Enhancing Social Capital in South Asia

Since its formation, the India Research Center (IRC) has worked to enhance intellectual capital creation by working with academics and business leaders in South Asia.

The Global Colloquium on Participant-Centered Learning (GloColl) is an HBS course for faculty at business schools in emerging economies who are trained in interactive methods of teaching and learning.

Executive Education
in India

Driving Growth Through Innovation — India

3-6 August, 2015 (Mumbai, India)
Innovating new products and services in India can be complicated by an unpredictable market and unfamiliar culture. This program helps business leaders develop and market differentiated products and services by identifying and leveraging new opportunities. Participants leave with the latest tools and strategies to manage today's diverse risks and to position their companies for future success.

Maximizing Your Leadership Potential — India

15-18 December, 2014 (Mumbai, India)
This program helps companies build visionary leaders who can manage disruptive change and exploit emerging opportunities in a shifting global economy. By exploring diverse approaches to complex leadership challenges, you will learn how to adapt your management style to the situation at hand, build more productive teams, and lead your organization to greater success across India and the globe.

Leading Growth Through Customer Centricity — India

27-29 January, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Learn how to create a truly customer-centric organization that can help your business innovate, compete, and grow. Designed for senior executives operating in India and the surrounding region, this new program gives decision-makers new knowledge and tools for transforming an organization that sells products and services into one that delivers differentiated customer value-and sustainable business success.

Building a Global Enterprise-India

27-30 April, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

This program is designed for senior leaders who seek strategies to expand within and beyond this compelling market. Offered jointly by Harvard Business School and the India Research Center in Mumbai, the program marries on-the-ground, research-based knowledge of India with the global perspective of one of the world's leading business schools-a combination unavailable in any other executive education program.

Improving Corporate Performance and Profitability — India

May 25-28, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Build a strategic advantage for your company by implementing powerful performance evaluation systems that drive performance and improve profitability. This leadership program explores how local and multinational companies manage operational risk and create corporate value in India and beyond. You will emerge with a blueprint for capitalizing on growth opportunities in challenging times.

Aligning and Executing Strategy — India

8-11 June, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Position your organization for long-term success in the global marketplace by integrating the design and execution of highly effective business strategies. In this intensive program, senior executives who do business in India will explore the core components of strategy building-among them competitive environment and competitive advantage. You will learn how to align your organization in order to optimize your strategy, capitalize on opportunities, and drive growth.

Managing Family Businesses for Generational Success-India

7-10 September, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Position your family business for success in India by building strengths, relationships, performance, and a comprehensive succession plan. In this leadership program, family teams explore the unique communication and interpersonal needs of family-run enterprises. You will emerge better prepared to position your business for long-term success.

All Global Executive Education Programs

Latin America

Archives

SKS Microfinance

Cole, Shawn, and Theresa Chen
June 2008

Vikram Akula, CEO of SKS Microfinance, seeks a venture capital investment to fund his firm. SKS, one of the largest and fastest growing microfinance institutions in India, is a profitable, for-profit institution with a social mission. In what is one of the first commercial financing deals in the world, Akula must decide at what value to sell equity in SKS, and to whom to sell it. The case focuses on valuation, which is difficult because at the time there are no publicly traded comparable companies, and the strategic aspects of raising money.

Note on the Bus Industry

Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, and Jordan Mitchell
June 2008

Supplements the "Irizar in 2005" case. Briefly documents key points in the motor coach industry such as market size, categories of buses, reasons for purchasing, and the basis for competition amongst motor coach manufacturers.

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (A)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Alok Patel, the founder and chairman of a Gujarat-based, privately held edible oils processor, must decide whether to hire a CFO candidate. Previously, his company's book-keeping has been done by an uncle, who has mentioned that he may retire soon. Patel could hire his younger son, who is just finishing his MBA at UCLA; but accounting was not Aakash's strength, and Patel has read that a strong finance person can help position a company for success. The company has recently experienced significant growth due to a new program of branded oils, and Patel is worried that the financials are getting away from his uncle. The most qualified candidate, though, comes from a different region. Should Patel hire a non-family member for this sensitive position? If so, should he go so far as to hire someone who does not come from his home region?

