Enhancing Social Capital in South Asia

Since its formation, the India Research Center (IRC) has worked to enhance intellectual capital creation by working with academics and business leaders in South Asia.

The Global Colloquium on Participant-Centered Learning (GloColl) is an HBS course for faculty at business schools in emerging economies who are trained in interactive methods of teaching and learning.

Executive Education
in India

Driving Growth Through Innovation — India

August 4-7, 2013 (Mumbai, India)
Innovating new products and services in India can be complicated by an unpredictable market and unfamiliar culture. This program helps business leaders develop and market differentiated products and services by identifying and leveraging new opportunities. Participants leave with the latest tools and strategies to manage today's diverse risks and to position their companies for future success.

Leadership and Corporate Accountability — India

November 17-20, 2014 (Mumbai, India)
Explore the legal, ethical, and financial demands that affect managerial decision-making in today's highly complex economic environment. Designed for executives at the divisional level and above, this interdisciplinary program examines a range of leadership issues related to management and governance systems. You will emerge better prepared to make ethically responsible, financially sound decisions.

Maximizing Your Leadership Potential — India

December 15-18, 2014 (Mumbai, India)
This program helps companies build visionary leaders who can manage disruptive change and exploit emerging opportunities in a shifting global economy. By exploring diverse approaches to complex leadership challenges, you will learn how to adapt your management style to the situation at hand, build more productive teams, and lead your organization to greater success across India and the globe.

Leading Growth Through Customer Centricity — India

March, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

Learn how to create a truly customer-centric organization that can help your business innovate, compete, and grow. Designed for senior executives operating in India and the surrounding region, this new program gives decision-makers new knowledge and tools for transforming an organization that sells products and services into one that delivers differentiated customer value-and sustainable business success.

Building a Global Enterprise in India

April, 2015
(Mumbai, India)

This program is designed for senior leaders who seek strategies to expand within and beyond this compelling market. Offered jointly by Harvard Business School and the India Research Center in Mumbai, the program marries on-the-ground, research-based knowledge of India with the global perspective of one of the world's leading business schools-a combination unavailable in any other executive education program.

Improving Corporate Performance and Profitability — India

May 26-29, 2014
(Mumbai, India)

Build a strategic advantage for your company by implementing powerful performance evaluation systems that drive performance and improve profitability. This leadership program explores how local and multinational companies manage operational risk and create corporate value in India and beyond. You will emerge with a blueprint for capitalizing on growth opportunities in challenging times.

Aligning and Executing Strategy — India

June 9-12, May 2014
(Mumbai, India)

Position your organization for long-term success in the global marketplace by integrating the design and execution of highly effective business strategies. In this intensive program, senior executives who do business in India will explore the core components of strategy building-among them competitive environment and competitive advantage. You will learn how to align your organization in order to optimize your strategy, capitalize on opportunities, and drive growth.

All Global Executive Education Programs

Latin America

2014

CLP: Powering Asia HBS Teaching Plan

Serafeim, George, Robert G. Eccles, and Noah Fisher
March 2014

No abstract available

Codifying Prior Art and Patenting: Natural Experiment of Herbal Patent Prior Art Adoption at the EPO and USPTO

Choudhury, Prithwiraj, and Tarun Khanna
March 2014

In the patenting literature, economists and legal scholars have focused on the question of improving the quality of prior art available to patent examiners and mitigating the filing and granting of patents where prior art exists in common knowledge. In this paper, we create a unique dataset of Chinese and Indian herbal patents filed on the USPTO and EPO between 1977 and 2010 and exploit a natural experiment where the USPTO and EPO adopted a codified database of traditional herbal prior art at different points in time. This initiative was titled the Traditional Knowledge Depository Library (TKDL) and was pioneered by Indian state-owned R&D labs and provided the EPO and USPTO with systematic evidence of prior art on herbal patents based on a translation of ancient Indian texts. We conduct additional analyses to establish that the time lag of the USPTO adopting the TKDL agreement compared to the EPO was related to idiosyncratic differences in how the agreements were structure and negotiated, not differences in policy towards herbal patents at the EPO and USPTO. We also find that the adoption of TKDL appears to shift patenting in the West from pure herbal remedies that can be contested in court to new applications involving herbals and synthetics, which are less contestable. Further, we study the ethnic origins of the inventors of herbal patents filed on the USPTO. For this analysis, we use ethnic name matching for all patentees of herbal patents. We also exploit an exogenous reduction in H1B (visa) quotas and find that herbal patents filed by western firms based in the U.S. are driven by scientists of ethnic Indian and Chinese origin.

Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-079, February 2014

Bio-Piracy or Prospering Together? Fuzzy Set and Qualitative Analysis of Herbal Patenting by Firms.

Choudhury, Prithwiraj, and Tarun Khanna
March 2014

Since the 1990s, several western firms have filed patents based on medicinal herbs from emerging markets, evoking protests from local stakeholders against "bio-piracy." We explore conditions under which firms and local stakeholders share rents from such patents. Our theoretical model builds on two distinct strategy literatures: firms appropriating rents from new technologies and firms managing stakeholders. We predict that a win-win outcome emerges when the patent strength is moderate and when local stakeholders form a coalition with larger national stakeholders to initiate litigation against the focal firm. We test our predictions using a two-pronged empirical strategy. Our empirical context relates to herbal patents from emerging markets, and given that we have a small sample (N=17), we employ a fuzzy set QCA methodology. In addition, we develop four in-depth qualitative case studies to support our predictions.

Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-081, February 2014

Jaipur Literature Festival-Beyond the Festival Template

Khanna, Tarun, Dennis Yao, Hillary Greene, and Amrita Chowdhury
February 2014

Jaipur Literature Festival (JLF), dubbed "the greatest literary show on earth" was an annual event held in late January at the Diggi Palace in Jaipur. JLF provided a platform for international authors and Indian language authors from the subcontinent to engage in a literary dialogue. By 2011, JLF attracted the largest festival audience in the Asia Pacific region with approximately 60,000 visitors from 24 countries. It featured 224 speakers in 140 sessions and 100 musicians in 20 concerts. Success had already changed the character of the festival from the earlier more intimate days and had created a momentum that, if not managed correctly, could compromise goals such as the democratic ethos of the festival. While JLF had achieved explosive growth and critical success, its expenses still exceeded its revenue. Could JLF find an organizational and financial "template" that could sustain the festival into the future?

Coffee Wars in India: Café Coffee Day Takes on the Global Brands HBS Note

Yoffie, David B.
February 2014

No abstract available

Land Acquisition in India: Public Purpose and Private Property (C)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer, and Rachna Tahilyani
February 2014

No abstract available

Walmart around the World

Alcácer, Juan, Abhishek Agrawal, and Harshit Vaish
February 2014

After reaching the limits of its successful expansion in the United States in the early 1990s, Walmart sought growth opportunities in markets abroad. This case describes Walmart's attempts to replicate its successful U.S. business model in Mexico, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Central America, China, South Korea, Japan, Germany, the UK, and Africa. Students reflect on the mixed results of these ventures and identify elements in the company's location choices, times of entry, and modes of entry that may explain the outcomes observed. They then formulate a set of recommendations for Walmart to maximize its chances of success when the company expands into India in 2013.

India's Amul: Keeping up with the Times

Deshpandé, Rohit, Tarun Khanna, and Tanya Bijlani
January 2014

Amul is an Indian dairy cooperative founded in 1947, eight months before India's independence from British rule, and owned by over three million farmers in the state of Gujarat. It is India's largest food product marketing organization, selling 46 products, including pouched milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, and infant food through a million retailers across the country as well as being the market leader in almost all the categories in which it operates. Amul is well known among Indian consumers for offering high-quality products at reasonable prices and runs a highly popular advertising campaign that spoofs current events. It offers its farmers 80% of the consumer's dollar for milk, compared with 35% to 40% typical in some Western markets. Amul's cooperative dairy model has been replicated across several Indian states, thereby helping increase the incomes of 80-100 million farmer families across the country. However, despite its success, Amul is beginning to come under increasing pressure. Multinationals like Nestlé and Unilever are increasing their presence in India and competing fiercely with Amul in value-added products like yogurt. The entry of large multi-brand retailers like Walmart and Carrefour in the Indian market threatens to squeeze Amul's margins and undermine its low-cost distribution network. India's large young rural population is shying away from dairy farming in favor of urban jobs, leaving questions about future procurement. Finally, Amul's farmers form a large vote bank in the state of Gujarat, and its cooperative structure risks being compromised by vested political interests. Should Amul continue with the business model that has served it so well for decades; or should it change its strategy in order to keep up with India's changing social, political, and economic landscape?

India 2012: The Challenges of Governance HBS Teaching Note

Iyer, Lakshmi
January 2014

No abstract available

Wal-Mart Lobbying in India?

Ramanna, Karthik, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2014

In 2012, as part of a routine disclosure under U.S. law, Wal-Mart revealed it had spent $25 million since 2008 on lobbying to "enhance market access for investment in India." This disclosure, which came weeks after the Indian government made a controversial decision to permit FDI in the country's multi-brand retail sector, created uproar in India. Lobbying by multinationals drew strong emotions in India, evoking images of the millions spent by Enron in the 1990s to "educate Indians"-a suspected euphemism for bribery. Opposition political parties accused Wal-Mart of bribing the Indian government, which, on the eve of a general election, appointed a judicial commission to investigate Wal-Mart. Already under pressure from allegations of bribery in Mexico, Wal-Mart risked becoming embroiled in another embarrassing scandal. How had the company landed in its current situation and how could it respond to the investigation into its India-related lobbying?

2013

Schneider Electric: Becoming the Global Specialist in Energy Management

Macomber, John D., and Rachna Tahilyani
December 2013

Global electrical products company assesses growth and market demands in India. Company must decide between a product acquisition or developing a service business. Students need to be aware of different country conditions, demands on implementation of different strategies, and impact on culture. Also discusses energy performance contracting in the context of making India's energy generation capability more efficient.

Coffee Wars in India: Café Coffee Day Takes on the Global Brands

Yoffie, David B., and Tanya Bijlani
November 2013

Café Coffee Day (CCD) is contemplating how to respond to the entry of Starbucks into the Indian coffee chain market. The case study describes the emergence of CCD as the leading coffee chain in India, with over 1,400 cafes in India. In early 2013, Starbucks, the world's leading coffee chain company, opened its first 11 outlets in India's metropolitan cities with local giant, Tata, and promises of a national roll out. CCD management debated whether there was plenty of room for both Starbucks and CCD in India's large growing market, or whether Starbucks' entry required CCD to respond more assertively.

Eko: Mobile Banking and Payments in India

Gupta, Sunil, and Rachna Tahilyani
November 2013

No abstract available

Amul Dairy

Goldberg, Ray A.,and Ian McKown Cornell
October 2013

In 2013, Rahul Kumar, the managing director of Amul dairy, India's leading dairy firm, had to decide how to position his firm for the future in light of India's growing population and demand for dairy. How could he maintain the firm's cooperative structure, address the nutritional needs of all Indians, make use of emerging technology, and navigate the country's dairy policies in the coming years?

BMVSS: Changing Lives, One Jaipur Limb at a Time

Datar, Srikant M., and Saloni Chaturvedi
September 2013

Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayta Samiti (BMVSS) is an Indian not-for-profit organization engaged in assisting differently-abled persons by providing them with the legendary low-cost prosthesis, the Jaipur Foot, and other mobility-assisting devices, free of cost. Known for its patient-centric culture, its focus on innovation, and for developing the $20 Stanford-Jaipur knee, BMVSS has assisted over a million people in its lifetime of 44 years. As the founder, Mr. D.R. Mehta, thinks about the financial sustainability of BMVSS, he must devise a strategy that will sustain its human impact well into the future.

Bardhaman (A) & (B) HBS Teaching Note

Macomber, John D.
September2013

A real estate developer decides whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal to develop a township on farmland. The decisions include whether to expand operations from the company's base in Kolkata to Bardhaman, 100 km away; whether to subdivide and sell raw land lots or follow the developer's vision and build a planned township; whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal, led by the Left Front and the Communist Party of India as equity partners; or whether to also accept a private equity firm into the project; and lastly, what to build and in what sequence.

BMS-Biocon Research Center: Growing a Joint Research Venture in India

Sato, Vicki L., Sen Chai, Rich Ballenger, Christine Chi, Alexander Down, and Ross Leimberg

Bristol Myers Squibb, a multi-national pharmaceutical company, is seeking to globalize its R&D strategy while managing costs. It has formed a joint venture with an Indian company, which has worked well, but now faces a strategic decision on how and whether to continue.
August 2013

Hub and Spoke, HealthCare Global, and Additional Focused Factory Models for Cancer Care

Herzlinger, Regina E. ,Amit Ghorawat, Meera Krishnan, and Naiyya Saggi
August 2013

This case compares and contrasts four different models for delivering cancer care in India and the United States. Students are asked to select the best model in its alignment with the Six Forces in those two countries and Africa, to which one of the models is considering expansion, and intrinsic business characteristics. The Indian models are all focused factories, but one is a hub and spoke model, with a hospital hub and ambulatory spokes, while the other offers only ambulatory services and is located on the grounds of teaching hospitals. The U.S. models are all focused factory hospitals, one academic and the other a private, for-profit firm.

Transport Corporation of India (A): The Cross-selling Conundrum

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

Transport Corporation of India (TCI) was a logistics company that provided multi-modal transport solutions to its customers. Set up in 1958, TCI had grown from a "one man, one truck, one office" setup to a company with revenues of $400 million in half a century. TCI's growth had been assisted by the creation of individual divisions that provided specialized services to its clients-Freight, Express, Supply Chain Solutions, Seaways, and Global. In 2012, the company renewed it efforts to foster cross-selling across the divisions with the hope that this would increase customer stickiness and foster growth. However, as the company tried to push the cross-selling agenda across its various divisions, it faced myriad issues. It needed to educate its divisional sales staff about the services provided by divisions other than their own, to motivate them to cross-sell, and to create intra-division confidence to facilitate cross-selling. While the joint managing director, Vineet Agarwal, under the guidance of his father D.P. Agarwal, vice-chairman and managing director, TCI, in conjunction with TCI's executive committee, had introduced initiatives like training across divisions, competitions on cross-selling, and tracking of cross-selling leads, he was not sure that these were enough. Were there other ways in which TCI could successfully cross-sell? Could they put in place a system that specifically incentivized cross-sales to motivate sales staff? The (A) case focuses on TCI's cross-selling efforts and the strategic decisions before it. Cases (B), (C), and (D) discuss specific situations that demonstrate issues related to the cross-selling initiative.

Transport Corporation of India (B): Choosing the Right Candidate

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Transport Corporation of India (C): Dealing with Shortcomings in Service Quality

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Transport Corporation of India (D): Business Development across Divisions

Narayanan, V.G., and Saloni Chaturvedi
July 2013

No abstract available.

