James L. Heskett

UPS Foundation Professor of Business Logistics, Emeritus

James L. Heskett is UPS Foundation Professor of Business Logistics, Emeritus at the Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University. He completed his Ph.D. at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, and has been a member of the faculty of The Ohio State University as well as President of Logistics Systems, Inc. Since 2000, he has authored a blog on the school's Working Knowledge web site.

He has served as a consultant to companies in North America, Latin America, and Europe.

Professor Heskett was the 1974 recipient of the John Drury Sheahan Award of the Council of Logistics Management, the 1992 Marketing Educator of the Year Award of Sales and Marketing Executives International, and the 2010 Distinguished Career Contribution Award in Services Management of American Marketing Association.

Among his publications are books, including authorship of The Culture Cycle (FT Press, 2011), co-authorship of The Ownership Quotient (Harvard Business Press, 2008), The Value Profit Chain (The Free Press, 2003); The Service Profit Chain (The Free Press, 1997); Corporate Culture and Performance (The Free Press, 1992); Service Breakthroughs: Changing the Rules of the Game (The Free Press, 1990); and The Service Management Course (The Free Press, 1991); authorship of Managing in the Service Economy (Harvard Business School Press, 1986); co-authorship of Logistics Strategy: Cases and Concepts (West Publishing Co., 1985); authorship of Marketing (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1976); co-authorship of Business Logistics, Revised Edition (The Ronald Press Company, 1974); and numerous articles in such publications as the Harvard Business Review, Journal of Marketing, Sloan Management Review, California Management Review, and others.

A member of the faculty of the Harvard Business School since 1965, he has at different times taught courses in marketing, business logistics, the management of service operations, business policy, and service management, general management, and the entrepreneurial manager as well as served as Senior Associate Dean in charge of academic programs. 

Books

  1. The Culture Cycle: How to Shape the Unseen Force That Transforms Performance

    The contribution of culture to organizational performance is both substantial and quantifiable. This book presents the results of field research that demonstrates how an effective culture can account for up to half of the differential in performance between organizations in the same business. The book describes a conceptual framework, "the culture cycle," for managing culture that comprises setting and meeting expectations; establishing trust, engagement, and ownership among employees and customers that makes possible the successful implementation of policies and practices; as a result, creating a learning and innovative organization; and tracking results in terms of the "four Rs" of retention, referrals, returns to labor, and relationships with customers. It shows "the culture cycle" at work in practice based on data collected for the study.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Learning; Framework; Policy; Retention; Books; Data and Data Sets; Innovation and Invention; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Culture; Performance Expectations; Research;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James. The Culture Cycle: How to Shape the Unseen Force That Transforms Performance. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 2012. View Details
  2. Ownership Quotient: Putting the Service Profit Chain to Work for Unbeatable Competitive Advantage

    Hundreds of large organizations worldwide have used the groundbreaking Service Profit Chain to improve business performance. Now The Ownership Quotient reveals the next generation of the chain: customer and employee "owners" of your business. Employee-owners exhibit such enthusiasm for their organization that they infect countless customers with similar satisfaction, loyalty, and dedication. Customer-owners are in turn so satisfied with their experience that they relate their stories to others, persuade them to try your product, and provide constructive criticism and new product ideas. As a new generation of managers has been changing the way that products and services are designed and delivered, authors Heskett, Sasser, and Wheeler have followed the evolution of this new ownership model. Case studies from companies as diverse as Harrah's Entertainment, ING Direct, Build-a-Bear Workshop, and Wegmans Food Markets bring home the central principle of engagement—and showcase ways to raise the ownership quotient among both your employees and your customers. With the authors' decades of consulting and research paving the way, you'll learn to identify your customer-owners; consistently exceed their expectations in ways they truly appreciate; and foster, measure, and grow the Ownership Quotient throughout your company. An organization that learns how to cultivate an ownership attitude creates a self-reinforcing relationship between customers and front-line employees. The lifetime value of a customer-owner can be equivalent to that of more than a hundred typical customers. And that makes the lifetime value of an employee who can promote customer ownership priceless. This powerful and practical book shows you how to add that value to your company and delight your employees, customers, and investors. Is your organization ready to make the transition to an ownership state of mind?