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (B)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (C)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case

Go Mobile

Lal, Rajiv, and Catherine Ross
May 2008

Fortis Healthcare (A)

Herzlinger, Regina, and Pushwaz Virk
May 2008

Should the Indian hospital chain enter the medical travel market or should it focus on expansion in the under-served Indian market? Is its business model appropriate to its goals?

Monitor's Opportunities in India (A): Grail Research

Alcacer, Juan, and Jan W. Rivkin
April 2008

The CEO of a strategy consulting firm must decide which of the firm's functions, if any, to move to India. In particular, he wonders whether business research-currently conducted by highly paid consultants in developed countries-can be conducted more efficiently and effectively from an Indian research center.

Monitor's Opportunities in India (B): Grail Research

Alcacer, Juan, and Jan W. Rivkin
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case. Describes the decision by leaders of a strategy consulting firm to build a business research subsidiary in India. Permits a discussion of how high-end knowledge production can be conducted in an emerging economy, at a distance from buyers of the knowledge.

Sandhar Technologies Group

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
April 2008

Jayant Davar, CEO and founder of Sandhar Technologies Group, a privately held auto components maker in India, is trying to decide how best to grow the company. He recently took a $22 million investment from Actis Capital, a major emerging markets private equity firm, to consummate an acquisition with a South Indian competitor. Options that Davar considers include acquisitions in developed markets, efforts to increase export sales, and greater investment R&D facilities. But these mean changing the customer-centric strategy that has been key to Sandhar's success. Perhaps he should simply continue what has worked for so long, riding India's 20% domestic growth.

Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative

Bell, David E., Nitin Sanghavi, Virginia Fuller, and Mary L. Shelman
March 2008

In rural India, farmers historically had limited access to quality input items for both their fields and homes. Indian conglomerate DSCL has undertaken a Rural Business Initiative to address this issue, establishing a chain of retail outlets throughout rural India geared toward farmers and their families. Through its growing network of stores, DSCL is able to establish relationships with farmers and provide them with a host of agricultural services, including improved crop inputs, agronomic support, fuel, banking, and consumer goods. The outlets also buy back some of the farmers' production at harvest time. In utilizing the products and services offered by the stores, farmers are able to improve the quality of their crops and access a network of helpful resources in an environment that was once considered completely tangential to the benefits of agricultural research and technology reaped in other parts of the world. DSCL strategizes about how the company can also benefit from these freshly forged connections with India's rural millions.

Entrepreneurial Leadership in Forming High Tech Enclaves: Lessons from the Government of Andhra Pradesh

McFarlan, F. Warren, Ramiro Montealegre, and Espen Andersen
March 2008

This case provides an overview of the entrepreneurial leadership taken by the government of India's Andhra Pradesh state in promoting the IT sector and using it to improve the status of the state's economic position in the early years of the third millennium.

Akshaya Patra: Feeding India's Schoolchildren

Upton, David, Christine Ellis, Sarah Lucas, and Amy Yamner
February 2008

Describes a highly successful effort by an Indian Charity to feed poor schoolchildren at lunchtime. This provides two significant benefits. It improves nutrition for the children, and helps keep them in school since the provided meal is occasionally the only meal they will have in the day. The organization has had great success in an urban environment, but now seeks a wholly different operations strategy as it stretches out to rural India.

Tata Motors: The Tata Ace

Palepu, Krishna G., and Vishnu Srinivasan
January 2008

Considers the strategy and experience of Tata Motors, India's leading commercial truck maker, as it developed a new small commercial vehicle, the Tata Ace. Positioned as a replacement for the three-wheelers that predominated as small commercial vehicles in India, the Ace create a new product category and enabled Tata Motors to access a new market segment. The company adopted tailored approaches to product design, distribution, marketing, service, and sourcing for the vehicle. After successfully targeting the niche, considers how Tata Motors might grow its presence in the segment with new models, enter new regional markets, export to developing or developed countries, and face new competition.

Microsoft in China and India, 1993-2007

Khanna, Tarun, and Prithwiraj Choudhury
January 2008

Relates to Microsoft's expansion in China and India in the period 1993-2007and the strategic issues faced by multinationals in emerging markets.

Blue River Capital

Palepu, Krishna G., Khanna, Tarun, and Richard J. Bullock
November 2007

Examines the strategy and experience of Indian private equity firm Blue River Capital. Blue River was established in 2005 to invest primarily in middle market, particularly family-run, businesses in India. Blue River caters to this niche as an active investor, providing capital and working with portfolio companies to improve their corporate governance. Describes the challenges faced by Blue River in identifying investments, performing due diligence, and working with portfolio companies and asks how Blue River should build itself into a top-tier private equity fund, particularly as more and more foreign firms target the growing Indian market.

