George C. Lodge

Jaime and Josefina Chua Tiampo Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

Professor Lodge had been a member of the Harvard Business School faculty since 1963. Before his retirement in 1997, he taught a number of courses in the MBA Master's Program and in various HBS executive programs. in the MBA program these included: Business, Government and the International Economy; Comparative Government Business Relations; Human Resources Management; Leadership, Values and Decisio Making; and Business History in HBS executive programs, and has also taught Human Resource Management; Leadership, Values, and Decision Making; and Business History.  In Executive  Program he taught BGIE, and Ideology and Business. 

After service in the U.S. Navy (1945-'46), he graduated from Harvard College cum laude in 1950, and became a political reporter and columnist on the Boston Herald. In 1954 he joined the United States Department of Labor as Director of Information, and four years later was appointed Assistant Secretary of Labor for International Affairs by President Eisenhower; he was reappointed by President Kennedy in 1961. He was the United States Delegate to the International Labor Organization and was elected chairman of the organization's Governing Body in 1960. At the end of his government service in 1961 Lodge was named one of the ten outstanding young men in the United States by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce. He also received the Arthur S. Fleming Award as one of the ten most outstanding young men in the federal government and the Distinguished Service Award of the Department of Labor. He wrote of his government experiences in Spearheads of Democracy: The Role of Labor in Developing Countries (Harper and Row, 1962).

In 1961 he was appointed lecturer at Harvard Business School. He left the following year to become the Republican candidate for the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He returned to the School in 1963.

During the 1960s Lodge played a major role in the establishment of the Central American Institute of Business Administration (Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas-INCAE). His research during those years took him to Veraguas Province, Panama, where he studied the introduction of political and economic change. This work resulted in several articles in Foreign Affairs and a book, Engines of Change: United States Interests and Revolution in Latin America. These in turn led in 1970 to the establishment by Congress of a new government agency, The Inter-American Foundation, of which Lodge was vice chairman for seven years.

He was named associate professor of business administration at Harvard in 1968 and received tenure in 1972. He played a leading role in the design and development of several courses relating to the global political and economic environment of business, comparative business-government relations, and comparative ideology. He has published more than 40 articles-12 in the Harvard Business Review, two of which received the McKinsey award for the best article of the year-and a number of books besides the two mentioned above: The New American Ideology (1975) and The American Disease (1984), published by Alfred Knopf; U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy (1984) ed. with Bruce R. Scott and Ideology and National Competitiveness : An Analysis of Nine Countries (1987) ed. with Ezra F. Vogel, published by Harvard Business School Press; Comparative Business-Government Relations (1990) published by Prentice Hall; Perestroika for America: Restructuring Business-Government Relations for World Competitiveness (1990), published by Harvard Business School Press; Managing Globalization in the Age of Interdependence (1995) published by Pfeiffer & Co.; and published in 2006, A Corporate Solution to Global Poverty, with Craig Wilson, by Princeton University Press.

In 1991 Lodge was named Lee Kuan Yew Fellow by the Government of Singapore, and in 1994 received an honorary doctorate from INCAE. In 1995 The New American Ideology received the annual book award of the Academy of Management. From 1997 to 2007 he was a director of Nordic American Tanker Shipping. He has been a member of the Council on Foreign Relations since 1960. He has taught executives in a number of companies including IBM, AT&T, and the World Bank. 

Lodge was married to the former Nancy Kunhardt from 1949 until she died in 1997.  They had six children.  In 1997, he married Susan Alexander Powers whose husband had died a few years earlier.  She has three children.


Journal Articles

  1. The Need for Ideological Consciousness

    Every so often in American history a crisis comes along that requires Americans to inspect cherished assumptions and to act in a way that many find ideologically repulsive. Although our leaders insist that such actions are pragmatic-the only sensible way to deal with the crisis-those pragmatic acts evoke or imply an ideology that obstructs their implementation. Furthermore, if in the name of pragmatism, the ideological aspects of the actions are ignored or suppressed, the full implications of the actions may not be seen. I am talking about such ideas as the role of government: Do we believe in the active planning state or the limited state-the less of it the better? How do we define the good community: Is it by competition among self-interested business managers to satisfy consumer desires or is it necessary for the community itself to define its needs and to regulate business so that they are fulfilled? This article sets out an ideological framework for analysis of these and related questions.