Growing Financial Services in India: Aditya Birla Financial Services Group

Healy, Paul M., and Rachna Tahilyani
July 2013

Aditya Birla Financial Services Group is a large, broad-based, Indian financial services institution offering products ranging from life insurance and mutual funds to private equity. The company has witnessed a turnaround in recent years and regained lost market share. However, in recent years, concerns about investor protection has increased financial sector regulatory oversight specifically in the asset management and life insurance space and changed the rules of the game. Additionally, the central bank has invited new banks to apply for licenses to operate in the country. In the face of these changes, the company has to figure out what its strategy should be to realize its vision of becoming a leading integrated financial services player offering customers a menu of products that support their needs at different stages of their lives.

Getit

Nanda, Ramana
July 2013

Sidharth Gupta, CEO of Getit Infomediary Ltd., had just received a term sheet from Helion Venture Partners (Helion), one of India's independent venture capital firms, offering to invest Rs 200 million in return for an equity stake in the company. His dream of transforming Getit from a regional print company into a digital company with broad geographical reach was within grasp. However, Gupta had to act fast; Helion's term sheet would expire in a fortnight if unexecuted. Bank finance and trade credit had tided Getit through tough times in the past, and Getit still had a Rs 250 million bank line to draw on. Should he take the venture capital investment? And if so, what implications would this have for his family business and for him personally?

Religion, Politician Identity, and Development Outcomes: Evidence from India

Bhalotra, Sonia, Guilhem Cassan, Irma Clots-Figueras, and Lakshmi Iyer
June 2013

This paper investigates whether the religious identity of state legislators in India influences development outcomes, both for citizens of their religious group and for the population as a whole. To control for politician identity to be correlated with constituency level voter preferences or characteristics that make religion salient, we use quasi-random variation in legislator identity generated by close elections between Muslim and non-Muslim candidates. We find that increasing the political representation of Muslims improves health and education outcomes in the district from which the legislator is elected. We find no evidence of religious favoritism: Muslim children do not benefit more from Muslim political representation than children from other religious groups.

Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-102, June 2013

Cummins, Inc.: Building a Home Community for a Global Company

Bower, Joseph L., and Michael Norris
June 2013

In 2010, Tom Linebarger, president and COO of Cummins, Inc., the Columbus, Indiana-based manufacturer of diesel engines, has to decide where to locate the company's new manufacturing line for high horsepower engines. He has three choices to decide from: Seymour, Indiana; Daventry, England; and Pune, India. The Community Education Coalition (CEC) in Columbus has had success in improving the city's schools to make the area more competitive in attracting and retaining highly educated employees to this small Midwestern city. The CEC is planning an expansion into Seymour with Cummins' help. Will the CEC be able to improve the school system in Seymour enough to make it a viable choice for the new high horsepower engine line? The case highlights the role of Cummins' long-term effort at community development as a key element of its corporate strategy.

Naina Lal Kidwai: Investing in Her Country

Groysberg, Boris, and Anjali Raina
May 2013

This case showcases the 30-year career of Naina Lal Kidwai, chairman of HSBC India, a leading woman business leader globally. It demonstrates how Kidwai spent a lifetime overcoming barriers as a woman in a male-dominated profession and as an Indian in the global marketplace. Now, as opportunities to play a role in the environment are beginning to open up, she has to decide the next direction to take in her career.

Eureka Forbes Ltd.: Managing the Selling Effort (A) (Photonovel Version)

Narayandas, Das, Kallol Das, and Kerry Herman
May 2013

No abstract available.

Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite): Plus ça change...

Goldberg, Ray A., Arthur I. Segel, Elie Ofek and Carin-Isabel Knoop
May 2013

No abstract available.

Equitas Microfinance (B): Response to the Andhra Pradesh Crisis

Narayanan, V.G., V. Kasturi Rangan, and Vidhya Muthuram
May 2013

No abstract available.

Equitas Microfinance (C): Advent of Regulation

Narayanan, V.G., V. Kasturi Rangan, and Vidhya Muthuram
May 2013

No abstract available.

Fonterra

Bell, David E., Mary Shelman, and Annelena Lobb
April 2013

No abstract available.

SKS and the AP Microfinance Crisis

Cole, Shawn
April 2013

No abstract available

Aadhaar: India's 'Unique Identification' System

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
April 2013

No abstract available

Omidyar Network: Pioneering Impact Investment

Chu, Michael, and Lauren Barley
March 2013

Omidyar Network (ON), having deployed over $500 million in ways ranging from donations to commercial equity capital, must decide whether to back Anudip, an Indian organization dedicated to rural employment. The social impact of Anudip is high, but its financial performance is lackluster. Able to deploy all the tools along the capital curve of impact investing, which if any is optimal for Anudip? The case recounts the transition of eBay founder Pierre Omidyar and his wife, Pam, from the Omidyar Family Foundation (OFF) to ON, going from a traditional grant-making organization to being a pioneer of impact investing: the application of investment practices in the delivery of high impact social interventions, with the intent of providing positive financial returns to investors.

micro Home Solutions: A Social Housing Initiative in India

Kerr, William R., and Alexis Brownell
March 2013

mHS is a social enterprise for the provision of affordable housing in India. After India's microfinance industry collapses, mHS needs to reposition itself for continued operations and long-term growth.

CLP: Powering Asia

Serafeim, George, Robert G. Eccles, and Dawn Lau
March 2013

No abstract available

Talking Strategy at Greighton Partners

Groysberg, Boris, and Kerry Herman
March 2013

Since its inception, London-based private equity firm Greighton Partners had managed over $15 billion in investor capital. The firm employed about 150 professionals around the globe and had completed over 175 company acquisitions since its founding. Started with a small intimate team in London, the firm had merged with a continental PE firm and was successful, with an increased focus on Asia deals. After a long day of global partner meetings behind them, a group of Greighton partners, eager to unwind, gathered to discuss the firm's success in terms of executing on its recently refined strategy. Opinions ranged across the following strategic issues: growing the firm's Asian footprint versus remaining focused in Europe; aiming to be a top performing mid-market firm or focusing on moving up a tier to compete for bigger deals against larger firms; growth and expansion through organic growth, merger/acquisition, or through lateral hires; and finally, sector mix and client mix/client focus.

SANY: Going Global

Lal, Rajiv, Stefan Lippert, Nancy Hua Dai, and Di Deng
February 2013

April 17, 2012, was a special day for SANY Group and for its founder Liang Wen'gen. Headquartered in Changsha, SANY Group had transformed itself in two decades from a small welding material factory in 1989 to a leading global construction equipment manufacturer with 5 industrial parks in China; 5 R&D and manufacturing bases in America, Germany, India, Brazil, and Indonesia; and 21 sales companies worldwide. SANY Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. (SANY), SANY Group's major subsidiary, engaged in the construction equipment business and was number six on International Construction's 2012 Yellow Table, a ranking of the world's largest construction equipment manufacturers.

Home Essentials: Building a Global Service Business with Local Operations.

Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr , and David Lane
February 2013

Chris Exline founded Home Essentials, a furniture rental business targeted toward expatriates, in Singapore but rapidly moved the base of operations to Hong Kong. The company was highly successful in Singapore and Hong Kong and then pursued rapid global expansion. Lacking frameworks for deciding upon countries to enter and services to deliver in each country, Exline used gut instinct. Lacking control systems and information, he failed to identify problems early and had trouble understanding the root cause of failures. The global financial crisis intensified the problems. The case ends by describing how Exline was able to turn around the troubled company and develop necessary governance systems. The question of whether to once more attempt to grow beyond Hong Kong and, if so, the approach to take in selecting countries, is a central issue Exline faced at the time of the case.

Olam: On a New Course

Bell, David E., Forest Reinhardt, and Mary Shelman
February 2013

From modest beginnings as a cashew trader in Nigeria, Olam, founded by Indian nationals in 1989, has grown into a leading global agricultural trading company, with annual revenues of $14 billion. The company recently has begun investing in farms and in the production of packaged goods, shifting from its traditional focus on the midstream of the value chain. The case raises questions involving competitive positioning, corporate strategy, sustainable development, and the management of business and political risk.

Building Brand Infosys

Deshpandé, Rohit, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2013

Infosys Limited was India's second largest exporter of IT services with annual revenues of $7 billion and a market capitalization of nearly $26 billion in 2012. The company, headquartered in Bangalore, India, had built its reputation as the Indian IT bellwether whose credo was to "under-promise and over-deliver." Throughout its 31-year history, Infosys and its iconic co-founder, N.R. Narayana Murthy, were admired and respected for delivering excellence while conducting business in a legal, transparent, and ethical manner. It was one of the few software companies that recognized the value of a strong brand in the business-to-business (B2B) market and chose to develop its brand not through expensive advertising but by building core values, client trust, and leveraging Murthy's personal integrity and principles. In 2011, the company introduced its new brand positioning, Infosys 3.0. A key component of the new brand positioning was the Products, Platforms, and Services (PPS) business, headed by Sanjay Purohit. This case focuses on the company's efforts to makeover its brand in the U.S. market amidst several challenges.

Blackstone's Investment in Intelenet

Lerner, Josh, Sandeep Bapat, and Rachna Tahilyani
January 2013

Three years had passed since Blackstone's investment in Intelenet Global Services, their third largest investment in India. Great progress had been made, but now a new challenge loomed. Globank, a large global bank, was Intelenet's largest customer. Intelenet's contract with Globank was set to expire in the next seven months, and all of Intelenet's assets and people working on the account would move to Globank. Amit Dixit, managing director at the Blackstone Group, estimated that in the next four years this would result in Intelenet losing $160 million of revenue and $48 million of EBITDA. Blackstone could either channel large amounts of capital and human resources towards renewing the contract or focus on growing third-party business at Intelenet. Dixit had to firm up his strategy quickly in order to begin negotiations with Globank.

Made in India: Human Capital at the Base of the Pyramid

Anteby, Michel, and Felicia Khan
January 2013

No abstract available

Doing Deals and Leading Teams at XAF Partners

Groysberg, Boris, and Kerry Herman
January 2013

No abstract available

The Universalization of L'Oréal

Lal, Rajiv, and Carin-Isabel Knoop
January 2013

In 2010, half of the world's cosmetics sales came from the so-called emerging markets for the first time; L'Oréal opened three new subsidiaries, in Egypt, Pakistan, and Kazakhstan; and the Paris, France-based cosmetics and personal care powerhouse declared its intention to double its consumer base to two billion and increase its share of sales from emerging markets. CEO Jean-Paul Agon made it his number one goal to "prepare the company to keep its global leadership in this new era".

Nalli Silk Sarees (B)

Narayanan, V.G., Namrata Arora, and Vidhya Muthuram
January 2013

Presents the company's perspective using an interview format. Ramnath K.Nalli, vice chairman of Nalli Silk Sarees Private Limited, and his daughter, Lavanya Nalli (HBS MBA 2011), the fifth generation entrepreneur to be involved in the family business, discuss customer preferences, buying behavior, and price sensitivity for cotton and silk sarees.

2012

Intel: Strategic Decisions in Locating a New Assembly and Test Plant (A)

Alcácer, Juan and Kerry Herman
December 2012

In mid-2005, Intel is examining its options for where to locate its next assembly and test plant. On its short list of potential sites include locations in China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. Each country has its own unique benefits and risks related to infrastructure, governance, education, business culture, intellectual property protection, labor markets, experience working with Western firms, and tax breaks and other incentives. Intel's General Manager for Assembly and Test, Brian Krzanich, has to consider all of these factors as well as Intel's criteria for its new facility's location and make his recommendation to the company's board of directors. Which country and location should Intel choose?

Intel: Strategic Decision in Locating a New Assembly and Test Plant (A) & (B)

Alcácer, Juan
December 2012

The case is used in Harvard Business School's (HBS) elective course "Competing Globally" as the first case in the third module (see "Competing Globally: Course Note for Instructors," HBS No. 713-422). As the first case in the module, it introduces the framework to analyze individual location choices that weave into a location strategy that ultimately creates and sustains value globally. Specifically, Intel allows instructors to introduce a comprehensive framework to analyze location decisions, illustrate how to evaluate, rank and aggregate location traits to make a location choice that contributes to create and sustain value globally, identify the difference between location choice and location strategy, and explore the benefits and drawbacks of agglomeration economies that emerge from locating in clusters.

Intuit Inc.: Project AgriNova

Eisenmann, Thomas R., and Tanya Bijlani
November 2012

In late 2008, a team from Intuit's office in Bangalore, India, is evaluating an opportunity to launch a new venture that would use SMS to deliver crop price information to farmers in India. The case describes the structure of Indian agriculture and the problems experienced by farmers, who were often exploited by middlemen who entered into obtuse private arrangements with wholesale buyers. After five weeks of research, the team concludes that the opportunity warrants further exploration. The question is, what should they do next?

The Dabbawala System: On-Time Delivery, Every Time

Thomke, Stefan H.
November 2012

N/A

I Paid a Bribe (Dot) Com

Ramanna, Karthik, and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2012

Anti-corruption web platform "ipaidabribe.com" leverages the transparency and anonymity of the Internet to encourage private citizens in India who have been the victims of corruption to self-report details of bribes paid, including the bribe amount, the name of the corrupt official, and services rendered. The ipaidabribe.com portal then aggregates these data to create maps and charts of corrupt activities across Indian cities. The theory is that such data will build awareness and shame, raising the cost of corruption. But after initial successes-buoyed by visibility generated from mass street protests against corruption in 2011-traffic to the website has slowed. The question before spouses, ex-bankers, and ipaidabribe.com co-founders Ramesh and Swati Ramanathan is how to generate and sustain interest in the web platform so that they have real impact on retail corruption in India. Possible solutions discussed include teaming up with local governments and police, focusing attention on one or two Indian cities, and franchising ipaidabribe.com internationally to create more visibility.

Business-driven Research at IBM Research India

Shih, Willy, Margaret Pierson, Pankaj Agarwal, Diego Medicina, and Juan Prajogo
August 2012

What is the right mix between business-driven and pure research? This case considers the question in the setting of IBM Research India, where a management push for balance between exploratory research and the fulfillment of business needs meets some resistance from employees who were accustomed to so-called pure basic research. The case looks at the Spoken Web project, a good example of use-inspired research for which management has yet to develop a viable business plan.

Microsoft IT India

Shih, Willy, Margaret Pierson, Alexander Down, Will Jurist, Diego Medicina, and Helen Wang
August 2012

Raj Biyani faced tough challenges managing Microsoft IT India: leading a remote development organization in which key decisions were made in Redmond and managing an organization that was perceived as less strategic than its sister Microsoft India Development Center with which it shared the Hyderabad, India site. The case follows Biyani's thought process in diagnosing the organization's problems and poses the challenges of leading globally distributed operations.