A Note on Private Equity in Developing Countries

Lerner, Josh, and Ann Leamon
November 2007

Provides the background and high-level situation of private equity in emerging markets as of the end of 2006.

BASIX

Cole, Shawn, and Peter Tufano
October 2007

BASIX, an Indian microfinance corporation, must decide whether to continue to sell weather insurance to its clients. A brand-new financial product, weather insurance pays if measured rainfall during the growing season falls below a pre-specified limit. Mr. Sattaiah, managing director of the BASIX's bank, considers a revised insurance policy for the coming season, weighing the costs and potential risks of expanding the product against the potential benefits.

Michael Fernandes at Nicholas Piramal

Anteby, Michel, and Nitin Nohria
October 2007

Michael Fernandes, the Director of Custom Manufacturing Operations at the pharmaceutical company Nicholas Piramal India Limited (NPIL), schedules a meeting with three of his reports, whose interpersonal conflicts with one another are causing his business development function to falter. He struggles to know how to handle these conflicts and bring the three into a productive working collaboration. Fernandes is in charge of incorporating NPIL's new acquisitions in Canada and the United Kingdom to market NPIL globally. His three direct reports are each involved in different aspects of NPIL-the Canadian operations, the British operations, and the global business development-and the case explores the team dynamics among them. Unless Fernandes can resolve the conflicts, the integration of the acquisitions is in jeopardy.

HCL Technologies (A) (Abridged)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker
September 2007

When Vineet Nayar became president of HCL Technologies, a global IT services business, in April 2005, he knew the company needed drastic change. Since its founding as a hardware company in the 1970s, HCL had grown into an enterprise with $3.7 billion in revenues and a market capitalization of $5.1 billion. The company had 41,000 employees in 11 countries, but it was ill-prepared for the increasingly competitive market. With the shift from hardware to software and services, HCL had slipped behind its Indian competitors and multinational companies. Details the first phase of the transformation Nayar led in hopes of rejuvenating the industry pioneer. The tagline for this phase was "Employee First, Customer Second." Can be used in strategy, change management and leadership courses.

HCL Technologies (B) (Abridged)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker
September 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Biocon Limited

Krishna G. Palepu, and Anath Chepuri
September 2007

Biocon Limited was facing significant pricing pressure in their cash cow business, that primarily consisted of manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). To combat this commoditization, Biocon's leadership had chosen an innovation-led strategy. This new strategy consisted of licensing and developing proven molecules from strategic partners to leapfrog competition and create large molecule biologics in India. The company understood that its transition from an API to an innovation-led company focused on new biologics would require patience and a risk-taking mindset. Although there was some commonality in the bioprocessing aspects of both approaches, the regulatory approvals, product development paths, and market-access timelines were dramatically different--almost diametrically opposed. Analyzes Biocon's strategic decisions, as well as the risks and challenges associated with migrating from a manufacturing to an innovation-led enterprise. How would they balance short-term pragmatism versus long-term vision? Do they have the appropriate human resources to scale and innovate? Is their India-centric strategy appropriate, since 86% of their end-market demand is in the U.S., Europe, and Japan? Fortunately, early indications with their innovation-led strategy were showing positive signs and demonstrable results--such as their biogenetic insulin and monoclonal antibody launch in India. Their lead oral insulin project, with a planned $100 million budget, was meeting its milestones and deliverables. Many critical business challenges are detailed in this case. Nevertheless, given their fully integrated business model and significant manufacturing base, the odds are in Biocon's favor to overcome these challenges and lead India's biotechnology revolution.

Saffronart.com: Bidding for Success

Khaire, Mukti, and R. Daniel Wadhwani
August 2007

Saffronart, a five-year-old online art auction company, leads the market for modern Indian art and now faces competitors in the market it created. Established in 2000 by the wife-and-husband team of Minal and Dinesh Vazirani, Saffronart.com is an innovative online auction firm that specializes in modern and contemporary Indian art. Having been the first firm to offer Indian fine art with authenticity guarantees in an auction setting that increased the transparency of prices, Saffronart succeeded in establishing the genre of modern and contemporary Indian art in the art world, and in creating a market for it. This market, and Saffronart's revenues, grew rapidly from 2000 to 2005. Saffronart's estimate was that the Indian art auction market would be worth $125 million in 2006, with their revenues being $45 million. While this success was gratifying, the firm and its founders faced new internal and external pressures; particularly worrisome was the entry of auction giants Christie's and Sotheby's into the market. The Vaziranis' main challenge now is to consolidate their leading position in the market they created in the face of the unpredictable cyclicality of the secondary art market and increasingly strong competitors.

