs; Japan; Motivation and Incentives; Entrepreneurship; Japan; United States;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Amir Grinstein, Elie Ofek, and Sang-Hoon Kim. "Achievement Motivation, Strategic Orientations and Business Performance in Entrepreneurial Firms: How Different are Japanese and American Founders?" International Marketing Review 30, no. 3 (2013).  View Details
  2. Sweatshop Labor Is Wrong Unless the Shoes Are Cute: Cognition Can Both Hurt and Help Motivated Moral Reasoning

    Neeru Paharia, Kathleen Vohs and Rohit Deshpandé

    The present research investigated the dual role of cognition as either an enabler of moral reasoning or self-interested motivated reasoning for endorsing sweatshop labor. Experiment 1A showed motivated reasoning: participants were more likely to endorse the use of sweatshop labor when considering a Caribbean vacation with questionable labor practices for themselves than for their friends. Experiment 1B demonstrated that endorsement of sweatshop labor mediated the relationship between product desirability and purchase intention. Experiment 2 found that cognitive resources were recruited to enhance motivated reasoning regarding sweatshop labor, the latter of which was reduced under cognitive load. Experiments 3A and 3B found that when cognitive resources were specifically directed in a comparative joint evaluation, participants offered harsher views on the ethicality of a favored company, and were less influenced by motivated factors than when under separate evaluations.

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Motivation and Incentives; Working Conditions; Cognition and Thinking;


    Paharia, Neeru, Kathleen Vohs, and Rohit Deshpandé. "Sweatshop Labor Is Wrong Unless the Shoes Are Cute: Cognition Can Both Hurt and Help Motivated Moral Reasoning." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 121, no. 1 (May 2013): 81–88.  View Details
  3. Marketing and Public Policy: Transformative Research in Developing Markets

    C. Shultz, Rohit Deshpandé, Bettina Cornwell, A. Ekici, P. Kothandaraman, M. Peterson, S. Shapiro, D. Talukdar and A. Veeck

    Developing markets are a challenge for researchers who study them and for governments, business leaders, and citizens who strive to improve the quality of life in them. The limitations of the dominant development paradigm coupled with the need to focus on consumers provide tremendous opportunities to engage in truly transformative research. Toward this outcome, several interactive forces must be understood and addressed during research design, management, and implementation. The purpose of this essay is to provide a synthesis—that is, a framework in the form of a conceptual model—with practical applications to transformative research in developing markets and, ultimately, with the broader objective to stimulate new conceptualizations, research, and best practices to transform consumer well-being.

    Keywords: Demand and Consumers; Development Economics; Marketing Strategy; Emerging Markets;


    Shultz, C., Rohit Deshpandé, Bettina Cornwell, A. Ekici, P. Kothandaraman, M. Peterson, S. Shapiro, D. Talukdar, and A. Veeck. "Marketing and Public Policy: Transformative Research in Developing Markets." Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 31, no. 2 (Fall 2012).  View Details
  4. Strategic Orientations in a Competitive Context: The Role of Strategic Orientation Differentiation

    Rohit Deshpandé, Amir Grinstein and Elie Ofek

    Strategic orientation studies often provide 'best practice prescriptions' for firms in a given context—matching orientations to environmental conditions. While this perspective has value, empirical results are equivocal, and an important reality has been overlooked: the fact that a firm's decision to emphasize a particular strategic orientation can depend on its competitors' orientation choices. Based on two studies of customer, technology, and production orientations, we show that the emphasis a firm places on a strategic orientation depends on how competitive its environment is. When competition becomes less intense, firms place emphasis on the strategic orientation that matches the dominant environmental condition (e.g., technology orientation when technology turbulence is high). However, as competition intensifies, firms tend to follow strategic orientation differentiation: de-emphasizing the strategic orientation their main rival is emphasizing. Finally, we show that the greater the competitive intensity, the greater the contribution strategic orientation differentiation has on business performance.

