Enhancing Social Capital in South Asia

Since its formation, the India Research Center (IRC) has worked to enhance intellectual capital creation by working with academics and business leaders in South Asia.

The Global Colloquium on Participant-Centered Learning (GloColl) is an HBS course for faculty at business schools in emerging economies who are trained in interactive methods of teaching and learning.

Executive Education
in India

Driving Growth Through Innovation — India

3-6 August, 2015 (Mumbai, India)
Innovating new products and services in India can be complicated by an unpredictable market and unfamiliar culture. This program helps business leaders develop and market differentiated products and services by identifying and leveraging new opportunities. Participants leave with the latest tools and strategies to manage today's diverse risks and to position their companies for future success.

Maximizing Your Leadership Potential — India

14-17 December, 2015 (Mumbai, India)
This program helps companies build visionary leaders who can manage disruptive change and exploit emerging opportunities in a shifting global economy. By exploring diverse approaches to complex leadership challenges, you will learn how to adapt your management style to the situation at hand, build more productive teams, and lead your organization to greater success across India and the globe.

Leading Growth Through Customer Centricity — India

January 2016
(Mumbai, India)

Learn how to create a truly customer-centric organization that can help your business innovate, compete, and grow. Designed for senior executives operating in India and the surrounding region, this new program gives decision-makers new knowledge and tools for transforming an organization that sells products and services into one that delivers differentiated customer value-and sustainable business success.

Building a Global Enterprise-India

April 2016
(Mumbai, India)

This program is designed for senior leaders who seek strategies to expand within and beyond this compelling market. Offered jointly by Harvard Business School and the India Research Center in Mumbai, the program marries on-the-ground, research-based knowledge of India with the global perspective of one of the world's leading business schools-a combination unavailable in any other executive education program.

Improving Corporate Performance and Profitability — India

May 2016
(Mumbai, India)

Build a strategic advantage for your company by implementing powerful performance evaluation systems that drive performance and improve profitability. This leadership program explores how local and multinational companies manage operational risk and create corporate value in India and beyond. You will emerge with a blueprint for capitalizing on growth opportunities in challenging times.

Aligning and Executing Strategy — India

8-11 June, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Position your organization for long-term success in the global marketplace by integrating the design and execution of highly effective business strategies. In this intensive program, senior executives who do business in India will explore the core components of strategy building-among them competitive environment and competitive advantage. You will learn how to align your organization in order to optimize your strategy, capitalize on opportunities, and drive growth.

Managing Family Businesses for Generational Success-India

7-10 September, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Position your family business for success in India by building strengths, relationships, performance, and a comprehensive succession plan. In this leadership program, family teams explore the unique communication and interpersonal needs of family-run enterprises. You will emerge better prepared to position your business for long-term success.

Negotiations and Dealmaking-India

28 Sept - 01 Oct, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Drive your strategy forward and create value for your firm through stronger negotiation skills that prepare you for any business situation. You will learn how to analyze each deal, overcome obstacles, adapt your strategies to changing conditions, and create value for all parties. Backed by proven negotiation framework, you can get better results-whether you are closing a routine sale or inking a high-stakes deal.

Corporate Social Responsibility - India

October 28 - December 19, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

With well-crafted CSR strategies, companies operating in India can drive sustainable business success, fulfill government mandates-and help to address the country's challenges. In this program, CSR decision makers and NGO executives will explore global best practices for aligning CSR strategies with company goals, integrating CSR throughout the organization, building productive partnerships, and maximizing business and social value.

Managing and Transforming Professional Service Firms-India

04-07 January, 2016
(Mumbai, India)

This program provides firms with proven approaches for managing client expectations, developing staff, and formulating business strategies. Offered jointly by Harvard Business School and the India Research Center in Mumbai, executives will leave the program well positioned to capitalize on growth opportunities in India and beyond.

All Global Executive Education Programs

India Research Center

The India Research Center (IRC) was established in 2006. Based in Mumbai, the IRC is the second most recent addition to the School's network of Global Centers. Following significant economic policy transitions during the early 1990s, India is now proving to be a major force within the world economy. As a result, the IRC supports the School's faculty in its research interests on the emerging trends that are quickly transforming and shaping the region. Research to date has included the study of information technology, biotechnology, healthcare, agribusiness, and corporate governance within this dynamic region.

In March 2008, Harvard Business School appointed Anjali Raina as Executive Director of the India Research Center.


Land Acquisition in India: Public Purpose and Private Property (C)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer, and Rachna Tahilyani
February 2014

No abstract available

Wal-Mart Lobbying in India?

Ramanna, Karthik, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2014

In 2012, as part of a routine disclosure under U.S. law, Wal-Mart revealed it had spent $25 million since 2008 on lobbying to "enhance market access for investment in India." This disclosure, which came weeks after the Indian government made a controversial decision to permit FDI in the country's multi-brand retail sector, created uproar in India. Lobbying by multinationals drew strong emotions in India, evoking images of the millions spent by Enron in the 1990s to "educate Indians"-a suspected euphemism for bribery. Opposition political parties accused Wal-Mart of bribing the Indian government, which, on the eve of a general election, appointed a judicial commission to investigate Wal-Mart. Already under pressure from allegations of bribery in Mexico, Wal-Mart risked becoming embroiled in another embarrassing scandal. How had the company landed in its current situation and how could it respond to the investigation into its India-related lobbying?