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Customer Ownership; Employee Ownership; Competitive Advantage; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., W. Earl Sasser Jr., and Joe Wheeler. Ownership Quotient: Putting the Service Profit Chain to Work for Unbeatable Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Press, 2008. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Notes from the Search for Deep Indicators in Services

    Much of the research in the service sector over the last four decades has concerned itself with the search for deep indicators that explain service performance. This paper provides a brief retrospective of some of this research and illustrates the directions that this work will take in the future through the vehicle of a field study conducted by the author. The study concluded that culture—based on measures, among other things, of trust, employee commitment, and "ownership" behaviors of both employees and clients—could explain and be used to predict up to half of the difference in operating income between agency offices of a global service provider. The paper calls for care but less caution if research in service management is to be advanced more rapidly and made more relevant for practitioners.

    Keywords: Service Delivery; Organizational Culture; Performance; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Notes from the Search for Deep Indicators in Services." Journal of Service Management 25, no. 3 (2014): 298–309. View Details
  2. Manage the Culture Cycle

    Organizational culture—the shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that determine "how we do things around here"—can be measured and shaped. In organizations with large numbers of customer-facing employees, it can account for up to half of the difference in operating income between two organizations in similar businesses. It can be measured by the "Four Rs" of referrals and retention of employees, returns to labor, and relationships with customers that foster customer referrals and retention. An organization relying primarily on financial measures to signal the need for change puts itself at a distinct disadvantage to one that tracks the Four Rs along with indicators of learning and innovation.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Value; Behavior; Retention; Customer Focus and Relationships; Change Management; Learning; Innovation and Invention; Labor;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Manage the Culture Cycle." World Financial Review (September – October 2011): 2–7. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Porcini's Pronto: "Great Italian cuisine without the wait!"

    Porcini's Inc. operates a chain of 23 full-service restaurants located near shopping malls and downtown areas in the northeastern United States. Known for providing excellent service, Porcini's serves high-quality Italian cuisine made from fresh ingredients. Looking for expansion opportunities, management considers launching a new chain of lower-cost, limited-menu restaurants called Porcini Pronto. The new outlets will be located along busy interstate highway exits in the region and will serve outstanding Italian food at reasonable prices to both travelers and local residents. Management is concerned that a poor customer experience at Porcini Pronto could tarnish the company's well-established and successful restaurant brand. The management team asks the vice president of marketing to develop the concept and to create an operating strategy for the new outlets. The VP must also analyze three alternative expansion strategies before management will make any commitments to the project. If Porcini's builds and operates the new restaurants, the company will maintain complete control of operations and the customer experience but expansion will take a very long time. Franchising and syndication are two other options which provide faster expansion but introduce the risk of losing control of the brand. The VP must analyze the options and make his final recommendation.

    Keywords: Franchising; Syndication; Quantitative analysis; performance measurement; human resource management; incentives; motivation; consumer behavior; Measurement and Metrics; Quality; Customer Value and Value Chain; Selection and Staffing; Expansion; Business Growth and Maturation; Service Delivery; Franchise Ownership; Customer Focus and Relationships; Product Marketing; Food and Beverage Industry; Service Industry; Northeastern United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Richard Luecke. Porcini's Pronto: "Great Italian cuisine without the wait!". Harvard Business School Brief Case 114-277, April 2011. View Details
  2. Porcini's Pronto: "Great Italian cuisine without the wait!" (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note to 4277.

    Keywords: Franchising; Syndication; Quantitative analysis; performance measurement; human resource management; incentives; motivation; consumer behavior;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Richard Luecke. Porcini's Pronto: "Great Italian cuisine without the wait!" (Brief Case). Harvard Business School Teaching Note 114-278, April 2011. View Details
  3. Porcini's Pronto: 'Great Italian cuisine without the wait!', Spreadsheet Supplement (Brief Case)

    Keywords: Franchising; Syndication; Quantitative analysis; performance measurement; human resource management; incentives; motivation; consumer behavior;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Richard Luecke. "Porcini's Pronto: 'Great Italian cuisine without the wait!', Spreadsheet Supplement (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 114-280, April 2011. View Details
  4. Calveta Dining Services, Inc.: A Recipe for Growth?