ABC India (A)

Nanda, Ramana
August 2012

Siddharth Kapoor, the Founder and CEO of ABC India Pvt. Ltd., reflected on his meetings as he walked out of VC Ventures' offices in Mumbai. After a few months of intensely pitching his startup to several different investors, he finally had a term sheet in hand. Despite this huge milestone, Kapoor knew it was only the start of a long process of raising money. He only had three days to get back to Vikram Sharma and indicate whether he would like to initiate the diligence process. While he was familiar with some of the terms venture capital investors put into their contracts, many others were completely alien to him. Which terms were important? Which ones should he focus on negotiating? He also knew that money was only part of what the venture capital investors brought to the table. Was VC Ventures the right partner for his business? Kapoor knew he had a busy few days ahead of him as he thought through all of these questions before getting back to Sharma.

Indian Railways: Building a Permanent Legacy?

Khanna, Tarun, and Aldo Musacchio
August 2012

No abstract available

ABC India (B-1): Siddharth Kapoor

Nanda, Ramana
August 2012

No abstract available

South Asia

ABC India (B-2): Vikram Sharma

Nanda, Ramana
August 2012

No abstract available

Sarvajal: Water for All

Macomber, John, and Ian McKown Cornell
July 2012

No abstract available

General Motors Technical Center India - Powertrain Engineering

Shih, Willy, William Jurist, Brian McIntosh, and Helen Wang
June 2012

Prabjot Nanua was proud of the growing capabilities of the General Motors Technical Center India Powertrain Engineering group that he oversaw. Since 2003, engineers there had expanded the center's capabilities, developing a reputation within GM for completing high-quality design and analysis projects for other Technical Centers at a substantially lower cost. In areas such as tolerance stacking analysis, GMTCI-Powertrain was now the only location in GM worldwide that performed this type of work. Nanua thought about the next stage of development for the center. Should they "go deep" and focus on more areas of technical competency where the center had developed a competitive advantage? GMTCI could become the center of expertise for a narrower set of methods and capabilities like they had done in tolerance stacking. Or should they "go broad" and continue to lobby headquarters for more complex assignments that might ultimately lead to program ownership for an entire vehicle? Each scenario had different implications for how GMTCI fit within the network of Technical Centers and corporate GM. If they did the former, they might be faced with the perception that GMTCI was limited to back-office analysis for GM's products. But when Nanua put on his headquarters "hat," he wondered if that shouldn't also be the corporation's priority for them.

Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places-in India and Beyond

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird
June 2012

Anand Piramal and his team sought to "democratize healthcare" in India through the development of a new service delivery model. If Henry Ford could build and deliver cars to everyone in the United States, Piramal thought, then why can't India deliver healthcare to the 70% of its citizens who lack access to it? They began pilots in 2008 but soon ran into unexpected difficulties. After a second round of pilots in early 2010, they had to decide whether to proceed, and if so, how.

Sarvajal: Water for All

Macomber, John D., and Mona Sinha
June 2012

Entrepreneur wrestles with business model using SMS and RFID technology, franchising, and leasing to rapidly grow off-the-grid water purification business without subsidies. The company seeks to provide potable water services to rural and urban India where the public infrastructure does not exist. Past efforts have been stymied by rural operations problems including expensive technologies, challenging maintenance issues, cash management problems, lack of capital, and lack of a business model that makes sense for retail operators without subsidy. Using a franchising model that relies on seasoned local entrepreneurs, communication technology that monitors flows and quality, payment technology that takes cash out of the equation, and a "capital light" leasing model, the company hopes to create and share a new business model. If successful, the model can be copied by other social entrepreneurs with a market-based pricing scheme to provide other forms of infrastructure in emerging markets.

Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places-in India and Beyond

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird
June 2012

No abstract available

K&N's: Health and Happiness for Pakistan

Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary Shelman
May 2012

In 2011 Khalil and Adil Sattar are considering growth opportunities for K&N's, their family business that is the market leader for processed chicken and value-added chicken products in Pakistan. This position has been built through a strategy of vertical integration, product innovation, and branding. K&N's has also developed its own chain of retail "Chicken Stores" to promote its products. Growth opportunities include contained expansion in Pakistan, exporting to nearby markets, and/or developing a global halal food brand.

One South Technology Park: Investing in Emerging Markets (A) & (B)

Retsinas, Nicolas P., and Griffin H. James
May 2012

No abstract available

Monitor's Opportunities in India (A) & (B)

Alcacer, Juan
May 2012

No abstract available

Intel: Exploring Market Opportunities in Water

Eccles, Robert G., Amy C. Edmondson, George Serafeim, and Sarah E. Farrell
April 2012

Seeking to move beyond chip-making to offer sophisticated IT solutions in the form of software and hardware platforms, Intel Corporation, a leading semiconductor manufacturer in the United States, introduces a pilot project in India for testing a new platform that allows monitoring and demand management along water distribution networks. The case describes, in detail, internal events that led to the creation of this pilot. It examines details of the water market relevant in Intel's decision to move the pilot forward.

India 2012: The Challenges of Governance

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Richard H.K. Vietor
April 2012

In January 2012, the government of India faced significant challenges to achieving three key objectives of high growth, inclusive development, and improved governance. The economy was experiencing a growth slowdown, persistently high inflation, and infrastructure and energy deficits. Policy reforms were hampered by several recent corruption scandals, widespread citizen protests against corruption, and disagreements with coalition partners. Could India make the right decisions needed to lift hundreds of millions of citizens out of poverty?

Aadhaar: India's 'Unique Identification' System

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
March 2012

The case focuses on the execution challenges facing Nandan Nilekani, the chairman, and Ram Sevak Sharma, director general and mission director of the Unique Identification Authority of India. India had no nationally accepted way to prove identity and hence 42% of the population at the base of the pyramid had to resort to bribery to access entitlements, while a web of fake or multiple identities facilitated criminal diversion of government subsidies. UIDAI was tasked to deliver a unique identification number to every Indian resident. This involved the issue of a total of 1.2 billion unique IDs by 2020 and an interim goal of 600 million UIDs by 2014-the largest data management program in the world. The case deals with the challenge of implementing a towering vision, of executing on an epic technology project, and of changing minds on an unprecedented scale. It examines the forces that both facilitate and derail change. It also examines the leadership style and motivation of Nilekani and the transition in skills required to move from building a global organization to working within the Indian bureaucracy.

eHealthpoint: Healthcare for Rural India

Hamermesh, Richard G., Mona Sinha, and Elizabeth Vrolyk
March 2012

Healthpoint Services sought to address rural India's shortage of quality and affordable healthcare with a multi-service platform that comprised telemedical health clinics called eHealthpoints, clean drinking water, a diagnostic lab, and a pharmacy. Could they convince rural Indians to leapfrog from local healers to telemedicine? And could they convince investors that their capital intensive, bundled offering was a high-growth, self-sustaining venture? Healthpoint Services grappled with multiple challenges: changing mind-sets of patients and investors, generating traffic at their eHealthpoints, expanding their product portfolio, and growing within and outside India.

Career at a Crossroad: Akhil Patel

Wasserman, Noam, and Lisa Brem
March 2012

Nothing can bedevil a high-potential startup more than its "people problems." These problems typically result from choices that founders make as they add team members to their startup team. Three characteristics of startup teams must be aligned for these teams to function well: relationships, roles, and rewards (the Three Rs). Early decisions that founders make about the Three Rs can significantly affect their startup's direction and success. This note explores some of these choices and their long-term implications.

Career at a Crossroad: Roopa Rao

Wasserman, Noam, and Lisa Brem
March 2012

Akhil Patel is passionate about his business idea: an innovative green technology fuel cell. He wants to dive in and commit to his startup, but Roopa Rao, his fiancée, is much more risk averse, his parents don't approve of the startup, and Akhil has an enticing alternative offer from a prestigious consulting firm. Should Akhil follow his dream and become an entrepreneur? Or should he acquiesce to the other forces in his life and take the "safer" consulting job? This is a companion case to "Career at a Crossroad: Akhil Patel," HBS No. 812-010, giving Roopa Rao's point of view.

Career at a Crossroad: Packing Up

Wasserman, Noam, and Lisa Brem
March 2012

Akhil Patel is passionate about his business idea: an innovative green technology fuel cell. He wants to dive in and commit to his startup, but Roopa Rao, his fiancée, is much more risk averse, his parents don't approve of the startup, and Akhil has an enticing alternative offer from a prestigious consulting firm. Should Akhil follow his dream and become an entrepreneur? Or should he acquiesce to the other forces in his life and take the "safer" consulting job?

Abraaj Capital and the Karachi Electric Supply Company

Lerner, Josh, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, and Ann Leamon
March 2012

In 2008, the Dubai-based private equity group Abraaj Capital invested $360 million in Karachi Electric Supply Company, a troubled utility serving Pakistan's largest city. In 2010, the firm has made great strides in turning around the company, but the transition is not complete. In fact, completing the task involves significant work in rebuilding the social contract, in addition to correcting matters related to company management and electricity supply. Is this the direction for private equity in the future?

Fonterra

Bell, David E., Mary Shelman
March 2012

In 2011, Fonterra, the world's largest processor and exporter of dairy products, needed to reposition its business to take advantage of rising demand in emerging markets in Asia.

Fundamental Analysis in Emerging Markets: Autoweb Holdings and Tren Anuncio Ràpido

Cohen, Lauren, Christopher Malloy, and Tim Gray
March 2012

No abstract available

Samasource: Give Work, Not Aid

Gino, Francesca, and Bradely R. Staats
March 2012

No abstract available

Sustainable Tea at Unilever

Henderson, Rebecca, and Frederik Nellemann
March 2012

No abstract available

SKS and the AP Microfinance Crisis

Cole, Shawn, and Yannick Saleman
February 2012

SKS, India's leading microfinance firm, is challenged when politicians declaim microfinance as exploitation of the poor and severely restrict business practices.

Pakistan: Is Foreign Aid Helping or Hindering Development?

Musacchio, Aldo, Ada Chu, Shahnawaz Nawabi, Jonathan Schlefer, and Emil Staykov
February 2012

No abstract available.

Jain Irrigation Systems Limited: Inclusive Growth for India's Farmers

Goldberg, Ray A., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Matthew Preble
February 2012

Dr. Bhavarlal Jain and his son Anil Jain are engaged in a discussion about long-term planning for Jain Irrigation Systems Limited (JISL)-a company engaged in micro-irrigation, processed foods, and a range of other agronomical activities-with an emphasis on how the company will meet the challenges that the food system of the future presents: a changing climate, booming global population, the need for increased production of nutritious foods, and scarce land and water resources among many other challenges. Both Dr. and Anil Jain are trying to understand how they can take the success they have had in helping India's farmers boost production and productivity through JISL's micro-irrigation systems and continue to tailor their services to meet the needs of Indian farmers.

Sustainable Tea at Unilever

Henderson, Rebecca, and Frederik Nellemann
February 2012

Unilever's Lipton Tea had been successful with the first phase of its certification partnership with Rainforest Alliance. Now the company faced challenges in how to push forward with the transformation of more difficult parts of the supply chain and how to market sustainable tea in developing markets like India.

Branding Yoga

Deshpandé, Rohit, Kerry Herman, and Annelena Lobb
January 2012

Yoga, an ancient discipline, has become popular worldwide. The marketing of yoga and dispute over its origins have led to debate as to whether yoga should be branded at all. Some yoga instructors have gone so far as to copyright their varieties of yoga; others in the yoga community say it is a religious and/or spiritual practice and as such should not be claimed as intellectual property.

Oral Rehydration Therapy

Ashraf, Nava, and Claire Qureshi
January 2012

This case highlights the puzzlingly high rate of diarrhea-related child mortality in developing countries despite the existence of a simple, effective treatment: oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT treated extreme dehydration caused by diarrhea, which was a leading cause of death among young children in developing countries, particularly in Africa and Asia. Heralded in the 1970s as one of the most important medical advancements of the 20th century, ORT contributed to a reduction in diarrhea-related child deaths from roughly 4.5 million in 1980 to 1.5 million in 2000. Yet for reasons unclear to the global public health community, the mortality rate stalled at around 1.5 million, where it remained in 2010. In presenting the problem of diarrhea-related death, the solution represented by ORT, and the various factors potentially influencing ORT utilization, the case allows students to analyze the possible causes of low ORT utilization and potential measures to address them.

2011

Ganesh Natarajan: Leading Innovation and Organizational Change at Zensar (A)

Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron
December 2011

In 2005, Ganesh Natarajan, CEO of Zensar, a Pune, India-based software company, and his senior management team are considering consolidating staff and resources at the firms. Natarajan proposes an additional, possible controversial business unit to the proposed new structure. The additional unit would explore new markets for the firm's promising innovation-Solution BluePrint (SBP). While he knew that some on his team would resist his proposal, he was eager to get the new technology into the field and felt he had the right manager to lead the proposed group. Natarajan felt sure a group dedicated to SBP led by one of the firm's most respected technologists would help spur adoption.

Abraaj Capital

Lerner, Josh
December 2011

Abraaj Capital addresses issues of how to respond to the fast-growing Middle East market. Questions of scaling, institutionalization, and geographic scope are among those considered.

Hassina Sherjan

Eccles, Robert G., George Serafeim, and Pippa Eccles
October 2011

Hassina Sherjan was born in Afghanistan but grew up and was educated in the United States. A trip to Afghanistan when she was an adult inspired her to move back to her home country with two missions. The first was to educate young women through a non-profit organization she started called Aid Afghanistan for Education and a for-profit company, Boumi, that manufactures and distributes products for the home such as curtains, cushion covers, tea cozies, coasters, bedclothes, and bathroom accessories. The mission of Boumi is to create jobs in Afghanistan, especially for women, based on traditional Afghani designs and using only locally grown cotton. Sherjan wants to grow Boumi so that it can be a substantial, if not major, funding source for Aid Afghanistan for Education. In order to grow Boumi, Sherjan must confront a number of challenges including funding, finding and managing skilled workers, and getting distribution for Boumi products in major markets such as Europe and the United States.

Khosla Ventures: Biofuels Gain Liquidity

Lassiter, Joseph B., William A. Sahlman, Alison Berkley Wagonfeld, and Evan Richardson
October 2011

Samir Kaul, a partner at Khosla Ventures, looked out his office window. It was late June 2011, and like almost every day in Menlo Park, the sun was shining. Kaul was reflecting on what had been a very positive 10 months in the venture capital business. Over that span, he had helped three of his portfolio companies through IPOs and helped Khosla Ventures raise its third fund, bringing the total outside capital raised by the group to more than $2.1 billion.