    Keywords: History; Leadership; Competition; Framework; Consumer Behavior; Business and Community Relations; Government and Politics; Financial Crisis; Planning; United States;


    Lodge, George C. "The Need for Ideological Consciousness." Challenge 53, no. 2 (March–April 2010): 76–89. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Allied Chemical (A)


    Lodge, George C. "Allied Chemical (A)." In Business Policy: Text and Cases. 6th ed. by K. Andrews, J. Bower, C. R. Christensen, R. Hamermesh, and M. E. Porter, 431–443. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1986. (Also appears in Instructor's Manual to accompany Business Policy: Text and Cases, 7th edition, by Joseph Bower, et al., Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1991, pp. 111-113.) View Details

Working Papers

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. U.S. Export-Import Bank and the Three Gorges Dam (A), The

    Describes the dilemma Martin Kamarck faced as president of the Export-Import Bank in whether to provide U.S. companies financing for China's Three Gorges Dam project.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Risk and Uncertainty; Financing and Loans; International Finance; Construction Industry; Energy Industry; China; United States;


    Lodge, George C., and Cate Reavis. "U.S. Export-Import Bank and the Three Gorges Dam (A), The." Harvard Business School Case 900-017, May 2000. (Revised July 2000.) View Details
  2. Reagan Plan, The

    Contains President Reagan's address to Congress in February of 1981 in which he proposes $49 billion in budget cuts and tax reductions. Also contains David Stockman's "economic Dunkirk" memorandum of November 1980. Exhibits contain economic data. Purpose is to provide an opportunity to analyze and evaluate Reagan's assumptions.

    Keywords: Taxation; Economy; Government and Politics; Budgets and Budgeting; United States;


    Lodge, George C. "Reagan Plan, The." Harvard Business School Case 381-173, May 1981. (Revised February 2000.) View Details
  3. Brazil Confronts an Interdependent World

    Discusses the politics of change and how Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, elected in 1994, has fought to promote systemic change in Brazil. While his Real Plan has stabilized inflation and attracted foreign investment, the nation's deficit continues to grow. Meanwhile Brazil continues to be plagued by gross social inequalities.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Government and Politics; Inflation and Deflation; Foreign Direct Investment; Equality and Inequality; Change; Social Issues; Public Administration Industry; Brazil;


    Lodge, George C., and Cate Reavis. "Brazil Confronts an Interdependent World." Harvard Business School Case 799-004, October 1998. (Revised September 1999.) View Details
  4. Global Friction Among Information Infrastructures

    Examines the conflicts in international communications that result from changing technologies and divergent country policies toward developing infrastructures. Examines a number of different national information infrastructures (NIIs). Points of friction, such as different approaches to creating competition and the question of regulating content on the Internet, are discussed. Considers existing options to resolve friction, including multilateral and bilateral efforts. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Conflict Management; Infrastructure; Communication Technology; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues;


    Lodge, George C., and Cate Reavis. "Global Friction Among Information Infrastructures." Harvard Business School Background Note 799-152, May 1999. (Revised July 1999.) View Details
  5. Australia in the 1990s: Lucky or Broke?

    In 1996, Australia had a new prime minister, John Howard, ending 13 years of Labor Party rule. This case allows an analysis of the challenges that the new government faces and invites thought about the choices that the government has in meeting those challenges. Large and persistent current account deficits suggest that the country must increase its exports, but what will those exports be and to which markets will they go?

    Keywords: Trade; Government and Politics; Markets; Problems and Challenges; Australia;


    Lodge, George C. "Australia in the 1990s: Lucky or Broke?" Harvard Business School Case 796-160, April 1996. (Revised December 1998.) View Details
  6. Germany in the 1990s: Managing Reunification

    In October 1990, eastern Germany was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany. The German people rewarded the architect of these changes, Helmut Kohl, with an enhanced majority in national elections. But only two years later it was hard to remember these heady times. Re-unified Germany's external and internal economic situation were out of balance. The current account fell from a large surplus to deficit. Inflation rose as the German government ran a mounting deficit to finance reconstruction. In June 1992, the Bundesbank council, the interest-rate-setting body of Germany's central bank, raised interest rates to combat this inflation. Other members of the EMS were less willing to raise interest rates as they feared recession rather than overheating. Within months, Italy devalued and the United Kingdom dropped out of the EMS. Had Kohl's reunification strategy caused the EMS crisis? What did this crisis imply about the hopes for closer European integration?

