Afica/Middle East

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The Coartem Challenge (A)

Spar, Debora L., and Brian DeLacey
July 2008

In November 2005, Novartis, a major global pharmaceutical firm, is reviewing its Coartem program, an ambitious attempt to deliver life-saving malaria drugs, at cost, to millions of poor Africans. The company is deeply committed to the project, but it is also struggling with the organizational issues involved in dealing with international institutions like the World Health Organization and fitting nonprofit objectives into a for-profit structure.

The Coartem Challenge (B)

Spar, Debora L., and Brian DeLacey
July 2008

Supplements the (A) case.

Unilever as a 'Multi-local Multinational' 1945-1979

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie Decker
July 2008

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

China in Africa: The Case of Sudan

Abrami, Regina, and Eunice Ajambo
May 2008

This case examines the relation between China's demand for resources and political risk.

Partners in Health: The PACT Project

Bohmer, Richard M.J., and Josh Friedman
March 2008

Partners in Health (PIH) is a Boston-based, not-for-profit that provides health care to people in some of the poorest regions of the world, including Haiti, Malawi, Rwanda, and Peru. In 1998, PIH established a program (PACT) in Boston to bring care to AIDS and TB patients who were not well served by existing care delivery systems. Describes PIH's programs in the developing world and the way in which lessons learned in these countries informed the design and management of PACT. Examines the balance between customized and standardized approaches to care and challenges students to examine their preconceived notions of the social role of a health care delivery organization. Dr. Heidi Behforouz, PACT's director, must decide whether a service design honed in developing countries can be rolled out more broadly in one the world's richest nations.

Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony

Bell, David E., Brian Milder, and Mary L. Shelman
February 2008

Vegpro, a horticulture company, is Kenya's largest exporter of fresh vegetables and flowers to top supermarkets in the U.K. and Europe. In 2007, Vegpro's business is threatened by growing consumer concern about the environmental impact of food production and transport, including "food miles". The case describes the company's growth, which includes the use of owned land and outgrowers for production, the addition of value-added processing to obtain premium prices, and the introduction of global certification to ensure food safety and meet retailer and consumer requirements. The case also discusses the potential impact of increased consumer awareness of ethical sourcing and introduces the potential trade-off between local production and economic development.

'Doer's Profile' Nelson Mandela (1918- )

Stephenson, Howard, and Shirley Spence
November 2007

Profile of Nelson Mandela designed to facilitate a discussion of the nature of enduring success. Includes both biographical data and excerpts from autobiographical records.

Unilever as a 'multi-local multinational' 1945-1979

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie Decker
October 2007

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

The Lapdesk Company: A South African FOPSE

Isenberg, Daniel J.
September 2007

Shane Immelman, founding CEO of Lapdesk (South Africa), is facing several acute problems: a conflict between his director of marketing and his director of field operations; a dramatic increase in prices by a key supplier; and a major strategic alliance that does not seem to be moving forward. Lapdesk is a for-profit social enterprise (FOPSE) dedicated to eradicating the shortage of classroom desks in public schools. What should Immelman do? Will Lapdesk achieve its mission?

Foreign Direct Investment and South Africa

Werker, Eric D.
July 2007

Incoming and outgoing foreign direct investment in an environment of politics, geography, globalization, and history. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa had undertaken substantial economic reforms in order to attract more foreign direct investment, but it was slow in coming. At the same time, South African firms had become major players in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Collectively, these investment decisions could have a major long-run impact on South Africa's economic growth and political stability. South African policymakers needed to decide what they wanted from the private sector, and how to achieve it.

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (A)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Dr. Iqbal Surve, a self-described "medical doctor, philanthropist, and social entrepreneur," was born in 1963 and grew up in poverty, like virtually all non-white South Africans during apartheid. During the 1970s and 1980s, he served in leadership positions in the ANC, struggling against apartheid. After apartheid ended, Surve served as a medical doctor to many prominent South African leaders, like Nelson Mandela, and to the national soccer team. But by the mid-1990s, Surve, like many of his comrades, grew frustrated by the huge economic disparities that existed in South Africa, even though its progressive constitution afforded all citizens equal rights. It seemed the government's Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policies were only enriching a few. In 1997, Surve and three of his comrades founded Sekunjalo, an investment holding company that sought to offer "a gentler capitalism" that stressed putting people before profits, and talent development as a means of raising the lives of previously disadvantaged South Africans. By 1999, the company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, making 36-year-old Surve the youngest CEO of a listed diversified conglomerate. From its inception, Sekunjalo only purchased controlling stakes in companies, hoping to empower black workers. In 1999, it had purchased a 5% stake in LeisureNet, a white-owned and -run South African company that operated health clubs globally and was seeking a BEE partner. Surve hoped to eventually purchase a majority stake in the company, but in 2000 the company went under in the biggest corporate scandal in South African history. In one day, Sekunjalo's stock dropped 44%. Surve, already a very public figure in South Africa, had to decide what to do, especially what to tell his loyal employees who had invested so much in Sekunjalo's mission

