Edward J. Berwind
During his years at the helm of Berwind-White Coal Mining, Berwind was closely associated with J.P. Morgan in the consolidation, reorganization, integration, and expansion of his coal operations. Berwind was reputed to be the world’s largest individual owner of coal mining properties. Berwind also was considered a hard-driving businessman. He refused to bargain with employees, and his mines were the last bastions of the open shop in the coal fields.