    Calveta Dining Services contracts with senior living facilities (SLFs) for the management of food service to residents. Created by Antonio Calveta and built on his passion for food and traditional family values, the firm had enjoyed three decades of strong growth when Antonio retired and named his eldest son, Frank, CEO. Frank Calveta now struggles to carry out his father's directive: double revenues within five years while maintaining the humanistic and emphatically pro-employee company culture. Should he expand beyond the SLF market? Can he continue to maintain the quality level for which Calveta is renowned? Can he contend successfully with organizational and communications challenges?

    Keywords: communication; corporate vision; Employee empowerment; organizational structure; service management; Family businesses; growth strategy; Family Business; Expansion; Communication; Employee Relationship Management; Service Operations; Organizational Structure; Growth and Development Strategy; Service Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Patricia Girardi. "Calveta Dining Services, Inc.: A Recipe for Growth?" Harvard Business School Brief Case 114-261, March 2011. View Details
  5. Calveta Dining Services, Inc.: A Recipe for Growth? (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note for #4261.

    Keywords: communication; corporate vision; Employee empowerment; organizational structure; service management; Family businesses; growth strategy;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Patricia Girardi. "Calveta Dining Services, Inc.: A Recipe for Growth? (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 114-262, March 2011. View Details
  6. Rackspace Hosting (2000)

    The leadership team of Rackspace, faced with accommodation of its service offering and dwindling financial reserves, decides to make customer focus the rallying cry of its new strategy.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Planning; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Service Delivery; Strategy; Finance; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Sasser, W. Earl, James L. Heskett, and Tom Ryder. "Rackspace Hosting (2000)." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 811-701, December 2010. View Details
  7. Southwest Airlines: In a Different World

    This is the fourth in a 35-year series of HBS cases on an organization that has changed the rules of the game globally for an entire industry by offering both differentiated and low-price service. The focus of the case is on whether Southwest Airlines should buy gates and slots to initiate service to New York's LaGuardia airport, which does not fit the airline's profile for cost, ease of service, and other factors. The bigger issue is how the organization should deal with competition that has successfully emulated more and more of what it does in an operating environment that has changed significantly. Hence the subtitle, which was suggested by Herb Kelleher, Southwest's Chairman and CEO, Emeritus.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Organizational Culture; Competitive Strategy; Air Transportation Industry; New York (city, NY);

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and W. Earl Sasser Jr. "Southwest Airlines: In a Different World." Harvard Business School Case 910-419, April 2010. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  8. Manchester Bidwell Corporation: the Replication Question

    Bill Strickland, CEO of Manchester Bidwell Corporation, must decide the best way to replicate his innovative, award-winning approach to curing poverty. Manchester Bidwell's approach, which provides both adult job-training tuned to fill the needs of local industries and after-school art instruction for at-risk youth, has proven highly effective over the 40 years Strickland has operated it. He wants to replicate this strategy across 100 or 200 cities, but progress has been slow. Is the current intensive approach correct, or should he change it? What would be at risk? How can he best provide his “cure for poverty” to the greatest number of communities?

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Nonprofit Organizations; Growth and Development; Social Enterprise; Poverty; Training; Competency and Skills; Jobs and Positions; Human Resources;

    Citation:

    Stuart, Toby E., G. Felda Hardymon, James L. Heskett, and Ann Leamon. "Manchester Bidwell Corporation: the Replication Question." Harvard Business School Case 810-097, April 2010. View Details
  9. Getting Participant-centered Learning to Work

    The newly appointed dean of a South American business school is eager to transform the learning process from the traditional lecture method to one that actively engages students and contributes to the development of critical managerial skills, attitudes, and world view. To be successful, a number of organizational processes must be changed, and strong alliances must be created with key members of the faculty, administrative staff, alumni, and students.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Business Education; Leading Change; Business Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Alliances; Education Industry; South America;

    Citation:

    Piper, Thomas R., James L. Heskett, and Gustavo Herrero. "Getting Participant-centered Learning to Work." Harvard Business School Case 805-007, July 2004. (Revised May 2009.) View Details
  10. Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (A)

    Professor Kenneth Carpenter has received word that he has inadvertently offended one of his students. He is pondering a possible response.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Higher Education; Learning; Teaching; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Tor Askild Aase Johannessen. "Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (A)." Harvard Business School Case 908-408, June 2008. View Details
  11. Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (B)

    Professor Kenneth Carpenter has received word that he has inadvertently offended one of his students. He is pondering a possible response.

