Afica/Middle East

2014

Mara Group

Soltes, Eugene, and Sara Hess
March 2014

Mara Group is a rapidly growing Pan-African conglomerate run by its entrepreneurial CEO Ashish Thakkar. The case explores Thakkar's decision on which African markets to expand operations.

Mara Group (B)

Soltes, Eugene, and Sara Hess
March 2014

No abstract available.

TaKaDu

Ofek, Elie and Matthew Preble
February 2014

No abstract available.

Cynthia Carroll at Anglo American (A)

Mukunda, Gautam, Lisa Mazzanti, and Aldo Sesia
February 2014

In 2007, Cynthia Carroll, the newly appointed chief executive of mining giant Anglo American, was considering shutting down mines in South Africa for safety reasons, namely worker fatalities. No company had ever done so before. Carroll felt that operating a company whose goal was anything less than "zero harm" (meaning no fatalities or serious injuries) was unacceptable. As the first woman and non-South African to lead the century-old company, many were watching her closely. Should she go so far as to make the unprecedented move of shutting down the mines? What message would that send to the company and to the mining industry? The lives of others, Carroll's reputation, and the company's performance were all on the line.

Cynthia Carroll at Anglo American (B)

Mukunda, Gautam, Lisa Mazzanti, and Aldo Sesia
February 2014

In 2007, Cynthia Carroll, the newly appointed chief executive of mining giant Anglo American, ordered the temporary shutdown of Anglo American Platinum's Rustenburg, South Africa, mines in response to a spate of deaths at the operations. The case lays out Carroll's requirements of what had to be done before the Rustenburg mines could restart operations, including the implementation of a new safety program for tens of thousands of workers that called on the help of executives from other Anglo American businesses. The shutdown disrupted operations and incurred substantial costs.

Cynthia Carroll at Anglo American (C)

Mukunda, Gautam, Lisa Mazzanti, and Aldo Sesia
February 2014

When Cynthia Carroll, chief executive of Anglo American, ordered the shutdown of the company's Rustenburg, South Africa, mines in the summer of 2007, it was just the first of many steps the company would take under her leadership to achieve zero harm. The case describes Carroll's approach to stakeholder relationships (i.e., relationships with the government and unions), how the shutdown was used as a platform to change the culture at Anglo American as a whole, the challenges of sustaining such an endeavor, and Carroll's reflections on her career and leadershi

Adoption of IFRS in Ethiopia HBS Note

Hawkins, David
February 2014

No abstract available

Goldfinger: Charles W. Engelhard Jr. and Apartheid-era South Africa

Jones, Geoffrey G. and Elliot R. Benton
February 2014

This case considers the strategies of Charles W. Engelhard, an American mining magnate who made large investments in apartheid-era South Africa. Engelhard was widely believed to have been the model for the James Bond villain Auric Goldfinger. During the 1950s and 1960s Engelhard, who was well-connected with the leadership of the Democratic Party in the United States including President Lyndon B. Johnson, was one of the largest American investors in that country. His close relationship with Harry Oppenheimer, the head of the Anglo-American Corporation, gave him substantial influence within the South African business system. The case starts with anti-apartheid demonstrators protesting outside a ceremony awarding him a prize in Newark, New Jersey. It provides an opportunity to debate the political and ethical responsibilities of businesses in repressive regimes as well as the challenges faced by entrepreneurs operating in countries with different value systems and political regimes.

Qatar: Energy for Development

Musacchio, Aldo, Colin Donovan, Samir Mikati, Rami Sarafa, and Abdulla AlMisnad
January 2014

Despite being the richest country in the world on a per capita basis, for analysts Qatar belongs in the group of emerging markets considered "frontier markets." This case analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the development strategy of this small country as set forth by Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, who ruled from 1995 to 2013. In 2013, for the first time in Qatar's history, Emir Hamad passed on control of the government to his son Tamim peacefully, and Tamim, as Emir, promised to continue with the development strategy of economic diversification set forth by his father. Yet, it is not clear if the ambitious investments in infrastructure, education, tourism, and real estate Emir Hamad made were enough to steer the economy away from its dependence on gas exports.

Olam: Building a Sustainable Supply Chain in Cote d'Ivoire

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Nina Ann George
January 2014

Describes Olam's development of a sustainable cotton supply chain in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa. Key dilemma for its managers: feasibility of introducing tractor technology for improving yield.

2013

iMatari

Badaracco, Joseph L., and Matthew Preble
December 2013

In late 2012, recent Harvard Business School graduate Hannah Lopez is given the opportunity to lead entry into a new market for Plámo, a company that created startup companies in Europe and emerging markets based upon existing successful business models. She had only been with the company a few months, and while excited by the opportunity, she was beginning to have some doubts about the company. In the brief time she had been with the company, she had had a few experiences that made her question the company's approach to management and the sustainability of its business. Accepting the assignment could give her a unique entrepreneurial opportunity, but she wondered what level of support she could expect to receive and, if the startup did fail, what impact would that have on her career and reputation? Lopez was also starting to worry about the ethical implications of Plámo's style of entrepreneurship. She worried that by agreeing to serve as a manager of the new operations, she would be tacitly supporting elements of Plámo's strategy and practices that she was concerned about. Was she comfortable taking other companies' ideas and simply copying them? Was this true entrepreneurship?

Hotel Ivory HBS Teaching Plan

Retsinas, Nicolas P., and Lisa Strope
November 2013

No abstract available

Hotel Ivory

Segel, Arthur I, Nicolas P. Retsinas, and Jonathan Lo
October 2013

Cheick Sanankoua is an MBA student who believes that he has found the perfect investment property, a small, independently owned hotel on the Ivory Coast. However, he has had trouble raising money for the investment beyond friends and family. Through contacts in the private equity industry, he has one last opportunity to pitch the deal to Asdar Capital. If unsuccessful, the time on Sanankoua's exclusivity agreement with the owners will run out.

Yahoo! in China (A) & (B) HBS Teching Note

Sucher, Sandra J., and Daniel Baer
October 2013

No abstract available

TaKaDu

Ofek, Elie, and Matthew Preble
October 2013

In December 2012, Amir Peleg, founder and CEO of TaKaDu, reflected on how to position his young firm for the next fiscal year and beyond. The small Israeli startup had developed an innovative software system that used patented algorithms and statistical analysis to detect problems such as leaks, bursts, and faulty equipment within a water utility's infrastructure. Such problems caused significant water and energy loss at many utilities, led to service interruptions for consumers, and were only getting worse as the existing infrastructure aged. Since its founding in 2009, TaKaDu had attracted nine customers from around the world. However, as Peleg and his executive team debated how to allocate funding for the upcoming year, he needed to decide whether to focus on R&D to improve and add to TaKaDu's existing software and become the clear technology leader or move ahead with its current offering and focus on getting new customers to penetrate the market as quickly as possible before competition intensified. Some in the company called for devoting the bulk of TaKaDu's resources to making the system more easily deployable, as TaKaDu engineers were spending up to two months implementing the system per client. Peleg also wondered if the company should continue to pursue sales leads from anywhere in the world or focus on one geographic market (and if so, what region should he choose)? An Australian water utility had made a public announcement it was accepting bids to implement a smart water network monitoring system, and Peleg wanted to discuss if and how aggressively TaKaDu should bid on the contract with his management team. TaKaDu already had one Australian customer; was this the region to focus on?

Learning Resources: A Hands-On Toy Company Deals with New Challenges and Opportunities

Groysberg, Boris, and Anahita Hashemi
September 2013

Learning Resources is a family owned educational toy company that, by late 2011, was facing a myriad of challenges, including increased competition, entry into new markets, new distribution methods, rising costs of production in China, and changing customer behavior. The company lacked a clear strategy and suffered from organizational misalignment. Rick Woldenberg, the former CEO of Learning Resources, is called back to the helm after a four-year absence to address these issues, increase performance, and set a direction for the company, all while remaining true to the values of his family's business.

Foreign Direct Investment and South Africa (B)

Werker, Eric C, and Ian McKown Cornell
July 2013

Incoming and outgoing foreign direct investment in an environment of politics, geography, globalization, and history. Updates the 2006 case to 2012. The subsequent six years only reinforce the message of the original case. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa had undertaken substantial economic reforms in order to attract more foreign direct investment, but it was slow in coming. At the same time, South African firms had become major players in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Collectively, these investment decisions could have a major long-run impact on South Africa's economic growth and political stability. South African policymakers needed to decide what they wanted from the private sector and how to achieve it.

Ibrahim Dabdoub at the National Bank of Kuwait

Hill, Linda A., and Dana M. Teppert
July 2013

Ibrahim Dabdoub, the group chief executive of the National Bank of Kuwait (NBK), reflects on his past 30 years at the helm of the bank. Under his leadership, NBK grew from a small local bank to one of the preeminent financial institutions in the region. However, following the global financial crisis of 2008 and the Arab Spring, NBK had to slow its regional expansion. Dabdoub wonders if the bank is positioned to thrive and fulfill its collective ambition to become the Arab regional bank by 2020.

Privatization of the Power Sector in Nigeria (A)

Werker, Eric, Onyechi Ezekwueche, Olatomiwa Igun, and Alice Wei
April 2013

In spite of its abundant energy resources, Nigeria in 2012 had one of the lowest levels of energy use in the world. Self-generation of power from costly generators was double that of grid-supplied electricity. The history of its power sector was one of inefficient monopolies, missteps, and corruption. But a wholesale change to the market, designed under reformist President Obasanjo and pushed forward by President Jonathan, promised greater efficiencies and investment guided by private-sector principles including widespread privatization, pricing reforms, and reliance on firms to produce and distribute the electricity. Power producer firms on the sideline needed to decide whether they wanted to be a part of this new market.

Privatization of the Power Sector in Nigeria (B)

Werker, Eric, Onyechi Ezekwueche, Olatomiwa Igun, and Alice Wei
April 2013

No abstract available.

Fonterra

Bell, David E., Mary Shelman, and Annelena Lobb
April 2013

No abstract available.

Société Internationale de Plantations et de Finance (SIPEF)

Hawkins, David F.
April 2013

Management of a company with extensive palm oil tree plantations questions the usefulness to management and investors of IAS41's requirement to value palm oil trees at their fair value.

New Earth Mining, Inc.

Fruhan, William E., and Wei Wang
April 2013

No abstract available

Uptake of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests

Ashraf, Nava, and Natalie Kindred
March 2013

This case describes barriers to adoption of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Zambia and highlights the importance of understanding end users in promoting product adoption. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are simple, easy-to-use tools that provide a relatively reliable, inexpensive way to confirm diagnoses of malaria. In addition to ensuring that patients' febrile illnesses are properly diagnosed and treated, confirming malaria diagnoses has broader public health benefits, including promoting the efficient use of limited malaria medications and preventing increased resistance to first-line malaria treatment. However, despite the evident potential benefits of RDTs, many clinicians in Zambia do not use them or simply ignore their results. Why don't they trust these tools, and what can be done to improve adoption? Various barriers to uptake and methods to overcome these challenges are explored, with broad implications for technology adoption and health policy. A particular emphasis is placed on the role of behavioral preferences.

Buro Happold (B)

Eccles, Robert G., and Penelope Rossano
March 2013

Supplements the (A) case

Pemex (A) & (B)

Musacchio, Aldo
March 2013

No abstract available

Home Essentials: Building a Global Service Business with Local Operations.

Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr , and David Lane
February 2013

Chris Exline founded Home Essentials, a furniture rental business targeted toward expatriates, in Singapore but rapidly moved the base of operations to Hong Kong. The company was highly successful in Singapore and Hong Kong and then pursued rapid global expansion. Lacking frameworks for deciding upon countries to enter and services to deliver in each country, Exline used gut instinct. Lacking control systems and information, he failed to identify problems early and had trouble understanding the root cause of failures. The global financial crisis intensified the problems. The case ends by describing how Exline was able to turn around the troubled company and develop necessary governance systems. The question of whether to once more attempt to grow beyond Hong Kong and, if so, the approach to take in selecting countries, is a central issue Exline faced at the time of the case.