Schneider Electric: Becoming the Global Specialist in Energy Management

Macomber, John D., and Rachna Tahilyani
December 2013

Global electrical products company assesses growth and market demands in India. Company must decide between a product acquisition or developing a service business. Students need to be aware of different country conditions, demands on implementation of different strategies, and impact on culture. Also discusses energy performance contracting in the context of making India's energy generation capability more efficient.

Coffee Wars in India: Café Coffee Day Takes on the Global Brands

Yoffie, David B., and Tanya Bijlani
November 2013

Café Coffee Day (CCD) is contemplating how to respond to the entry of Starbucks into the Indian coffee chain market. The case study describes the emergence of CCD as the leading coffee chain in India, with over 1,400 cafes in India. In early 2013, Starbucks, the world's leading coffee chain company, opened its first 11 outlets in India's metropolitan cities with local giant, Tata, and promises of a national roll out. CCD management debated whether there was plenty of room for both Starbucks and CCD in India's large growing market, or whether Starbucks' entry required CCD to respond more assertively.

Eko: Mobile Banking and Payments in India

Gupta, Sunil, and Rachna Tahilyani
November 2013

No abstract available

BMVSS: Changing Lives, One Jaipur Limb at a Time

Datar, Srikant M., and Saloni Chaturvedi
September 2013

Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayta Samiti (BMVSS) is an Indian not-for-profit organization engaged in assisting differently-abled persons by providing them with the legendary low-cost prosthesis, the Jaipur Foot, and other mobility-assisting devices, free of cost. Known for its patient-centric culture, its focus on innovation, and for developing the $20 Stanford-Jaipur knee, BMVSS has assisted over a million people in its lifetime of 44 years. As the founder, Mr. D.R. Mehta, thinks about the financial sustainability of BMVSS, he must devise a strategy that will sustain its human impact well into the future.

Transport Corporation of India (A): The Cross-selling Conundrum

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

Transport Corporation of India (TCI) was a logistics company that provided multi-modal transport solutions to its customers. Set up in 1958, TCI had grown from a "one man, one truck, one office" setup to a company with revenues of $400 million in half a century. TCI's growth had been assisted by the creation of individual divisions that provided specialized services to its clients-Freight, Express, Supply Chain Solutions, Seaways, and Global. In 2012, the company renewed it efforts to foster cross-selling across the divisions with the hope that this would increase customer stickiness and foster growth. However, as the company tried to push the cross-selling agenda across its various divisions, it faced myriad issues. It needed to educate its divisional sales staff about the services provided by divisions other than their own, to motivate them to cross-sell, and to create intra-division confidence to facilitate cross-selling. While the joint managing director, Vineet Agarwal, under the guidance of his father D.P. Agarwal, vice-chairman and managing director, TCI, in conjunction with TCI's executive committee, had introduced initiatives like training across divisions, competitions on cross-selling, and tracking of cross-selling leads, he was not sure that these were enough. Were there other ways in which TCI could successfully cross-sell? Could they put in place a system that specifically incentivized cross-sales to motivate sales staff? The (A) case focuses on TCI's cross-selling efforts and the strategic decisions before it. Cases (B), (C), and (D) discuss specific situations that demonstrate issues related to the cross-selling initiative.

Transport Corporation of India (B): Choosing the Right Candidate

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Transport Corporation of India (C): Dealing with Shortcomings in Service Quality

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Transport Corporation of India (D): Business Development across Divisions

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Growing Financial Services in India: Aditya Birla Financial Services Group

Healy, Paul M., and Rachna Tahilyani
July 2013

Aditya Birla Financial Services Group is a large, broad-based, Indian financial services institution offering products ranging from life insurance and mutual funds to private equity. The company has witnessed a turnaround in recent years and regained lost market share. However, in recent years, concerns about investor protection has increased financial sector regulatory oversight specifically in the asset management and life insurance space and changed the rules of the game. Additionally, the central bank has invited new banks to apply for licenses to operate in the country. In the face of these changes, the company has to figure out what its strategy should be to realize its vision of becoming a leading integrated financial services player offering customers a menu of products that support their needs at different stages of their lives.


Nanda, Ramana
July 2013

Sidharth Gupta, CEO of Getit Infomediary Ltd., had just received a term sheet from Helion Venture Partners (Helion), one of India's independent venture capital firms, offering to invest Rs 200 million in return for an equity stake in the company. His dream of transforming Getit from a regional print company into a digital company with broad geographical reach was within grasp. However, Gupta had to act fast; Helion's term sheet would expire in a fortnight if unexecuted. Bank finance and trade credit had tided Getit through tough times in the past, and Getit still had a Rs 250 million bank line to draw on. Should he take the venture capital investment? And if so, what implications would this have for his family business and for him personally?

