James Sappenfield is a doctoral student at Harvard Business School in the Technology and Operations Management (TOM) unit and also an affiliate researcher in the Crowd Innovation Lab at Harvard University. His current projects focus on the evaluation of novel ideas in managerial and scientific settings, and how such evaluation drives the direction of innovative search. More broadly, his research interests lie in the economics of innovation, collaboration, crowdsourcing, and aggregate decision making, especially as they apply to the generation of ideas and new knowledge in science. Prior to attending HBS, he previously worked as a research assistant at MIT - Sloan School of Management, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), and Boston University, and taught high school mathematics with Dallas ISD as a member of Teach For America. He holds a BA in Political Science and a BS in Business Administration, both from Boston University.