Olam: On a New Course

Bell, David E., Forest Reinhardt , and Mary Shelman
February 2013

From modest beginnings as a cashew trader in Nigeria, Olam, founded by Indian nationals in 1989, has grown into a leading global agricultural trading company, with annual revenues of $14 billion. The company recently has begun investing in farms and in the production of packaged goods, shifting from its traditional focus on the midstream of the value chain. The case raises questions involving competitive positioning, corporate strategy, sustainable development, and the management of business and political risk.

Uganda: The Constitution of Development

Duggan, Catherine S.M.
February 2013

No abstract available

Nigeria: Opportunity in Crisis?

Duggan, Catherine S.M.
February 2013

No abstract available

The Universalization of L'Oréal

Lal, Rajiv, and Carin-Isabel Knoop
January 2013

In 2010, half of the world's cosmetics sales came from the so-called emerging markets for the first time; L'Oréal opened three new subsidiaries, in Egypt, Pakistan, and Kazakhstan; and the Paris, France-based cosmetics and personal care powerhouse declared its intention to double its consumer base to two billion and increase its share of sales from emerging markets. CEO Jean-Paul Agon made it his number one goal to "prepare the company to keep its global leadership in this new era".

2012

Marc Rich and Global Commodity Trading

Jones, Geoffrey, and Espen Storli
December 2012

Examines the career of Marc Rich, the world's leading commodity trader before his criminal indictment in the United States in 1983. The case surveys the historical growth of commodity trading, especially in metals, from the late nineteenth century, and its evolving forms as governments intervened in markets after 1945. Rich joined Philipp Brothers, then the largest commodity trader, in 1954. He formed his own firm two decades later. He was instrumental in the creation of a spot market in petroleum and assumed a pivotal role in the industry during the 1970s by selling Iranian oil to Israel and South Africa. The case provides a means to explore the rationale and advantages of giant commodity traders, as well as enabling students to debate corporate use of tax havens.

Against the Grain: Jim Teague in Tanzania (B)

Ramanna, Karthik
December 2012

N/A

SCMS: Battling HIV/AIDS in Africa

Raman, Ananth, Noel Watson, Santiago Kraiselburd, and Emmanuel Akili
November 2012

In 2005, USAID and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), created the Supply Chain Management System (SCMS) to procure and distribute essential medicines and supplies; provide technical assistance to transform existing supply chains; and collaborate with in-country and global partners to coordinate efforts. The new U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI) initialized in 2010 sought to build on these efforts through strengthened platforms and systems. PEPFAR's five-year strategy, as contribution to the GHI, focused on transitioning the program from an emergency response to a sustainable, country-owned effort. The case describes the general approach designed by SCMS, the intricacies of its successful implementation in Ethiopia, and the challenges moving forward in that country.

Urbanizing China

Iyer, Lakshmi, and G.A. Donovan
November 2012

In 2012, China attained a historic development milestone with more Chinese citizens living in cities than in the countryside. China's rapid urbanization, and the accompanying conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses, raised a number of economic, social, and political concerns. Could China maintain its food security in view of the sharply rising demand for land for urban development? How could it ensure the sustainability of local government finances? Was the growing number of land protests the harbinger of major changes in China's political institutions? How would the challenges of urbanization affect the business environment for private firms? The success and viability of China's overall growth strategy depended crucially on managing a successful urban transition.

Angola and the Resource Curse

Musacchio, Aldo, Eric Werker, and Ian Cornell
November 2012

N/A

Carolina for Kibera

McGinn, Kathleen L. Beth-Ann Kutchma, and Cailin B. Hammer
November 2012

Carolina for Kibera (CFK) is an international non-profit organization whose mission is to promote youth leadership and gender and ethnic cooperation in Kibera, the largest unstructured settlement situated in the heart of Nairobi, Kenya. CFK's programs constructively leverage the power of the community, offering an exemplar of participatory development. CFK's affiliation with University of North Carolina offers a new model of social enterprise. After eight years of success under the founding leadership of Salim Mohamed, Rye Barcott, and Kim Chapman, CFK is at a critical juncture. Mohamed, executive director of all operations in Kibera, is leaving to go to graduate school. Rye Barcott, founder and president, has a new career and a growing family and can no longer play an active role in CFK's operations. Kim Chapman, chair of the U.S. board of directors, has accepted a full-time faculty position and must step down from her roles at CFK. These departures come at a time when the Gates Foundation has just awarded CFK a two-year, $1 million grant. The case ends as CFK begins to grapple with impending changes in organizational leadership and activities.

Carolina for Kibera

McGinn, Kathleen L.
November 2012

N/A

Liberia

Werker, Eric, and Ian Cornell
November 2012

N/A

Preem (A) & (B)

Becker, Bo
November 2012

N/A

Albert 'Jack' Stanley in Nigeria (C)

Goldberg, Lena G., and Annelena Lobb
October 2012

The international joint venture that successfully bid for $6 billion in contracts to build LNG trains on Nigeria's Bonny Island became entangled in a widening bribery and corruption probe triggered by an unrelated accusation against an employee of one of the JV partners. The (A) case discusses the JV's "business as usual" approach to doing business in the context of Nigeria's political culture and the involvement of Albert "Jack" Stanley, the JV's alleged manager, in structuring and implementing an elaborate bribery scheme. The (B) case relates Stanley's actions after he became the subject of multiple investigations and was terminated by Halliburton, parent of the U.S. JV partner, for taking kickbacks. The (C) case details the resolution of bribery and corruption allegations against Stanley, several of his associates and the JV partners.

Elia Nuqul and the Making of a Middle Eastern Business Group (A)

Jones, Geoffrey, and Lana Ghanem
October 2012

The case is concerned with Elia Nuqul, the founder of Jordanian-based Nuqul Brothers, a large diversified business group. It shows how Nuqul, a Christian Palestinian whose family was forced to flee to Jordan after the creation of Israel in 1948, built a business in his new home, first in trading and later in consumer products such as hygienic paper manufacturing. The case shows the challenges of building such an entrepreneurial business in a developing region with high political instability. The case is positioned within the wider context of the regional conflict in Palestine and Israel, and it provides a vehicle for exploring the role and responsibility of entrepreneurs, if any, in such conflicts.

Negotiating the Path of Abraham

Sebenius, James K., and Kimberlyn Leary
July 2012

The Abraham Path Initiative board faces strategic and negotiating challenges in revitalizing a route of Middle East cultural tourism following Abraham's path 4000 years ago. The Path begins in the ancient ruins of Harran, in modern-day Turkey, where Abraham first heard the call to "go forth." It passes through some of the world's most revered cultural, historical, and holy sites, ending in the city of Hebron/AI-Khalil at the tomb of Abraham. With Abraham as a venerated patriarchal figure for Islam, Judaism, and Christianity-monotheistic religions whose adherents have so often clashed-the potential unifying power of this conception has attracted a remarkable range of supporters from around the world as well as considerable media interest. From a notion crystallized at Harvard in 2004, this idea has been carefully negotiated into a concrete reality with supporting country organizations in Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Palestine, and Israel. With the endorsement of the U.N.'s Alliance of Civilizations, over 300 kilometers of the Path have now been opened to a growing number of travelers ranging from student study groups to international leaders, all walking stretches of the Path. Yet, momentum has stalled in key areas, strategic and operational issues remain unresolved, and the financial future of the initiative is clouded. Soon the board will meet to debate and decide these issues.

First Quantum Minerals vs. Eurasian Natural Resources

Serafeim, George, and Andrew Knauer
July 2012

The case describes the battle between First Quantum Mineral (FQM) and Eurasian Resources over mines in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). After FQM's license to operate was revoked by the government of the DRC, Eurasian bought the rights over the mines that were previously under FQM's control raising questions about the effectiveness of corporate governance at Eurasian.

Peace, Non-Aligned: The Pragmatic Optimism of Lakhdar Brahimi

Sebenius, James K., and Laurence A. Green
June 2012

Describes the background and career of Lakhdar Brahimi in numerous roles ranging from Algeria's ambassador to Indonesia and the Arab League, to serving as that country's foreign minister, and to his many years at the United Nations, with special emphasis on his actions as a mediator in Lebanese and Afghan conflicts.

Against the Grain: Jim Teague in Tanzania

Ramanna, Karthik
June 2012

Loan officer Jim Teague discovers his agro-processor client has a serious health-code violation just days before a disbursement is due. Proceeding with the loan could jeopardize the health of thousands of customers and put his employer at serious risk. But withholding the loan will likely deprive hundreds of farmers affiliated with the agro-processor their livelihoods in this poor rural corner of Tanzania.

Against the Grain: Jim Teague in Tanzania

Ramanna, Karthik
June 2012

No abstract available

OpenIDEO

Lakhani, Karim R., Anne-Laure Fayard, Natalia Levina, and Stephanie Healy Pokrywa
May 2012

The case describes OpenIDEO, an online offshoot of IDEO, one of the world's leading product design firms. OpenIDEO leverages IDEO's innovative design process and an online community to create solutions for social issues. Emphasis is placed on comparing the IDEO and OpenlDEO processes using real-world project examples. For IDEO this includes the redesign of Air New Zealand's long haul flights. For OpenIDEO this includes increasing bone marrow donor registrations and improving personal sanitation in Ghana. In addition, the importance of fostering a collaborative online environment is explored.

Nike Football: World Cup 2010 (B)

Ofek, Elie, and Ryan Johnson
May 2012

No abstract available

Dubai: Debt, Development, and Crisis (A), (B), & (C)

Musacchio, Aldo
May 2012

No abstract available

Speeding Ahead to a Better Place

Ofek, Elie, and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld
March 2012

In mid-2008, Shai Agassi, CEO of Better Place, is in the midst of planning a paradigm shift in clean transportation. In an attempt to wean the world from using gasoline-powered vehicles, his company is playing the role of innovator and integrator for new vehicles, charging spots, and battery switch stations. The effort also requires aligning various parties, from governments to auto manufacturers to consumers. The fledgling company has made good progress in both Israel and Denmark as the first two launch locations but faces a series of decisions on the best course of action going forward. Agassi must decide how best to market in these two countries given the likely adoption challenges once the infrastructure and cars are ready, as well as decide how quickly to begin pursuing other countries (and if so, which ones). A big part of the Better Place solution relies on a novel business model that needs to be evaluated for its attractiveness and feasibility.

Fonterra

Bell, David E., Mary Shelman
March 2012

In 2011, Fonterra, the world's largest processor and exporter of dairy products, needed to reposition its business to take advantage of rising demand in emerging markets in Asia.

Abraaj Capital and the Karachi Electric Supply Company

Lerner, Josh, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, and Ann Leamon
March 2012

In 2008, the Dubai-based private equity group Abraaj Capital invested $360 million in Karachi Electric Supply Company, a troubled utility serving Pakistan's largest city. In 2010, the firm has made great strides in turning around the company, but the transition is not complete. In fact, completing the task involves significant work in rebuilding the social contract, in addition to correcting matters related to company management and electricity supply. Is this the direction for private equity in the future?

Joe Gifford in Tal Afar, Iraq (A)

Badaracco, Joseph, Richard Burgess Jr., Robert Carpio III, and William Wheeler
March 2012

A lieutenant leading a platoon in Iraq must make a complex ethical, military, and leadership decision: whether to risk his life and that of other soldiers to reenter a home rigged with an explosive to save three Iraqis.