Aurolab: Bringing First-World Technology to Third-World Blind

Rangan, V. Kasturi
August 2007

Saffronart, a five-year-old online art auction company, leads the market for modern Indian art and now faces competitors in the market it created. Established in 2000 by the wife-and-husband team of Minal and Dinesh Vazirani, Saffronart.com is an innovative online auction firm that specializes in modern and contemporary Indian art. Having been the first firm to offer Indian fine art with authenticity guarantees in an auction setting that increased the transparency of prices, Saffronart succeeded in establishing the genre of modern and contemporary Indian art in the art world, and in creating a market for it. This market, and Saffronart's revenues, grew rapidly from 2000 to 2005. Saffronart's estimate was that the Indian art auction market would be worth $125 million in 2006, with their revenues being $45 million. While this success was gratifying, the firm and its founders faced new internal and external pressures; particularly worrisome was the entry of auction giants Christie's and Sotheby's into the market. The Vaziranis' main challenge now is to consolidate their leading position in the market they created in the face of the unpredictable cyclicality of the secondary art market and increasingly strong competitors.

HCL Technologies (B)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A Stecker
August 2007

Supplements the (A) case.

Can Bollywood Go Global?

Jones, Geoffrey G., Surachita Mishra, and Alexis Lefort
July 2007

Considers the opportunities and challenges facing Indian film producers in accessing the global film market. Provides a historical context by describing the history of the cinema and the rise of Hollywood to global dominance by the 1920s. Although film industries continued elsewhere, including Great Britain and France, their products had limited international appeal. Discusses the rise of the Indian film industry and the industry structure. Bollywood films, produced in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), are the most well-known genre. They are typically long, melodramatic, and musical. There are also regional language films produced in Chennai, independent films, and "crossover" films, typically incorporating the experience of the Diaspora in Western countries. Bollywood films in particular have sold well in Southeast Asia and among the Indian Diaspora. Raises the issue whether Indian content films can compete with Hollywood in global markets and to what extent a change in content is necessary for this strategy to work.

Apollo Hospitals-First-World Health Care at Emerging-Market Prices

Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, Tarun Khanna, and Carin-Isabel Knoop
July 2007

The Apollo Hospitals Group, one of Asia's premier health care organizations, had come to rival the best health care organizations on the globe. Apollo offered advanced medical procedures, such as cardiac surgery using the beating heart technique, at very high levels of quality but at a fraction of the cost of hospitals in the West. Apollo's managers must decide how best to capitalize on the group's remarkable medical capabilities. One option was to bet on global medical tourism by trying to attract patients from Asia and worldwide needing advanced medical procedures. Thailand had set the example for medical tourism and attracted more than one million patients a year, most of them undergoing plastic surgery. Another option Apollo considered was to build and manage hospitals abroad.

HCL Technologies (A)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A Stecker
June 2007

When Vineet Nayar became president of HCL Technologies, a global IT services business, in April 2005, he knew the company needed drastic change. Since its founding as a hardware company in the 1970s, HCL had grown into an enterprise with $3.7 billion in revenues and a market capitalization of $5.1 billion. The company had 41,000 employees in 11 countries, but it was ill-prepared for the increasingly competitive market. With the shift from hardware to software and services, HCL had slipped behind its Indian competitors and multinational companies. Details the first phase of the transformation Nayar led in hopes of rejuvenating the industry pioneer. The tagline for this phase was "Employee First, Customer Second." Can be used in strategy, change management and leadership courses.

Lean at Wipro Technologies

Upton, David M., and Bradley R. Staats
June 2007

Wipro Technologies, a rapidly growing software services firm based in India, decided to use principles from the Toyota Production System (also known as lean) to fundamentally change their operating model. Looks at why Wipro chose to use lean and how they went about implementing it in a novel context such as this. Provides detail of Wipro's internal and external environment, which was necessitating the change (shift from delivering a low-cost product to providing a business solution). Also, explores whether this new approach can lead to a substantial competitive advantage.