    Keywords: Higher Education; Teaching; Learning; Interpersonal Communication;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Tor Askild Aase Johannessen. "Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 908-409, June 2008. View Details
  12. Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (C)

    Professor Kenneth Carpenter has received word that he has inadvertently offended one of his students. He is pondering a possible response.

    Keywords: Higher Education; Teaching; Learning; Interpersonal Communication;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Tor Askild Aase Johannessen. "Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 908-410, June 2008. View Details
  13. Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (D)

    Prof. Kenneth Carpenter has received word that he has inadvertently offended one of his students. He is pondering a possible response.

    Keywords: Higher Education; Teaching; Learning; Interpersonal Communication;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Tor Askild Aase Johannessen. "Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (D)." Harvard Business School Supplement 908-411, June 2008. View Details
  14. Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (E)

    Prof. Kenneth Carpenter has received word that he has inadvertently offended one of his students. He is pondering a possible response.

    Keywords: Higher Education; Teaching; Learning; Interpersonal Communication;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Tor Askild Aase Johannessen. "Professors Sven Larson and Kenneth Carpenter (E)." Harvard Business School Supplement 908-412, June 2008. View Details
  15. Rackspace Hosting in Late 2000

    The leadership team of Rackspace, faced with accommodation of its service offering and dwindling financial reserves, decides to make customer focus the rallying cry of its new strategy. This short case was designed as the discussion igniter for a series of short video clips describing the shift to a more customer-focused approach.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Finance; Management Teams; Service Operations; Customer Ownership; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and W. Earl Sasser. "Rackspace Hosting in Late 2000." Harvard Business School Case 808-166, June 2008. View Details
  16. Manchester Bidwell Corporation (A)

    The head of Manchester Bidwell Corp. ponders what it will take to replicate its social services in 100 cities across North America and internationally--an effort that ultimately would cost several hundred million dollars.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Social Entrepreneurship; Leadership Style; Growth Management; Welfare or Wellbeing; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Manchester Bidwell Corporation (A)." Harvard Business School Case 806-111, March 2006. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  17. SuperCat Powerboats (A)

    Ryan and David Kratz have formed a new company, under very favorable terms, with a fiberglass boat builder. But at the signing of the agreement for the new company's information, the builder's spouse suggests that the Kratz's share of ownership be reduced from 67% to 50%, substantially changing the ownership dynamics.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Negotiation; Ownership Stake; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "SuperCat Powerboats (A)." Harvard Business School Case 806-102, January 2006. (Revised February 2007.) View Details
  18. Achieving Profitable Growth and Market Value

    Provides an overview of how a new venture needs to change as it passes from the initial start-up to the growth phase. Explores how a venture's leadership, strategy, and execution need to evolve to deal with rapid growth.

    Keywords: Growth Management; Business Growth and Maturation; Business Startups; Change Management;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Richard G. Hamermesh. "Achieving Profitable Growth and Market Value." Harvard Business School Background Note 804-157, April 2004. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  19. A Note on Managing the Growing Venture

    Focuses on the strategic and organizational challenges that confront growing enterprises and the entrepreneurs who lead them. Provides an overview of how a new venture needs to change as it passes from the initial start-up to the growth phase. Explores how a venture's leadership, strategy, and execution need to evolve to deal with rapid growth. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Leading Change;

    Citation:

    Hamermesh, Richard G., James L. Heskett, and Michael J. Roberts. "A Note on Managing the Growing Venture." Harvard Business School Background Note 805-092, January 2005. (Revised August 2005.) View Details
  20. ING DIRECT

    The CEO of ING Direct (U.S.) has to decide: (1) whether and how to coordinate his organization's branding effort with its parent, ING Group, and (2) how fast to grow the business. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Entrepreneurship; Leadership Style; Growth Management; Brands and Branding; Planning; Problems and Challenges; Financial Services Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "ING DIRECT." Harvard Business School Case 804-167, April 2004. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  21. Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged)

    A hospital specializing in hernia operations is considering whether and how to expand the reach of its services.