Joe Gifford in Tal Afar, Iraq (B)

Badaracco, Joseph, Richard Burgess Jr., Robert Carpio III, and William Wheeler
March 2012

A lieutenant leading a platoon in Iraq must make a complex ethical, military, and leadership decision: whether to risk his life and that of other soldiers to reenter a home rigged with an explosive to save three Iraqis. The (B) case describes the decision made and the rationale behind it.

Claude Grunitzky

Battilana, Julie, Lakshmi Ramarajan, and James Weber
March 2012

Claude Grunitzky, a media entrepreneur, develops, maintains, and leverages an extensive personal and professional network across three continents. The case considers the steps he has taken to build and cultivate a network that creates value for himself and others

Brasil Foods

Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred
March 2012

In mid-2011, the management of Brasil Foods, a leading Brazilian branded foods producer and protein exporter, is evaluating strategies for international and domestic growth. The team has just received approval from Brazil's antitrust authorities to complete the merger of Perdigao and Sadia, the two massive food producers that had combined to form Brasil Foods in 2009. Now, the team is free to focus on their ambitious plan to double revenues by 2015. Domestically, the plan calls for Brasil Foods to maintain its allowed retail market share and expand its presence in the fast-growing food service sector. Internationally, the plan sets out a vision of Brasil Foods evolving from an exporter to a true multinational. The team believes their operational expertise and scale combined with Brazil's booming economy and vast agricultural resources form the ideal platform for achieving their vision. Yet, amid a wealth of possibilities, they face tough choices, such as which emerging markets to pursue first. They also face serious personnel issues, including integrating employees from Perdigao and Sadia-longtime industry rivals-and developing an international team that understands foreign markets.

Joe Gifford in Tal Afar, Iraq (A) and (B)

Badaracco, Joseph
March 2012

No abstract available

Samasource: Give Work, Not Aid

Gino, Francesca, and Bradely R. Staats
March 2012

No abstract available

Sustainable Tea at Unilever

Henderson, Rebecca, and Frederik Nellemann
March 2012

No abstract available

Allied Electronics Corporation Ltd.: Linking Compensation to Sustainability Metrics

Eccles, Robert G., George Serafeim, Shelley Xin Li, and Alan Knight
March 2012

No abstract available

Samasource: Give Work, Not Aid

Gino, Francesca, and Bradley R. Staats
February 2012

Samasource sought to use work, not aid, for economic development. The company secured contracts for digital services from large companies in the United States and Europe, divided the work up into small pieces (called microwork), and then sent it to delivery centers in developing regions of the world for completion through a web-based interface. Different from traditional business process outsourcing companies, Samasource relied on a marginalized population of workers to execute the work. The case explores how the company can grow its capability to help individuals around the globe through the provision of digital work. This case includes color exhibits.

Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking

Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron
February 2012

No abstract available

Liberia

Werker, Eric, and Jasmina Beganovic
February 2012

From 1989-2003 civil war raged in Liberia, causing GDP per capita to drop an unprecedented 90 percent from peak to trough. The roots of Liberia's conflict and economic decline are complex and intertwined, resting on over a century of discriminatory elite rule and twisted by ethnic politics during a military dictatorship. By late 2011, eight years of post-conflict government have restored basic order, re-opened the country to foreign investors, and jump-started the small economy. But the country's business model may unsettle its political stability. As Africa's first democratically elected female head of state and Nobel peace prize winner Ellen Johnson Sirleaf goes into her reelection campaign, she must decide how to keep the country on its fragile but quick recovery, sowing the seeds for peace and prosperity rather than renewed conflict.

Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking

Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron
February 2012

No abstract available.

CARD Group: Mutually Reinforcing Institutions

Montgomery, Cynthia A., Michael Shih-ta Chen, and Dawn Lau
January 2012

CARD (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development) is a Philippines-based microfinance organization that began as an NGO and has since expanded into eight related entities providing services to the poor. Under founding director Dr. Aristotle Alip's leadership, CARD has become one of the top microfinance institutions in the world. More recently, larger commercial and financial institutions are seeking a slice of the microfinance market. The main dilemma Dr. Alip faces is as follows: Should he partner with commercial institutions to reap benefits from their larger sources of capital and technology expertise? Would that mean compromising his original mission of elevating people from the base of the pyramid?

Oral Rehydration Therapy

Ashraf, Nava, and Claire Qureshi
January 2012

This case highlights the puzzlingly high rate of diarrhea-related child mortality in developing countries despite the existence of a simple, effective treatment: oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT treated extreme dehydration caused by diarrhea, which was a leading cause of death among young children in developing countries, particularly in Africa and Asia. Heralded in the 1970s as one of the most important medical advancements of the 20th century, ORT contributed to a reduction in diarrhea-related child deaths from roughly 4.5 million in 1980 to 1.5 million in 2000. Yet for reasons unclear to the global public health community, the mortality rate stalled at around 1.5 million, where it remained in 2010. In presenting the problem of diarrhea-related death, the solution represented by ORT, and the various factors potentially influencing ORT utilization, the case allows students to analyze the possible causes of low ORT utilization and potential measures to address them.

2011

Abraaj Capital

Lerner, Josh
December 2011

Abraaj Capital addresses issues of how to respond to the fast-growing Middle East market. Questions of scaling, institutionalization, and geographic scope are among those considered.

The K-Dow Petrochemicals Joint Venture

Subramanian, Guhan, James K. Sebenius, Phillip Andrews, and Rhea Ghosh
November 2011

In 2007, the Dow Chemical Company and the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation announced plans to launch a multibillion-dollar joint venture. Later known as K-Dow Petrochemicals, it would be one of the largest manufacturers of chemicals and plastics in the world. Analysts widely hailed the planned joint venture as a game-changing deal for both companies. Shortly after the announcement, cable network CNBC requested an interview with Andrew Liveris, Dow's CEO, about this massive transaction. Liveris needed to decide how to respond. This case provides a brief background on the industry, both companies, and plans for the joint venture as of January 2008.

Veracity Worldwide in Syria: Assessing Political Risk in a Volatile Environment

Musacchio, Aldo
November 2011

No abstract available

Veracity Worldwide: Evaluating FCPA-Related Risks in West Africa

Musacchio, Aldo
November 2011

No abstract available

Scotty Smiley

Snook, Scott A., and Doug Crandall
October 2011

U.S. Army Lieutenant Scotty Smiley faces the biggest challenge of his young life. What will he do after learning that the wounds he received from a car bomb in Iraq have left him permanently blinded? On April 6, 2005, Lieutenant Scotty Smiley was grievously wounded by a suicide bomber while leading his infantry platoon during a combat patrol in Iraq. This is a biographical case that outlines who Scotty was prior to this incident and asks readers to consider the following fundamental question: What does this tragic event mean for who he is and how he will lead his life? And by extension, what role do life crucibles play in helping to shape who we are and how we lead?

South Africa (A): Stuck in the Middle?

Vietor, Richard H. K., and Diego Comin
October 2011

Fifteen years after apartheid ended, formal unemployment in South Africa was still at 24%. While the country had grown at 4% to 5% annually during the 2000s, the financial crisis set it back by 1 million more unemployed. Moreover, it seemed as if the nation were stuck between low-wage and fully developed competitors. The government of Jacob Zuma has just adopted a "New Growth Path," hoping to create several million jobs over the next few years. Both the finance minister and the head of the Central Bank support the initiative but worry how they can sustain fiscal discipline and control inflation, in light of these stimulative policies. Organized labor, meanwhile, has little sympathy for any sort of sacrifice.

South Africa (B): Getting Unstuck

Vietor, Richard H. K., and Diego Comin
October 2011

15 years after ending apartheid, formal unemployment in South Africa was still at 24%. While the country had grown at 4 to 5% annually during the 2000s, the financial crisis set it back by 1 million more unemployed. Moreover, it seemed as if the nation were stuck between low wage and fully developed competitors. The government of Jacob Zuma has just adopted a "New Growth Path," hoping to create several million jobs over the next few years. Both the Finance Minister and the head of the Central Bank support the initiative, but worry how they can sustain fiscal discipline and control inflation, in light of these stimulative policies. Organized labor, meanwhile, has little sympathy for any sort of sacrifice.

Global Business School Network

Marquis, Christopher, and Rwitwika Bhattacharya
September 2011

The mission of the Global Business School Network (GBSN) is to strengthen business education for the developing world. The organization was transitioning out of its start-up phase and wants to shift its focus from capacity building activities driven by the organization to empowering the network to carry out GBSN's mission. The case asks, what is the best way to accomplish this objective?

Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital: Cardiac Care for the Poor (B)

Khanna, Tarun, and Tanya Bijlani
September 2011

Narayana Hrudayalaya (NH) has expanded into a multi-specialty health city in Bangalore and has grown to twelve locations across India. The hospital plans to build 300-bed secondary-care hospitals in smaller cities across India, with a goal to operate 30,000 beds in seven years, which will make it comparable with the world's largest hospital chains. NH operates the world's largest tele-cardiology network, which provides consultations to people in 800 locations across the world, including 53 African countries. Management also plans to open a 2,000-bed hospital in the Cayman Islands to provide underinsured Americans with tertiary care procedures at 40% below U.S. prices, thereby bringing Dr. Shetty's model of compassionate care at affordable prices to the developed world.

CFW Clinics in Kenya: To Profit or Not for Profit

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Katherine Lee
September 2011

Ten years after having launched a chain of non-profit health clinics, its founder is now debating the merits of scaling the operation by converting to a for-profit enterprise.

Albert 'Jack' Stanley in Nigeria (A)

Goldberg, Lena G., and Chad M. Carr
September 2011

An international joint venture successfully bid for contracts to build six LNG trains on Nigeria's Bonny Island but, before the final train came on stream, became entangled in a widening corruption probe triggered by an unrelated accusation against an employee of Technip, the French JV partner. The (A) case discuss the JV's "business as usual" approach to doing business in the context of Nigeria's political culture and the predicament of the JV's alleged manager, Albert "Jack" Stanley, after being terminated in 2004 by Halliburton, parent of the U.S. JV partner, for taking kickbacks.

Albert 'Jack' Stanley in Nigeria (B)

Goldberg, Lena G., and Chad M. Carr
September 2011

The case describes Albert "Jack" Stanley's response to actions initiated against him by the U.S. Department of Justice and the SEC.

Renewing GE: The Africa Project (B)

Thomas, David A., and Stephanie J. Creary
August 2011

This case continues the story of the evolution of GE's business initiatives Africa. Between November 2010 and March 2011 several significant structural changes and leadership appointments were announced at GE, which reflected the company's commitment to global growth in all its regions outside the U.S., including its business in sub-Saharan Africa. In November 2010, John Rice, vice chairman of GE and president and CEO of GE Technology Infrastructure, was named vice chairman of GE and president and CEO of Global Growth and Operations (GGO). In this new role, Rice was based in Hong Kong and in charge of GE's growth in regions outside the U.S. In March 2011, Jay Ireland, a 31-year GE veteran and corporate officer, was appointed president and CEO for GE Africa, effective April 15, reporting to Rice. Additionally, three senior executives were appointed to Ireland's team: Lazarus Angbazo was promoted from president and CEO, sub-Saharan Africa, to president and CEO, GE West, East & Central Africa and Africa commercial leader; Thomas Konditi, a native of Kenya, rejoined GE as CFO for Global Growth and Operations, GE Africa; and Tamla Oates-Forney was promoted from human resources leader for sub-Saharan Africa, GE Energy, to senior human resources manager, GE Africa. While many were optimistic about GE's future in Africa, several issues still needed to be considered.

Bridge International Academies: A School in a Box

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Katharine Lee
August 2011

Bridge International was founded in 2007 as a for-profit social enterprise to address the educational needs of poor children in Africa. Ten schools were operational in Kenya by 2010. The plan was to franchise nearly 3,000 schools all over Africa. The case is meant to discuss the challenges of scaling.