Global Business School Network

Marquis, Christopher, and Rwitwika Bhattacharya
September 2011

The mission of the Global Business School Network (GBSN) is to strengthen business education for the developing world. The organization was transitioning out of its start-up phase and wants to shift its focus from capacity building activities driven by the organization to empowering the network to carry out GBSN's mission. The case asks, what is the best way to accomplish this objective?

Indian Railways: Building a Permanent Legacy (B)?

Musacchio, Aldo, Tarun Khanna, and Rachna Tahilyani
September 2011

Supplement to case 710-008

Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital: Cardiac Care for the Poor (B)

Khanna, Tarun, and Tanya Bijlani
September 2011

Narayana Hrudayalaya (NH) has expanded into a multi-specialty health city in Bangalore and has grown to twelve locations across India. The hospital plans to build 300-bed secondary-care hospitals in smaller cities across India, with a goal to operate 30,000 beds in seven years, which will make it comparable with the world's largest hospital chains. NH operates the world's largest tele-cardiology network, which provides consultations to people in 800 locations across the world, including 53 African countries. Management also plans to open a 2,000-bed hospital in the Cayman Islands to provide underinsured Americans with tertiary care procedures at 40% below U.S. prices, thereby bringing Dr. Shetty's model of compassionate care at affordable prices to the developed world.

MindTree: A Community of Communities

Garvin, David A.
August 2011

MindTree is a mid-sized Indian IT services company known for its knowledge management practices, its collaborative communities, and its strong culture and values. The CEO has set a goal of becoming a $1 billion company by 2014; to reach that goal, employees must create several new businesses. The head of knowledge management must decide how his function should change in order to become more supportive of innovation and new business development.

The Changing Face of Angel Investing

Sahlman, William A., and Evan Richardson
July 2011

Angel investors Ram Shriram, Mike Maples, Eric Paley, James Geshweiler, and Jim Southern discuss their investment philosophies and the changing landscape of angel investing. Questions include the following: How has angel investing changed in the last few years? How do you evaluate a prospective investment's attractiveness? How do you think about risk and reward in angel investing? Is it possible for angel funds to be too big?

Accounting for Catastrophes: BP PLC and Union Carbide Corporation (A)

Hawkins, David F.
August 2011

The IASB and FASB propose new contingency loss recognition, measurement, and disclosure rules.

Accenture's War for Talent in India

Eccles, Robert G. and Erin McFee
August 2011

No abstract available

Zensar: The Future of Vision Communities

Garvin, David A.
August 2011

Zensar is a rapidly growing, mid-sized Indian IT services company with a collaborative management philosophy and innovative HR policies. One of its practices, Vision Communities, is an inclusive forum for innovation and strategy formulation. As the company grows, managers must decide how to scale the Vision Community process so that it retains its spirit of employee involvement and engagement while encompassing a larger, more geographically dispersed group of participants.

Mistry Architects (A), (B), and (C)

Eccles, Robert G., and Penelope Rossano
August 2011

Describes an architecture firm founded and run by a husband and wife team, Sharukh and Renu Mistry, that emphasizes "green" building. The firm presents an unusual mix of projects - spanning the spectrum from larger corporate projects to small private homes. The mix also includes more profitable work and projects deliberately selected for social good, including the design of orphanage communities for SOS Childrens International and other non-profit organizations. The mix engages teams of young architects in different kinds of learning opportunities, and allows them to manage these projects with an unusually high level of independence. The firm's founders are dedicated to being both very client-oriented and environmentally responsible. This can lead to some difficult choices and the case illustrates one example. The firm has been commissioned by SOS to design homes for some villages destroyed in the December 24, 2004 tsunami. The preferred design is thatch roofs which is in keeping with the local environment. However, the villagers want a more functional (and more expensive) reinforced cement concrete roof. Sharukh must decide which of his principles is to dominate in this situation. A (B) case presents and explains the decision. A (C) case discusses future plans for the firm.

Kaweyan: Female Entrepreneurship and the Past and Future of Afghanistan

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon
June 2011

Explores the challenges of female entrepreneurship in Afghanistan through the case of Kemeli Sediqi who built a business under the Taliban and founded a consultancy in 2004. The case positions Sediqi's experiences against the background of Afghanistan's turbulent history, with a focus on the contested role of women in Afghani society.

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.: Driving Change through Internal Communication

Groysberg, Boris, and Michael Slind
June 2011

Hindustan Petroleum (HPCL), confronted in 2003 with an urgent need to change how it operated externally, adopted a highly innovative approach to communicating internally. This case, set in 2010, presents an overview of the new, more interactive model of employee communication that HPCL introduced as part of its effort to adapt to increased market competition during the early 21st century. (HPCL, previously a wholly state-owned company within a state-controlled industry, had begun to operate in an increasingly privatized environment.) At the center of the new model was a series of "vision workshops"-structured conversations in which employees at all levels of the company took part in developing strategic and organizational visions for their regional offices, for their business units, and for the company as a whole. The case also discusses HPCL's use of digital technology to enhance employee communication; its leaders' increased emphasis on direct, "one-to-one" interaction with employees; and some of the consequences (both external and internal) of this more conversational model of organizational communication. As of 2010, HPCL was a Fortune Global 500 company, with more than 11,000 employees and with annual revenues of more than $23 billion. The question that company leaders now faced was whether HPCL's novel approaches to communicating with employees were appropriate to its next stage of internal development and external growth.

Kumon India in 2007

Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Yoshinori Fujikawa
June 2011

Kumon is wondering how to expand its student base in India.

Cipla 2011

Deshpandé, Rohit, Sandra J. Sucher, and Laura Winig
June 2011

Dr. Yusuf Hamied, head of the Indian pharma and generics manufacturing company Cipla, is weighing options for how to continue to support the global fight against HIV/AIDS while positioning his company for growth in a changing regulatory landscape.

Dharavi: Developing Asia's Largest Slum (B)

Iyer, Lakshmi, and John D. Macomber
June 2011

In July 2009, as investors prepared to submit financial bids for the $3 billion Dharavi slum redevelopment project, considerable economic and political risks remained.

State Bank of India: Transforming a State Owned Giant

Lal, Rajiv, and Rachna Tahilyani
April 2011

February 2011: O.P. Bhatt reflected contentedly on his five-year term as chairman of State Bank of India (SBI), India's largest commercial bank. He had led SBI on a journey of transformation from an old, hierarchical, transaction oriented, government bank to a modern, customer focused, and technologically advanced universal bank. In 2006, when Bhatt assumed leadership, SBI had been losing market share for over two decades to private and foreign banks. Analysts and industry observers had predicted that at the prevailing growth rates ICICI Bank, a private bank launched in 1994, would overtake SBI in terms of deposits in four years. However, by 2010, SBI had more than doubled its profits, deposits and advances; regained market share and won the Asian Banker Achievement award for the strongest bank in the Asia Pacific region.

Hindustan Unilever's 'Pureit' Water Purifier

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Mona Srivastava
April 2011

The case asks students to formulate a strategy to respond to various competitive threats to its Pureit water purifier, launched in 2008, targeted at millions of low-income Indian consumers who did not have access to safe drinking water. The case describes in detail the product development and launch process that required HUL, the $3.5 billion Indian subsidiary, to innovate on many different fronts. It details competitive actions since the launch to set the stage for what the company should do next.

Hollywood in India: Protecting Intellectual Property (A)

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Namrata Arora
March 2011

In January 2010, Fox Star Studios is preparing to release the Bollywood film "My Name is Khan" in Indian and international markets. What strategies should the company adopt to protect their intellectual property? How much should the company invest in anti-piracy initiatives? Should releases be restricted only to more secure digital screens? Should the company be concerned about the frequent comparisons of the movie with Forrest Gump, in light of several recent cases of Hollywood studios suing Bollywood producers for plagiarism?

Hollywood in India: Protecting Intellectual Property (B)

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Namrata Arora
March 2011

Supplements the (A) case

Leadership in Corporate Reporting Policy at Tata Steel

Ramanna, Karthik
March 2011

The case describes the challenges faced by Tata Steel, India's largest private sector steel company, as it transitions from Indian GAAP to IFRS. It first describes those challenges in the context of the institutional voids that make IFRS adoption difficult in India. The case then focuses on how companies in emerging markets might represent their interests at the IASB, the standard setting body for IFRS.

Terror at the Taj Bombay: Customer-Centric Leadership

Deshpandé, Rohit, and Matthew Preble
March 2011

No abstract available.

Go Mobile: The Phirbol Franchise

Lal, Rajiv, and Natalie Kindred
February 2011

To grow Phirbol, a telecom retail franchise chain in Delhi, India's underdeveloped markets, its founders were exploring ways to offer more value to the franchisees. In mid-2009, the Phirbol franchise was comprised of some 150 franchisees that had converted their small "mom-and-pop" shops into Phirbol-branded stores. Entrepreneurs Meghna Modi and Glenn Wong had launched the franchise in 2007, two years after they founded Go Mobile, a company-owned mobile retail chain. While Go Mobile stores were located in higher-income neighborhoods and focused primarily on selling phone handsets, Phirbol stores could be found in less-developed areas-most were not accessible by car-and focused on selling service connections (SIM cards) and recharges. Phirbol added value to the franchisees by streamlining some of their business processes, offering them a consistent product supply, providing them sales support and incentives, as well as providing them with education on the constantly changing dynamics of India's mobile market. But as the founders looked towards expanding, they knew they would have to enhance their offering to franchisees in order to recruit some of the more established "mom-and-pop" stores they planned to target as franchisees. In addition, they would need to adjust their business model such that more responsibility was delegated to franchisees and staff. Looking forward, what should Modi and Wong do to ensure Phirbol's success?

The Global Sight Network Initiative

Herzlinger, Regina E
January 2011

How to replicate a 'one of' social entrepreneurship effort: To cure blindness, Seva took the Aravind Eye Hospital and scaled it up to 100 hospitals globally.

2010

Farmland Investing: A Technical Note

Goldberg, Ray A., Arthur I Segel, Gustavo A. Herrero, and Andrew Terris
December 2010

This note seeks to provide an overview of farmland investing, the investment thesis behind investing in agriculture, how and why investors would choose farmland, and the general risks and return characteristics of this asset class. In recent years, a growing number of individual and institutional investors have allocated a portion of their capital into agricultural farmland. Private investors, public companies, and sovereign wealth funds are now all currently purchasing and selling large amounts of farmland for profit.

YES BANK: Mainstreaming Development into Indian Banking

Chu, Michael, and Namrata Arora
December 2010

YES BANK, founded in 2003 and highly successful, has consistently been profitable meeting the Indian government's Priority Sector Lending (PSL) requirements, unlike virtually all other private sector banks, which view PSL activity as a necessary but loss-making part of their portfolio. To do this, YES BANK created a distinct Development Banking practice, under the purview of the Corporate Finance division. But now, the Development Banking team is contemplating going to the board to take the concept one step further: pro-actively investing in PSL-qualifying activities not as a matter of regulatory compliance but as business. Should the bank devote significant financial and human resources into an ambitious Financial Inclusion Program to serve previously unbanked rural populations through a rapid expansion of its branch network and the use of nonbank business correspondents? In addition, should the bank commit part of its scarce capital to Tatva Capital, a private equity venture focused on renewable energy, clean technology, waste management, water and sanitation, food and agribusiness, affordable housing, healthcare, and education and livelihood creation? Is the board ready to incorporate development banking into the mainstream of the bank, or will this turn out to be a major error in judgment?

Taj Hotels, Resorts and Palaces

Deshpandé, Rohit, and Mona Srivastava
November 2010

The Taj Hotels, Palaces, and Resorts introduced a new brand architecture to counter lack of differentiation and confused positioning of its mixed bag of brands. After launching an economy and an upscale brand, it dithered over the launch of its upper upscale and luxury brands. The case illustrates the marketing and organizational challenges of a hybrid brand extension strategy that lies in between a "house of brands" and a "branded house."

Grameen Danone Foods Ltd., a Social Business

Rangan, V. Kasturi and Katharine Lee
November 2010

Grameen Danone is a joint venture between the Grameen Group (a sister company of Grameen Bank) and Groupe Danone, a $2 billion (revenues) French food company. The company's goal was to provide nutritional yogurt (brand name Shoktidoi) for the nearly 50 million Bangladeshi children using an innovative social business model. The case describes the progress as of 2008 and poses questions regarding how the company might achieve sustainability.

Roshan: Light at the End of the Tunnel in Afghanistan

Leonard, Herman B., and Qahir Dhanani
October 2010

Roshan is a highly successful telecommunications company founded by the Aga Khan fund for economic development in Afghanistan during an ongoing civil conflict. Company leaders must now decide financial and market strategy for the next phase of development of the company. Should they sell the company-and reinvest the proceeds in another socially oriented venture? Continue to operate and expand the company? Expand to other neighboring countries?

Leadership in Corporate Reporting Policy at Tata Steel

Ramanna, Karthik, and Rachna Tahilyani
October 2010

The case describes the challenges faced by Tata Steel, India's largest private sector steel company, as it transitions from Indian GAAP to IFRS. It first describes those challenges in the context of the institutional voids that make IFRS adoption difficult in India. The case then focuses on how companies in emerging markets might represent their interests at the IASB, the standard setting body for IFRS.

Emerging Nokia?

Alcacer, Juan, Tarun Khanna, Mary Furey, Rakeen Mabud
September 2010

By late 2009, Nokia was grappling with the decision of whether to recover its leading position in the high-profit developed markets, where they were losing market share to the likes of Apple and Samsung, or defend its market leadership in the low-margin, high-volume emerging markets. This case poses the following questions: Should Nokia stay the course, operating in both the developed and emerging markets, or should they forego one for the other? And what would this imply for the types of handsets and services they would need to offer?

Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (B)

Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron
September 2010

Supplements the (A) case

MindTree: A Community of Communities

Garvin, David A., Rachna Tahilyani
September 2010

MindTree is a mid-sized Indian IT services company known for its knowledge management practices, its collaborative communities, and its strong culture and values. The CEO has set a goal of becoming a $1 billion company by 2014; to reach that goal, employees must create several new businesses. The head of knowledge management must decide how his function should change in order to become more supportive of innovation and new business development.

Zensar: The Future of Vision Communities (A)

Garvin, David A., and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2010

Zensar is a rapidly growing, mid-sized Indian IT services company with a collaborative management philosophy and innovative HR policies. One of its practices, Vision Communities, is an inclusive forum for innovation and strategy formulation. As the company grows, managers must decide how to scale the Vision Community process so that it retains its spirit of employee involvement and engagement while encompassing a larger, more geographically dispersed group of participants.