Iqbal Quadir, Gonofone, and the Creation of GrameenPhone (Bangladesh)

Isenberg, Daniel J., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and David Lane
May 2007

As the smallest of four partners in a unique wireless telephony venture in Bangladesh that he initiated and helped grow, Iqbal Quadir is trying to acquire a larger stake in the venture when one of the partners wants to sell his shares. However, Quadir faces stiff resistance from the other two partners, who also want to acquire the shares.

HDFC (A)

Paine, Lynn S., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Suma Raju
May 2007

The top management team at India's leading home finance company must decide how to deal with the emergence of intense competition at the end of the 1990s. Having founded the industry and dominated it for nearly 20 years, the well-respected company faces a bevy of new entrants from the banking, mortgage finance, and insurance sectors. In particular, management must decide how to respond to an aggressive new competitor who has copied HDFC's processes, lured away some of its key staff, and whose misleading, but lawful, advertising of interest rates is drawing customers away from HDFC.

HDFC (B)

Paine, Lynne S., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Suma Raju
May 2007

Supplements the (A) case.

Biocon Limited

Palepu, Krishna G., and Ananth Chepuri
May 2007

Biocon Limited was facing significant pricing pressure in their cash cow business, that primarily consisted of manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). To combat this commoditization, Biocon's leadership had chosen an innovation-led strategy. This new strategy consisted of licensing and developing proven molecules from strategic partners to leapfrog competition and create large molecule biologics in India. The company understood that its transition from an API to an innovation-led company focused on new biologics would require patience and a risk-taking mindset. Although there was some commonality in the bioprocessing aspects of both approaches, the regulatory approvals, product development paths, and market-access timelines were dramatically different--almost diametrically opposed. Analyzes Biocon's strategic decisions, as well as the risks and challenges associated with migrating from a manufacturing to an innovation-led enterprise. How would they balance short-term pragmatism versus long-term vision? Do they have the appropriate human resources to scale and innovate? Is their India-centric strategy appropriate, since 86% of their end-market demand is in the U.S., Europe, and Japan? Fortunately, early indications with their innovation-led strategy were showing positive signs and demonstrable results--such as their biogenetic insulin and monoclonal antibody launch in India. Their lead oral insulin project, with a planned $100 million budget, was meeting its milestones and deliverables. Many critical business challenges are detailed in this case. Nevertheless, given their fully integrated business model and significant manufacturing base, the odds are in Biocon's favor to overcome these challenges and lead India's biotechnology revolution.

Fabindia Overseas Pvt. Ltd

Khaire, Mukti, and Prabakar (PK) Kothandaraman
April 2007

Fabindia is a for-profit Indian retail company with the stated mission of providing employment to weavers and traditional handicraft artisans in rural India. Established in 1960 as an exporter of home furnishings, Fabindia has grown as a consumer-facing retailer of apparel, home furnishings, organic food, and body care products, and has plans to expand further. Given their mission, their supply chain is fragmented, geographically scattered, and unpredictable. Can they overcome these challenges and still grow profitably while staying committed to their mission?

Motilal Oswal Financial Services Ltd.: An IPO in India

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
April 2007

The executives of Motilal Oswal Financial Services, Ltd., one of the largest brokerages in India, are considering an IPO on the Indian markets. The company recently received a small private equity investment from two global private equity firms, which it has not yet fully invested. Historically, the Indian markets have favored higher-revenue companies. Should Motilal Oswal go public now, to take advantage of the hot Indian market, or hold off and build its revenue for a higher valuation?

Punjab and Kerala: Regional Development in India

Iyer, Lakshmi
March 2007

Between 2000 and 2004, India's economy grew by 6.35%. Focuses on the states of Punjab and Kerala, which emphasized sharply different development strategies. The states had to decide whether to focus their investment efforts on physical capital or improving social indicators. Both states faced constraints in the form of budget deficits, competition from other states, and coordination with central government policies.