The Israeli-Palestinian Negotiating Partners: 2010 Strategic Re-assessment

Sebenius, James K., and Shula Gilad
July 2011

A network of influential Israelis and Palestinians, jointly trained in negotiation at Harvard since 2002, faces organizational, strategic, and funding challenges in 2010. Unlike "people-to-people" or "Track II" initiatives, the Israeli-Palestinian Negotiating Partners (IPNP) consists of relatively senior people on both sides of the conflict who have undergone advanced negotiation training together and now constitute a unique network in the region. IPNP's academic sponsor, the Harvard Negotiation Project, is helping to assess this unique negotiation initiative and to assist the organization to conduct a basic re-assessment in the face of changes in regional politics, the conflict, and the funding environment.

Nike Football: World Cup 2010 South Africa

Ofek, Elie, and Ryan Johnson
July 2011

Nike's Football Division needs to devise a strategy to excel at the 2010 World Cup games in South Africa. Nike has gone from a niche player in the market for football apparel and footwear in 1994 to a formidable competitor to Adidas in 2008 (with revenues of over $1 billion for the sport). The case traces how Nike has gone about making this transformation and its activities at each of the World Cups since 1994. For the upcoming World Cup in South Africa, Nike has decided to change its target market focus and to use digital and social media platforms to connect more extensively with consumers. In addition, Nike plans to launch innovative new boots and engage in corporate responsibility and sustainability initiatives. The company has to do so in light of competition from archrival Adidas and the pressure of succeeding on the biggest stage in football, with billions of people around the world watching. The case allows students to analyze how a company can best integrate several value propositions into a cohesive plan and how it can best communicate with its chosen target market. It also allows for a rich discussion of the brand image the company needs to portray to leverage success beyond the World Cup event.

Shell Nigeria: The WikiLeaks Cables

Sucher, Sandra J., Rebecca Henderson, and Matthew Preble
July 2011

In November 2010, WikiLeaks began releasing the first of hundreds of thousands of U.S. diplomatic cables that it had obtained. Among the thousands of cables published by early 2011 were several that shed light on Royal Dutch Shell's operations in Nigeria and its relationship with the Nigerian government.

The Dutch Flower Cluster

Porter, Michael E., Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo, and Fred van Eenennaam
June 2011

Describes the Dutch flower cluster, or the group of interconnected growers, suppliers, service providers, and flower-related institutions located in The Netherlands. Examines the role of the FloraHolland auction in the value chain. Also describes the flower clusters in China, Colombia, Ecuador, and Kenya, the four other major international competitors.

The Dutch Flower Cluster (Teaching Note)

Porter, Michael E. and Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo
June 2011

No abstract available

Paul Bremer at the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq

Kaplan, Robert Steven
June 2011

No abstract available

Renewing GE: The Africa Project

Thomas, David A., and Stephanie J. Creary
May 2011

This case profiles the evolution of General Electric's African American Forum (AAF), an employee affinity group, and its efforts to increase the company's involvement in Africa. The AAF formed in 1991 to help advance GE's recruitment, retention, and development of black employees. By 1995, members of the AAF started asking Jack Welch whether the company was planning to develop business in Africa. After Welch invited the group to conduct due diligence, it was concluded that the timing was not right for GE to make a significant investment in Africa. Yet, when Jeffrey Immelt began attending the AAF Symposia in 2001, the question about GE's involvement in Africa resurfaced. In 2004, Immelt pledged $20 million to fund "The Africa Project" (later renamed, "Developing Health Globally")-a GE philanthropic effort sponsored by the GE Foundation and the AAF to improve healthcare outcomes in Africa.

Vodafone Qatar: Building a Telco in the Gulf

Alcacer, Juan, and Andrew Goodman
May 2011

Energy Security in Europe (B): The Southern Corridor

Abdelal, Rawi, and Sogomon Tarontsi
April 2011

Nabucco natural gas pipeline, initiated by a group of European energy companies, was intended to connect the broad gas-rich region of the Middle East and Central Asia to Europe for the first time, which would diversify supply sources. At the same time, an Italian-Russian consortium announced South Stream natural gas pipeline, which would diversify transport routes for the delivery of Russian gas to Europe. To win support, backers of Nabucco and South Stream insisted that their projects were aimed at fulfilling goals of the EU's energy policy (reducing the use of fossil fuels to combat climate change and guaranteed physical availability and affordability of imported fossil fuels). But, as the case demonstrates, both projects progressed slowly, encountering many technological and commercial challenges, which, however, were eclipsed by the extreme politicization of Nabucco and South Stream: pipelines became a factor in domestic politics of several European nations and figured prominently in relations between the EU, EU states, Russia, Turkey, former Soviet republics in Caucasus and Central Asia, and the United States. Although they would comprise only a small part in the overall architecture of Europe's energy security, the case of Nabucco and South Stream reveals the limits of the ambitious energy policy of the EU.

ActionAid International: Globalizing Governance, Localizing Accountability

Ebrahim, Alnoor, and Rachel Gordon
April 2011

As a global NGO working in 45 countries, ActionAid International aims to eradicate poverty by addressing its underlying causes such as injustice and inequality. This case follows a series of radical transformations implemented by the organization's CEO, Ramesh Singh-a power shift from its headquarters in London to an international secretariat in Johannesburg; a new federated governance structure that increases the influence of units in Africa and Asia; and innovations in accountability and transparency to the poor communities with which it works. But as Singh gets ready to step down after seven years, he is confronted with challenges from newly empowered country units that he feels risk taking the organization in the wrong direction. How will the divisions between the northern and southern units play out? Will they tear the organization apart, just when it is becoming a global player?

Mobile Banking for the Unbanked

Rangan, Kasturi V., and Katharine Lee
April 2011

The case describes in detail the workings of two mobile banking operators in Africa-WIZZIT in South Africa and M-PESA in Kenya. It explores the dimensions of strategy that make for success in the market for the unbanked. It raises questions regarding the portability of the model to other countries and settings.

Community Health Workers in Zambia: Incentive Design and Management

Ashraf, Nava, and Natalie Kindred
March 2011

This case examines the various considerations relevant to selecting and compensating workers in a context where their work involves a pro-social component. This is relevant to not only health care in Zambia, but also to NGO and public sector workers who are both motivated by the mission of their positions and the remuneration. Zambia was facing a healthcare human resource crisis with less than half of the healthcare workers needed to meet health needs. Yet, it was simultaneously burdened by high incidence of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, malnutrition, and respiratory and diarrheal diseases. The Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) realized that in the short-term it would be impossible to train the number of doctors and nurses needed to fill this gap. Thus, they were considering incorporating the primarily volunteer community health worker (CHW) force into salaried health workers of the MoH. Given the high level of personal commitment and dedication combined with the proper education and skill needed to be an effective community health worker, the MoH was struggling to identify the best strategy to recruit and retain motivated and capable CHWs.

Recruiting Andrew Yard (A)

Hall, Brian J., Nicole S. Bennett, and Sara del Nido
March 2011

This case describes a compensation negotiation between a global HR director and a candidate for a high-level executive position. The situation becomes awkward when the candidate feels insulted because he is given a monetary incentive to join the company more quickly than originally planned. The case provides an opportunity to analyze negotiation strategy and the importance of emotional intelligence and effective interpersonal communication during a negotiation.

Recruiting Andrew Yard (B)

Hall, Brian J., Nicole S. Bennett, and Sara del Nido
March 2011

Supplements the (A) case

Recruiting Andrew Yard (C)

Hall, Brian J., Nicole S. Bennett, and Sara del Nido
March 2011

Supplements the (A) case

Angola and the Resource Curse

Musacchio, Aldo, Eric Werker, and Jonathan Schlefer
January 2011

Since emerging from decades of conflict in 2002, Angola has been growing at a scorching double-digit rate, led by its oil industry. But the nation remains beset with seemingly intractable problems: immense inequality, low life expectancy, a non-diversified economy, and constant grumblings of corruption. The global financial crisis and subsequent fall in state oil revenue drives a loan-seeking Angola toward either the IMF, that demands extensive reforms, or the Chinese, who seek to take a direct stake in the nation's recovery. The case explores the dynamics of post-conflict recovery as well as the challenges associated with a reliance on oil wealth, including the resource curse and Dutch disease.

2010

The Export-Import Bank of the United States

Foley, C. Fritz, and Matthew Johnson
December 2010

In the fall of 2009, Fred Hochberg, chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im), and his team struggled to find a way to help finance the sale of Boeing aircraft to Emirates. Ex-Im responds to the challenges in the credit market with an innovative offering. This case provides students with an opportunity to analyze the structure and activities of an export credit agency and to value the expected costs of issuing a loan guarantee.

Urban Water Partners (A)

Ramanna, Karthik, George Serafeim, and Aldo Sesia Jr.
December 2010

The case explores a new business venture to bring clean water to residents of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who otherwise cannot afford it. Management has enough money to get the company through August 2010 but needs more capital thereafter. An HBS alumnus is interested in investing in the company. Management needs to revisit its financial assumptions; decide on an incentive structure for its proposed network of local water vendors; and put together a pro-forma income statement, cashflow statement, and balance sheet in anticipation of meeting with the investor.

Urban Water Partners (B)

Ramanna, Karthik, George Serafeim, and Aldo Sesia Jr.
December 2010

Supplements the (A) case

The International Criminal Court

Di Tella, Rafael, and Natalie Kindred
November 2010

This Case describes a controversial 2010 decision by the International Criminal Court (ICC) and alludes to some of the broader challenges of building international institutions. The case briefly highlights certain milestones in international relations preceding the ICC's formation; provides an overview of the ICC and its activities as of March 2010; and outlines Kenya's post-election crisis in 2007-2008 and the ICC's decision to intervene. The ICC's involvement was a divisive issue: some argued it would destabilize Kenya, while others claimed it was an important step towards lasting peace. The Kenya scenario presents many aspects for consideration, including the wisdom of the ICC's involvement (given the complex historical, economic, and cultural issues underlying the 2007-2008 crisis), as well as the likelihood that Kenyan officials will cooperate with the ICC. Students can also weigh the broader implications for the ICC as it seeks to establish itself as a legitimate, fair, and just institution.

Dubai Duty Free

Lal, Rajiv, and David Kiron
November 2010

In mid-February 2009, Dubai Duty Free Managing Director Colm McLoughlin received the January sales report. He left the report lying on his desk unopened and went to walk around the shops as he did every morning. When he returned, he sat down at his desk, looked at the cover of the report, then called his wife, Breeda, to confirm that they were hosting a dinner party that weekend for some friends from Ireland who were in town for a golf tournament Dubai Duty Free was supporting.

Paul Bremer at the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq

Kaplan, Robert S., and Nicholas Taranto
October 2010

Since becoming the President's envoy responsible for post-war Iraq, Paul Bremer endured many sleepless nights, struggling with the decision of how to hand over sovereignty to the Iraqi people. Despite daily assassination attempts, tribal warfare, growing violence, and political pressure-at home in Washington, D.C. and abroad-the CPA undertook the difficult task of handing over power to an Iraqi civil society that was simultaneously being rebuilt from the ground up.

One Firm One Future at Davis Langdon (A)

Eccles, Robert G., and Kaitlyn A. Simpson
August 2010

Senior Partner Rob Smith just led construction consultancy firm Davis Langdon through a major organizational change in Europe and the Middle East. In the past, compensation arrangements had not incentivized partners to collaborate across the firm to serve clients' increasingly global and complex needs. In 2007, under Smith's leadership, the partnership agreed to implement holistic change. This included a shift from geographical to sector structure and a new profit-sharing system that encouraged partners to work together for the benefit of the firm as a whole. Amidst the global economic crisis, Smith must decide how to extend on a global basis the alignment the firm has begun to achieve in Europe and the Middle East.