Naina Lal Kidwai: Investing in Her Country

Groysberg, Boris, and Anjali Raina
May 2013

This case showcases the 30-year career of Naina Lal Kidwai, chairman of HSBC India, a leading woman business leader globally. It demonstrates how Kidwai spent a lifetime overcoming barriers as a woman in a male-dominated profession and as an Indian in the global marketplace. Now, as opportunities to play a role in the environment are beginning to open up, she has to decide the next direction to take in her career.

Equitas Microfinance (B): Response to the Andhra Pradesh Crisis

Narayanan, V.G., V. Kasturi Rangan, and Vidhya Muthuram
May 2013

No abstract available.

Equitas Microfinance (C): Advent of Regulation

Narayanan, V.G., V. Kasturi Rangan, and Vidhya Muthuram
May 2013

No abstract available.

Aadhaar: India's 'Unique Identification' System

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
April 2013

No abstract available

E-Commerce in Asia: Challenges and Opportunities

Gupta, Sunil, and Tanya Bijlani
February 2013

Asia is becoming increasingly attractive to businesses, especially to e-commerce firms that thrive on global and scalable business models. Yet, most global e-commerce players, with a few exceptions, have failed to achieve significant success in Asia. This article describes five major challenges that e-commerce firms face in emerging Asian markets.

Asia Business Insights

Nalli Silk Sarees (B)

Narayanan, V.G., Namrata Arora, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2013

Presents the company's perspective using an interview format. Ramnath K.Nalli, vice chairman of Nalli Silk Sarees Private Limited, and his daughter, Lavanya Nalli (HBS MBA 2011), the fifth generation entrepreneur to be involved in the family business, discuss customer preferences, buying behavior, and price sensitivity for cotton and silk sarees.

Blackstone's Investment in Intelenet

Lerner, Josh, Sandeep Bapat, and Rachna Tahilyani
January 2013

Three years had passed since Blackstone's investment in Intelenet Global Services, their third largest investment in India. Great progress had been made, but now a new challenge loomed. Globank, a large global bank, was Intelenet's largest customer. Intelenet's contract with Globank was set to expire in the next seven months, and all of Intelenet's assets and people working on the account would move to Globank. Amit Dixit, managing director at the Blackstone Group, estimated that in the next four years this would result in Intelenet losing $160 million of revenue and $48 million of EBITDA. Blackstone could either channel large amounts of capital and human resources towards renewing the contract or focus on growing third-party business at Intelenet. Dixit had to firm up his strategy quickly in order to begin negotiations with Globank.

Building Brand Infosys

Deshpandé, Rohit, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2013

Infosys Limited was India's second largest exporter of IT services with annual revenues of $7 billion and a market capitalization of nearly $26 billion in 2012. The company, headquartered in Bangalore, India, had built its reputation as the Indian IT bellwether whose credo was to "under-promise and over-deliver." Throughout its 31-year history, Infosys and its iconic co-founder, N.R. Narayana Murthy, were admired and respected for delivering excellence while conducting business in a legal, transparent, and ethical manner. It was one of the few software companies that recognized the value of a strong brand in the business-to-business (B2B) market and chose to develop its brand not through expensive advertising but by building core values, client trust, and leveraging Murthy's personal integrity and principles. In 2011, the company introduced its new brand positioning, Infosys 3.0. A key component of the new brand positioning was the Products, Platforms, and Services (PPS) business, headed by Sanjay Purohit. This case focuses on the company's efforts to makeover its brand in the U.S. market amidst several challenges.

Nalli Silk Sarees (B)

Narayanan, V.G., Namrata Arora, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2013

Presents the company's perspective using an interview format. Ramnath K.Nalli, vice chairman of Nalli Silk Sarees Private Limited, and his daughter, Lavanya Nalli (HBS MBA 2011), the fifth generation entrepreneur to be involved in the family business, discuss customer preferences, buying behavior, and price sensitivity for cotton and silk sarees.


Intuit Inc.: Project AgriNova

Eisenmann, Thomas R., and Tanya Bijlani
November 2012

In late 2008, a team from Intuit's office in Bangalore, India, is evaluating an opportunity to launch a new venture that would use SMS to deliver crop price information to farmers in India. The case describes the structure of Indian agriculture and the problems experienced by farmers, who were often exploited by middlemen who entered into obtuse private arrangements with wholesale buyers. After five weeks of research, the team concludes that the opportunity warrants further exploration. The question is, what should they do next?

I Paid a Bribe (Dot) Com

Ramanna, Karthik, and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2012

Anti-corruption web platform "ipaidabribe.com" leverages the transparency and anonymity of the Internet to encourage private citizens in India who have been the victims of corruption to self-report details of bribes paid, including the bribe amount, the name of the corrupt official, and services rendered. The ipaidabribe.com portal then aggregates these data to create maps and charts of corrupt activities across Indian cities. The theory is that such data will build awareness and shame, raising the cost of corruption. But after initial successes-buoyed by visibility generated from mass street protests against corruption in 2011-traffic to the website has slowed. The question before spouses, ex-bankers, and ipaidabribe.com co-founders Ramesh and Swati Ramanathan is how to generate and sustain interest in the web platform so that they have real impact on retail corruption in India. Possible solutions discussed include teaming up with local governments and police, focusing attention on one or two Indian cities, and franchising ipaidabribe.com internationally to create more visibility.

