Birthplace of Leaders

Foreigners Gain CEO Access After Mid-Century

Pre-1950

  • Founder
    73%
  • Family Business
    2%
  • Other CEO
    25%

1950 & After

  • Founder
    29%
  • Family Business
    3%
  • Other CEO
    68%

US Pre-1950

  • Founder
    43%
  • Family Business
    26%
  • Other CEO
    31%

US 1950 & After

  • Founder
    32%
  • Family Business
    14%
  • Other CEO
    54%

Leaders with College Degrees

Leaders with Graduate Degrees

Composition of Advanced Degrees

Composition of MBA Degrees

Ivy League Graduates

Pre-1950 1950-1999
Other 13 14
Outside US 9 13
Private 7 45
Other Public 25 80
Other Top 100 75 125
Ivy 89 82
Total 218 359
Pre-1950 1950-1999
Other 13 14
Outside US 9 13
Private 7 45
Other Public 25 80
Other Top 100 75 125
Ivy 89 82
Total 218 359

MBA Degrees by Gender

Different Paths to Power

Women and African-Americans in the database were far more likely to be founders then CEOs.
All African-American women founded their companies.

Women

  • Founder
    67%
  • Family Business
    23%
  • Other CEO
    10%

African-Americans

  • Founder
    83%
  • Family Business
    14%
  • Other CEO
    3%

White Males

  • Founder
    36%
  • Family Business
    19%
  • Other CEO
    45%

MBA Degrees by Gender

By 1999, women earned approximately 30% of the MBA degrees awarded in the United States, up from less then 5% in 1970.

TOTAL U.S. MBA degrees 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999
Men 12,628 24,967 37,145 42,980 45,938 50,883 58,685 67,544
Women 331 1,010 4,909 14,411 20,751 27,372 35,297 44,714
PERCENT of U.S. MBA degrees 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999
Men 97% 96% 88% 75% 69% 65% 62% 60%
Women 3% 4% 12% 25% 31% 35% 38% 40%

Average Tenures