Jasmina Chauvin is a doctoral candidate in Strategy at Harvard Business School. Prior to joining the Doctoral program, Jasmina was policy advisor to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, where she focused on private sector development strategies. Previously she worked in Infrastructure and Energy Finance at Citigroup, as a consultant to the World Bank, and as Research Fellow at the Center for International Development at Harvard University. Jasmina holds a Master’s degree in Public Administration/International Development from the Harvard Kennedy School and a Bachelor’s degree in International Political Economy from Georgetown University.
Jasmina’s research examines the drivers of firm location and firm productivity, with a particular focus on the role of trade and of transportation barriers. In current work, she examines how large-scale investments in road transportation in Brazil affected the geographic scope of firm competition and productivity. In another working paper, she is seeking to understand when firms cluster near their product market competitors and when they disperse. Jasmina also enjoys teaching, and has taught Analytic Tools for Public Policy, Statistics, and Principles of Microeconomics to graduate students at Harvard.
Fiscal Issues for Cross-Border Mineral Projects
Projects that cross national boundaries give rise to the complex question of how the project's taxable income should be allocated among the national entities. This chapter utilizes a hypothetical mining project with the mine and infrastructure in two different countries to illustrate the fiscal issues arising out of cross-border projects. The unitary nature of the mine and its downstream infrastructure, each fully dependent upon the other, means that any exercise to separate the two into independent entities for tax purposes is highly arbitrary. No comparable uncontrolled transactions are likely to exist for applying the traditional arms-length principle. The cost-plus method can result in estimates for taxable income allocated to the downstream jurisdiction that vary by a factor of four or more. An alternative, not without its own limitations, is to apply a profit-split or formulary allocation to apportion income between jurisdictions. These ambiguities become particularity important when tax rates in the relevant national entities differ because then they can be used strategically, namely to shift project income to the more favorable jurisdiction.
Keywords: extractive industries;
Business ＆ government relations;
Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues;
Business and Government Relations;
Bell, Joseph, and Jasmina Chauvin. "Fiscal Issues for Cross-Border Mineral Projects." In International Taxation and the Extractive Industries
, edited by Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Victoria Perry, and Victor Thuronyi. Routledge, forthcoming. View Details
Moving to the Adjacent Possible: Discovering Paths for Export Diversification in Rwanda
How can Rwanda, which currently has one of the lowest levels of income and exports per capita in the world, grow and diversify its economy in presence of significant constraints? We analyze Rwanda's historical growth and trade performance and find that Rwanda's high transportation costs and limited productive knowledge have held back greater export development and have resulted in excessive rural density. Three basic commodities — coffee, tea, and tin — made up more than 80 percent of the country's exports through its history and still drive the bulk of export growth today. Given Rwanda's high population density and associated land scarcity, these traditional exports cannot create enough jobs for its growing population, or sustainably drive future growth. Rwanda needs new, scalable activities in urban areas. In this report, we identify a strategy for greater diversification of exports in Rwanda that circumvents the key constraints and is separately tailored for regional and global export destinations. Our results identify more than 100 tradable products that lie at Rwanda's knowledge frontier, are not intensive in Rwanda's scarce resources, and economize on transportation costs. Our analysis produces a vision of a more diversified Rwanda, which can be used as a guide for investment promotion decisions. We illustrate an approach that can be applied to other settings in order to identify opportunities for export diversification that take seriously local constraints and external market opportunities.
Keywords: Export diversification;
Developing Countries and Economies;