Sarvajal: Water for All

Macomber, John D., and Mona Sinha
June 2012

Entrepreneur wrestles with business model using SMS and RFID technology, franchising, and leasing to rapidly grow off-the-grid water purification business without subsidies. The company seeks to provide potable water services to rural and urban India where the public infrastructure does not exist. Past efforts have been stymied by rural operations problems including expensive technologies, challenging maintenance issues, cash management problems, lack of capital, and lack of a business model that makes sense for retail operators without subsidy. Using a franchising model that relies on seasoned local entrepreneurs, communication technology that monitors flows and quality, payment technology that takes cash out of the equation, and a "capital light" leasing model, the company hopes to create and share a new business model. If successful, the model can be copied by other social entrepreneurs with a market-based pricing scheme to provide other forms of infrastructure in emerging markets.

eHealthpoint: Healthcare for Rural India

Hamermesh, Richard G., Mona Sinha, and Elizabeth Vrolyk
March 2012

Healthpoint Services sought to address rural India's shortage of quality and affordable healthcare with a multi-service platform that comprised telemedical health clinics called eHealthpoints, clean drinking water, a diagnostic lab, and a pharmacy. Could they convince rural Indians to leapfrog from local healers to telemedicine? And could they convince investors that their capital intensive, bundled offering was a high-growth, self-sustaining venture? Healthpoint Services grappled with multiple challenges: changing mind-sets of patients and investors, generating traffic at their eHealthpoints, expanding their product portfolio, and growing within and outside India.

Aadhaar: India's 'Unique Identification' System

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
March 2012

The case focuses on the execution challenges facing Nandan Nilekani, the chairman, and Ram Sevak Sharma, director general and mission director of the Unique Identification Authority of India. India had no nationally accepted way to prove identity and hence 42% of the population at the base of the pyramid had to resort to bribery to access entitlements, while a web of fake or multiple identities facilitated criminal diversion of government subsidies. UIDAI was tasked to deliver a unique identification number to every Indian resident. This involved the issue of a total of 1.2 billion unique IDs by 2020 and an interim goal of 600 million UIDs by 2014-the largest data management program in the world. The case deals with the challenge of implementing a towering vision, of executing on an epic technology project, and of changing minds on an unprecedented scale. It examines the forces that both facilitate and derail change. It also examines the leadership style and motivation of Nilekani and the transition in skills required to move from building a global organization to working within the Indian bureaucracy.

Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital: Cardiac Care for the Poor (B)

Khanna, Tarun, and Tanya Bijlani
September 2011

Narayana Hrudayalaya (NH) has expanded into a multi-specialty health city in Bangalore and has grown to twelve locations across India. The hospital plans to build 300-bed secondary-care hospitals in smaller cities across India, with a goal to operate 30,000 beds in seven years, which will make it comparable with the world's largest hospital chains. NH operates the world's largest tele-cardiology network, which provides consultations to people in 800 locations across the world, including 53 African countries. Management also plans to open a 2,000-bed hospital in the Cayman Islands to provide underinsured Americans with tertiary care procedures at 40% below U.S. prices, thereby bringing Dr. Shetty's model of compassionate care at affordable prices to the developed world.

Indian Railways: Building a Permanent Legacy (B)?

Musacchio, Aldo, Tarun Khanna, and Rachna Tahilyani
September 2011

Supplement to case 710-008

State Bank of India: Transforming a State Owned Giant

Lal, Rajiv, and Rachna Tahilyani
April 2011

February 2011: O.P. Bhatt reflected contentedly on his five-year term as chairman of State Bank of India (SBI), India's largest commercial bank. He had led SBI on a journey of transformation from an old, hierarchical, transaction oriented, government bank to a modern, customer focused, and technologically advanced universal bank. In 2006, when Bhatt assumed leadership, SBI had been losing market share for over two decades to private and foreign banks. Analysts and industry observers had predicted that at the prevailing growth rates ICICI Bank, a private bank launched in 1994, would overtake SBI in terms of deposits in four years. However, by 2010, SBI had more than doubled its profits, deposits and advances; regained market share and won the Asian Banker Achievement award for the strongest bank in the Asia Pacific region.

Hindustan Unilever's 'Pureit' Water Purifier

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Mona Srivastava
April 2011

The case asks students to formulate a strategy to respond to various competitive threats to its Pureit water purifier, launched in 2008, targeted at millions of low-income Indian consumers who did not have access to safe drinking water. The case describes in detail the product development and launch process that required HUL, the $3.5 billion Indian subsidiary, to innovate on many different fronts. It details competitive actions since the launch to set the stage for what the company should do next.

Hollywood in India: Protecting Intellectual Property (A)

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Namrata Arora
March 2011

In January 2010, Fox Star Studios is preparing to release the Bollywood film "My Name is Khan" in Indian and international markets. What strategies should the company adopt to protect their intellectual property? How much should the company invest in anti-piracy initiatives? Should releases be restricted only to more secure digital screens? Should the company be concerned about the frequent comparisons of the movie with Forrest Gump, in light of several recent cases of Hollywood studios suing Bollywood producers for plagiarism?

