Michael L. Tushman

Paul R. Lawrence MBA Class of 1942 Professor of Business Administration
Chair, Program for Leadership Development

Michael Tushman holds degrees from Northeastern University (B.S.E.E.), Cornell University (M. S.), and the Sloan School of Management at M.I.T. (Ph.D.). Tushman was on the faculty of the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, from 1976 to 1998; he was the Phillip Hettleman Professor of Business from 1989 to 1998. He has also been a visiting professor at MIT (1982, 1996) and INSEAD (1995-1998, 2011). In 2008 Tushman was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Geneva. In 2013 Tushman was awarded the Academy of Management’s Career Achievement Award for Distinguished Scholarly Contributions to Management. He also won the 2013 Academy of Management Review Decade Award for his paper with Mary J. Benner, “Exploitation, Exploration and Process Management: The Productivity Dilemma Revisited". Tushman was also the recipient of the 2013 Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching, and was the winner of the 2013 Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Professor Tushman is internationally recognized for his work on the relations between technological change, executive leadership and organization adaptation. His work centers on the role of senior teams in building organizations that can host both incremental as well as more discontinuous innovation as well as leading those organizational changes associated with these innovation streams. His work on ambidextrous organizational designs focuses on those organizational and senior team characteristics that enable firms to both exploit current capabilities as well explore into new spaces. He is working on the impact of distributed innovation on incumbent firms as well as the role of organizational identity on a firm’s ability to handle paradoxical strategic requirements. He has published numerous articles and books including Winning Through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Renewal and Change (with C. O'Reilly), Harvard Business School Press, 1997, 2002; Navigating Change: How CEOs, Top Teams, and Boards Steer Transformation (with D. Hambrick and D. Nadler,1998), Harvard Business School Press; Competing by Design: A Blueprint for Organizational Architectures (with D. Nadler), Oxford University Press, 1998; and Managing Strategic Innovation: A Collection of Readings (with P. Anderson), Oxford University Press, 1997, 2004.

Tushman teaches courses on leading innovation and organization effectiveness and on leading strategic innovation and change. At Columbia, he won the first W. H. Newman Award for excellence and innovation in the classroom. At Harvard, Tushman is involved in comprehensive and focused executive education programs, the MBA program, as well as the doctoral program. Tushman was the faculty chair of the Advanced Management Program as well as co-chair of the Management track of the DBA program. He is now faculty chair of the Program for Leadership Development and co-faculty chair of Leading Change and Organizational Renewal. He has supervised many doctoral students, several who have won national awards for their dissertation research.

Tushman is an active consultant and instructor in corporate executive education programs around the world. Tushman was senior advisor to the Delta Consulting Group and past trustee of IBM Credit Corporation. Tushman is a founding director of Change Logic.

Professor Tushman has also served on the boards of many scholarly journals including Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Human Relations, Journal of Business Venturing, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Journal of Management Studies, Organizational Dynamics, and IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. He has also served as chairperson of the Organization and Management Theory and the Technology and Innovation Management Divisions of the Academy of Management. Tushman was elected Fellow of the Academy of Management in 1996, and received the distinguished scholar awards in the Technology and Innovation Management (1999) and Organization Management and Theory (2003) Divisions of the Academy of Management as well as at INFORMS Technology Management Section (2010). His paper with Mary Benner won the Academy of Management Review’s best paper award in 2004. In 2010, his paper with Charles O'Reilly and Bruce Harreld won the Accenture Award from the California Management Review. In 2005, Tushman was named Lecturer of the Year at CHAMPS, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden). In 2011 he received The Sumantra Ghoshal Award for Rigour & Relevance in the Study of Management from London Business School.

 

Books

  1. Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings

    Keywords: Management; Innovation and Invention; Change; Information; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Philip Anderson, eds. Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings. 2nd ed. NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  2. Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Charles A. O'Reilly. Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
  3. Competing by Design: The Power of Organizational Architectures

    Keywords: Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. Competing by Design: The Power of Organizational Architectures. NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  4. Navigating Change: How CEO's, Top Teams and Boards Steer Transformation

    Keywords: Leading Change; Innovation and Management; Transformation;

    Citation:

    Hambrick, D., D. Nadler, and Michael Tushman. Navigating Change: How CEO's, Top Teams and Boards Steer Transformation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
  5. Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal

    Keywords: Leading Change; Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and C. O'Reilly. Winning through Innovation: A Practical Guide to Leading Organizational Change and Renewal. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.
  6. Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings