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (B)

HIll, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (C)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (D)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dubailand: Destination Dubai

Goetzmann, William, and Irina Tarsis
June 2007

Under the leadership of the al-Maktoum family, Dubai, a member of the United Arab Emirates, invested heavily in its infrastructure to reduce national dependence on oil and gas reserves. As an established international destination for shipping, business initiatives, and tourism in the Middle East, Dubai embarked on a new megascale project: to construct the world's largest amusement park, called Dubailand. Examines various aspects of Dubai's background, world real estate and tourism trends, and environmental and political conditions of the region to support a discussion of this ambitious project's feasibility.

CEMEX: Rewarding the Egyptian Retailers

Martinez-Jerez, Francisco de Asis, Joshua Bellin, and Carole Winkler
June 2007

CEMEX has pursued an aggressive decommoditization strategy focused on its relationship with small Egyptian retailers. In particular, the strategic role and effectiveness of the Rewards Program, a tournament that rewarded the sales performance of the retailers, was called into question by Assiut Cement's management based on the results of its first two rounds.

Habitat for Humanity--Egypt

Wei-Skillern, Jane, and Kerry Herman
May 2007

Habitat for Humanity--Egypt (HFHE), has grown in just seven years to become one of the most successful Habitat programs worldwide. The organization is at a crossroads as it attempts to reach the ambitious goal of serving 10% of the 20 million Egyptians living in poverty by 2023, while at the same time developing the local NGO capacity to serve the remaining 90%. Since its establishment in 1989, HFHE has worked in close partnership with CEOSS, a 50-year-old NGO, and through other local, community-based organizations. This network approach diverges form the traditional Habitat model of building houses through HFH's own affiliate organizations, but enables HFHE to begin building immediately rather than wait several years to become sufficiently established to operate as an independent entity. Yousry Makar, HFHE's national director, faces several key issues. How can he ensure that as HFHE's partnership network grows, his own office and staff can sustain the network? To what extent should he seek to address the needs of the "poorest of the poor," who cannot even repay loans and therefore do not qualify as Habitat beneficiaries? How can Makar continue to innovate to achieve the greatest mission impact while maintaining funding and support for HFHE?

Aid, Debt Relief, and Trade: An Agenda for Fighting World Poverty (A)

Alfaro, Laura, Eric D. Werker, and Renee Kim
May 2007

At the 2005 Group of Eight summit, world leaders agreed to relieve the world's poorest countries' debt burdens and double aid to Africa by 2010. The announcement raised questions whether debt relief would really help the poor. By examining past aid trends and policies of multilateral institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, this case also questions whether aid can allow poor countries to break the vicious cycle of poverty, and/or how aid can be used effectively.

Aid, Debt Relief, and Trade: An Agenda for Fighting World Poverty (B)

Alfaro, Laura, Eric D. Werker, and Renee Kim
May 2007

Supplements the (A) case

South African Airways (A)

Margolis, Joshua, Laura Morgan Roberts, and Laura Winig
March 2007

Amid efforts to engineer a turnaround at South African Airways (SAA), the CEO confronts an impending strike at the struggling company. How should the company address questions of distributive and procedural justice in post-Apartheid South Africa, and how should the CEO recover from a crucial misstep at the start of the strike? Chronicles the challenges and missteps of previous CEOs and the turnaround plan put in place by Ngqula to help curtail waste and abuse and capitalize on the growing international market.