Hollywood in India: Protecting Intellectual Property (B)

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Namrata Arora
March 2011

Supplements the (A) case


YES BANK: Mainstreaming Development into Indian Banking

Chu, Michael, and Namrata Arora
December 2010

YES BANK, founded in 2003 and highly successful, has consistently been profitable meeting the Indian government's Priority Sector Lending (PSL) requirements, unlike virtually all other private sector banks, which view PSL activity as a necessary but loss-making part of their portfolio. To do this, YES BANK created a distinct Development Banking practice, under the purview of the Corporate Finance division. But now, the Development Banking team is contemplating going to the board to take the concept one step further: pro-actively investing in PSL-qualifying activities not as a matter of regulatory compliance but as business. Should the bank devote significant financial and human resources into an ambitious Financial Inclusion Program to serve previously unbanked rural populations through a rapid expansion of its branch network and the use of nonbank business correspondents? In addition, should the bank commit part of its scarce capital to Tatva Capital, a private equity venture focused on renewable energy, clean technology, waste management, water and sanitation, food and agribusiness, affordable housing, healthcare, and education and livelihood creation? Is the board ready to incorporate development banking into the mainstream of the bank, or will this turn out to be a major error in judgment?

Leadership in Corporate Reporting Policy at Tata Steel

Ramanna, Karthik, and Rachna Tahilyani
October 2010

The case describes the challenges faced by Tata Steel, India's largest private sector steel company, as it transitions from Indian GAAP to IFRS. It first describes those challenges in the context of the institutional voids that make IFRS adoption difficult in India. The case then focuses on how companies in emerging markets might represent their interests at the IASB, the standard setting body for IFRS.

MindTree: A Community of Communities

Garvin, David A., Rachna Tahilyani
September 2010

MindTree is a mid-sized Indian IT services company known for its knowledge management practices, its collaborative communities, and its strong culture and values. The CEO has set a goal of becoming a $1 billion company by 2014; to reach that goal, employees must create several new businesses. The head of knowledge management must decide how his function should change in order to become more supportive of innovation and new business development.

Zensar: The Future of Vision Communities (A)

Garvin, David A., and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2010

Zensar is a rapidly growing, mid-sized Indian IT services company with a collaborative management philosophy and innovative HR policies. One of its practices, Vision Communities, is an inclusive forum for innovation and strategy formulation. As the company grows, managers must decide how to scale the Vision Community process so that it retains its spirit of employee involvement and engagement while encompassing a larger, more geographically dispersed group of participants.

Zensar: The Future of Vision Communities (B)

Garvin, David A., and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2010

Zensar is a rapidly growing, mid-sized Indian IT services company with a collaborative management philosophy and innovative HR policies. One of its practices, Vision Communities, is an inclusive forum for innovation and strategy formulation. As the company grows, managers must decide how to scale the Vision Community process so that it retains its spirit of employee involvement and engagement while encompassing a larger, more geographically dispersed group of participants.

Pratham-Every Child in School and Learning Well

Datar, Srikant M, Stacey Childress, Rachna Tahilyani, and Anjali Raina
July 2010

The case focuses on how Pratham, a non-governmental organization, provided quality education to underprivileged children in India by collaborating with the government. It focuses on the problem Madhav Chavan, the founder, is trying to solve, the contributing factors that have caused this problem to remain unsolved until now, Madhav's theory of change, questions about whether these activities (inputs) will affect the outputs and have an impact, what will it take and how will we know if Pratham is successful, and recommendations about what Madhav should do next.

IDFC India: Infrastructure Investment Intermediaries

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
July 2010

Indian financial intermediary matching international capital to local infrastructure decides how to balance range of services, risk-adjusted return, margin pressure, and nation building. IDFC was chartered with partial ownership from the Indian government to help evaluate policy and be a model for how private finance could be attracted to public infrastructure. As the nation and company grow, the firm also grows and embarks on a strategy of rapid expansion, offering a wide new range of financial products and participating in many aspects of the supply chain. Teaching questions include revisiting the original mission, contemplating the reduced margins and increased risks that come with entering a number of domains that already have established incumbents, and the trade-offs between maximizing shareholder return (for example through investments in full tariff power projects in rich cities) and maximizing the benefit to the nation (for example through subsidized tariff water projects in poor states).

Tata Nano-The People's Car

Palepu, Krishna G., Bharat N. Anand, and Rachna Tahilyani
June 2010

The case explores how Tata Motors, India's largest automobile company, developed the Nano, the world's cheapest car. The case focuses on the translation of Ratan Tata's (chairman of Tata Motors) vision of a safe affordable car for the masses by Ravi Kant, managing director of Tata Motors into the Nano Project. The case raises questions around breaking the price-quality barrier and changing existing internal processes to accommodate revolutionary new ideas. The dilemma of success-Tata Nano was a runaway bestseller-left Tata Motors debating how large a bet they should make on the Nano and what kind of capacity commitment this requires.