Zensar: The Future of Vision Communities (B)

Garvin, David A., and Rachna Tahilyani
August 2010

Zensar is a rapidly growing, mid-sized Indian IT services company with a collaborative management philosophy and innovative HR policies. One of its practices, Vision Communities, is an inclusive forum for innovation and strategy formulation. As the company grows, managers must decide how to scale the Vision Community process so that it retains its spirit of employee involvement and engagement while encompassing a larger, more geographically dispersed group of participants.

Equitas Microfinance: The Fastest Growing MFI on the Planet

Narayanan, V.G., and V. Kasturi Rangan
August 2010

Founded as a for-profit microfinance company, Equitas had acquired nearly a million clients in the short two years since it was founded. The founder, Vasu, and his management team wished to accelerate the already impressive spurt to three million clients in the next two years. The case describes the company's business model, which attempts to integrate microfinance with social development, and provides students with the opportunity to discuss the scaling options and challenges facing the founder.

Looking for Opportunity in Adversity: Iqbal Quadir and Grameenphone (A)

Chakravorti, Bhaskar, and David Lane
July 2010

Iqbal Quadir, a former New York investment banker, set about to bring universal telecommunications to his native Bangladesh. He was convinced that GSM, the same advanced wireless technology that penetrated developed countries in Europe, was also the right solution for Bangladesh. He assembled a critical group of partners in a venture, GrameenPhone, which included Scandinavian telecom operators; Grameen Bank, the microfinance pioneer; Bangladesh Railways; as well as a Japanese investment firm. Each partner brought a different capability to the venture, but the coalition was fundamentally unstable. Quadir was facing roadblocks no matter which way he turned in his quest to assemble the venture. He came to a point where the rational decision seemed to be to abandon the venture and return to his secure investment banking job. This case highlights the role of bottlenecks and constraints in sparking innovations in business models by the creative entrepreneur.

Looking for Opportunity in Adversity: Iqbal Quadir and Grameenphone (B)

Chakravorti, Bhaskar, and David Lane
July 2010

Supplements the (A) case.

An Overview of Project Finance and Infrastructure Finance-2009 Update

Esty, Benjamin C., and Aldo Sesia Jr.
July 2010

Provides an introduction to the fields of project finance and infrastructure finance and gives a statistical overview of project-financed investments over the years from 2005 to 2009. Examples of project-financed investments include the $1.4 billion Mozal aluminum smelter in Mozambique, $4 billion Chad-Cameroon pipeline, $6 billion Iridium global satellite telecommunications system, $900 million A2 Toll Road in Poland, $20 billion Sakhalin II gas field in Russia, and the $28 billion Dabhol power project. Globally, firms financed $240 billion of capital expenditures using project finance in 2009, down from $409 billion in 2008 as the financial crisis hit the Western markets. The use of project finance has grown at a compound rate of 0% over the last five years, 4% over the past 10 years, and 12% over the past 15 years. This note focuses primarily on private sector investment in industrial and infrastructure projects and contains four sections. The first section defines project finance and contrasts it with other well-known financing mechanisms. The second section describes the evolution of project finance from its beginnings in the natural resources industry in the 1970s, to the U.S. power industry in the 1980s, to a much wider range of industry applications and geographic locations in the 1990s, and most recently to infrastructure finance in the 2000s. The third section provides a statistical overview of project-financed investment over the last five years (2005 to 2009) and looks at industry, project, and participant specific data. The third section also provides recent data on infrastructure investments and public-private partnerships. The final section discusses current and likely future trends.

Pratham-Every Child in School and Learning Well

Datar, Srikant M, Stacey Childress, Rachna Tahilyani, and Anjali Raina
July 2010

The case focuses on how Pratham, a non-governmental organization, provided quality education to underprivileged children in India by collaborating with the government. It focuses on the problem Madhav Chavan, the founder, is trying to solve, the contributing factors that have caused this problem to remain unsolved until now, Madhav's theory of change, questions about whether these activities (inputs) will affect the outputs and have an impact, what will it take and how will we know if Pratham is successful, and recommendations about what Madhav should do next.

IDFC India: Infrastructure Investment Intermediaries

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
July 2010

Indian financial intermediary matching international capital to local infrastructure decides how to balance range of services, risk-adjusted return, margin pressure, and nation building. IDFC was chartered with partial ownership from the Indian government to help evaluate policy and be a model for how private finance could be attracted to public infrastructure. As the nation and company grow, the firm also grows and embarks on a strategy of rapid expansion, offering a wide new range of financial products and participating in many aspects of the supply chain. Teaching questions include revisiting the original mission, contemplating the reduced margins and increased risks that come with entering a number of domains that already have established incumbents, and the trade-offs between maximizing shareholder return (for example through investments in full tariff power projects in rich cities) and maximizing the benefit to the nation (for example through subsidized tariff water projects in poor states).

Tata Nano-The People's Car

Palepu, Krishna G., Bharat N. Anand, and Rachna Tahilyani
June 2010

The case explores how Tata Motors, India's largest automobile company, developed the Nano, the world's cheapest car. The case focuses on the translation of Ratan Tata's (chairman of Tata Motors) vision of a safe affordable car for the masses by Ravi Kant, managing director of Tata Motors into the Nano Project. The case raises questions around breaking the price-quality barrier and changing existing internal processes to accommodate revolutionary new ideas. The dilemma of success-Tata Nano was a runaway bestseller-left Tata Motors debating how large a bet they should make on the Nano and what kind of capacity commitment this requires.

TeamLease: Putting India to Work (Il) Legally

Khanna, Tarun, and Anjali Raina
June 2010

This case focuses on the growth dilemmas facing Manish Sabharwal, co-founder, TeamLease Services Pvt. Ltd. TeamLease is a human resource outsourcing and temp staffing company located in India, which has grown rapidly from 2002 to 2009. Set in the context of the highly regulated Indian labour market, the case raises the questions of how entrepreneurial leadership and strategy formulation can leverage the opportunities represented by the gaps between what the law says and what the market needs. It provides an opportunity to examine the concepts of power and influence and how they can be created and wielded to catalyze change and build a new industry that is technically illegal.

Bardhaman (A): Shrachi and the West Bengal Housing Board

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
June 2010

A real estate developer decides whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal to develop a township on farmland. The decisions include whether to expand operations from the company's base in Kolkata to Bardhaman, 100 km away; whether to subdivide and sell raw land lots or follow the developer's vision and build a planned township; whether to enter into a public-private partnership with the government of West Bengal, led by the Left Front and the Communist Party of India as equity partners; or whether to also accept a private equity firm into the project, what to build, and in what sequence.

Bardhaman (B): Bengal Shrachi and the Township Design Decision

Macomber, John D., and Viraal Balsari
June 2010

A real estate developer in West Bengal chooses between two master plans for a 260-acre new township considering design, financing, and phasing. Two detailed master plans are considered, one with a radial design and an internal town square and one with a grid design and internal focus on parks and water features. The designs have different revenue potential, different cost implications, and different phasing decisions. The analysis includes soft issues and aesthetic issues such as what contributes to the feel of a place and what contributes to various land uses supporting each other (retail, residential, office). The analysis also includes a detailed proforma for each plan. This case builds on "Bardhaman (A): Shrachi and the West Bengal Housing Board."

Mirae Asset: Korea's Mutual Fund Pioneer

Khaire, Mukti, Michael Shih-Ta Chen, and G.A. Donovan
June 2010

Park Hyeon-Joo, the founder and chairman of Korea's earliest and largest mutual fund company, plans to expand internationally. After first offering emerging market funds to its Korean customers, the company then began selling local-currency funds in India and Brazil. Now Hyeon-Joo has to decide his next steps. Should he build on his emerging market expertise and focus his business expansion in developing countries? If so, where should he concentrate his efforts-India, Brazil, China, or other countries? Or should he instead focus on expanding into developed markets through operations in New York and London?

India: The Road to Inclusive Growth

Iyer, Lakshmi, and Jonathan Schlefer
June 2010

In 2010, India faced the challenge of achieving the twin goals of double-digit GOP growth and inclusive development. Would the Congress party, which won a strong electoral mandate in 2009, be able to achieve these goals in a context of rising internal conflict, fiscal constraints, regional instability, and a global economic slowdown?

Nestlé's Milk Districts: Case Supplement

Goldberg, Ray A., and Kerry Herman
May 2010

Nestlé, as the largest milk company in the world, has a history of economic development, nutrition, health, and food safety in all the major countries of the world. Each milk model is tailor-made to the needs of each country's political, social, and economic priorities. Supplements the case "Nestlé's Milk District Model: Economic Development for a Value-Added Food Chain and Improved Nutrition."

Indus Towers: Collaborating with Competitors on Infrastructure

Gulati, Ranjay, Francisco de Asís Martínez-Jerez, V.G. Narayanan, and Rachna Tahilyani
April 2010

The case describes the formation of Indus Towers, the largest telecom tower company in the world that has a joint venture created to build and manage the passive infrastructure of wireless telecom operators by bringing together three competitors in India's tough telecom market-Bharti AirteI, Vodafone Essar, and Idea Cellular-and merging their tower holdings. It focuses on the issue as to how do you collaborate with your competitors in setting up towers but engage in a brutal competition with them in the marketplace?

The Dabbawala System: On-Time Delivery, Every Time

Thomke, Stefan, and Mona Srivastava
March 2010

Describes the Mumbai-based Dabbawala organization, which achieves very high service performance (6 Sigma equivalent or better) with a low-cost and very simple operating system. The case explores all aspects of their system (mission, information management, material flows, human resource system, processes, etc.) and the challenges that the Dabbawala organization faces in a rapidly changing environment. An outside consultant proposes the introduction of new technologies and management systems, while the leading logistics companies (e.g., FedEx) come to Mumbai to learn about the Dabbawala system.

Hindustan Unilever Limited

DeLong, Thomas J., and Mona Srivastava
February 2010

This case illustrates Hindustan Unilever Limited's conflict resolution and people development policies using a "leading from the middle" example. The story centers on the challenges faced by an HR manager at a factory who must meet organizational objectives while handling multiple trade unions that are resisting change as well as having conflicts amongst themselves.

Gilead Sciences Inc.: Access Program

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Katharine Lee
February 2010

Gilead Sciences, the U.S. leader in HIV/AIDS medicines, with global sales of $5.4 billion in 2009, had undertaken several innovative actions to make its anti-viral products available to over 100 low- and middle-income countries. Having reached nearly 680,000 patients by the middle of 2009, the company's senior managers contemplated how to reach 2 million patients by 2012.

SEWA Trade Facilitation Center: Changing the Spool

Khaire, Mukti , and Kathleen L. McGinn
February 2010

The case is about the decision to convert a not-for-profit organization into a for-profit company. SEWA Trade Facilitation Center (STFC), which is part of a larger non-profit organization-the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA)-works to improve the livelihoods of very poor rural and urban women in India. It does so by translating traditional Indian embroidery skills into contemporary apparel and home furnishings that STFC then helps to market and sell around the world. Organized as a producers' cooperative, STFC is owned by its artisan members. STFC is thinking of changing to for-profit status because it would enable faster and more sustainable growth by providing access to outside funds and also allow the payment of dividends, which would further improve the women's livelihoods. The legal and financial implications of such a move aside, it is not clear that STFC would be able to withstand the changes such a transformation would entail. Most importantly, would an organization accustomed to taking decisions based solely on social benefit criteria be able to adjust to a for-profit mentality? And, would customers accept the change?

Fortis Healthcare (B)

Herzlinger, Regina E., and Pushwaz Virk
February 2010

Supplements the (A) case

2009

One South: Investing in Emerging Markets (A)

Retsinas, Nicolas P., and Justin Ginsburgh
November 2009

A United States private equity fund, The Saboput Group, must decide whether to invest in a new technology park development in Chennai, India. The case provides the reader with a detailed investment memorandum from the local Indian operating partner, and the reader must review the memo and financial model to make an investment recommendation to Saboput's investment committee.

One South: Investing in Emerging Markets (B)

Retsinas, Nicolas P., and Justin Ginsburgh
November 2009

A United States private equity fund, The Saboput Group, must decide whether to invest in a new technology park development in Chennai, India. The case provides the reader with a detailed investment memorandum from the local Indian operating partner, and the reader must review the memo and financial model to make an investment recommendation to Saboput's investment committee.

Intellectual Ventures

Hagiu, Andrei, David B. Yoffie, and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld.
November 2009

Intellectual Ventures (IV) creates and acquires intellectual property (IP), which it then seeks to monetize through non-exclusive licensing. In early 2009, as an increasing number of companies were trying to position themselves as leading intermediaries in the market for intellectual property, IV was looking for the best business model to become such a leading intermediary. Its model was predicated on making it easy for small inventors to monetize their inventions and IP (by selling it to IV) and then using its scale and aggregate IP portfolio to extract revenues from potential licensees (usually technology companies).

Kim Park (A): Long-lived Nonmonetary Assets

Hawkins, David F.
November 2009

A series of caselets exploring the accounting for long-lived nonmonetary assets.

Indian Railways: Building a Permanent Legacy?

Musacchio, Aldo, Tarun Khanna, and Rachna Tahilyani
October 2009

No abstract availabe

Western Union: Our World, Our Family®

Marquis, Christopher
October 2009

In 2006, Western Union spun-off from its former parent, First Data Corporation, and began the process of defining itself as a stand-alone organization. Part of that effort was the creation of a strategic corporate social responsibility program called Our World, Our Family. The case tracks Western Union's earlier CSR initiatives and how they resulted in the creation Our World, Our Family. Key elements of the case focus on understanding the Western Union business model focused on financial remittances, and how its corporate citizenship efforts bring value to the company by satisfying the diverse needs of Western Union's stakeholders.

Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird
October 2009

Since the 1980s, Procter & Gamble had leveraged its purpose, values, and principles (PVP) to create a global company. When P&G faced difficult times in 2000, the new CEO, A.G. Lafley, leveraged the PVP to drive P&G's turnaround, integrate global operations, and guide decision making in all facets of the business. But the Gillette acquisition posed a new challenge.

Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (C): Integrating Gillette

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird
October 2009

P&G had used its purpose, values, and principles (PVP) to prepare for the physical integration of Gillette prior to the change of control. The execution of these plans posed numerous challenges in global business units as well as in individual country organizations. While managers sought to maintain business momentum during the transition, corporate leaders were intent on continuing to use Gillette as a catalyst of change.