PSI India -- Will Balbir Pasha Help Fight AIDS? (B)

Ofek, Elie
March 2007

In 2002, Population Services International (PSI) was committed to curbing the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in India. Sanjay Chaganti, program director of HIV/AIDS at PSI India, has to decide on the best communication strategy to achieve this goal. Up to this date most efforts consisted of on-the-ground efforts by PSI personnel, but Chaganti was considering shifting a significant portion of funds to a provocative mass media advertising campaign. The campaign would feature a fictional character--Balbir Pasha. At one extreme the campaign would impact that target population and lift barriers to safe sex practices. At the other extreme the campaign could be controversial, ineffective, and squander precious resources.

Keggfarms (India) - Which Came First, the Kuroiler or the KEGG?

Isenberg, Daniel J.
February 2007

Vinod Kapur has founded a unique enterprise, Keggfarms, based on a special poultry chicken he bred to address the nutritional and income needs of some of the poorest people on earth: India's rural villagers. As of November 2006, Keggfarms was supplying chicks to about 4 million poor villagers, generating incomes for 700,000 households when they sold the eggs and meat. In November 2006, Kapur faced a number of issues, including how to expand without capital, how to deal with imitation, and how to balance Keggfarm's for-profit and social values.

J.R.D. Tata

Nohria, Nitin, Anthony J. Mayo, and Mark Benson
February 2007

J.R.D Tata, Chairman of the Indian conglomerate Tata & Sons, played a significant role in building India's economic infrastructure. Under his guidance, Tata & Sons built locomotives, steel refineries, airlines, chemical plants, and technology-based enterprises. Inheriting his title as Chairman in 1938, at the outbreak of World War II, Tata was able to navigate his family-owned companies through the tumultuous political climate of India. He worked with British colonial officers, and later closely with several Indian leaders under both pro- and anti-business government regimes. Applying his family's values to the workplace, Tata & Sons helped revolutionize business practices in India. From instituting the eight-hour work day and paid leave to providing a retirement gratuity, Tata's policies created a standard to which other companies--and eventually Indian government regulators--measured themselves. Blending humane business practices with political savvy and a pioneering spirit, J.R.D Tata is remembered as one of India's most important and influential business leaders. Tata is an example of a 20th century business leader who applied contextual intelligence to a variety of businesses, dramatically changing the landscape of India's infrastructure.

Tejas Networks India Pte

Isenberg, Daniel J.
February 2007

Sanjay Nayak, co-founder of the Bangalore-based start-up, Tejas Networks, is faced with two completely different opportunities to choose between: pursing a short-term, quantifiable but unprofitable contract with Tejas' biggest telco customer in India, or an ill-defined, long-term, worldwide OEM agreement with one of the top-tier telecommunications equipment vendors. Both options require some investment in order to be profitable.

Infosys in India: Building a Software Giant in a Corrupt Environment

Abdelal, Rawi, Rafael Di Tella, and Prabakar Kothandaraman
January 2007

Shortly after Infosys was founded in 1981, its managers faced a major turning point when they made a decision to operate without giving in to the petty corruption rife in the Indian economy. Within just a few years, that decision had truly defined the company. Over the next 25 years, Infosys managers went to extraordinary lengths to avoid even the most modest of practices that they considered inappropriate. Explores the practices and methods that Infosys adopted instead, considers their costs, benefits, and generalizability, and contextualizes the problem within Indian political and economic institutions that continue to evolve.

Rico Auto Industries: Raising Private Equity in India

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
January 2007

The CEO of a publicly traded Indian auto components manufacturer must decide whether to accept an investment from a consortium of private equity firms. Describes the decision process for both the private equity investors and the entrepreneur and profiles the opportunities and risks in investing in India.

Eldeco: Playing in the Big League

Nicolas Retsinas, Segel, Arthur I., Arnaud Karsenti, Sumeet Narang, and Siddarth Yog
December 2006

In 2001, Pankaj Bajaj is considering whether to go forward with a residential development outside New Delhi. Facing an uncooperative local authority, he must determine how to evaluate the risks of proceeding against the potential loss of a golden opportunity to bring Eldeco, his real estate development company, into the top tier of industry players.

Tanishq: Positioning to Capture the Indian Woman's Heart

Narayandas, Das, and Kerry Herman
November 2006

The firm has to choose between an established brand, Tanishq, and a new skunkworks brand, GoldPlus, to go after the Indian plain gold jewelry market: Tanishq, initially targeted at a western customer, has undergone strategic retooling and has currently been repositioned to serve the "traditional yet modern" Indian woman. The brand still carries some baggage from its past. GoldPlus, on the other hand, is a new brand that is positioned to serve the plain gold wedding jewelry market. A variety of strategic, economic, organizational and brand investment reasons make the decision an important one.