Bardhaman (A): Shrachi and the West Bengal Housing Board

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
June 2010

A real estate developer decides whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal to develop a township on farmland. The decisions include whether to expand operations from the company's base in Kolkata to Bardhaman, 100 km away; whether to subdivide and sell raw land lots or follow the developer's vision and build a planned township; whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal, led by the Left Front and the Communist Party of India as equity partners; or whether to also accept a private equity firm into the project, what to build, and in what sequence.

Bardhaman (B): Bengal Shrachi and the Township Design Decision

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
June 2010

A real estate developer in West Bengal chooses between two master plans for a 260-acre new township considering design, financing, and phasing. Two detailed master plans are considered, one with a radial design and an internal town square and one with a grid design and internal focus on parks and water features. The designs have different revenue potential, different cost implications, and different phasing decisions. The analysis includes soft issues and aesthetic issues such as what contributes to the feel of a place and what contributes to various land uses supporting each other (retail, residential, office). The analysis also includes a detailed proforma for each plan. This case builds on "Bardhaman (A): Shrachi and the West Bengal Housing Board."

TeamLease: Putting India to Work (Il) Legally

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
June 2010

This case focuses on the growth dilemmas facing Manish Sabharwal, co-founder, TeamLease Services Pvt. Ltd. TeamLease is a human resource outsourcing and temp staffing company located in India, which has grown rapidly from 2002 to 2009. Set in the context of the highly regulated Indian labour market, the case raises the questions of how entrepreneurial leadership and strategy formulation can leverage the opportunities represented by the gaps between what the law says and what the market needs. It provides an opportunity to examine the concepts of power and influence and how they can be created and wielded to catalyze change and build a new industry that is technically illegal.

Indus Towers: Collaborating with Competitors on Infrastructure

Gulati, Ranjay, Francisco de Asís Martínez-Jerez, V.G. Narayanan, and Rachna Tahilyani
April 2010

The case describes the formation of Indus Towers, the largest telecom tower company in the world that has a joint venture created to build and manage the passive infrastructure of wireless telecom operators by bringing together three competitors in India's tough telecom market-Bharti AirteI, Vodafone Essar, and Idea Cellular-and merging their tower holdings. It focuses on the issue as to how do you collaborate with your competitors in setting up towers but engage in a brutal competition with them in the marketplace?

The Dabbawala System: On-Time Delivery, Every Time

Thomke, Stefan, and Mona Srivastava
March 2010

Describes the Mumbai-based Dabbawala organization, which achieves very high service performance (6 Sigma equivalent or better) with a low-cost and very simple operating system. The case explores all aspects of their system (mission, information management, material flows, human resource system, processes, etc.) and the challenges that the Dabbawala organization faces in a rapidly changing environment. An outside consultant proposes the introduction of new technologies and management systems, while the leading logistics companies (e.g., FedEx) come to Mumbai to learn about the Dabbawala system.

Hindustan Unilever Limited

DeLong, Thomas J., and Mona Srivastava
February 2010

This case illustrates Hindustan Unilever Limited's conflict resolution and people development policies using a "leading from the middle" example. The story centers on the challenges faced by an HR manager at a factory who must meet organizational objectives while handling multiple trade unions that are resisting change as well as having conflicts amongst themselves.


Indian Railways: Building a Permanent Legacy?

Musacchio, Aldo, Tarun Khanna, and Rachna Tahilyani
October 2009

No abstract availabe

Dharavi: Developing Asia's Largest Slum

Iyer, Lakshmi, John D. Macomber, and Namrata Arora
August 2009

Maharashtra state is accepting bids to redevelop Dharavi, the largest slum in Asia. A real estate developer assesses the risks and tenders a bid. The bid conditions include providing new free housing to tens of thousands of slum dwellers, which is anticipated to be paid for from the revenues from developing and selling market-rate housing. While the primary concerns are cost of construction, cost of capital, and revenues from sale of units, the analysis must consider many aspects of risk including political risk, foreign exchange risk, market risk, and execution risk. Further, the discussion covers social aspects including whether the slum should be redeveloped at all, whether it should be redeveloped by government or by the private sector, and whether to accomplish it in large chunks or in smaller increments. Additional topics that can be covered include consideration of what happens to commercial activities formerly run from slum dwellings, whether the market-rate units will indeed sell for high prices if there are tens of thousands of former slum dwellers housed nearby, and whether the slum dwellers will be allowed to resell their units or whether they must remain in them. Other issues include timing of the project, guarantees to and from the government and the private parties to mitigate risk, and whether this model, if successful, can be extended to other slums in Asia.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

Describes an architecture firm founded and run by a husband and wife team, Sharukh and Renu Mistry, that emphasizes "green" building. The firm presents an unusual mix of projects-spanning the spectrum from larger corporate projects to small private homes. The mix also includes more profitable work and projects deliberately selected for social good, including the design of orphanage communities for SOS Children's International and other nonprofit organizations. The mix engages teams of young architects in different kinds of learning opportunities and allows them to manage these projects with an unusually high level of independence. The firm's founders are dedicated to being both very client-oriented and environmentally responsible. This can lead to some difficult choices and the case illustrates one example. The firm has been commissioned by SOS to design homes for some villages destroyed in the December 24, 2004 tsunami. The preferred design is thatch roofs which is in keeping with the local environment. However, the villagers want a more functional (and more expensive) reinforced cement concrete roof. Sharukh must decide which of his principles is to dominate in this situation.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (B)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