    Keywords: Competition; Change Management; Situation or Environment; Decision Choices and Conditions;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Amir Grinstein, and Elie Ofek. "Strategic Orientations in a Competitive Context: The Role of Strategic Orientation Differentiation." Marketing Letters 23, no. 3 (September 2012): 629–643.  View Details
  5. A Global Leader's Guide to Managing Business Conduct

    Lynn S. Paine, Rohit Deshpandé and Joshua D. Margolis

    An extensive global survey by three Harvard Business School professors finds that employees agree on core standards of corporate behavior. But meeting those standards will require new approaches to managing business conduct. The compliance and ethics programs of most companies today fall short of addressing multinationals' basic responsibilities, let alone such vexing issues as how to stay competitive in markets where rivals follow different rules. Companies must bring to the management of business conduct the same performance tools and concepts that they use to manage quality, innovation, and financial results.

    Keywords: Leadership; Management; Ethics; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Globalized Firms and Management; Standards; Corporate Accountability; Corporate Governance;


    Paine, Lynn S., Rohit Deshpandé, and Joshua D. Margolis. "A Global Leader's Guide to Managing Business Conduct." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 9 (September 2011). (Online edition.)  View Details
  6. Why You Aren't Buying Venezuelan Chocolate

    Rohit Deshpandé

    The article discusses the "provenance paradox," wherein consumers are unwilling to buy high-quality products from regions not commonly associated with excellence in certain product categories. Venezuelan chocolate maker Chocolates El Rey does little international business because consumers associate premium chocolate more with Belgium or Switzerland than with Venezuela. Companies in this position have difficulty charging prices sufficient to fuel international expansion. The author presents advice on overcoming the paradox but warns it can be a lengthy process.

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Product Marketing; Emerging Markets; Food and Beverage Industry; Venezuela;


    Deshpandé, Rohit. "Why You Aren't Buying Venezuelan Chocolate." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 12 (December 2010).  View Details
  7. Putting Patients First: Social Marketing Strategies for Treating HIV in Developing Nations

    Zoe Chance and Rohit Deshpandé

    It is more than mere coincidence that the highest rates of HIV occur in the world's poorest countries. Of the over 40 million people currently living with HIV, 95 percent are in the developing world. The first part of this paper explores the economics of HIV and treatment from a social marketing perspective. The second part of the paper uses three specific case histories of successful social marketing organizations in Africa, Asia, and South America to inductively generate a consumer (patient)-centric marketing model. The focal organizations are unique in that they all identify patient needs first, then work backwards to develop economically viable solutions. These solutions are not without flaws, and the future of these programs remains uncertain, but we hope that illuminating these particular cases within the consumer-centric marketing paradigm will shed light on ways in which other organizations may be able to serve the poor profitably.

    Keywords: Health Disorders; Developing Countries and Economies; Poverty; Health Care and Treatment; Social Marketing; Perspective; Customer Focus and Relationships; Profit; Africa; Asia; South America;


    Chance, Zoe, and Rohit Deshpandé. "Putting Patients First: Social Marketing Strategies for Treating HIV in Developing Nations." Special Issue on Metric and Interpretive Explorations of Macromarketing. Journal of Macromarketing 29, no. 3 (September 2009).  View Details
  8. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Mood Congruity, Self-monitoring and Retail Context Preference

    Nancy M. Puccinelli, Rohit Deshpandé and Alice M. Isen

    Keywords: Sales; Social Psychology;


    Puccinelli, Nancy M., Rohit Deshpandé, and Alice M. Isen. "Should I Stay or Should I Go? Mood Congruity, Self-monitoring and Retail Context Preference." Journal of Business Research 60, no. 6 (June 2007): 640–648.  View Details
  9. Up to Code: Does Your Company's Conduct Meet World-Class Standards?