One Firm One Future at Davis Langdon (B)

Eccles, Robert G., and Kaitlyn A. Simpson
August 2010

Supplements the (A) case

One Firm One Future at Davis Langdon (C)

Eccles, Robert G.,, and Kaitlyn A. Simpson
August 2010

Supplements the (A) case

Deworming Kenya: Translating Research into Action (A)

Ashraf, Nava, Neil Buddy Shah, and Rachel Gordon
August 2010

Karen Levy and her colleague, Margaret Ndanyi, have spent the last six months planning and preparing for a national Kenyan program to target school children most at risk for parasitic worm infection. One week after its launch, the program seemed to be going well, but Ndanyi and Levy knew that it still needed to be administered in almost 40 districts at thousands of schools. They wondered: Would they meet their goal of deworming over three million school children before the end of the fiscal year on June 30, 2009? Would they be able to do it for less than $0.50 per child?

Deworming Kenya: Translating Research into Action (B)

Ashraf, Nava, Neil Buddy Shah, and Rachel Gordon
August 2010

Karen Levy and her colleague, Margaret Ndanyi, learn the results of their nationwide effort to rid Kenyan school children of parasitic worm infection.

Dubai: Debt, Development, and Crisis (A)

Musacchio, Aldo, Andrew Goodman, and Claire Qureshi
August 2010

On November 25, 2009, the city state of Dubai stunned markets by announcing that Dubai World, its flagship state holding company, would seek a six-month "standstill" on at least $4 billion U.S. dollars of its $26 billion in debt obligations. This case describes Dubai's development strategy in detail and narrates how, as part of that strategy, a series of state-owned holding companies accumulated billions of dollars in debt. The (A) case ends as Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed, chairman of Dubai's Fiscal Committee, has to decide what to do about the financial troubles of Dubai World and other state-owned holding companies. The case presents Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed having to decide among three options: the Dubai government can guarantee the debt, they can renegotiate the debt, or they can walk away (i.e., default). The (B) case describes the decision and the reactions to this decision around the world and presents a new decision on the part of bond holders of Dubai's state-owned holding companies. The (C) case briefly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of Dubai's bankruptcy procedures, both for investors and for the holding companies of Dubai.

Dubai: Debt, Development, and Crisis (B)

Musacchio, Aldo, Andrew Goodman, and Claire Qureshi
August 2010

On November 25, 2009, the city state of Dubai stunned markets by announcing that Dubai World, its flagship state holding company, would seek a six month "standstill" on at least $4 billion U.S. dollars of its $26 billion in debt obligations. This case describes Dubai's development strategy in detail and narrates how, as part of that strategy, a series of state-owned holding companies accumulated billions of dollars in debt. The A case ends as Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed, chairman of Dubai's Fiscal Committee, has to decide what to do about the financial troubles of Dubai World and other state-owned holding companies. The case presents Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed having to decide among three options: The Dubai government can guarantee the debt, they can renegotiate the debt, or walk away (i.e., default). The B case describes the decision and the reactions to this decision around the world and presents a new decision on the part of bond holders of Dubai's state-owned holding companies. The C case briefly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of Dubai's bankruptcy procedures, both for investors and for the holding companies of Dubai.

Dubai: Debt, Development, and Crisis (C)

Musacchio, Aldo, Andrew Goodman, and Claire Qureshi
August 2010

On November 25, 2009, the city state of Dubai stunned markets by announcing that Dubai World, its flagship state holding company, would seek a six month "standstill" on at least $4 billion U.S. dollars of its $26 billion in debt obligations. This case describes Dubai's development strategy in detail and narrates how, as part of that strategy, a series of state-owned holding companies accumulated billions of dollars in debt. The A case ends as Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed, chairman of Dubai's Fiscal Committee, has to decide what to do about the financial troubles of Dubai World and other state-owned holding companies. The case presents Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed having to decide among three options: The Dubai government can guarantee the debt, they can renegotiate the debt, or walk away (i.e., default). The B case describes the decision and the reactions to this decision around the world and presents a new decision on the part of bond holders of Dubai's state-owned holding companies. The C case briefly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of Dubai's bankruptcy procedures, both for investors and for the holding companies of Dubai.

Dubai in Crisis

Maurer, Noel
June 2010

On November 25, 2009, the small city-state of Dubai shook financial markets across the world when the Dubai World holding companies announced that it would ask its creditors to standstill its debts. After three decades of phenomenal growth, something had gone off the rails with Dubai's development model. What caused the trouble? Was it simply a temporary setback or a sign that the city-state needed to change its business model? Could Dubai maintain its independence from Abu Dhabi in the wake of the bailout? And if the emirate's current model was not sustainable, then how exactly should it change? This case explores all these issues, in light of the Great Recession, the geopolitical context, and Dubai's history.

The Vitality Group

Herzlinger, Regina E.
June 2010

Vitality is part of a $2 billion start-up South African and U.K. health insurance firm. It has achieved excellent results in rewarding people for promoting their health. It is now contemplating how to enter the U.S. market.

Ergo: Open Sourcing Research on Complicated Markets

Chakravorti, Bhaskar, and Natalie Kindred
May 2010

In 2009, Ergo, a primary source research and consulting firm founded in 2006 with offices in New York, Washington, and Baghdad, was considering growth options. Clients came to Ergo for in-depth research into complex questions, usually pertaining to obscure industries, opaque markets, and complicated geographies. To meet its clients' information needs, Ergo's research staff interviewed members of Ergo's 7,000-strong expert network comprised of former government officials, scientists, scholars, business leaders, and other individuals with specialized expertise or rare access to information. Ergo staff then synthesized the experts' input into a report for the client. In November 2009, Ergo founder RP Eddy was working on a joint-venture deal with a foreign sovereign wealth fund, which would boost Ergo's visibility (and revenues) in international markets and represent a major step for the young firm. To Ergo's leadership team, the move highlighted the need to revisit some major strategic questions. Would the joint venture be seen as a conflict of interest by Ergo's sovereign wealth fund clients? Should Ergo pursue a growth strategy based on regional joint ventures? Aim to be acquired? Or perhaps develop into large, diversified consultancy? To what extent was Ergo's model of open-sourced expertise even scalable?

An Overview of Project Finance and Infrastructure Finance-2009 Update

Esty, Benjamin C., and Aldo Sesia Jr.
July 2010

Provides an introduction to the fields of project finance and infrastructure finance and gives a statistical overview of project-financed investments over the years from 2005 to 2009. Examples of project-financed investments include the $1.4 billion Mozal aluminum smelter in Mozambique, $4 billion Chad-Cameroon pipeline, $6 billion Iridium global satellite telecommunications system, $900 million A2 Toll Road in Poland, $20 billion Sakhalin II gas field in Russia, and the $28 billion Dabhol power project. Globally, firms financed $240 billion of capital expenditures using project finance in 2009, down from $409 billion in 2008 as the financial crisis hit the Western markets. The use of project finance has grown at a compound rate of 0% over the last five years, 4% over the past 10 years, and 12% over the past 15 years. This note focuses primarily on private sector investment in industrial and infrastructure projects and contains four sections. The first section defines project finance and contrasts it with other well-known financing mechanisms. The second section describes the evolution of project finance from its beginnings in the natural resources industry in the 1970s, to the U.S. power industry in the 1980s, to a much wider range of industry applications and geographic locations in the 1990s, and most recently to infrastructure finance in the 2000s. The third section provides a statistical overview of project-financed investment over the last five years (2005 to 2009) and looks at industry, project, and participant specific data. The third section also provides recent data on infrastructure investments and public-private partnerships. The final section discusses current and likely future trends.

Carolina for Kibera

McGinn, Kathleen L., and Cailin B. Hammer
April 2010

A growing NGO based in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, is facing a complete change in leadership as the founders step back. At the same time, a $1 million grant presents new opportunities and challenges.

Sheikh Mohammed and the Making of 'Dubai, Inc.'

Mayo, Anthony J., Nitin Nohria, Umaimah Mendhro, and Johnathan Cromwell
March 2010

The last decade of corporate governance research has been focused in large part on identifying what leads to superior or deficient corporate governance in emerging economies, and we think the conventional wisdom about the economically important topics of tunneling and business groups will need to be significantly questioned and reformulated in light of new findings, data, and methodology presented here. We propose the idea that firms' corporate governance and firms' strategic business activities within an industry are interlinked, and that only by conducting a simultaneous economic analysis of business strategy and corporate governance can scholars fully discern the quality of a firm's governance. We advance this idea by taking a fresh look at one of the most rigorous extant methodologies for detecting "tunneling," or efforts by firms' controlling owner-managers to take money for themselves at the expense of minority shareholders. We show that efforts to discern which firms have superior or deficient corporate governance in the important emerging economy of India turn critically on whether one does a simultaneous economic analysis of business strategy and corporate governance. We find in contrast to prior views that Indian business groups are not, on average, engaging in tunneling but are, on average, exhibiting good corporate governance, especially in light of the markedly different business strategies they typically undertake. Moreover, unlike many past conceptions of business groups from financial economics, sociology, and strategy, we find evidence for a knowledge-based "recombinative capabilities" view of business groups-that such groups have done the most to invest in R&D and other skills necessary to combine inputs in ways that lead to greater added value. Moreover, our finding that Indian business groups have grown larger and more diversified since liberalization and since broad-based corporate governance reforms were implemented goes expressly against the prediction of prior schools of thought about business groups.

Gilead Sciences Inc.: Access Program

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Katharine Lee
February 2010

Gilead Sciences, the U.S. leader in HIV/AIDS medicines, with global sales of $5.4 billion in 2009, had undertaken several innovative actions to make its anti-viral products available to over 100 low- and middle-income countries. Having reached nearly 680,000 patients by the middle of 2009, the company's senior managers contemplated how to reach 2 million patients by 2012.

NovoCure Ltd.

Sahlman, William A, and Sarah Greene Flaherty
February 2010

Venture capitalist William Doyle must raise $35 million for a portfolio company with a promising, novel cancer therapy, just as global capital markets are imploding in the fall of 2008. NovoCure, Ltd., has developed an electrical-field-based therapy, called Tumor Treating fields, for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The therapy has shown significant efficacy with no side effects after five years of testing in human patients. Doyle believes NovoCure has the potential to become an important company with a major new cancer therapy platform but must complete pivotal (Phase III) clinical trials and receive FDA approval. Doyle's venture capital firm, WFD Ventures, has invested $25 million in three rounds to fund pilot clinical trials for glioblastoma and other non-small cell lung cancer, and the first pivotal clinical trial for glioblastoma. Additional financing is needed to proceed with the strategically important second pivotal trial. In the fall of 2008 Doyle was negotiating the final terms of an investment by two prominent hedge funds when the liquidity crisis caused the hedge funds to withdraw from the transaction. Dole must now reevaluate his options for securing the needed financing for this promising young company.

2009

Wiwa v. Royal Dutch/Shell

Paine, Lynn S., and Lara Adamsons
November 2009

On the eve of trial, and after nearly 14 years of pre-trial litigation, the parties in Wiwa v. Royal Dutch/Shell jointly announced that the four U.S. lawsuits stemming from the execution of the Ogoni Nine in 1995 had been settled.

Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird
October 2009

Since the 1980s, Procter & Gamble had leveraged its purpose, values, and principles (PVP) to create a global company. When P&G faced difficult times in 2000, the new CEO, A.G. Lafley, leveraged the PVP to drive P&G's turnaround, integrate global operations, and guide decision making in all facets of the business. But the Gillette acquisition posed a new challenge.