This case is a follow-up of Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A) (Case 609-044). In Case (A) Sharukh and Renu Mistry found and run an architectural firm dedicated to being both client-oriented and environmentally responsible. The case uses a difficult design decision in a tsunami rehabilitation project to illustrate the challenges faced by professional services firms, and the role of innovation in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders. The specific design decision is to make a choice between thatch roofs which are environmentally friendly, versus reinforced cement concrete roofs that the villagers desire for its functionality. Case (B) reveals and explains the firm's choice, while describing how the community rebuilds itself after the tsunami, as well as how the firms evolves. A (C) case discusses the future plans of the firm including growth and succession issues.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability(C)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

This case is a follow-up to "Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A)" (Case 609-044) and (B) (Case 609-086). In Case (A) Sharukh and Renu Mistry founded and run an architectural firm dedicated to being both client-oriented and environmentally responsible. The case uses a difficult design decision in a tsunami rehabilitation project to illustrate the challenges faced by professional services firms and the role of innovation in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders. The specific design decision is to make a choice between thatch roofs, which are environmentally friendly, versus reinforced cement concrete roofs that the villagers desire for their functionality. Case (B) reveals and explains the firm's choice, while describing how the community rebuilds itself after the tsunami, as well as how the firm evolves. The (C) case discusses the future plans of the firm including growth and succession issues.

Special Economic Zones in India: Public Purpose and Private Property (A)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer
April 2009

In 2005, the government of India enacted the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Act in order to attract investment, generate export revenues, and create manufacturing jobs. However, several planned projects faced difficulties in acquiring land for setting up the SEZ. In December 2007, the government introduced a new piece of legislation, which proposed to extend the power of eminent domain to allow the government to acquire land for SEZs. Was this the right response to the land acquisition problems of private firms? Was the SEZ strategy the right one for India's economic growth?

Tata Motors in Singur: Public Purpose and Private Property (B)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer, and Namrata Arora
March 2009

In October 2008, Tata Motors canceled their car manufacturing plant in West Bengal state, in the face of widespread farmer protests over land acquisition issues. This meant abandoning a project in which the company had invested $300 million and delaying the launch of the Nano, the world's cheapest car. What strategy could Tata have pursued to avoid this outcome? Would similar problems arise in Gujarat state, where the project had been relocated?

Accenture's War for Talent in India

Eccles, Robert G., David Lane, Namrata Arora, and Prabakar "PK" Kothandaraman
February 2009

No abstract available

The Suzlon Edge

Vietor, Richard H.K., and Juliana Seminerio
January 2009

With prices of oil, coal and gas at historically high levels, the wind industry had installed more than 20,000 MW of wind energy, representing a $37 billion investment in 2007. Besides high prices, wind energy represented a solution for consumers seeking an energy source that would not add to the problems associated with global climate change. Suzlon Energy Limited (Suzlon), India's largest manufacturer of wind turbines, had evolved from a small family-run business into a global enterprise spanning four continents in just over a decade. But would the costs associated with the aggressive growth policy be too much for a young company to handle?

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Cognizant Technology Solutions

Eccles, Robert G., David Lane, and Prabakar PK Kothandaraman
August, 2008

In the highly competitive information technology outsourcing industry, Cognizant Technology Solutions has developed a strategy to differentiate itself by emphasizing building very close client relationships through its "Two-in-a-box" (TIB) model. This model is based on having two people share complete responsibility for the client. In the U.S. or Europe, the "on site" person, along with his or her relationship management team, is responsible for understanding the client's needs, obtaining projects and properly scoping out the work. The "offshore" person in India or elsewhere, along with his or her delivery team, is responsible for completing the project in a high-quality and timely way. The same top- and bottom-line metrics are used to evaluate the performance of both the on-site and offshore managers. This strategy (as opposed to ones based on things like low cost and innovation used by Cognizant's competitors) is intended to build deep and strong client relationships that will maximize Cognizant's "share of wallet." One interesting aspect of TIB is Cognizant Business Consulting, a 1,700-person group which advises clients in the context of helping them develop IT solutions for their business challenges. More recently, and as the next evolution of the TIB model, Cognizant is developing what it calls "Cognizant 2.0" or C2. C2 is a delivery platform based on Web 2.0 technology that enables Cognizant to subdivide work into tasks that can be allocated wherever in the world the best resources within Cognizant exist based on cost, expertise and availability while at the same time maintaining collaboration and integration to ensure timely and high-quality delivery.

Fortis Healthcare (A)

Herzlinger, Regina, and Pushwaz Virk
May 2008

Should the Indian hospital chain enter the medical travel market or should it focus on expansion in the under-served Indian market? Is its business model appropriate to its goals?