Strategic Outsourcing at Bharti Airtel Ltd

Martínez-Jerez, Francisco de Asís , V.G. Narayanan, and Michele Jurgens
September 2006

Faced with exponential growth and a competitive telecom environment, Bharti looks for ways to better manage its capital expenditures for telecommunications and information technology. One option is to hand over management of its telecom and IT networks to its vendors. Explores the pros and cons of such an outsourcing arrangement for a company in an industry where technological superiority is considered an essential element in competitive strategy.

Big Bazaar

Raman, Ananth, and Laura Winig
July 2006

Describes a high-growth Indian retailer, Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd., and two of the company's formats--Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar. Challenges students to debate the company's concept, its strategic decision on how quickly it would like to grow, and some key decisions on its supply chain. At the time of the case (2006), small "mom-and-pop" stores still dominated Indian retailing, but that was changing rapidly because of the entry of "organized" retailers such as Pantaloon. Pantaloon's management faced some exciting opportunities as well as some potential competition from global retailers that were planning to enter the Indian market and large Indian business houses that were planning to establish retailing businesses.

ICICI's Global Expansion

Khanna, Tarun, and Ramana Nanda
March 2006

To entertain how companies based in emerging markets might go global and discuss the various assets they can leverage to compete effectively in a global market.

Eureka Forbes Ltd.: Managing the Selling Effort (A)

Narayandas, Das, and Kerry Herman
December 2005

The CEO of EFL (India), a direct sales organization, must decide which changes to the sales compensation systems would better motivate his sales reps and improve their sales performance.

Infosys (A): Strategic Human Resource Management

DeLong, Thomas J., Jaya Tandon, and Ganesh Rengaswamy
December 2005

Hema Ravichandar, head of human resources, was given a new and aggressive milestone to reach: ensure Infosys is on the Top 10 lists of both Best Performing Companies and Best Employers by 2007. No large organization had ever been able to achieve this distinction because of the tension between the need to control costs for financial performance and the expenditure required for employee satisfaction. Ravichandar was aware of the humbling experiences of the past that made Infosys cognizant of the difficulties ahead as it transitioned from a small to a large company.

Wipro Technologies: The Factory Model

Upton, David M., and Virginia A. Fuller
December 2005

Based in Bangalore, Wipro Technologies is a rapidly growing software services company. Wipro is experimenting with a new software service delivery model that draws on the principles of the Toyota production system and "lean" manufacturing. Addresses the advantages and disadvantages of software outsourcing and how to mitigate the effects of, for example, lock-in and hijacking. Explores how Wipro has helped its customers deal with these issues and looks at the changing competitive role of Indian outsourcers (from low-cost, to high-quality/rapid turnaround). Specifically explores Wipro's experimental use of lean principles as a source of new competitive advantage in software services. Also addresses the issue of standardization in information technology, examining why companies progressively develop so many standards and how companies like Wipro can help them standardize, thus limiting one of the primary drivers of companies' IT costs.

Infosys (B): Strategic Human Resource Management

DeLong, Thomas J., and Jaya Tandon
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case.

Strategic Outsourcing at Bharti Airtel Ltd. One Year Later

Martínez-Jerez, Francisco de Asís , V.G. Narayanan, and Michele Jurgens
September 2005

Faced with exponential growth and a competitive telecom environment, Bharti looks for ways to better manage its capital expenditures for telecommunications and information technology. One option is to hand over management of its telecom and IT networks to its vendors. Explores the pros and cons of such an outsourcing arrangement for a company in an industry where technological superiority is considered an essential element in competitive strategy.
"Infosys (B): Strategic Human Resource Management."

Jerry Rao: Diaspora and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy

Wadhwani, R. Daniel
September 2005

Focusing on one entrepreneur, Jerry Rao, this case examines the international career paths of Indian business professionals and engineers since the development of public policies beginning in the 1960s to attract them to developed countries like the United States. Explores why these professionals often chose to leave India in pursuit of economic opportunities abroad in the 1960s through 1980s and why many seem now to be returning to their homeland to start or run businesses. Also, considers the role of Diaspora of Indian professionals in contributing to the development of the export-oriented Indian IT sector.