    Keywords: Economy; Inflation and Deflation; Central Banking; Interest Rates; Political Elections; Situation or Environment; Integration; Europe; Germany; Italy; United Kingdom;


    Lodge, George C., and James W. Ragsdale. "Germany in the 1990s: Managing Reunification." Harvard Business School Case 793-033, September 1992. (Revised July 1998.) View Details
  7. Japan Confronts an Interdependent World

    Traces the evolution of Japan's economic strategy from 1972 to 1992. Describes the collapse of the Japanese stock market in the spring of 1992, raising the question: Is this the end of Japan's miraculous growth? To help students consider that question, the case describes Japan's industrial and technology policy and reviews key economic events during the period, such as the Nixon shock, the oil shock, the Plaza accords and endaka (rising yen value), increasing U.S. debt, the U.S. recession, and the declining value of the dollar. Written from the point of view of a Japanese government policymaker.

    Keywords: Policy; Financial Markets; Technology; System Shocks; Borrowing and Debt; Financial Crisis; Government and Politics; Growth and Development; Situation or Environment; Japan; United States;


    Lodge, George C. "Japan Confronts an Interdependent World." Harvard Business School Case 793-034, September 1992. (Revised March 1998.) View Details
  8. India in the 1990s

    Describes the efforts of Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to deregulate and open up the Indian economy in the early 1990s. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered, reflected in the poor showing of the ruling Congress Party in state elections in December 1994, and raises the questions: Why is economic change so difficult in India? What are the obstacles to Rao's reforms? What is the likelihood that he will succeed? Contains a brief history of India's economic, political, and social development since it achieved independence in 1947.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Emerging Markets; Social Issues; Economic Growth; Government and Politics; India;


    Lodge, George C., and Ahu Bhasin. "India in the 1990s." Harvard Business School Case 795-119, February 1995. (Revised February 1998.) View Details
  9. The National Information Infrastructure (A): The United States in Perspective

    Keywords: Information; Infrastructure; United States;


    Lodge, George C., Jeffrey F. Rayport, Thomas A. Gerace, and Afroze A Mohammed. "The National Information Infrastructure (A): The United States in Perspective." Harvard Business School Background Note 396-111, October 1995. (Revised March 1997.) View Details
  10. Zambia's Agricultural Sector Investment Program

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Investment; Business and Government Relations; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Zambia;


    Lodge, George C., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Zambia's Agricultural Sector Investment Program." Harvard Business School Case 797-023, September 1996. (Revised January 1997.) View Details
  11. World Bank (A1): Rural Development (Revisited)

    Begins with a brief description of the World Bank and its commitment to rural development. Discusses the bank's Northeast rural development program in Brazil, outlining its failure, success, and structural design. The questions raised by the project are left for the reader to resolve. Finally, the appendix highlights the bank's experience with rural development.

    Keywords: International Finance; Development Economics; Rural Scope; Policy; Problems and Challenges; Government Legislation;


    Lodge, George C. "World Bank (A1): Rural Development (Revisited)." Harvard Business School Case 797-090, January 1997. View Details
  12. Korean Development and Western Economics

    Provides a summary of Korea's economic performance during the past 40 years. Korea's economic strategy is discussed with regard to context--both the domestic (historic) and the international factors that have informed Korea's development. Simultaneously, Korea also functions as a case study for the divergence of Asian countries from the practice of Western neoclassical economics.

    Keywords: Strategy; Development Economics; Decision Making; Policy; North Korea; South Korea;


    Lodge, George C., and Courtenay Sprague. "Korean Development and Western Economics." Harvard Business School Case 797-008, August 1996. (Revised December 1996.) View Details
  13. World Bank (A): Under Siege

    Describes the issues that James Wolfensohn faces when he takes over the World Bank as president in June 1995. Presents several lines of criticism of the bank's strategy, structure, and relevance.