South African Airways (B)

Margolis, Joshua, Laura Morgan Roberts, and Laura Winig
March 2007

Supplements the (A) case

The Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project (D)

Esty, Benjamin C., and Aldo Sesia Jr
March 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola and Nigeria's Manufacturing Sector

Nohria, Nitin, Anthony J. Mayo, Foluke Otudeko, and Mark Benson
March 2007

Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola was an important contributor to Nigeria's manufacturing sector, creating a multimillion-dollar conglomerate including three factories, a retail franchise, a cattle ranch, a 5,000-acre plantation, a sawmill, and an exporting business before the end of British colonial rule in 1960. Seizing business opportunities as he saw demand, Odutola moved between markets at every opportunity, creating companies servicing a diverse variety of needs. Odutola's keen, unwavering interest in improving the infrastructure of Nigeria allowed him to enjoy a successful career in business and politics, despite the vastly fluctuating political landscape of Nigeria. From British rule through civil war and subsequent coups and countercoups, Odutola remained a popular leader for his commitment to promoting Nigerian business ventures. Elevated to Prime Minister of his tribe--the Ijebu-Ode--in 1956, and later selected as the first President of the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN), Odutola campaigned for manufacturing interests and consulted with government officials about national fiscal policy. As a statesman and as a business leader, Odutola worked tirelessly to improve the infrastructure of his country.

Shahla Nawabi: Reconstructing Afghanistan

Jones, Geoffrey G., Gayle Tzemach, and Alexis Lefort
January 2007

Explores the strategies of Shahla Nawabi to build a construction and export business in her post-conflict Afghanistan. Nawabi had lived in exile in Europe for three decades and had a successful career in fashion. Explores the challenges facing Nawabi on her return to her native Afghanistan--as a woman pursuing an entrepreneurial career in a country devastated by the rule of the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban and the subsequent U.S.-led invasion of the country. Provides a historical overview of Afghanistan and the position of women in the country to explore the challenges facing female entrepreneurs in a post-conflict country.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd

Khanna, Tarun, Krishna G. Palepu, and Claudine Madras
January 2007

How do companies develop a strategy that is both low-cost and differentiated without becoming squeezed in the middle? Describes how Teva, Israel's first and largest multinational, achieved its globally dominant position in generic pharmaceuticals, an industry that has undergone significant change over the last 20 years. Examines its strategies to defend itself against both low-cost competitors from India and other emerging markets as well as Big Pharma companies, which are adopting increasingly aggressive tactics in genetics.

Rwanda: National Economic Transformation

Porter, Michael E., and Kjell Carlsson
June 2006

Set in the year 2004, when Rwanda commemorated the 10th anniversary of a genocide that had claimed the lives of over 10% of its population. Focuses on the formulation of an economic strategy to rebuild the economy and its institutions after the devastation. Rwanda, one of the poorest countries in the world, highlights the challenges of economic development in Africa and in other low-income countries. Provides a brief political and economic history of Rwanda, but focuses on the country preceding and after the genocide. A description of government policies since 1994 enables discussion of the efforts of the transitional government under Bizimungu (1994-2000) and the first Kagame government (2000-2004) to restore and build the economy. Provides detailed economic and social data as of 2004, allowing evaluation of policy results. Concludes as President Kagame, now formally elected as head of state, considers an economic strategy to meet Rwanda's current challenges and increase the country's prosperity over the next decade.

Drug Testing in Nigeria (A)

Spar, Debora, and Adam Day
March 2006

In 1996, a meningitis epidemic swept across Nigeria. Thousands of children were struck and, lacking appropriate medicine, were liable to die from the disease. Doctors at Pfizer had an antibiotic that could probably save most of these children's lives. The drug was new, however, and had not yet undergone clinical trials with children. The company must decide whether to use the Nigerian outbreak as the site for a new and potentially risky trial.

Ghana: National Economic Strategy

Porter, Michael E., and Kjell Carlsson
September 2006

Set in the year 2001, as President John Kufuor contemplates a national economic strategy following his election in the first democratic transfer of power in Ghana's history. Focuses on Ghana's long history of poor economic performance and intractable poverty, highlighting the challenges of economic development in Africa and in other low-income countries. Provides a brief political and economic history of Ghana, focusing on the Nkrumah era of 1957-1966, the World Bank and IMF-led structural reforms of the 1980s, and the continuation of reforms after the first democratic elections in 1992. Details Ghana's economic and political context and cluster performance in 2001 and summarizes initiatives taken by the Kufuor administration to promote development. Detailed historical economic and social data allow an evaluation of policy results.

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (A)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

When she becomes chairperson of a large telecommunications board, Irene Charnley must transform the mostly white-led company to be more representative of South Africa's demographics. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (B)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (C)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case