Dharavi: Developing Asia's Largest Slum

Iyer, Lakshmi, John D. Macomber, and Namrata Arora
August 2009

Maharashtra state is accepting bids to redevelop Dharavi, the largest slum in Asia. A real estate developer assesses the risks and tenders a bid. The bid conditions include providing new free housing to tens of thousands of slum dwellers, which is anticipated to be paid for from the revenues from developing and selling market-rate housing. While the primary concerns are cost of construction, cost of capital, and revenues from sale of units, the analysis must consider many aspects of risk including political risk, foreign exchange risk, market risk, and execution risk. Further, the discussion covers social aspects including whether the slum should be redeveloped at all, whether it should be redeveloped by government or by the private sector, and whether to accomplish it in large chunks or in smaller increments. Additional topics that can be covered include consideration of what happens to commercial activities formerly run from slum dwellings, whether the market-rate units will indeed sell for high prices if there are tens of thousands of former slum dwellers housed nearby, and whether the slum dwellers will be allowed to resell their units or whether they must remain in them. Other issues include timing of the project, guarantees to and from the government and the private parties to mitigate risk, and whether this model, if successful, can be extended to other slums in Asia.

India: Democracy and Development

Vietor, Richard H.K., and Nicole Forrest
July 2009

India has experienced accelerated economic growth since adopting an outward-oriented market strategy. The services sector has largely driven GOP while manufacturing has expanded and foreign direct investment has become robust. Now, the country faces both internal and external challenges on the path to prosperity: a shift in political party dynamics, terrorist attacks, rising infrastructure and energy demands, and a global financial crisis. How can the nation's leaders implement economic reforms to ensure continued development?

Generation Investment Management

Sucher, Sandra, J., Daniela Beyersdorfer, and Ane Damgaard Jensen
May 2009

Examines the investment process of Generation Investment Management, a "sustainable" investing firm established in 2004 by David Blood and U.S. Vice President Al Gore. Places students in the position of David Lowish, director of global industrials, who must decide whether to recommend an investment in ABB India. The decision pits economic development-supplying energy to impoverished rural areas in India, against environmental damage-caused by the use of coal-fired power plants.

Brummer and the bracNet Investment

Ebrahim, Alnoor, Michael Pirson, and Patricia Mangas
May 2009

bracNet, a for-profit/nonprofit partnership, aims to establish Internet connectivity throughout Bangladesh. Venture capitalist Patrik Brummer invested in a first round of funding to connect major cities. Should he invest again, this time in a rural roll-out, which may have lower financial returns but greater social returns?

Sanctuary Soft, Inc.

Groysberg, Boris, Geoff Eckman Marietta, Tim Marshal, and Adam Hartley
May 2009

A U.S.-based security software company considers its options to expand. Different labor-market and labor-law situations are analyzed for the U.S., U.K., Germany, China, and India.

Arcadia Biosciences: Seeds of Change

Daemmrich, Arthur A., Forest Reinhardt, Mary Shelman
May 2009

Arcadia Biosciences is an entrepreneurial California agricultural biotech company seeking to earn carbon credits by modifying commodity crops for use in China and India. Eric Rey, Arcadia's CEO, faced a strategic inflection point in early September 2008. The company had a plan to share carbon credits allocated by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board to China, for use of Arcadia's rice varieties, since they enabled farmers to reduce nitrogen fertilizer use, in turn lowering greenhouse gas emissions. But the company's proprietary traits for nitrogen use efficiency, salt tolerance, and water use efficiency also had more conventional paths to market based on licensing deals to large seed companies. Alternatively, Arcadia could acquire a seed company and develop and market its seed directly. A different near-term growth area involved commercializing enriched safflower oil, which had undergone several proof-of-concept tests and for which Rey foresaw a clear market in nutritional supplements and functional foods. The case provides context on the company; describes advances in crops genetics focused to climate change and associated resource issues of fertilizer use, water use, and soil salinity; and poses strategic choices for a start-up company operating at the intersection of business, agriculture, and climate change.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

Describes an architecture firm founded and run by a husband and wife team, Sharukh and Renu Mistry, that emphasizes "green" building. The firm presents an unusual mix of projects-spanning the spectrum from larger corporate projects to small private homes. The mix also includes more profitable work and projects deliberately selected for social good, including the design of orphanage communities for SOS Children's International and other nonprofit organizations. The mix engages teams of young architects in different kinds of learning opportunities and allows them to manage these projects with an unusually high level of independence. The firm's founders are dedicated to being both very client-oriented and environmentally responsible. This can lead to some difficult choices and the case illustrates one example. The firm has been commissioned by SOS to design homes for some villages destroyed in the December 24, 2004 tsunami. The preferred design is thatch roofs which is in keeping with the local environment. However, the villagers want a more functional (and more expensive) reinforced cement concrete roof. Sharukh must decide which of his principles is to dominate in this situation.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (B)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

This case is a follow-up of Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A) (Case 609-044). In Case (A) Sharukh and Renu Mistry found and run an architectural firm dedicated to being both client-oriented and environmentally responsible. The case uses a difficult design decision in a tsunami rehabilitation project to illustrate the challenges faced by professional services firms, and the role of innovation in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders. The specific design decision is to make a choice between thatch roofs which are environmentally friendly, versus reinforced cement concrete roofs that the villagers desire for its functionality. Case (B) reveals and explains the firm's choice, while describing how the community rebuilds itself after the tsunami, as well as how the firms evolves. A (C) case discusses the future plans of the firm including growth and succession issues.

Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability(C)

Edmondson, Amy C., Robert G. Eccles, Mona Srivastava
April 2009

This case is a follow-up to "Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A)" (Case 609-044) and (B) (Case 609-086). In Case (A) Sharukh and Renu Mistry founded and run an architectural firm dedicated to being both client-oriented and environmentally responsible. The case uses a difficult design decision in a tsunami rehabilitation project to illustrate the challenges faced by professional services firms and the role of innovation in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders. The specific design decision is to make a choice between thatch roofs, which are environmentally friendly, versus reinforced cement concrete roofs that the villagers desire for their functionality. Case (B) reveals and explains the firm's choice, while describing how the community rebuilds itself after the tsunami, as well as how the firm evolves. The (C) case discusses the future plans of the firm including growth and succession issues.

South Pole Carbon Asset Management-Going for Gold?

Reinhardt, Forest, L., Jost Hamschmidt, Mikell Hyman
April 2009

In late 2008, Christoph Sutter, CEO of South Pole Carbon Asset Management, reflects on his firm's early success at originating carbon credits in developing nations and selling them to governments and firms that seek to offset their greenhouse gas emissions voluntarily or to fulfill regulatory obligations. South Pole's early strategy has focused on being a first mover in the niche market for premium quality carbon credits. But as the market evolves in the face of significant policy uncertainty, Sutter wonders what South Pole's strategy should be for the future. This case study can facilitate discussions about environmental markets, about opportunities for entrepreneurship raised by new environmental regulations, and about challenges in markets for tradable pollution permits.

Special Economic Zones in India: Public Purpose and Private Property (A)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer
April 2009

In 2005, the government of India enacted the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Act in order to attract investment, generate export revenues, and create manufacturing jobs. However, several planned projects faced difficulties in acquiring land for setting up the SEZ. In December 2007, the government introduced a new piece of legislation, which proposed to extend the power of eminent domain to allow the government to acquire land for SEZs. Was this the right response to the land acquisition problems of private firms? Was the SEZ strategy the right one for India's economic growth?

Tata Motors in Singur: Public Purpose and Private Property (B)

Alfaro, Laura, Lakshmi Iyer, and Namrata Arora
March 2009

In October 2008, Tata Motors canceled their car manufacturing plant in West Bengal state, in the face of widespread farmer protests over land acquisition issues. This meant abandoning a project in which the company had invested $300 million and delaying the launch of the Nano, the world's cheapest car. What strategy could Tata have pursued to avoid this outcome? Would similar problems arise in Gujarat state, where the project had been relocated?

Paresh Patel: Building a Life in the Context of Global Business-October 2007

Stevenson, Howard H., and Shirley Spence
March 2009

This case tells the story of Paresh Patel, born in Boston to an Indian immigrant family, as he develops an entrepreneurial career, participates in the Indian diaspora, and builds a family life. It provides background on Paresh's heritage, describes his youth and education (including HBS), his learning experience as the manager of a large family fund, his decision to launch a hedge fund in India, and the first years of the venture. It also profiles Nirva Patel and describes how they met, married, and managed the transition to a new life in Mumbai, including the impact on her career and personal aspirations. The case issue, set in October 2007, is whether to have their first child in Mumbai, or return to the U.S. for the delivery.

Accenture's War for Talent in India

Eccles, Robert G., David Lane, Namrata Arora, and Prabakar "PK" Kothandaraman
February 2009

No abstract available

Hema Hattangady and Conzerv

Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron
January 2009

This case describes the evolution of a fast-growing Indian energy firm. It illustrates both leadership change as Hema is evolving as a leader, as well as how organization architecture (culture, systems, incentives, and human resources) is evolving. The case highlights a set of decisions Hema makes to build the firm.

Clutch Group: Should Abhi Shah Grab This Opportunity?

Isenberg, Daniel J.
January 2009

Abhi Shah ('06), co-founding CEO of Clutch Group in the U.S. and Bangalore, must decide whether to risk a law suit by recruiting an entire legal services team from a large U.S. corporation. His decision and how he implements it will have a dramatic impact on the legal process outsourcing startup.

The Suzlon Edge

Vietor, Richard H.K., and Juliana Seminerio
January 2009

With prices of oil, coal and gas at historically high levels, the wind industry had installed more than 20,000 MW of wind energy, representing a $37 billion investment in 2007. Besides high prices, wind energy represented a solution for consumers seeking an energy source that would not add to the problems associated with global climate change. Suzlon Energy Limited (Suzlon), India's largest manufacturer of wind turbines, had evolved from a small family-run business into a global enterprise spanning four continents in just over a decade. But would the costs associated with the aggressive growth policy be too much for a young company to handle?

Note on Medical Travel

Herzlinger, Regina E., and Sara Green
January 2009

Background notes for MedVal and Fortis case studies.

Cola Wars: Going Global

Cespedes, Frank V
January 2009

This case is meant to be used in conjunction with the extant "Cola Wars" case studies. It outlines the global positions of Pepsi and Coca-Cola as of 2008 in the soft drink market, and then provides an overview of their competitive situations in three markets: Mexico, China, and India. The case raises the issue of whether any or all of these markets are a) structurally attractive for soft drink firms, and b) if so, how can Pepsi best "catch-up" with Coca-Cola in a given market.

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2008

Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility

Marquis, Chris, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Alison Comings
December 2008

Having bought Shaklee Corporation from Yamanouchi, Roger Barnett, its owner and CEO, wrestled with the question of how to grow the company and its reputation for environmental sustainability. In addition to preserving the "network marketing" nature of its sales channel (because it creates jobs and entrepreneurs), Barnett wished to take the business model to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

Infosys' Relationship Scorecard: Measuring Transformational Partnerships

Martínez-Jerez, Francisco de Asís, Robert S. Kaplan, and Katherine Miller
November 2008

This case analyzes Infosys' innovative approach to measuring performance in client relations. Infosys' strategy is evolving to build transformational partnerships from its original position as an outsourcer of end-to-end IT projects. A transformational partner helps clients to devise and implement strategies that will allow them to achieve a competitive advantage. The traditional paradigm of service-level agreements (SLAs), while sufficient for Infosys' needs early on, is not able to achieve the level of understanding that transformational partnerships require. Infosys applies the principles of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to produce a feedback mechanism that allows the partnership to grow to the benefit of both parties.

TCS: The MCA 21 Project

Upton, David M., and Bradley R. Staats
October 2008

Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), a leading outsourced software services provider based in India, must decide whether to bid on a high-profile government project within India. The project, if completed successfully, would mark another step in TCS's progression from a provider of low-cost technical resources to their goal of becoming an end-to-end technology-enabled services provider. However, the project was not only complex but also presented considerable hazards to the firm. The case permits the exploration of how and when companies in developing countries can leverage their domestic markets to build capabilities to serve global customers, by using their home market as a base for learning. The case is also designed to examine strategies (more generally) for such organizations to climb the value chain and access higher-margin businesses with powerful incumbents.

Ujjivan: A Microfinance Institution at a Crossroads (A)

Narayanan, V.G., and Pamela Freed
October 2008

Samit Ghosh, the CEO and founder of Ujjivan, a major microfinance provider in Bangalore, wants to grow his business rapidly and become financially sustainable, but he's struggling with staff fraud, high costs, and how to stay true to Ujjivan's mission of poverty alleviation, while simultaneously reaching out to higher-income customers. The case explores how Ujjivan can grow, looking at such issues as new technology, diversifying product offerings, and how to hire the best staff.

Ujjivan: A Microfinance Institution at a Crossroads (B)

Narayanan, V.G., and Pamela Freed
October 2008

Case (B) of "Ujjivan: A Microfinance Institution at a Crossroads" addresses some of the actions Ujjivan, a microfinance provider in Bangalore, has taken with regard to issues raised in the (A) case, particularly regarding fraud and establishing financial sustainability. For example, the CEO of Ujjivan, Samit Ghosh, decides to strengthen the Audit Team and implements new loan products.

Greg James at Sun Microsystems, Inc.: Managing a Global Team

Beyene, Tsedal, Thomas J. DeLong, and Alison Comings
September 2008

Greg James, a global manager at Sun Microsystems, Inc., sets out to meet with his entire 43-member customer implementation team spread across India, France, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America to resolve a dire customer system outage as required by a service agreement. Rather than finding a swift resolution to the rapidly escalating customer situation that motivated his trip, he finds himself facing distributed work, global collaboration, conflict, and management issues that are threatening to unravel his team.

Cognizant Technology Solutions

Eccles, Robert G., David Lane, and Prabakar PK Kothandaraman
August 2008

In the highly competitive information technology outsourcing industry, Cognizant Technology Solutions has developed a strategy to differentiate itself by emphasizing building very close client relationships through its "Two-in-a-box" (TIB) model. This model is based on having two people share complete responsibility for the client. In the U.S. or Europe, the "on site" person, along with his or her relationship management team, is responsible for understanding the client's needs, obtaining projects and properly scoping out the work. The "offshore" person in India or elsewhere, along with his or her delivery team, is responsible for completing the project in a high-quality and timely way. The same top- and bottom-line metrics are used to evaluate the performance of both the on-site and offshore managers. This strategy (as opposed to ones based on things like low cost and innovation used by Cognizant's competitors) is intended to build deep and strong client relationships that will maximize Cognizant's "share of wallet." One interesting aspect of TIB is Cognizant Business Consulting, a 1,700-person group which advises clients in the context of helping them develop IT solutions for their business challenges. More recently, and as the next evolution of the TIB model, Cognizant is developing what it calls "Cognizant 2.0" or C2. C2 is a delivery platform based on Web 2.0 technology that enables Cognizant to subdivide work into tasks that can be allocated wherever in the world the best resources within Cognizant exist based on cost, expertise and availability while at the same time maintaining collaboration and integration to ensure timely and high-quality delivery.