    Keywords: Expansion; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Health Care and Treatment; Business Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Roger H. Hallowell. "Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 805-002, July 2004. (Revised January 2005.) View Details
  22. Shouldice Hospital Limited

    Various proposals are set forth for expanding the capacity of the hospital. In assessing them, serious consideration has to be given to the culture of the organization and the importance of preserving it in a service delivery system. In addition to issues of capacity and organizational analysis, describes a well-focused, well-managed medical service facility that may well point the way to future economies in the field.

    Keywords: Expansion; Health Care and Treatment; Performance Capacity; Organizational Culture; Service Delivery; Growth Management; Strategic Planning; Quality; Social Enterprise; Health Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Shouldice Hospital Limited." Harvard Business School Case 683-068, April 1983. (Revised June 2003.) View Details
  23. Southwest Airlines 2002: An Industry Under Siege

    The company's management is faced with long-term questions regarding the rate and manner of growth in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and general industry malaise.

    Keywords: Cost; Product; Risk and Uncertainty; Growth and Development; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Southwest Airlines 2002: An Industry Under Siege." Harvard Business School Case 803-133, January 2003. (Revised March 2003.) View Details
  24. Office Depot, Inc.: Business Transformation (A)

    The company's management is considering the possibility of launching a rebranding campaign around the promises "What you need. What you need to know." The questions are whether and when to launch the campaign in view of the large number of training efforts and supporting technologies needed to deliver on the promises.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Advertising Campaigns; Brands and Branding; Business Strategy; Technology Adoption; Transformation; Market Timing; Growth and Development; Training; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., Dan Maher, Daniel F. OBrien, Thomas Watson, and Jeffrey F. Rayport. "Office Depot, Inc.: Business Transformation (A)." Harvard Business School Case 803-111, January 2003. (Revised February 2003.) View Details
  25. Office Depot, Inc.: Business Transformation (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., Dan Maher, Daniel F. OBrien, Thomas Watson, and Jeffrey F. Rayport. "Office Depot, Inc.: Business Transformation (B)." Harvard Business School Case 803-112, January 2003. (Revised February 2003.) View Details
  26. PlanetFeedback: The Voice of One ... The Power of Many (A)

    The management of PlanetFeedback in proposes a merger with Intelliseek. Their goal is to create a comprehensive C2B and B2B business focused on the generation and analysis for business clients of consumer feedback data via the Internet, Planet Feedback's board of directors insists that management decide between two basic business strategies: corporate customer service and market analysis support or information generation and analysis.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Decisions; Information Management; Data and Data Sets; Business Strategy; Internet; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "PlanetFeedback: The Voice of One ... The Power of Many (A)." Harvard Business School Case 901-051, February 2001. View Details
  27. Cisco Systems: Are You Ready? (A)

    An Internet service provider, INS, in which Cisco Systems has a minority ownership stake, receives an offer of $3.1 billion from Cisco's rival Lucent. Cisco's management has to decide whether to act on a request from INS management that Cisco make a counteroffer. The decision requires that Cisco's highly successful strategy be revisited.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Ownership Stake; Strategic Planning; Innovation and Management; Technology; Information Technology Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and John P. Morgridge. "Cisco Systems: Are You Ready? (A)." Harvard Business School Case 901-002, July 2000. (Revised October 2000.) View Details
  28. Oxford Health Plans (A): Specialty Management [and] Oxford Health Plans (B): Crisis Strikes TN

    Teaching Note for (9-898-042) and (9-800-366).