    Lynn Paine, Rohit Deshpandé, Joshua D. Margolis and Kim Eric Bettcher

    Codes of conduct have long been a feature of corporate life. Today, they are arguably a legal necessity—at least for public companies with a presence in the United States. But the issue goes beyond U.S. legal and regulatory requirements. Sparked by corruption and excess of various types, dozens of industry, government, investor, and multisector groups worldwide have proposed codes and guidelines to govern corporate behavior. These initiatives reflect an increasingly global debate on the nature of corporate legitimacy. Given the legal, organizational, reputational, and strategic considerations, few companies will want to be without a code. But what should it say? Apart from a handful of essentials spelled out in Sarbanes-Oxley regulations and NYSE rules, authoritative guidance is sorely lacking. In search of some reference points for managers, the authors undertook a systematic analysis of a select group of codes. In this article, they present their findings in the form of a "codex," a reference source on code content. The Global Business Standards Codex contains a set of overarching principles as well as a set of conduct standards for putting those principles into practice. The GBS Codex is not intended to be adopted as is, but is meant to be used as a benchmark by those wishing to create their own world-class code. The provisions of the codex must be customized to a company's specific business and situation; individual companies' codes will include their own distinctive elements as well. What the codex provides is a starting point grounded in ethical fundamentals and aligned with an emerging global consensus on basic standards of corporate behavior.

    Keywords: Business ethics; Standards of Conduct; Globalized Firms and Management; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Values and Beliefs; Corporate Accountability; Corporate Governance;


    Paine, Lynn, Rohit Deshpandé, Joshua D. Margolis, and Kim Eric Bettcher. "Up to Code: Does Your Company's Conduct Meet World-Class Standards?" Harvard Business Review 83, no. 12 (December 2005): 122–133.  View Details
  10. Thai Firms' Adaptations Following the Asian Economic Crisis: Market Orientation, Innovativeness and Organizational Culture Five Years After"

    Rohit Deshpandé and John U. Farley

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Financial Crisis; Markets; Innovation and Invention; Organizational Culture; Thailand;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and John U. Farley. Thai Firms' Adaptations Following the Asian Economic Crisis: Market Orientation, Innovativeness and Organizational Culture Five Years After"." Asian Journal of Marketing 11, no. 1 (2005).  View Details
  11. Ad Schema Incongruity As Elicitor of Ethnic Self-Awareness and Differential Advertising Response

    Claudiu V. Dimofte, Mark R. Forehand and Rohit Deshpandé

    Keywords: Advertising; Social Psychology;


    Dimofte, Claudiu V., Mark R. Forehand, and Rohit Deshpandé. "Ad Schema Incongruity As Elicitor of Ethnic Self-Awareness and Differential Advertising Response." Journal of Advertising 32, no. 4 (winter 2003): 7–17.  View Details
  12. Identity Salience and the Influence of Differential Activation of the Social Self-Schema on Advertising Response

    Mark R. Forehand, Rohit Deshpandé and Americus Reed II

    Keywords: Advertising; Social Psychology;


    Forehand, Mark R., Rohit Deshpandé, and Americus Reed II. "Identity Salience and the Influence of Differential Activation of the Social Self-Schema on Advertising Response." Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 6 (December 2002): 1086–1099.  View Details
  13. Triad Lessons: Generalizing Results on High Performance Firms in Five Business-to-Business Markets

    Rohit Deshpandé, John U. Farley and Frederick E. Webster Jr.

    Keywords: Learning; Performance; Business Ventures; Markets;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, John U. Farley, and Frederick E. Webster Jr. "Triad Lessons: Generalizing Results on High Performance Firms in Five Business-to-Business Markets." International Journal of Research in Marketing 17, no. 4 (December 2000): 353–362.  View Details
Book Chapters
  1. Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business

    Rohit Deshpandé and Zoe Chance

    Keywords: Health Disorders; Poverty; Product Marketing; Customers; Pharmaceutical Industry; Biotechnology Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Zoe Chance. "Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business." In Business Solutions for the Global Poor: Creating Social and Economic Value, edited by V. Kasturi Rangan, John A. Quelch, Gustavo Herrero, and Brooke Barton. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.  View Details
  2. Reliability in Measuring Market Orientation and Financial Performance in Transition Economies

    R. Deshpande and J. U. Farley

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Markets; Finance; Performance Evaluation; Measurement and Metrics;


    Deshpande, R., and J. U. Farley. "Reliability in Measuring Market Orientation and Financial Performance in Transition Economies." In Marketing Issues in Transnational Economies, edited by R. Batra, 127–138. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.  View Details
Working Papers
  1. Paying Up for Fair Pay: Consumers Prefer Firms with Lower CEO-to-Worker Pay Ratios