Punjab and Kerala: Regional Development in India

Iyer, Lakshmi
July 2008

Between 2000 and 2004, India's economy grew by 6.35%. Focuses on the states of Punjab and Kerala, which emphasized sharply different development strategies. The states had to decide whether to focus their investment efforts on physical capital or improving social indicators. Both states faced constraints in the form of budget deficits, competition from other states, and coordination with central government policies.

Vignettes on Governance of Private Equity Firms

Hardymon, G. Felda, Ann Leamon, and Eugenia Adofo
July 2008

In a series of vignettes, Nigella Hardy-Smyth of an international development agency that invests partners in emerging markets private equity firms must decide how to handle various situations that arise. As a member of the Limited Partner Advisory Board of each of the five firms, she must contend with a fund manager with an indistinct mandate, a manager who wants to exceed the concentration limit in an investment, tension between a star investor and her other partners, a founding partner who wants to fire the rest of his senior team, and a limited partner seeking preferential treatment that might benefit his fund to the detriment of the other limited partners. The process of discussing these helps the class explore the nuanced role of a limited partner in a private equity firm.

Tad O'Malley: The Investment Conundrum

Hardymon, G. Felda, Josh Lerner, and Ann Leamon
July 2008

Tad O'Malley has just started as an associate with Empire Investment Group. He must evaluate three investment opportunities facing the big leveraged buyout firm. All are global, but each pertains to different offices and each deal has different strengths and weaknesses. Which should he recommend to the partners for additional resources and what does a recommendation mean for his career?

Shoppers' Stop Group (SSG)

Lal, Rajiv, and Virginia Fuller
July 2008

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

Unilever as a 'Multi-local Multinational' 1945-1979

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie Decker
July 2008

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

The Offshoring of America

Vietor, Richard H.K., Jan W. Rivkin, and Juliana Seminerio
July 2008

The movement from jobs in the United States to developing countries, in a process known as offshoring, has become quite a controversial topic. Managers not only need to decide which activities, if any, to move offshore, but where to move them. This case describes the nature of offshoring and its effect on developing countries.

House of Tata: Acquiring a Global Footprint

Khanna, Tarun, Krishna G. Palepu, and Richard J. Bullock
July 2008

Chronicles the globalization of the Tata Group, one of India's largest business groups. Since 2000, many Tata Group operating companies have aggressively built international businesses, particularly through overseas acquisitions. After describing the globalization rationales and approaches of the major Tata Group companies, the case asks students to consider whether Tata Motors should pursue the acquisition of the Jaguar and Land Rover brands owned by US-based Ford Motor company.

SKS Microfinance

Cole, Shawn, and Theresa Chen
June 2008

Vikram Akula, CEO of SKS Microfinance, seeks a venture capital investment to fund his firm. SKS, one of the largest and fastest growing microfinance institutions in India, is a profitable, for-profit institution with a social mission. In what is one of the first commercial financing deals in the world, Akula must decide at what value to sell equity in SKS, and to whom to sell it. The case focuses on valuation, which is difficult because at the time there are no publicly traded comparable companies, and the strategic aspects of raising money.

Note on the Bus Industry

Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, and Jordan Mitchell
June 2008

Supplements the "Irizar in 2005" case. Briefly documents key points in the motor coach industry such as market size, categories of buses, reasons for purchasing, and the basis for competition amongst motor coach manufacturers.

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (A)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Alok Patel, the founder and chairman of a Gujarat-based, privately held edible oils processor, must decide whether to hire a CFO candidate. Previously, his company's book-keeping has been done by an uncle, who has mentioned that he may retire soon. Patel could hire his younger son, who is just finishing his MBA at UCLA; but accounting was not Aakash's strength, and Patel has read that a strong finance person can help position a company for success. The company has recently experienced significant growth due to a new program of branded oils, and Patel is worried that the financials are getting away from his uncle. The most qualified candidate, though, comes from a different region. Should Patel hire a non-family member for this sensitive position? If so, should he go so far as to hire someone who does not come from his home region?

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (B)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case

Patel Food and Chemicals Private Limited (C)

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case

Go Mobile

Lal, Rajiv, and Catherine Ross
May 2008

Fortis Healthcare (A)

Herzlinger, Regina, and Pushwaz Virk
May 2008

Should the Indian hospital chain enter the medical travel market or should it focus on expansion in the under-served Indian market? Is its business model appropriate to its goals?

Monitor's Opportunities in India (A): Grail Research

Alcacer, Juan, and Jan W. Rivkin
April 2008

The CEO of a strategy consulting firm must decide which of the firm's functions, if any, to move to India. In particular, he wonders whether business research-currently conducted by highly paid consultants in developed countries-can be conducted more efficiently and effectively from an Indian research center.

Monitor's Opportunities in India (B): Grail Research

Alcacer, Juan, and Jan W. Rivkin
May 2008

Supplements the (A) case. Describes the decision by leaders of a strategy consulting firm to build a business research subsidiary in India. Permits a discussion of how high-end knowledge production can be conducted in an emerging economy, at a distance from buyers of the knowledge.

Sandhar Technologies Group

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
April 2008

Jayant Davar, CEO and founder of Sandhar Technologies Group, a privately held auto components maker in India, is trying to decide how best to grow the company. He recently took a $22 million investment from Actis Capital, a major emerging markets private equity firm, to consummate an acquisition with a South Indian competitor. Options that Davar considers include acquisitions in developed markets, efforts to increase export sales, and greater investment R&D facilities. But these mean changing the customer-centric strategy that has been key to Sandhar's success. Perhaps he should simply continue what has worked for so long, riding India's 20% domestic growth.

Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative

Bell, David E., Nitin Sanghavi, Virginia Fuller, and Mary L. Shelman
March 2008

In rural India, farmers historically had limited access to quality input items for both their fields and homes. Indian conglomerate DSCL has undertaken a Rural Business Initiative to address this issue, establishing a chain of retail outlets throughout rural India geared toward farmers and their families. Through its growing network of stores, DSCL is able to establish relationships with farmers and provide them with a host of agricultural services, including improved crop inputs, agronomic support, fuel, banking, and consumer goods. The outlets also buy back some of the farmers' production at harvest time. In utilizing the products and services offered by the stores, farmers are able to improve the quality of their crops and access a network of helpful resources in an environment that was once considered completely tangential to the benefits of agricultural research and technology reaped in other parts of the world. DSCL strategizes about how the company can also benefit from these freshly forged connections with India's rural millions.

Entrepreneurial Leadership in Forming High Tech Enclaves: Lessons from the Government of Andhra Pradesh

McFarlan, F. Warren, Ramiro Montealegre, and Espen Andersen
March 2008

This case provides an overview of the entrepreneurial leadership taken by the government of India's Andhra Pradesh state in promoting the IT sector and using it to improve the status of the state's economic position in the early years of the third millennium.

Akshaya Patra: Feeding India's Schoolchildren

Upton, David, Christine Ellis, Sarah Lucas, and Amy Yamner
February 2008

Describes a highly successful effort by an Indian Charity to feed poor schoolchildren at lunchtime. This provides two significant benefits. It improves nutrition for the children, and helps keep them in school since the provided meal is occasionally the only meal they will have in the day. The organization has had great success in an urban environment, but now seeks a wholly different operations strategy as it stretches out to rural India.

Tata Motors: The Tata Ace

Palepu, Krishna G., and Vishnu Srinivasan
January 2008

Considers the strategy and experience of Tata Motors, India's leading commercial truck maker, as it developed a new small commercial vehicle, the Tata Ace. Positioned as a replacement for the three-wheelers that predominated as small commercial vehicles in India, the Ace create a new product category and enabled Tata Motors to access a new market segment. The company adopted tailored approaches to product design, distribution, marketing, service, and sourcing for the vehicle. After successfully targeting the niche, considers how Tata Motors might grow its presence in the segment with new models, enter new regional markets, export to developing or developed countries, and face new competition.

Microsoft in China and India, 1993-2007

Khanna, Tarun, and Prithwiraj Choudhury
January 2008

Relates to Microsoft's expansion in China and India in the period 1993-2007and the strategic issues faced by multinationals in emerging markets.

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2007

Blue River Capital

Palepu, Krishna G., Khanna, Tarun, and Richard J. Bullock
November 2007

Examines the strategy and experience of Indian private equity firm Blue River Capital. Blue River was established in 2005 to invest primarily in middle market, particularly family-run, businesses in India. Blue River caters to this niche as an active investor, providing capital and working with portfolio companies to improve their corporate governance. Describes the challenges faced by Blue River in identifying investments, performing due diligence, and working with portfolio companies and asks how Blue River should build itself into a top-tier private equity fund, particularly as more and more foreign firms target the growing Indian market.

A Note on Private Equity in Developing Countries

Lerner, Josh, and Ann Leamon
November 2007

Provides the background and high-level situation of private equity in emerging markets as of the end of 2006.

BASIX

Cole, Shawn, and Peter Tufano
October 2007

BASIX, an Indian microfinance corporation, must decide whether to continue to sell weather insurance to its clients. A brand-new financial product, weather insurance pays if measured rainfall during the growing season falls below a pre-specified limit. Mr. Sattaiah, managing director of the BASIX's bank, considers a revised insurance policy for the coming season, weighing the costs and potential risks of expanding the product against the potential benefits.

Michael Fernandes at Nicholas Piramal

Anteby, Michel, and Nitin Nohria
October 2007

Michael Fernandes, the Director of Custom Manufacturing Operations at the pharmaceutical company Nicholas Piramal India Limited (NPIL), schedules a meeting with three of his reports, whose interpersonal conflicts with one another are causing his business development function to falter. He struggles to know how to handle these conflicts and bring the three into a productive working collaboration. Fernandes is in charge of incorporating NPIL's new acquisitions in Canada and the United Kingdom to market NPIL globally. His three direct reports are each involved in different aspects of NPIL-the Canadian operations, the British operations, and the global business development-and the case explores the team dynamics among them. Unless Fernandes can resolve the conflicts, the integration of the acquisitions is in jeopardy.

HCL Technologies (A) (Abridged)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker
September 2007

When Vineet Nayar became president of HCL Technologies, a global IT services business, in April 2005, he knew the company needed drastic change. Since its founding as a hardware company in the 1970s, HCL had grown into an enterprise with $3.7 billion in revenues and a market capitalization of $5.1 billion. The company had 41,000 employees in 11 countries, but it was ill-prepared for the increasingly competitive market. With the shift from hardware to software and services, HCL had slipped behind its Indian competitors and multinational companies. Details the first phase of the transformation Nayar led in hopes of rejuvenating the industry pioneer. The tagline for this phase was "Employee First, Customer Second." Can be used in strategy, change management and leadership courses.

HCL Technologies (B) (Abridged)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker
September 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Biocon Limited

Krishna G. Palepu, and Anath Chepuri
September 2007

Biocon Limited was facing significant pricing pressure in their cash cow business, that primarily consisted of manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). To combat this commoditization, Biocon's leadership had chosen an innovation-led strategy. This new strategy consisted of licensing and developing proven molecules from strategic partners to leapfrog competition and create large molecule biologics in India. The company understood that its transition from an API to an innovation-led company focused on new biologics would require patience and a risk-taking mindset. Although there was some commonality in the bioprocessing aspects of both approaches, the regulatory approvals, product development paths, and market-access timelines were dramatically different--almost diametrically opposed. Analyzes Biocon's strategic decisions, as well as the risks and challenges associated with migrating from a manufacturing to an innovation-led enterprise. How would they balance short-term pragmatism versus long-term vision? Do they have the appropriate human resources to scale and innovate? Is their India-centric strategy appropriate, since 86% of their end-market demand is in the U.S., Europe, and Japan? Fortunately, early indications with their innovation-led strategy were showing positive signs and demonstrable results--such as their biogenetic insulin and monoclonal antibody launch in India. Their lead oral insulin project, with a planned $100 million budget, was meeting its milestones and deliverables. Many critical business challenges are detailed in this case. Nevertheless, given their fully integrated business model and significant manufacturing base, the odds are in Biocon's favor to overcome these challenges and lead India's biotechnology revolution.

Saffronart.com: Bidding for Success

Khaire, Mukti, and R. Daniel Wadhwani
August 2007

Saffronart, a five-year-old online art auction company, leads the market for modern Indian art and now faces competitors in the market it created. Established in 2000 by the wife-and-husband team of Minal and Dinesh Vazirani, Saffronart.com is an innovative online auction firm that specializes in modern and contemporary Indian art. Having been the first firm to offer Indian fine art with authenticity guarantees in an auction setting that increased the transparency of prices, Saffronart succeeded in establishing the genre of modern and contemporary Indian art in the art world, and in creating a market for it. This market, and Saffronart's revenues, grew rapidly from 2000 to 2005. Saffronart's estimate was that the Indian art auction market would be worth $125 million in 2006, with their revenues being $45 million. While this success was gratifying, the firm and its founders faced new internal and external pressures; particularly worrisome was the entry of auction giants Christie's and Sotheby's into the market. The Vaziranis' main challenge now is to consolidate their leading position in the market they created in the face of the unpredictable cyclicality of the secondary art market and increasingly strong competitors.

Aurolab: Bringing First-World Technology to Third-World Blind

Rangan, V. Kasturi
August 2007

Saffronart, a five-year-old online art auction company, leads the market for modern Indian art and now faces competitors in the market it created. Established in 2000 by the wife-and-husband team of Minal and Dinesh Vazirani, Saffronart.com is an innovative online auction firm that specializes in modern and contemporary Indian art. Having been the first firm to offer Indian fine art with authenticity guarantees in an auction setting that increased the transparency of prices, Saffronart succeeded in establishing the genre of modern and contemporary Indian art in the art world, and in creating a market for it. This market, and Saffronart's revenues, grew rapidly from 2000 to 2005. Saffronart's estimate was that the Indian art auction market would be worth $125 million in 2006, with their revenues being $45 million. While this success was gratifying, the firm and its founders faced new internal and external pressures; particularly worrisome was the entry of auction giants Christie's and Sotheby's into the market. The Vaziranis' main challenge now is to consolidate their leading position in the market they created in the face of the unpredictable cyclicality of the secondary art market and increasingly strong competitors.

HCL Technologies (B)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A Stecker
August 2007

Supplements the (A) case.

Can Bollywood Go Global?

Jones, Geoffrey G., Surachita Mishra, and Alexis Lefort
July 2007

Considers the opportunities and challenges facing Indian film producers in accessing the global film market. Provides a historical context by describing the history of the cinema and the rise of Hollywood to global dominance by the 1920s. Although film industries continued elsewhere, including Great Britain and France, their products had limited international appeal. Discusses the rise of the Indian film industry and the industry structure. Bollywood films, produced in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), are the most well-known genre. They are typically long, melodramatic, and musical. There are also regional language films produced in Chennai, independent films, and "crossover" films, typically incorporating the experience of the Diaspora in Western countries. Bollywood films in particular have sold well in Southeast Asia and among the Indian Diaspora. Raises the issue whether Indian content films can compete with Hollywood in global markets and to what extent a change in content is necessary for this strategy to work.