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Crisis Management; Medical Specialties; Health Care and Treatment; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., Richard M.J. Bohmer, and Jody H. Gittell. "Oxford Health Plans (A): Specialty Management [and] Oxford Health Plans (B): Crisis Strikes TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 800-322, March 2000. View Details
  29. Oxford Health Plans: Specialty Management (A)

    Describes an innovative approach to organizing health care proposed by Oxford CEO Steve Wiggins. Wiggins contends that the primary care physician "gatekeeper" model typically used by health maintenance organizations to control access to and coordinate specialist care is ineffective. The generalist PCP cannot be expected to have knowledge that is sufficiently deep to play the role of coordinator. Wiggins aims to replace it with an approach that connects patients to teams of specialists and health care facilities that have contracted with Oxford to provide total care for particular conditions or "cases," from start to finish. The success of this model rests in part on the ability of specialists and health care facilities to agree contractually on how to split the pie among themselves. But beyond that starting point, it rests on the ability of these distinct entities, each with its own specialized knowledge, to coordinate care more effectively than the generalist PCP. Will this model, on which Wiggins claims to have "bet the company," succeed?

    Keywords: Business Model; Groups and Teams; Innovation and Management; Medical Specialties; Health Care and Treatment; Cooperation; Management Teams; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., Jody H. Gittell, and James Slayton. "Oxford Health Plans: Specialty Management (A)." Harvard Business School Case 898-042, October 1997. (Revised March 2000.) View Details
  30. GE...We bring good things to life. (A)

    Jack Welch and the Corporate Executive Council of General Electric are faced with a decision about whether and how to implement a six-sigma quality-improvement effort in the context of many other initiatives already undertaken at GE in recent years.

    Keywords: Change Management; Leadership Style; Six Sigma; Quality; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "GE...We bring good things to life. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 899-162, January 1999. (Revised February 2000.) View Details
  31. Cinemex

    The founders of Cinemex, the largest capitalized venture start-up in Mexican history, are debating several issues concerning the operations of their new chain of motion picture theatres in Mexico City. The first concerns whether some seats should be left unsold to improve customer service. The second involves limits on advertising to be shown at each presentation. Others include possible investment in an expanded ticketing service and live entertainment.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Service Operations; Debates; Venture Capital; Customer Satisfaction; Advertising; Investment; Theater Entertainment; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Mexico City;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Cinemex." Harvard Business School Case 898-108, November 1997. (Revised December 1999.) View Details
  32. NYPD New

    Police Commissioner Bratten and his staff have led a process designed to create a results-oriented police department from one that previously emphasized and measured effort. With increasing budgeting pressures, the next phase of effort calls for increasing emphasis on productivity as well as a reduction in crime.

    Keywords: Leadership; Performance Productivity; Leadership Style; Budgets and Budgeting; Public Administration Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "NYPD New." Harvard Business School Case 396-293, April 1996. (Revised June 1999.) View Details
  33. Taco Bell Corporation (Abridged Update)

    Taco Bell's management has developed plans to establish 100,000 points of service for its fast food business. Clearly, this will require significantly different approaches to management and organization.

    Keywords: Business Plan; Growth and Development Strategy; Service Delivery; Organizations; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Taco Bell Corporation (Abridged Update)." Harvard Business School Case 395-010, August 1994. (Revised January 1999.) View Details
  34. Southwest Airlines: 1993 (A)

    Southwest Airlines, the only major U.S. airline to be profitable in 1992, makes a decision as to which of two new cities to open, or to add a new long-haul route. Provides windows into Southwest's strategy, operations, marketing, and culture.

    Keywords: Decisions; Cost Management; Profit; Marketing; Service Operations; Organizational Culture; Corporate Strategy; Expansion; Air Transportation Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Roger H. Hallowell. "Southwest Airlines: 1993 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-023, August 1993. (Revised April 1997.) View Details
  35. Scott Cook and Intuit

    Scott Cook has just learned that Microsoft has withdrawn its $2 billion offer for his company Intuit. Because of his company's prospects, he is elated. But he now must decide the direction in which to take his company while continuing to focus on the formula of marketing research, customer service, and new product development that has made Intuit successful.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Marketing Strategy; Product Development;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Scott Cook and Intuit." Harvard Business School Case 396-282, March 1996. (Revised January 1997.) View Details
  36. Banc One--1996

    In February 1995, Banc One faced the replacement of the "Uncommon Partnership," a basic operating strategy that had served it well for years. Leadership now struggled with the new protocols for replacement operating strategies.