Tenova: Mining for Growth in an Economic Crisis

Pisano, Gary P., Elena Corsi, and Elisa Farri
October 2009

In December 2008, Gianluigi Nova, CEO of Tenova SpA, a technology and equipment supplier to the metals and mining industry, had to choose between two options. The first was to continue growing in the company's core business: equipment for the steel production. The second option offered growth in a related, but nearly new business for Tenova: the equipment for mining, mineral processing, and extractive metallurgy. They only had a small presence in this market. Yet, Nova had to cope with the worldwide economic crisis whose destructive power hit every area of the metals and mining industry. Nova had to decide which option offered the best opportunity to grow in the worst economic crisis since 1929.

Root Capital

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Katharine Lee
October 2009

Founded in 1999, Root Capital had loaned $150 million to nearly 250 small and growing businesses, mainly in Latin America. In 2009, as the organization launched a five-year, $55 million capital campaign, it had to determine a strategic path going forward in keeping with its goal of achieving financial sustainability by 2013

Endeavor: Creating a Global Movement for High-Impact Entrepreneurship

Sahlman, William A.
October 2009

This case describes a critical inflection point in the growth of an international development "mentor capitalist" nonprofit, Endeavor. As Endeavor aims to scale its high-impact entrepreneurship model globally, founder Linda Rottenberg must determine what success looks like for the organization and which growth option will most effectively take Endeavor in that direction. The case begins with a panel of business leaders selecting a new class of Jordanian entrepreneurs to join the ranks of Endeavor's prestigious portfolio. Their decision forces them to wrestle with the following questions: "What is high impact entrepreneurship, and how will it contribute to the economic development of a country like Jordan?"

Acumen Fund: Measurement in Venture Philanthropy (A)

Ebrahim, Alnoor, and V. Kasturi Rangan
October 2009

Acumen Fund is a global venture capital firm with a dual purpose: it looks for a return on its investments, and it also seeks entrepreneurial solutions to global poverty. This case examines Acumen's new projects in Kenya. The organization's investment committee and its chief investment officer, Brian Trelstad, must decide whether or not to fund two for-profit ventures. The first provides clean and accessible shower and toilet facilities in urban areas, serving a critical need for low-income populations-its financial sustainability, however, is less clear. The second investment is a network of successful private health clinics that primarily serve middle-income populations but which have the potential to reach low-income markets. On what basis should Acumen decide whether or not to invest? What performance metrics should it use? As the investment committee nears a decision, political and social unrest breaks out in Kenya following a highly contested presidential election. Acumen Fund must now also consider the political risks of investing.

Western Union: Our World, Our Family®

Marquis, Christopher
October 2009

In 2006, Western Union spun-off from its former parent, First Data Corporation, and began the process of defining itself as a stand-alone organization. Part of that effort was the creation of a strategic corporate social responsibility program called Our World, Our Family. The case tracks Western Union's earlier CSR initiatives and how they resulted in the creation Our World, Our Family. Key elements of the case focus on understanding the Western Union business model focused on financial remittances, and how its corporate citizenship efforts bring value to the company by satisfying the diverse needs of Western Union's stakeholders.

The Blackstone Group: Merlin Entertainment

El-Hage, Nabil N., and Brenda Chia
September 2009

The Blackstone Group had conducted a roll-up of theme parks and attractions business in Europe. It was considering how to generate liquidity for its investors. Blackstone entered the theme parks and attractions business in Europe by acquiring a majority stake in U.K.-based Merlin Entertainment in 2005. In 2005 and 2006, Merlin Entertainment acquired two other similar businesses, LEGOLAND based in Denmark, and Gardaland based in Italy. At the end of 2006, Blackstone's team was weighing its options for generating liquidity for its investors. The options were to conduct a dividend recapitalization of Merlin Entertainment or to acquire The Tussauds Group. The acquisition, if successful, would result in the second-largest theme parks and attractions business in the world after Disney. The Tussauds Group was owned by another private equity firm, Dubai International Capital (DIC). Blackstone's goal was to make a minimum of 3x on its initial Merlin investment through the dividend recapitalization and at least 5x through the Tussauds acquisition. A third option arose while Blackstone was in negotiation with DIC. This was the opportunity to perform a sale-leaseback of the underlying real estate assets owned by Merlin and Tussauds. Based on the facts and financials provided, it is clear there were tradeoffs between the size of the potential returns for each option, timing, and the risks that have to be managed. What should the Blackstone team do?

The Millennium Challenge Corporation and Ghana

Ebrahim, Alnoor, and V. Kasturi Rangan
August 2009

A U.S. government agency, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), provides aid to developing countries, focusing on poverty reduction through economic growth. It measures results through an economic rate of return based on increases in farmer incomes anticipated over twenty years. As MCC and Ghana finalize a $547 million grant for agriculture and transportation infrastructure, they come up against an accountability and measurement problem: how to address an urgent request from Ghana to fund community services-such as schools and drinking water-for which the results will be more difficult to measure.

Partners in Health: HIV Care in Rwanda

Porter, Michael E., Scott Lee, Joseph Rhatigan, and Jim Yong Kim
July 2009

In 2005, Partners in Health (PIH) was invited by the Rwandan Ministry of Health to assume responsibility for the management of public health care in two rural districts in Eastern Rwanda and create an HIV treatment program at these sites. PIH successfully implemented a comprehensive program focusing on four principles: health systems improvement, HIV prevention and care, accompaniment, and social and economic support. By January 2007, the Rwinkwavu site had conducted 67,137 HIV tests and provided antiretroviral therapy to more than 2,000 patients, of which, fewer than 1% had been switched to second-line drug regimens, 3.8% had died, and only one patient had been lost to follow up. A costing analysis done by the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative suggested that the model could feasibly be spread to other districts. Dr. Agnes Binagwaho, Executive Director of Rwanda's National AIDS Control Commission and her colleagues in the Ministry of Health are contemplating how the program could be improved and whether it should be expanded nationally.

VidaGas: VillageReach-The Mozambican Foundation for Community Development Joint Venture

Watson, Noel, and Santiago Kraiselburd
July 2009

This case describes the evolution of a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) distributor start-up, incubated by two not-for-profit NGOs, to help improve the vaccine cold chain in Northern Mozambique. These NGOs must face the decision whether and how to sell their participation in the start-up. VillageReach and the Mozambican Foundation for Community Development (FDC), both NGOs, got involved in the national immunization program, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), in northern Mozambique. This program's goal was to ensure prompt and universal access to vaccines and other medical supplies. Early on, VillageReach had realized that the program's goals could not be satisfied unless cold storage (and transportation) of the vaccines was guaranteed. Because electricity was scarce and unreliable in the region, VillageReach searched for alternative solutions for supporting cold storage. VillageReach finally decided to use LPG-powered refrigerators, and, due to the lack of reliable sources of LPG in the region, FDC and VillageReach went on to fund VidaGas, an LPG distribution company. It soon became evident that an efficient distribution network of LPG could provide benefits to society above and beyond health: at the time, most businesses and households in the region cooked using biomass fuels. Such fuels are a significant health hazard and also contribute to deforestation in the region. Although VidaGas could be considered a success, it had yet to reach breakeven in its current operations. In addition, new investments would be required to expand operations to neighboring provinces beyond the province used for the pilot, Cabo Delgado. As the Ministry of Health (MoH), FDC, and VillageReach are planning to expand the improvements in the national immunization program to these provinces, the presence of a reliable source of LPG would be essential to their goals. At the same time, VillageReach and FDC's resources for further investment are limited.

Congo River Basin Project: Role for Dr. Beni

McGinn, Kathleen L., Deborah M. Kolb, Anne Acosta, and Cailin B. Hammer
May 2009

The director of a research coalition and the founder/coordinator of an NGO consortium meet to discuss the possibility of jointly drafting a proposal for an integrated research and development project in the Congo River basin. Approved projects will receive an annual operating budget of $2 million. Together they must develop a joint plan for how the money should be spent.

Congo River Basin Project: Role for Dr. Campos

McGinn, Kathleen L., Deborah M. Kolb, Anne Acosta, and Cailin B. Hammer
May 2009

The director of a research coalition and the founder/coordinator of an NGO consortium meet to discuss the possibility of jointly drafting a proposal for an integrated research and development project in the Congo River basin. Approved projects will receive an annual operating budget of $2 million. Together they must develop a joint plan for how the money should be spent.

First National Bank's Golden Opportunity

Cole, Shawn, Peter Tufano, Daniel Schneider, Darryl Collins
April 2009

Executives at First National Bank in South Africa are considering whether to launch a potentially exciting, but rather unorthodox, new savings product. Instead of paying interest, this product gives depositors the chance to win large cash prizes each month. Michael Jordan, CEO of the bank's Consumer Solutions Division, must decide whether to approve the product, weighing the potential benefits against large upfront investment, uncertain market demand, and the complication that the product might face legal challenges.

Putting Sparkle into Soda-Club's European Partnerships

Isenberg, Daniel J.
April 2009

Daniel Birnbaum, new CEO of Soda-Club, has taken charge of a company with significant market penetration, brand equity, and revenues in certain European markets. The company is also plagued with hostile relationships with major distributors. He needs to decide how to turn the situation around and create opportunity out of crisis.

Dubai: Global Economy

Vietor, Richard H.K., and Nicole Forrest
March 2009

This case, along with Saudi Arabia: "Modern Reform, Enduring Stability" (709-042), provides an opportunity to discuss Saudi Arabia's efforts to modernize, without really Westernizing, in sharp contrast to Dubai, a nearby Arab Emirate. As Saudi Arabia's development strategy unfolds in the past six years, it is contrasted to social and political pressures within the country, volatility in global oil markets, and severe political problems in the Middle East.

One Firm One Future at Davis Langdon

Eccles, Robert G., and Kaitlyn Simpson
March 2009

Rob Smith, senior partner of construction consultancy Davis Langdon, has just led the firm through a major organizational change in Europe and the Middle East. In the past, the firm's compensation arrangements did not encourage partners to collaborate across the firm to serve clients' increasingly global and complex needs. In 2007, under Smith's leadership, the partnership agreed to implement holistic change, which included shifting from geographical to sector structure and creating a profit-sharing system that rewarded more than just financial contribution and encouraged partners to work together for the benefit of the firm as a whole. In the midst of the global economic crisis, Smith must decide whether and how to extend on a global basis the alignment the firm achieved in Europe and the Middle East.

Lapdesk Goes Global-Africa First

Isenberg, Daniel J
March 2009

Shane Immelman, founding CEO of the Lapdesk Company of South Africa, is facing a number of challenges in taking Lapdesk from South Africa into the rest of the African continent. How should the African strategy be different from that of South Africa? What is the appropriate structure?

Saudi Arabia: Modern Reform, Enduring Stability

Vietor, Richard H.K., and Nicole Forrest
March 2009

This case, along with "Dubai: Global Economy" (709-043), provides an opportunity to discuss Saudi Arabia's efforts to modernize, without really Westernizing, in sharp contrast to Dubai, a nearby Arab Emirate. As Saudi Arabia's development strategy unfolds in the past six years, it is contrasted to social and political pressures within the country, volatility in global oil markets, and severe political problems in the Middle East.

The Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project (E)

Esty, Benjamin C., and Aldo Sesia
March 2009

No abstract available

Mubadala: Forging Development in Abu Dhabi

Abdelal, Rawi, and Irina Tarsis
February 2009

In 2007, Khaldoon Khalifa Al Mubarak, the CEO of Mubadala Development Company (Mubadala), had every reason to be optimistic about the future of his home, Abu Dhabi, one of the emirates comprising the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The tiny, sandy, and dry emirate with a population of 1.5 million, only 420,000 of whom were citizens, was nestled upon nearly 10% of the world's known reserves of oil and the 4th largest proven reserve of natural gas. With the price of oil doubling every 10 years between 1970 and the 2000s, the state-owned Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) had enjoyed an era of increasing profitability. Another state-owned firm, Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA), had been investing extra oil revenues outside of the county for more than 30 years, and the intensely secretive organization had amassed assets worth an astonishing-and still rapidly growing-$500 billion to $900 billion. A common refrain held that Abu Dhabi nationals could live off of the returns generated by ADIA forever. Some accordingly referred to the emirate as "the richest city in the world." Yet Al Mubarak, trusted advisor to the crown prince Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahayan, and Mubadala were charged with transforming the economy of the emirate. Many were concerned that Abu Dhabi was in danger of suffering from the so-called "resource curse," as its economy focused on fossil fuels and little else. Not only would Abu Dhabi's economy continue to be subjected to the vagaries of world energy prices, there would be little for its citizens to do. Not everyone could work for ADNOC or ADIA. Not everyone was from one of Abu Dhabi's handful of incredibly wealthy families. To be a developed country, Abu Dhabi needed change. Fortune had already played perhaps too large a role.

Londolozi: Towards a Sustainable Business Model and Ecological Integrity in Southern Africa

Abdelal, Rawi, and Thomas Koelble
February 2009

The Londolozi game viewing reserve in South Africa became a defining icon of ecotourism during the 1990s and early 2000s-that is, a tourist business promoting ecological land management and, at the same time, local economic development. The reserve was in a region in the northeastern part of the country, not far from Mozambique, that sorely called out for progress in both these dimensions. The Sabi Sand Game reserve (within which Londolozi was located) was initially created by the government to provide hunters with an area in which to hunt wildlife. The government retained a portion of the reserve as the Kruger National Park, which allowed visitors to view wildlife, but banned hunting, in an effort to boost wildlife populations. The KNP was initially fenced off from the Sabi Sands Game reserve to prevent hunters from moving into the wildlife reserve. The fence, however, also prevented traditional east-west migration of animals across the region. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the farms within the Sabi Sand Game reserve converted their functions from hunting to wildlife viewing, and the fence was taken down. The new challenge for the farms while transforming into wildlife viewing became land management and local economic development.

Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)

Bell, David E., and Brian Milder
February 2009

In 2006, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation joined together to form a new organization, AGRA, to tackle the historic challenge of increasing agricultural production in Africa. Launched with much fanfare and led by former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan as chairman of the board, AGRA sought to help millions of African farmers and their families achieve food security and lift themselves out of poverty. By 2008, AGRA had assembled a strong leadership team and had funded numerous small projects ranging from seed development to education. However, it needed to secure additional funding from public and private donors, gain the cooperation of governments, and catalyze private markets to achieve its goals.

Kibera and the Kenya Slum Upgrading Project (A)

Retsinas, Nicolas P., Arthur I Segel, Marc Diaz, and John Shepherd
January 2009

Kenya's Minister of Housing faces tremendous pressures in dealing with the pervasive housing troubles in his country. Kibera is the largest slum in Africa and home to more than 800,000 residents, yet only measures two square kilometers, roughly half the size of Manhattan's Central Park. Most homes are single-story structures and the density is 3,000 persons per hectare (compared to 43 in London, 100 in New York City, and 143 in Tokyo), making this one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The slum's living conditions are abysmal by Western standards and gets little to no support from the local government due to the entrenched bureaucracy that has seemingly misaligned interests in the slum.

Kibera and the Kenya Slum Upgrading Project (B)

Retsinas, Nicolas P., Arthur I Segel, Marc Diaz, and John Shepherd
January 2009

Supplement to the (A) case.

Olam International

Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman
January 2009

In 20 years, Sunny Verghese had built Singapore-based Olam International from a small Nigerian export company into a $5 billion global leader in agricultural commodities with a core competence in Africa. Olam's growth had come by pursuing product and geographic adjacencies, and its "farm gate to factory gate" approach had been extended to 14 agricultural products, including cashews, sesame, cocoa, and coffee. In mid-October 2008, Olam's stock price declined to $1 a share from a high of $3.71 in early 2007 as part of the global economic crisis. Verghese had to decide whether to change the firm's strategy based on the new economic environment.

Arcapita-2002

El-Hage, Nabil N., and Leslie S. Pierson
January 2009

In 2002, Arcapita Bank, B.S.C., then known as First Islamic Investment Bank, or FIIB, faced a liquidity crunch. Aracapita offered Islamic-compliant private equity, real estate, and venture capital products. In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attack, however, Islamic banking was an endangered species in the U.S. Should Arcapita change its business model, and how should it finance its growing capital needs?

Note on Medical Travel

Herzlinger, Regina E., and Sara Green
January 2009

Background notes for MedVal and Fortis case studies.

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2008

Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility

Marquis, Chris, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Alison Comings
December 2008

Having bought Shaklee Corporation from Yamanouchi, Roger Barnett, its owner and CEO, wrestled with the question of how to grow the company and its reputation for environmental sustainability. In addition to preserving the "network marketing" nature of its sales channel (because it creates jobs and entrepreneurs), Barnett wished to take the business model to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

FREEJ

Lassiter, Joseph B., III, and Firas Alkhatib
November 2008

Mohammed Harib placed his phone on the desk in front of him. As he sat back in his chair and looked out the window, he began to take stock of how his life had taken such a dramatic path over the last few years. Life was good for the founder and CEO of Lammtara Pictures, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) first 3D animation studio. Recently dubbed "Dubai's answer to Pixar" in a recent magazine article, Lammtara's first animated television show, FREEJ, had taken the Arabian Gulf region by storm a year ago. It was November 2007, and the second season of FREEJ had aired earlier in the fall, smashing the first season's record-breaking viewership numbers.

Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'n Roll: The MTV Approach to Tackling HIV/AIDS

Khanna, Tarun, Sonali R. Bloom, and David E. Bloom
October 2008

This case explores the role that MTV, with its heavy diet of music and general youth-oriented media content, plays in spreading public-service messaging to contain the scourge of HIV/AIDS worldwide. There is a focus especially on its efforts in several emerging markets, particularly the parts of Africa that have a heavy disease incidence. MTV has developed a DNA of public service announcements that it claims are of central relevance to its high-risk customer base. How core is this to the strategy of a for-profit firm like MTV? What role can a multinational play in helping develop the health care "soft" infrastructure in such emerging markets?

Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy

Groysberg, Boris, Tal Riesenfeld, and Eliot Sherman
October 2008

Ron Guntz, commander of recruiting for Israel's Special Forces, had been instructed by his superiors to evaluate the process by which he selected solders for a 20-month-long training program. Was the Army conducting this process in an ideal manner? The case examines the Special Forces training in light of the types of missions soldiers are expected to execute and asks students to consider whether the Special Forces recruitment and training process identifies the best possible candidates for future Special Forces service.

Ithmar Capital

Lerner, Josh, and Ann Leamon
October 2008

The founders of Ithmar Capital, a mid-market private equity fund targeting businesses in and addressing the Gulf Co-operation Council countries, are about to raise their third fund, targeting $1 billion. The firm's current strategy as demonstrated in Funds I ($70 million) and II ($250 million) emphasized careful targeting of sectors and in-depth work to develop the portfolio companies post-acquisition. With the industry's greater velocity and deal size, can Ithmar continue to pursue this strategy even with a larger fund?

Crossing Borders: Notes on a Middle Eastern Journey through Africa

Khanna, Tarun, and Ayesha K. Khan
October 2008

This is the story of MTC, a Kuwaiti telecom company that has grown from a sleepy, state monopoly to become one of the fastest growing telecom companies in the world, with the largest regional footprint across the Middle East and Africa. The CEO of the company, Dr. Saad Al Barrak, had been successful in executing an aggressive growth plan that found its crown jewel in the acquisition of Celtel, one of the largest telecom companies in sub-Saharan Africa. However, this acquisition threw MTC into a dynamic new context and marked the beginning of a very different phase. If Dr. Saad was going to lead MTC into the topmost ranks of global telecom, his team would have to successfully grapple with all the growing pains of managing across borders, brand names, and cultures. All against the backdrop of an unpredictable African market with huge growth potential and rapidly increasing competition.

(PRODUCT) RED (A)

Moon, Youngme, Michael Norton, and David Chen
October 2008

Describes the launch and initial results of the (PRODUCT) RED campaign, a social marketing initiative conceived by U2's Bono and Bobby Shriver to combat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. The company licensed the (RED) brand to partner companies, which initially included Gap, Apple, Motorola, Armani, and American Express. The business model was structured to benefit partner companies by increasing consumer purchases-of (RED)-branded products such as red iPods and phones-while also resulting in increased donations to the Global Fund.

(PRODUCT) RED (B)

Moon, Youngme, Michael Norton, and David Chen
October 2008

Updates the (PRODUCT) RED (A) case through early 2008, including announcements of new partner relationships (with Hallmark, Microsoft, and Dell) as well as new communications initiatives.

Databank in Africa

Siegel, Jordan, and Yi Kwan Chu
October 2008

This case tackles issues of regional strategy and strategic institutional arbitrage. Databank is a financial services firm designing its regional strategy for Africa and seeking to benefit from institutional arbitrage.

Greg James at Sun Microsystems, Inc.: Managing a Global Team

Beyene, Tsedal, Thomas J. DeLong, and Alison Comings
September 2008

Greg James, a global manager at Sun Microsystems, Inc., sets out to meet with his entire 43-member customer implementation team spread across India, France, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America to resolve a dire customer system outage as required by a service agreement. Rather than finding a swift resolution to the rapidly escalating customer situation that motivated his trip, he finds himself facing distributed work, global collaboration, conflict, and management issues that are threatening to unravel his team.

Given Imaging Ltd. - First We Take Manhattan, Then We Take Berlin?

Isenberg, Daniel J
August 2008

GI has developed a revolutionary video pill for imaging the small bowel in the gastro-intestinal tract. The development has required the integration of a wide variety of technologies. GI founder and CEO Gabriel Meron must determine GI's marketing strategy and prioritize GI's initial target markets: either the United States, Europe, or Japan, or any combination. He is also faced with the immediate decision if to make offers to U.S. and European regional managers. Cash resources are scarce, and GI hopes to raise additional capital soon.

Abraaj Capital

Lerner, Josh, and Ant Bozkaya
August 2008

Abraaj Capital addresses issues of how to respond to the fast-growing Middle East market. Questions of scaling, institutionalization, and geographic scope are among those considered.

The Coartem Challenge (A)

Spar, Debora L., and Brian DeLacey
July 2008

In November 2005, Novartis, a major global pharmaceutical firm, is reviewing its Coartem program, an ambitious attempt to deliver life-saving malaria drugs, at cost, to millions of poor Africans. The company is deeply committed to the project, but it is also struggling with the organizational issues involved in dealing with international institutions like the World Health Organization and fitting nonprofit objectives into a for-profit structure.

The Coartem Challenge (B)

Spar, Debora L., and Brian DeLacey
July 2008

Supplements the (A) case.

Unilever as a 'Multi-local Multinational' 1945-1979

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie Decker
July 2008

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

China in Africa: The Case of Sudan

Abrami, Regina, and Eunice Ajambo
May 2008

This case examines the relation between China's demand for resources and political risk.

Partners in Health: The PACT Project

Bohmer, Richard M.J., and Josh Friedman
March 2008

Partners in Health (PIH) is a Boston-based, not-for-profit that provides health care to people in some of the poorest regions of the world, including Haiti, Malawi, Rwanda, and Peru. In 1998, PIH established a program (PACT) in Boston to bring care to AIDS and TB patients who were not well served by existing care delivery systems. Describes PIH's programs in the developing world and the way in which lessons learned in these countries informed the design and management of PACT. Examines the balance between customized and standardized approaches to care and challenges students to examine their preconceived notions of the social role of a health care delivery organization. Dr. Heidi Behforouz, PACT's director, must decide whether a service design honed in developing countries can be rolled out more broadly in one the world's richest nations.

Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony

Bell, David E., Brian Milder, and Mary L. Shelman
February 2008

Vegpro, a horticulture company, is Kenya's largest exporter of fresh vegetables and flowers to top supermarkets in the U.K. and Europe. In 2007, Vegpro's business is threatened by growing consumer concern about the environmental impact of food production and transport, including "food miles". The case describes the company's growth, which includes the use of owned land and outgrowers for production, the addition of value-added processing to obtain premium prices, and the introduction of global certification to ensure food safety and meet retailer and consumer requirements. The case also discusses the potential impact of increased consumer awareness of ethical sourcing and introduces the potential trade-off between local production and economic development.

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2007

'Doer's Profile' Nelson Mandela (1918- )

Stephenson, Howard, and Shirley Spence
November 2007

Profile of Nelson Mandela designed to facilitate a discussion of the nature of enduring success. Includes both biographical data and excerpts from autobiographical records.

Unilever as a 'multi-local multinational' 1945-1979

Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie Decker
October 2007

Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

The Lapdesk Company: A South African FOPSE

Isenberg, Daniel J.
September 2007

Shane Immelman, founding CEO of Lapdesk (South Africa), is facing several acute problems: a conflict between his director of marketing and his director of field operations; a dramatic increase in prices by a key supplier; and a major strategic alliance that does not seem to be moving forward. Lapdesk is a for-profit social enterprise (FOPSE) dedicated to eradicating the shortage of classroom desks in public schools. What should Immelman do? Will Lapdesk achieve its mission?

Foreign Direct Investment and South Africa

Werker, Eric D.
July 2007

Incoming and outgoing foreign direct investment in an environment of politics, geography, globalization, and history. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa had undertaken substantial economic reforms in order to attract more foreign direct investment, but it was slow in coming. At the same time, South African firms had become major players in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Collectively, these investment decisions could have a major long-run impact on South Africa's economic growth and political stability. South African policymakers needed to decide what they wanted from the private sector, and how to achieve it.

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (A)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Dr. Iqbal Surve, a self-described "medical doctor, philanthropist, and social entrepreneur," was born in 1963 and grew up in poverty, like virtually all non-white South Africans during apartheid. During the 1970s and 1980s, he served in leadership positions in the ANC, struggling against apartheid. After apartheid ended, Surve served as a medical doctor to many prominent South African leaders, like Nelson Mandela, and to the national soccer team. But by the mid-1990s, Surve, like many of his comrades, grew frustrated by the huge economic disparities that existed in South Africa, even though its progressive constitution afforded all citizens equal rights. It seemed the government's Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policies were only enriching a few. In 1997, Surve and three of his comrades founded Sekunjalo, an investment holding company that sought to offer "a gentler capitalism" that stressed putting people before profits, and talent development as a means of raising the lives of previously disadvantaged South Africans. By 1999, the company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, making 36-year-old Surve the youngest CEO of a listed diversified conglomerate. From its inception, Sekunjalo only purchased controlling stakes in companies, hoping to empower black workers. In 1999, it had purchased a 5% stake in LeisureNet, a white-owned and -run South African company that operated health clubs globally and was seeking a BEE partner. Surve hoped to eventually purchase a majority stake in the company, but in 2000 the company went under in the biggest corporate scandal in South African history. In one day, Sekunjalo's stock dropped 44%. Surve, already a very public figure in South Africa, had to decide what to do, especially what to tell his loyal employees who had invested so much in Sekunjalo's mission

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (B)

HIll, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (C)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dr. Iqbal Survé at Sekunjalo Investment Group (D)

Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker
June 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Dubailand: Destination Dubai

Goetzmann, William, and Irina Tarsis
June 2007

Under the leadership of the al-Maktoum family, Dubai, a member of the United Arab Emirates, invested heavily in its infrastructure to reduce national dependence on oil and gas reserves. As an established international destination for shipping, business initiatives, and tourism in the Middle East, Dubai embarked on a new megascale project: to construct the world's largest amusement park, called Dubailand. Examines various aspects of Dubai's background, world real estate and tourism trends, and environmental and political conditions of the region to support a discussion of this ambitious project's feasibility.

CEMEX: Rewarding the Egyptian Retailers

Martinez-Jerez, Francisco de Asis, Joshua Bellin, and Carole Winkler
June 2007

CEMEX has pursued an aggressive decommoditization strategy focused on its relationship with small Egyptian retailers. In particular, the strategic role and effectiveness of the Rewards Program, a tournament that rewarded the sales performance of the retailers, was called into question by Assiut Cement's management based on the results of its first two rounds.

Habitat for Humanity--Egypt

Wei-Skillern, Jane, and Kerry Herman
May 2007

Habitat for Humanity--Egypt (HFHE), has grown in just seven years to become one of the most successful Habitat programs worldwide. The organization is at a crossroads as it attempts to reach the ambitious goal of serving 10% of the 20 million Egyptians living in poverty by 2023, while at the same time developing the local NGO capacity to serve the remaining 90%. Since its establishment in 1989, HFHE has worked in close partnership with CEOSS, a 50-year-old NGO, and through other local, community-based organizations. This network approach diverges form the traditional Habitat model of building houses through HFH's own affiliate organizations, but enables HFHE to begin building immediately rather than wait several years to become sufficiently established to operate as an independent entity. Yousry Makar, HFHE's national director, faces several key issues. How can he ensure that as HFHE's partnership network grows, his own office and staff can sustain the network? To what extent should he seek to address the needs of the "poorest of the poor," who cannot even repay loans and therefore do not qualify as Habitat beneficiaries? How can Makar continue to innovate to achieve the greatest mission impact while maintaining funding and support for HFHE?

Aid, Debt Relief, and Trade: An Agenda for Fighting World Poverty (A)

Alfaro, Laura, Eric D. Werker, and Renee Kim
May 2007

At the 2005 Group of Eight summit, world leaders agreed to relieve the world's poorest countries' debt burdens and double aid to Africa by 2010. The announcement raised questions whether debt relief would really help the poor. By examining past aid trends and policies of multilateral institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, this case also questions whether aid can allow poor countries to break the vicious cycle of poverty, and/or how aid can be used effectively.

Aid, Debt Relief, and Trade: An Agenda for Fighting World Poverty (B)

Alfaro, Laura, Eric D. Werker, and Renee Kim
May 2007

Supplements the (A) case

South African Airways (A)

Margolis, Joshua, Laura Morgan Roberts, and Laura Winig
March 2007

Amid efforts to engineer a turnaround at South African Airways (SAA), the CEO confronts an impending strike at the struggling company. How should the company address questions of distributive and procedural justice in post-Apartheid South Africa, and how should the CEO recover from a crucial misstep at the start of the strike? Chronicles the challenges and missteps of previous CEOs and the turnaround plan put in place by Ngqula to help curtail waste and abuse and capitalize on the growing international market.

South African Airways (B)

Margolis, Joshua, Laura Morgan Roberts, and Laura Winig
March 2007

Supplements the (A) case

The Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project (D)

Esty, Benjamin C., and Aldo Sesia Jr
March 2007

Supplements the (A) case

Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola and Nigeria's Manufacturing Sector

Nohria, Nitin, Anthony J. Mayo, Foluke Otudeko, and Mark Benson
March 2007

Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola was an important contributor to Nigeria's manufacturing sector, creating a multimillion-dollar conglomerate including three factories, a retail franchise, a cattle ranch, a 5,000-acre plantation, a sawmill, and an exporting business before the end of British colonial rule in 1960. Seizing business opportunities as he saw demand, Odutola moved between markets at every opportunity, creating companies servicing a diverse variety of needs. Odutola's keen, unwavering interest in improving the infrastructure of Nigeria allowed him to enjoy a successful career in business and politics, despite the vastly fluctuating political landscape of Nigeria. From British rule through civil war and subsequent coups and countercoups, Odutola remained a popular leader for his commitment to promoting Nigerian business ventures. Elevated to Prime Minister of his tribe--the Ijebu-Ode--in 1956, and later selected as the first President of the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN), Odutola campaigned for manufacturing interests and consulted with government officials about national fiscal policy. As a statesman and as a business leader, Odutola worked tirelessly to improve the infrastructure of his country.

Shahla Nawabi: Reconstructing Afghanistan

Jones, Geoffrey G., Gayle Tzemach, and Alexis Lefort
January 2007

Explores the strategies of Shahla Nawabi to build a construction and export business in her post-conflict Afghanistan. Nawabi had lived in exile in Europe for three decades and had a successful career in fashion. Explores the challenges facing Nawabi on her return to her native Afghanistan--as a woman pursuing an entrepreneurial career in a country devastated by the rule of the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban and the subsequent U.S.-led invasion of the country. Provides a historical overview of Afghanistan and the position of women in the country to explore the challenges facing female entrepreneurs in a post-conflict country.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd

Khanna, Tarun, Krishna G. Palepu, and Claudine Madras
January 2007

How do companies develop a strategy that is both low-cost and differentiated without becoming squeezed in the middle? Describes how Teva, Israel's first and largest multinational, achieved its globally dominant position in generic pharmaceuticals, an industry that has undergone significant change over the last 20 years. Examines its strategies to defend itself against both low-cost competitors from India and other emerging markets as well as Big Pharma companies, which are adopting increasingly aggressive tactics in genetics.

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2006

Rwanda: National Economic Transformation

Porter, Michael E., and Kjell Carlsson
June 2006

Set in the year 2004, when Rwanda commemorated the 10th anniversary of a genocide that had claimed the lives of over 10% of its population. Focuses on the formulation of an economic strategy to rebuild the economy and its institutions after the devastation. Rwanda, one of the poorest countries in the world, highlights the challenges of economic development in Africa and in other low-income countries. Provides a brief political and economic history of Rwanda, but focuses on the country preceding and after the genocide. A description of government policies since 1994 enables discussion of the efforts of the transitional government under Bizimungu (1994-2000) and the first Kagame government (2000-2004) to restore and build the economy. Provides detailed economic and social data as of 2004, allowing evaluation of policy results. Concludes as President Kagame, now formally elected as head of state, considers an economic strategy to meet Rwanda's current challenges and increase the country's prosperity over the next decade.

Drug Testing in Nigeria (A)

Spar, Debora, and Adam Day
March 2006

In 1996, a meningitis epidemic swept across Nigeria. Thousands of children were struck and, lacking appropriate medicine, were liable to die from the disease. Doctors at Pfizer had an antibiotic that could probably save most of these children's lives. The drug was new, however, and had not yet undergone clinical trials with children. The company must decide whether to use the Nigerian outbreak as the site for a new and potentially risky trial.

Ghana: National Economic Strategy

Porter, Michael E., and Kjell Carlsson
September 2006

Set in the year 2001, as President John Kufuor contemplates a national economic strategy following his election in the first democratic transfer of power in Ghana's history. Focuses on Ghana's long history of poor economic performance and intractable poverty, highlighting the challenges of economic development in Africa and in other low-income countries. Provides a brief political and economic history of Ghana, focusing on the Nkrumah era of 1957-1966, the World Bank and IMF-led structural reforms of the 1980s, and the continuation of reforms after the first democratic elections in 1992. Details Ghana's economic and political context and cluster performance in 2001 and summarizes initiatives taken by the Kufuor administration to promote development. Detailed historical economic and social data allow an evaluation of policy results.

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2005

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (A)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

When she becomes chairperson of a large telecommunications board, Irene Charnley must transform the mostly white-led company to be more representative of South Africa's demographics. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (B)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case

Irene Charnley at Johnnic Group (C)

Hill, Linda A., and Maria T. Farkas
December 2005

Supplements the (A) case

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