Apollo Hospitals-First-World Health Care at Emerging-Market Prices

Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, Tarun Khanna, and Carin-Isabel Knoop
July 2007

The Apollo Hospitals Group, one of Asia's premier health care organizations, had come to rival the best health care organizations on the globe. Apollo offered advanced medical procedures, such as cardiac surgery using the beating heart technique, at very high levels of quality but at a fraction of the cost of hospitals in the West. Apollo's managers must decide how best to capitalize on the group's remarkable medical capabilities. One option was to bet on global medical tourism by trying to attract patients from Asia and worldwide needing advanced medical procedures. Thailand had set the example for medical tourism and attracted more than one million patients a year, most of them undergoing plastic surgery. Another option Apollo considered was to build and manage hospitals abroad.

HCL Technologies (A)

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily A Stecker
June 2007

When Vineet Nayar became president of HCL Technologies, a global IT services business, in April 2005, he knew the company needed drastic change. Since its founding as a hardware company in the 1970s, HCL had grown into an enterprise with $3.7 billion in revenues and a market capitalization of $5.1 billion. The company had 41,000 employees in 11 countries, but it was ill-prepared for the increasingly competitive market. With the shift from hardware to software and services, HCL had slipped behind its Indian competitors and multinational companies. Details the first phase of the transformation Nayar led in hopes of rejuvenating the industry pioneer. The tagline for this phase was "Employee First, Customer Second." Can be used in strategy, change management and leadership courses.

Lean at Wipro Technologies

Upton, David M., and Bradley R. Staats
June 2007

Wipro Technologies, a rapidly growing software services firm based in India, decided to use principles from the Toyota Production System (also known as lean) to fundamentally change their operating model. Looks at why Wipro chose to use lean and how they went about implementing it in a novel context such as this. Provides detail of Wipro's internal and external environment, which was necessitating the change (shift from delivering a low-cost product to providing a business solution). Also, explores whether this new approach can lead to a substantial competitive advantage.

Iqbal Quadir, Gonofone, and the Creation of GrameenPhone (Bangladesh)

Isenberg, Daniel J., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and David Lane
May 2007

As the smallest of four partners in a unique wireless telephony venture in Bangladesh that he initiated and helped grow, Iqbal Quadir is trying to acquire a larger stake in the venture when one of the partners wants to sell his shares. However, Quadir faces stiff resistance from the other two partners, who also want to acquire the shares.

HDFC (A)

Paine, Lynn S., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Suma Raju
May 2007

The top management team at India's leading home finance company must decide how to deal with the emergence of intense competition at the end of the 1990s. Having founded the industry and dominated it for nearly 20 years, the well-respected company faces a bevy of new entrants from the banking, mortgage finance, and insurance sectors. In particular, management must decide how to respond to an aggressive new competitor who has copied HDFC's processes, lured away some of its key staff, and whose misleading, but lawful, advertising of interest rates is drawing customers away from HDFC.

HDFC (B)

Paine, Lynne S., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Suma Raju
May 2007

Supplements the (A) case.

Biocon Limited

Palepu, Krishna G., and Ananth Chepuri
May 2007

Biocon Limited was facing significant pricing pressure in their cash cow business, that primarily consisted of manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). To combat this commoditization, Biocon's leadership had chosen an innovation-led strategy. This new strategy consisted of licensing and developing proven molecules from strategic partners to leapfrog competition and create large molecule biologics in India. The company understood that its transition from an API to an innovation-led company focused on new biologics would require patience and a risk-taking mindset. Although there was some commonality in the bioprocessing aspects of both approaches, the regulatory approvals, product development paths, and market-access timelines were dramatically different--almost diametrically opposed. Analyzes Biocon's strategic decisions, as well as the risks and challenges associated with migrating from a manufacturing to an innovation-led enterprise. How would they balance short-term pragmatism versus long-term vision? Do they have the appropriate human resources to scale and innovate? Is their India-centric strategy appropriate, since 86% of their end-market demand is in the U.S., Europe, and Japan? Fortunately, early indications with their innovation-led strategy were showing positive signs and demonstrable results--such as their biogenetic insulin and monoclonal antibody launch in India. Their lead oral insulin project, with a planned $100 million budget, was meeting its milestones and deliverables. Many critical business challenges are detailed in this case. Nevertheless, given their fully integrated business model and significant manufacturing base, the odds are in Biocon's favor to overcome these challenges and lead India's biotechnology revolution.

Fabindia Overseas Pvt. Ltd

Khaire, Mukti, and Prabakar (PK) Kothandaraman
April 2007

Fabindia is a for-profit Indian retail company with the stated mission of providing employment to weavers and traditional handicraft artisans in rural India. Established in 1960 as an exporter of home furnishings, Fabindia has grown as a consumer-facing retailer of apparel, home furnishings, organic food, and body care products, and has plans to expand further. Given their mission, their supply chain is fragmented, geographically scattered, and unpredictable. Can they overcome these challenges and still grow profitably while staying committed to their mission?

Motilal Oswal Financial Services Ltd.: An IPO in India

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
April 2007

The executives of Motilal Oswal Financial Services, Ltd., one of the largest brokerages in India, are considering an IPO on the Indian markets. The company recently received a small private equity investment from two global private equity firms, which it has not yet fully invested. Historically, the Indian markets have favored higher-revenue companies. Should Motilal Oswal go public now, to take advantage of the hot Indian market, or hold off and build its revenue for a higher valuation?

Punjab and Kerala: Regional Development in India

Iyer, Lakshmi
March 2007

Between 2000 and 2004, India's economy grew by 6.35%. Focuses on the states of Punjab and Kerala, which emphasized sharply different development strategies. The states had to decide whether to focus their investment efforts on physical capital or improving social indicators. Both states faced constraints in the form of budget deficits, competition from other states, and coordination with central government policies.

PSI India -- Will Balbir Pasha Help Fight AIDS? (B)

Ofek, Elie
March 2007

In 2002, Population Services International (PSI) was committed to curbing the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in India. Sanjay Chaganti, program director of HIV/AIDS at PSI India, has to decide on the best communication strategy to achieve this goal. Up to this date most efforts consisted of on-the-ground efforts by PSI personnel, but Chaganti was considering shifting a significant portion of funds to a provocative mass media advertising campaign. The campaign would feature a fictional character--Balbir Pasha. At one extreme the campaign would impact that target population and lift barriers to safe sex practices. At the other extreme the campaign could be controversial, ineffective, and squander precious resources.

Keggfarms (India) - Which Came First, the Kuroiler or the KEGG?

Isenberg, Daniel J.
February 2007

Vinod Kapur has founded a unique enterprise, Keggfarms, based on a special poultry chicken he bred to address the nutritional and income needs of some of the poorest people on earth: India's rural villagers. As of November 2006, Keggfarms was supplying chicks to about 4 million poor villagers, generating incomes for 700,000 households when they sold the eggs and meat. In November 2006, Kapur faced a number of issues, including how to expand without capital, how to deal with imitation, and how to balance Keggfarm's for-profit and social values.

J.R.D. Tata

Nohria, Nitin, Anthony J. Mayo, and Mark Benson
February 2007

J.R.D Tata, Chairman of the Indian conglomerate Tata & Sons, played a significant role in building India's economic infrastructure. Under his guidance, Tata & Sons built locomotives, steel refineries, airlines, chemical plants, and technology-based enterprises. Inheriting his title as Chairman in 1938, at the outbreak of World War II, Tata was able to navigate his family-owned companies through the tumultuous political climate of India. He worked with British colonial officers, and later closely with several Indian leaders under both pro- and anti-business government regimes. Applying his family's values to the workplace, Tata & Sons helped revolutionize business practices in India. From instituting the eight-hour work day and paid leave to providing a retirement gratuity, Tata's policies created a standard to which other companies--and eventually Indian government regulators--measured themselves. Blending humane business practices with political savvy and a pioneering spirit, J.R.D Tata is remembered as one of India's most important and influential business leaders. Tata is an example of a 20th century business leader who applied contextual intelligence to a variety of businesses, dramatically changing the landscape of India's infrastructure.

Tejas Networks India Pte

Isenberg, Daniel J.
February 2007

Sanjay Nayak, co-founder of the Bangalore-based start-up, Tejas Networks, is faced with two completely different opportunities to choose between: pursing a short-term, quantifiable but unprofitable contract with Tejas' biggest telco customer in India, or an ill-defined, long-term, worldwide OEM agreement with one of the top-tier telecommunications equipment vendors. Both options require some investment in order to be profitable.

Infosys in India: Building a Software Giant in a Corrupt Environment

Abdelal, Rawi, Rafael Di Tella, and Prabakar Kothandaraman
January 2007

Shortly after Infosys was founded in 1981, its managers faced a major turning point when they made a decision to operate without giving in to the petty corruption rife in the Indian economy. Within just a few years, that decision had truly defined the company. Over the next 25 years, Infosys managers went to extraordinary lengths to avoid even the most modest of practices that they considered inappropriate. Explores the practices and methods that Infosys adopted instead, considers their costs, benefits, and generalizability, and contextualizes the problem within Indian political and economic institutions that continue to evolve.

Rico Auto Industries: Raising Private Equity in India

Hardymon, G. Felda, and Ann Leamon
January 2007

The CEO of a publicly traded Indian auto components manufacturer must decide whether to accept an investment from a consortium of private equity firms. Describes the decision process for both the private equity investors and the entrepreneur and profiles the opportunities and risks in investing in India.

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2006

Eldeco: Playing in the Big League

Nicolas Retsinas, Segel, Arthur I., Arnaud Karsenti, Sumeet Narang, and Siddarth Yog
December 2006

In 2001, Pankaj Bajaj is considering whether to go forward with a residential development outside New Delhi. Facing an uncooperative local authority, he must determine how to evaluate the risks of proceeding against the potential loss of a golden opportunity to bring Eldeco, his real estate development company, into the top tier of industry players.

Tanishq: Positioning to Capture the Indian Woman's Heart

Narayandas, Das, and Kerry Herman
November 2006

The firm has to choose between an established brand, Tanishq, and a new skunkworks brand, GoldPlus, to go after the Indian plain gold jewelry market: Tanishq, initially targeted at a western customer, has undergone strategic retooling and has currently been repositioned to serve the "traditional yet modern" Indian woman. The brand still carries some baggage from its past. GoldPlus, on the other hand, is a new brand that is positioned to serve the plain gold wedding jewelry market. A variety of strategic, economic, organizational and brand investment reasons make the decision an important one.

Strategic Outsourcing at Bharti Airtel Ltd

Martínez-Jerez, Francisco de Asís , V.G. Narayanan, and Michele Jurgens
September 2006

Faced with exponential growth and a competitive telecom environment, Bharti looks for ways to better manage its capital expenditures for telecommunications and information technology. One option is to hand over management of its telecom and IT networks to its vendors. Explores the pros and cons of such an outsourcing arrangement for a company in an industry where technological superiority is considered an essential element in competitive strategy.

Big Bazaar

Raman, Ananth, and Laura Winig
July 2006

Describes a high-growth Indian retailer, Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd., and two of the company's formats--Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar. Challenges students to debate the company's concept, its strategic decision on how quickly it would like to grow, and some key decisions on its supply chain. At the time of the case (2006), small "mom-and-pop" stores still dominated Indian retailing, but that was changing rapidly because of the entry of "organized" retailers such as Pantaloon. Pantaloon's management faced some exciting opportunities as well as some potential competition from global retailers that were planning to enter the Indian market and large Indian business houses that were planning to establish retailing businesses.

ICICI's Global Expansion

Khanna, Tarun, and Ramana Nanda
March 2006

To entertain how companies based in emerging markets might go global and discuss the various assets they can leverage to compete effectively in a global market.

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2005

Eureka Forbes Ltd.: Managing the Selling Effort (A)

Narayandas, Das, and Kerry Herman
December 2005

The CEO of EFL (India), a direct sales organization, must decide which changes to the sales compensation systems would better motivate his sales reps and improve their sales performance.

Infosys (A): Strategic Human Resource Management

DeLong, Thomas J., Jaya Tandon, and Ganesh Rengaswamy
December 2005

Hema Ravichandar, head of human resources, was given a new and aggressive milestone to reach: ensure Infosys is on the Top 10 lists of both Best Performing Companies and Best Employers by 2007. No large organization had ever been able to achieve this distinction because of the tension between the need to control costs for financial performance and the expenditure required for employee satisfaction. Ravichandar was aware of the humbling experiences of the past that made Infosys cognizant of the difficulties ahead as it transitioned from a small to a large company.

Wipro Technologies: The Factory Model

Upton, David M., and Virginia A. Fuller
December 2005

Based in Bangalore, Wipro Technologies is a rapidly growing software services company. Wipro is experimenting with a new software service delivery model that draws on the principles of the Toyota production system and "lean" manufacturing. Addresses the advantages and disadvantages of software outsourcing and how to mitigate the effects of, for example, lock-in and hijacking. Explores how Wipro has helped its customers deal with these issues and looks at the changing competitive role of Indian outsourcers (from low-cost, to high-quality/rapid turnaround). Specifically explores Wipro's experimental use of lean principles as a source of new competitive advantage in software services. Also addresses the issue of standardization in information technology, examining why companies progressively develop so many standards and how companies like Wipro can help them standardize, thus limiting one of the primary drivers of companies' IT costs.

Infosys (B): Strategic Human Resource Management

DeLong, Thomas J., and Jaya Tandon
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case.

Strategic Outsourcing at Bharti Airtel Ltd. One Year Later

Martínez-Jerez, Francisco de Asís , V.G. Narayanan, and Michele Jurgens
September 2005

Faced with exponential growth and a competitive telecom environment, Bharti looks for ways to better manage its capital expenditures for telecommunications and information technology. One option is to hand over management of its telecom and IT networks to its vendors. Explores the pros and cons of such an outsourcing arrangement for a company in an industry where technological superiority is considered an essential element in competitive strategy.
"Infosys (B): Strategic Human Resource Management."

Jerry Rao: Diaspora and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy

Wadhwani, R. Daniel
September 2005

Focusing on one entrepreneur, Jerry Rao, this case examines the international career paths of Indian business professionals and engineers since the development of public policies beginning in the 1960s to attract them to developed countries like the United States. Explores why these professionals often chose to leave India in pursuit of economic opportunities abroad in the 1960s through 1980s and why many seem now to be returning to their homeland to start or run businesses. Also, considers the role of Diaspora of Indian professionals in contributing to the development of the export-oriented Indian IT sector.

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