    Keywords: Financial Strategy; Leadership; Management; Strategy; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Thomas N. Urban Jr. "Banc One--1996." Harvard Business School Case 396-315, March 1996. View Details
  37. The Benetton Group

    The management of the Benetton Group includes senior executives advocating two different strategies: 1) expanding manufacturing to develop economies in order to grow Benetton's sales in those markets, and/or, 2)find ways to provide additional support to retailers, some of whom are operating in developed markets against sophisticated competitors and are increasingly embattled. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Business Strategy; Global Strategy; Sales; Growth and Development; Distribution; Distribution Channels;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "The Benetton Group." Harvard Business School Case 396-177, November 1995. View Details
  38. USAA: Business Process Review for the Great Lakes Region (Abridged)

    Presents the results of a service process analysis of USAA's claims processing activity in its Great Lakes Region. Explores not only issues of redesigning the process but also the organizational implications of various alternatives.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Mortgages; Management Practices and Processes; Business Processes; Organizational Design; Mathematical Methods; Real Estate Industry; North America;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "USAA: Business Process Review for the Great Lakes Region (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 395-026, January 1995. (Revised January 1995.) View Details
  39. Southwest Airlines: 1993 (Abridged Update)

    Southwest Airlines management is faced with increasing competition. It must decide which of several route extensions provide the appropriate competitive response while preserving the internal culture that has made the airline so successful.

    Keywords: Air Transportation; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Management Teams; Organizational Culture; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Southwest Airlines: 1993 (Abridged Update)." Harvard Business School Case 395-025, August 1994. View Details
  40. USAA: Business Process Review for the Great Lakes Region

    USAA proposes to develop a new set of processes for its property and casualty division. The case focuses on processes used in automobile claims.

    Keywords: Business Processes; Insurance Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Roger H. Hallowell. "USAA: Business Process Review for the Great Lakes Region." Harvard Business School Case 694-024, August 1993. View Details
  41. Bidwell Training Center, Inc. and Manchester Craftsmen's Guild: Preparation in Pittsburgh

    Bill Strickland, executive director of both Bidwell Training Center and Manchester Craftsmen's Guild, has built a highly successful training organization to enable underprivileged minorities in Pittsburgh to escape the cycle of poverty. His success has led to questions of expansion, focus, and core competencies.

    Keywords: Training; Non-Governmental Organizations; Leadership; Society; Competency and Skills; Pittsburgh;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Roger H. Hallowell. "Bidwell Training Center, Inc. and Manchester Craftsmen's Guild: Preparation in Pittsburgh." Harvard Business School Case 693-087, February 1993. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  42. Patient Transfusion Services Lab of Central Blood Bank

    The vice president of the Lab and Clinical Services at Central Blood Bank is faced with the challenge of convincing a hospital to use economical shared patient transfusion testing services.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Quality; Service Operations; Mathematical Methods; Customer Satisfaction; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Patient Transfusion Services Lab of Central Blood Bank." Harvard Business School Case 693-091, May 1993. View Details
  43. Fairfield Inn (A)

    The Fairfield Inn, an economy hotel venture by the Marriott Corp., has developed a novel method for selecting and measuring the performance of its hotel personnel that fits the company's strategy. Because it faces the need to grow rapidly, questions have arisen as to whether to offer franchises and in what form, considering the need to protect its unique concept.

    Keywords: Selection and Staffing; Innovation and Invention; Growth and Development Strategy; Franchise Ownership; Performance Evaluation; Corporate Strategy; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Fairfield Inn (A)." Harvard Business School Case 689-092, June 1989. (Revised May 1993.) View Details
  44. Fairfield Inn (B)

    The manager of a Fairfield Inn located near a family entertainment center is requesting special consideration for a falling quality rating caused, in his opinion, by unusually high occupancy rates at his unit. The case raises questions about quality measurement, control, and the consistency of an operating strategy.