    Keywords: Financial Institutions; International Finance; Organizational Structure; Leading Change; Situation or Environment; Decision Choices and Conditions; Strategy; Management Teams; Value; Banking Industry;


    Lodge, George C., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "World Bank (A): Under Siege." Harvard Business School Case 797-022, September 1996. (Revised November 1996.) View Details
  14. National Information Infrastructure (B): A Comparison of Public Policy in Japan and the United States

    Keywords: Information; Infrastructure; Policy; United States; Japan;


    Lodge, George C., Jeffrey F. Rayport, Thomas A. Gerace, and Afroze A Mohammed. "National Information Infrastructure (B): A Comparison of Public Policy in Japan and the United States." Harvard Business School Background Note 396-175, November 1995. View Details
  15. World Trade Organization, The: Toward Free Trade or World Bureaucracy?

    In January 1995, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) evolved into the World Trade Organization (WTO), which faced the task of implementing the recently approved Uruguay Round of international trade agreements. This case describes the development of GATT, and the principal issues negotiated during the Uruguay Round, including agriculture, textiles, and services. Also describes the controversy surrounding the creation of the WTO.

    Keywords: Trade; Agreements and Arrangements; Negotiation Process; Business and Government Relations;


    Lodge, George C., and Jack High. "World Trade Organization, The: Toward Free Trade or World Bureaucracy?" Harvard Business School Case 795-149, April 1995. (Revised August 1995.) View Details
  16. Germany in the 1990s: Managing Reunification, Supplement Two

    Designed to be handed out after discussion of Germany in the 1990s: Managing Reunification and its Supplement.

    Keywords: Political Elections; Economy; Situation or Environment; Inflation and Deflation; Interest Rates; Central Banking; Integration; Germany; Italy; United Kingdom; Europe;


    Lodge, George C. "Germany in the 1990s: Managing Reunification, Supplement Two." Harvard Business School Supplement 793-043, September 1992. (Revised November 1993.) View Details
  17. Responsible Care

    Describes a 1989 initiative of the Chemical Manufacturer's Association (CMA) to secure chemical industry support for and implementation of a series of codes of conduct in the field of environmental health and safety. Called "Responsible Care", the program makes implementation of the codes a condition of membership in CMA. The case raises issues of due process, fairness, legitimacy, relations with EPA, and fears of small companies.

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations; Fairness; Ethics; Environmental Sustainability; Safety; Chemical Industry;


    Lodge, George C., and Jeffrey F. Rayport. "Responsible Care." Harvard Business School Case 391-135, January 1991. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  18. Roles and Relationships of Business and Government

    Synthesizes a wide range of literature and experience concerning comparative government-business relations, focusing especially on Japan, Europe, and the United States with some references to Brazil and Mexico. Designed for discussion in two consecutive class sessions. The first class should address the first 26 pages which relate to the different conceptions of the role, purpose, and structure of governments. The second class should consider pages 26 to 40 which concern the different roles, purposes, and structures of business. At the end are some discussion questions. Makes use of ideology as an analytical concept and as a framework for comparing different national systems.

    Keywords: Economic Systems; Framework; Government and Politics; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Structure; Business and Government Relations; Mathematical Methods; System; Japan; Europe; Mexico; United States; Brazil;


    Lodge, George C. "Roles and Relationships of Business and Government." Harvard Business School Background Note 388-159, May 1988. View Details
  19. Allied Chemical Corp. (A)

    Describes Allied, the chemical industry, and the effects of the Kepone problem (a toxic pesticide dumped into the James River) as of 1976. The executive in the case must decide whether the company should support the passage of the Toxic Substances Control Act and an internal program called Product Responsibility. Underlying these issues is the question of whether Allied should take a cooperative or adversarial approach to government relations.

    Keywords: Pollution and Pollutants; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Decision Making; Laws and Statutes; Welfare or Wellbeing; Legal Liability; Business and Government Relations; Chemical Industry;


    Lodge, George C., and Joseph L. Badaracco Jr. "Allied Chemical Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 379-137, February 1979. (Revised December 1983.) View Details
  20. Allied Chemical Corp. (B)

    Describes Allied's cooperative approach to government relations and the approach of some of the regulatory agencies Allied deals with. Based mainly on quotes from Allied and government officials. Asks the student to evaluate Allied's government relations--in general and in the light of three product decisions.

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations; Cooperation; Chemical Industry;


    Lodge, George C., and Joseph L. Badaracco Jr. "Allied Chemical Corp. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 379-150, March 1979. (Revised December 1982.) View Details