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Michael Fernandes at Nicholas Piramal

Anteby, Michel, and Nitin Nohria
October 2007

Michael Fernandes, the Director of Custom Manufacturing Operations at the pharmaceutical company Nicholas Piramal India Limited (NPIL), schedules a meeting with three of his reports, whose interpersonal conflicts with one another are causing his business development function to falter. He struggles to know how to handle these conflicts and bring the three into a productive working collaboration. Fernandes is in charge of incorporating NPIL's new acquisitions in Canada and the United Kingdom to market NPIL globally. His three direct reports are each involved in different aspects of NPIL-the Canadian operations, the British operations, and the global business development-and the case explores the team dynamics among them. Unless Fernandes can resolve the conflicts, the integration of the acquisitions is in jeopardy.

Biocon Limited

Krishna G. Palepu, and Anath Chepuri
September 2007

Biocon Limited was facing significant pricing pressure in their cash cow business, that primarily consisted of manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). To combat this commoditization, Biocon's leadership had chosen an innovation-led strategy. This new strategy consisted of licensing and developing proven molecules from strategic partners to leapfrog competition and create large molecule biologics in India. The company understood that its transition from an API to an innovation-led company focused on new biologics would require patience and a risk-taking mindset. Although there was some commonality in the bioprocessing aspects of both approaches, the regulatory approvals, product development paths, and market-access timelines were dramatically different--almost diametrically opposed. Analyzes Biocon's strategic decisions, as well as the risks and challenges associated with migrating from a manufacturing to an innovation-led enterprise. How would they balance short-term pragmatism versus long-term vision? Do they have the appropriate human resources to scale and innovate? Is their India-centric strategy appropriate, since 86% of their end-market demand is in the U.S., Europe, and Japan? Fortunately, early indications with their innovation-led strategy were showing positive signs and demonstrable results--such as their biogenetic insulin and monoclonal antibody launch in India. Their lead oral insulin project, with a planned $100 million budget, was meeting its milestones and deliverables. Many critical business challenges are detailed in this case. Nevertheless, given their fully integrated business model and significant manufacturing base, the odds are in Biocon's favor to overcome these challenges and lead India's biotechnology revolution.

Can Bollywood Go Global?

Jones, Geoffrey G., Surachita Mishra, and Alexis Lefort
July 2007

Considers the opportunities and challenges facing Indian film producers in accessing the global film market. Provides a historical context by describing the history of the cinema and the rise of Hollywood to global dominance by the 1920s. Although film industries continued elsewhere, including Great Britain and France, their products had limited international appeal. Discusses the rise of the Indian film industry and the industry structure. Bollywood films, produced in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), are the most well-known genre. They are typically long, melodramatic, and musical. There are also regional language films produced in Chennai, independent films, and "crossover" films, typically incorporating the experience of the Diaspora in Western countries. Bollywood films in particular have sold well in Southeast Asia and among the Indian Diaspora. Raises the issue whether Indian content films can compete with Hollywood in global markets and to what extent a change in content is necessary for this strategy to work.

HCL Technologies (A)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker
June 2007

When Vineet Nayar became president of HCL Technologies, a global IT services business, in April 2005, he knew the company needed drastic change. Since its founding as a hardware company in the 1970s, HCL had grown into an enterprise with $3.7 billion in revenues and a market capitalization of $5.1 billion. The company had 41,000 employees in 11 countries, but it was ill-prepared for the increasingly competitive market. With the shift from hardware to software and services, HCL had slipped behind its Indian competitors and multinational companies. Details the first phase of the transformation Nayar led in hopes of rejuvenating the industry pioneer. The tagline for this phase was "Employee First, Customer Second." Can be used in strategy, change management and leadership courses.

Fabindia Overseas Pvt. Ltd.

Khaire, Mukti, and Prabakar PK Kothandaraman
April 2007

Fabindia is a for-profit Indian retail company with the stated mission of providing employment to weavers and traditional handicraft artisans in rural India. Established in 1960 as an exporter of home furnishings, Fabindia has grown as a consumer-facing retailer of apparel, home furnishings, organic food, and body care products, and has plans to expand further. Given their mission, their supply chain is fragmented, geographically scattered, and unpredictable. Can they overcome these challenges and still grow profitably while staying committed to their mission?

Punjab and Kerala: Regional Development in India

Iyer, Lakshmi
March 2007

Between 2000 and 2004, India's economy grew by 6.35%. Focuses on the states of Punjab and Kerala, which emphasized sharply different development strategies. The states had to decide whether to focus their investment efforts on physical capital or improving social indicators. Both states faced constraints in the form of budget deficits, competition from other states, and coordination with central government policies.

Infosys in India: Building a Software Giant in a Corrupt Environment

Abdelal, Rawi, Rafael Di Tella, and Prabakar PK Kothandaraman
January 2007

Shortly after Infosys was founded in 1981, its managers faced a major turning point when they made a decision to operate without giving in to the petty corruption rife in the Indian economy. Within just a few years, that decision had truly defined the company. Over the next 25 years, Infosys managers went to extraordinary lengths to avoid even the most modest of practices that they considered inappropriate. Explores the practices and methods that Infosys adopted instead, considers their costs, benefits, and generalizability, and contextualizes the problem within Indian political and economic institutions that continue to evolve.

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