    Keywords: Entertainment; Measurement and Metrics; Performance Consistency; Quality; Strategy; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Fairfield Inn (B)." Harvard Business School Case 692-005, July 1991. (Revised May 1993.) View Details
  45. Courtyard by Marriott

    Courtyard by Marriott, a chain of modestly priced hotels, weighs its future options regarding human resources, its service delivery system, and management structure. Fairfield Inn, another Marriott product, is discussed for contrast.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Service Operations; Brands and Branding; Management Systems; Decision Making; Service Industry; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Roger H. Hallowell. "Courtyard by Marriott." Harvard Business School Case 693-036, September 1992. (Revised January 1993.) View Details
  46. Note on Service Mapping

    Illustrates a simple technique for diagramming operations flows in service companies. Can be used to help structure analysis and discussion of cases involving sequenced operations.

    Keywords: Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Operations; Business Processes; Organizational Structure; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Note on Service Mapping." Harvard Business School Background Note 693-065, November 1992. View Details
  47. Benetton (B)

    The managing director of Benetton is faced with several issues concerning the adequacy of the company's organization to capitalize on the early success it has achieved in an important foreign market, the United States. Specifically, the case raises questions about whether Benetton should alter its strategy and form a U.S. subsidiary, the responsibilities that managers in such a subsidiary should hold, and other organizational changes that should be made at the company's Italian headquarters to accommodate such actions. In addition, it focuses on the management of the transition from an entrepreneurial to a professionally-managed stage of a company's development.

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Global Strategy; Transition; Growth and Development Strategy; Success; Business Headquarters; Business Subsidiaries; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business Growth and Maturation; United States; Italy;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Benetton (B)." Harvard Business School Case 685-020, June 1985. (Revised April 1989.) View Details
  48. Benetton (A)

    The world's largest manufacturer of woolen outerwear garments seeks to extend its retailing network to the United States from its base in Europe. A number of issues concerning marketing, manufacturing, and logistics strategy are raised by the proposed move along with specific questions about how the move should be managed. The case describes a well-thought-out, functionally integrated strategy for Europe in a way that allows assessment of its applicability for a proposed U.S. effort.

    Keywords: Logistics; Brands and Branding; Networks; Production; Marketing Strategy; Globalization; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Benetton (A)." Harvard Business School Case 685-014, September 1984. (Revised February 1989.) View Details
  49. General Electric Co.: Jack Welch Question and Answer Session, October 28, 1987, Video

    Jack Welch updates an MBA class on events which have taken place since 1984. Answers questions about his job and the task of leading a global company.

    Keywords: Management Teams; Leadership; Globalized Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "General Electric Co.: Jack Welch Question and Answer Session, October 28, 1987, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 888-525, June 1988. View Details
  50. ServiceMaster Industries, Inc.

    The CEO of ServiceMaster Industries has convened an internal task force to come up with ideas for reorganizing the company to accommodate unusually fast growth. In developing both alternatives and criteria for appraising them, the task force has to keep in mind the strong company culture.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "ServiceMaster Industries, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 388-064, November 1987. (Revised June 1988.) View Details
  51. The Job of the General Manager

    Describes elements of the job of the general manager that are addressed in the Management Policy and Practice course at the Harvard Business School. These include: 1) establishing strategic direction, 2) setting goals and managing standards of performance, 3) marshalling and allocating resources, 4) selecting and developing people, 5) organizing effort, 6) maintaining an understanding of day-to-day operations, and 7) building a positive working environment.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Policy; Recruitment; Working Conditions; Managerial Roles; Resource Allocation; Mission and Purpose; Performance Evaluation; Strategy; Value;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "The Job of the General Manager." Harvard Business School Background Note 388-035, September 1987. (Revised October 1987.) View Details
  52. Benetton Factory Tour--Ponzano, Italy, Video

    Shows the flow of products through Benetton's Ponzano factory, including its use of subcontractors. Includes information about Benetton's manufacturing, logistics, and retailing strategies.

    Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Logistics; Product; Production; Strategy; Italy;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L. "Benetton Factory Tour--Ponzano, Italy, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 886-510, August 1985. View Details
  53. Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms

    A basic note to be used at the beginning of the introductory marketing course to familiarize students with the arithmetic techniques, concepts, and terms that are typically employed in the analysis of a first year marketing case.

    Keywords: Marketing;

    Citation:

    Heskett, James L., and Theodore Levitt. "Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms." Harvard Business School Background Note 574-082, June 1974. (Revised April 1983.) View Details