    Bhavya Mohan, Michael I. Norton and Rohit Deshpandé

    Prior research examining consumer expectations of equity and price fairness has not addressed wage fairness, as measured by a firm's pay ratio. Pending legislation will require American public companies to disclose the pay ratio of CEO wage to the average employee's wage. Our six studies show that pay ratio disclosure affects purchase intention of consumers via perceptions of wage fairness. The disclosure of a retailer's high pay ratio (e.g., 1000 to 1) reduces purchase intention relative to firms with lower ratios (e.g., 5 to 1 or 60 to 1, Studies 1A, 1B, and 1C). Lower pay ratios improve consumer perceptions across a range of products at different price points (Study 2A and 2B), increase consumer ratings of both firm warmth and firm competence (Study 3), and enhance perceptions of Democrats and Independents without alienating Republican consumers (Study 4). A firm with a high ratio must offer a 50% price discount to garner as favorable consumer impressions as a firm that charges full price but features a lower ratio (Study 5).

    Keywords: pay ratio; wage fairness; purchase intention; customers; financial disclosure; Wages; Fairness; Corporate Disclosure; Consumer Behavior;


    Mohan, Bhavya, Michael I. Norton, and Rohit Deshpandé. "Paying Up for Fair Pay: Consumers Prefer Firms with Lower CEO-to-Worker Pay Ratios." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-091, May 2015.  View Details
  2. Sweatshop Labor is Wrong Unless the Jeans are Cute: Motivated Moral Disengagement

    Neeru Paharia and Rohit Deshpandé

    While many consumers say they care about issues such as sweatshop labor, the existence of a very small market for ethically-produced products does not reflect this sentiment. One explanation for this discrepancy is that consumers are motivated to use moral disengagement strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance when their desire for a product conflicts with their moral standards. In two studies we show levels of moral disengagement can vary based on one's desire for a product when sweatshop labor is present. Furthermore, we present evidence for a mediated moderation where beliefs about sweatshop labor use moderates the impact of desirability on purchase intention, and moral disengagement mediates this process. Motivated mechanisms of moral disengagement are relevant in moral psychology, and have public policy implications.

    Keywords: Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Working Conditions; Consumer Behavior; Production; Conflict and Resolution; Motivation and Incentives;


    Paharia, Neeru, and Rohit Deshpandé. "Sweatshop Labor is Wrong Unless the Jeans are Cute: Motivated Moral Disengagement." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-079, January 2009.  View Details
  1. Putting Patients First: Marketing Strategies for Treating HIV in Developing Nations

    Rohit Deshpandé and Zoe Chance

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Health Care and Treatment; Developing Countries and Economies;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Zoe Chance. "Putting Patients First: Marketing Strategies for Treating HIV in Developing Nations." Paper presented at the Transformative Consumer Research Conference, Marketing Science Institute, July 01, 2007.  View Details
  2. Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business

    Rohit Deshpandé and Zoe Chance

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Poverty; Pharmaceutical Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Zoe Chance. "Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business." Paper presented at the Trans-Atlantic Doctoral Conference, London Business School, May 18, 2006.  View Details
  3. Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business

    Rohit Deshpandé and Zoe Chance

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Poverty; Pharmaceutical Industry;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, and Zoe Chance. "Fighting AIDS, Fighting Poverty: Customer Centric Marketing in the Generic Antiretroviral Business." Paper presented at the Harvard Business School Conference on Global Poverty, December 01, 2005.  View Details
Other Publications and Materials
  1. Preempting Competetitive Risk via Customer Focus.: Entrepreneurial Firms in Japan and the U.S.

    Rohit Deshpandé, Sang-Hoon Kim and Elie Ofek

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Customer Focus and Relationships; Competition; Risk Management; Risk and Uncertainty; Japan; United States;


    Deshpandé, Rohit, Sang-Hoon Kim, and Elie Ofek. "Preempting Competetitive Risk via Customer Focus.: Entrepreneurial Firms in Japan and the U.S." January 2004.  View Details