    Keywords: Change Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and P. Anderson. Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings. NY: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  7. The Management of Organizations

    Keywords: Organizations; Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, C. O'Reilly, and D. Nadler, eds. The Management of Organizations. New York: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1989.
  8. Readings in the Management of Innovation

    Keywords: Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and William L. Moore. Readings in the Management of Innovation. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1988.
  9. Strategic Organization Design

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. Strategic Organization Design. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.
  10. Readings in the Management of Innovation

    Keywords: Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and William L. Moore. Readings in the Management of Innovation. Boston: Pitman Publishing, 1982.
  11. Approaches to Managing Organizational Behavior: Models, Cases and Readings

    Keywords: Organizations; Behavior; Management;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., Michael Tushman, and N. Hatvany. Approaches to Managing Organizational Behavior: Models, Cases and Readings. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.
  12. Organizational Change: An Exploratory Study and Case History

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Cases;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. Organizational Change: An Exploratory Study and Case History. Ithaca, NY: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 1974.

Journal Articles

  1. The Art of Strategic Renewal

    In recent years, we have seen well-established companies such as Kodak, Blockbuster, Nokia, and BlackBerry pushed to the brink by smart competitors and changes in their industries. In each case, there were opportunities to act before a crisis engulfed the organization. At Kodak, for example, CEO George Fisher attempted to move the company into the digital era in the 1990s. However, he was unable to change course quickly enough. Fisher had an opportunity; his successor had a crisis. What can leaders do before the depth and scope of their companies' crises come into focus? How can they initiate major transformations proactively? As researchers and managers who have been involved in numerous corporate transformations in recent years, we have learned that applying standard formulae to corporate transformations is, at best, ineffective and, at worst, dangerous. What's needed is a new approach that enables executives to transform organizations proactively without resorting to fear.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Binns, Andy, J. Bruce Harreld, Charles A. O'Reilly, and Michael L. Tushman. "The Art of Strategic Renewal." MIT Sloan Management Review 55, no. 2 (Winter 2014): 21–23.
  2. Organizational Ambidexterity: Past, Present and Future

    Organizational ambidexterity refers to the ability of an organization to both explore and exploit—to compete in mature technologies and markets where efficiency, control, and incremental improvement are prized and to also compete in new technologies and markets where flexibility, autonomy, and experimentation are needed. In the past 15 years there has been an explosion of interest and research on this topic. We briefly review the current state of the research, highlighting what we know and don't know about the topic. We close with a point of view on promising areas for ongoing research.

    Keywords: Organizational ambidexterity; organization design; innovation; leadership; Leadership; Organizational Design; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    O'Reilly, Charles A., III, and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Ambidexterity: Past, Present and Future." Academy of Management Perspectives 27, no. 4 (November 2013): 324–338.
  3. Discretion Within Constraint: Homophily and Structure in a Formal Organization

    Homophily in social relations results from both individual preferences and selective opportunities for interaction, but how these two mechanisms interact in large, contemporary organizations is not well understood. We argue that organizational structures and geography delimit opportunities for interaction such that actors have a greater level of discretion to choose their interaction partners within business units, job functions, offices, and quasi-formal structures. This leads us to expect to find a higher proportion of homophilous interactions within these organizational structures than across their boundaries. We test our theory in an analysis of the rate of dyadic communication in an e-mail data set comprising thousands of employees in a large information technology firm. These findings have implications for research on homophily, gender relations in organizations, and formal and informal organizational structure.

    Keywords: Familiarity; Interpersonal Communication; Information Technology; Organizational Structure; Social and Collaborative Networks; Gender Characteristics; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kleinbaum, Adam M., Toby E. Stuart, and Michael Tushman. "Discretion Within Constraint: Homophily and Structure in a Formal Organization." Organization Science 24, no. 5 (September–October 2013): 1316–1336.
  4. Open Innovation and Organization Design

    This paper calls the organization design community to reconcile the divergent scholarly perspectives on the relationship between firm boundaries and the locus of innovation by moving beyond debates between open vs. closed boundaries and instead embracing the notion of complex organizational boundaries where firms simultaneously pursue a range of boundary options that include "closed" vertical integration, strategic alliances with key partners, and "open" boundaries characteristic of various open innovation approaches. The simultaneous pursuit results in organizations that can attend to complex, often internally inconsistent, innovation logics and their structural and process requirements.

    Keywords: organization design; open innovation; innovation; locus of innovation; organizational structure; organizational boundaries; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Innovation and Invention; Alliances; Vertical Integration; Boundaries;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, Karim Lakhani, and Hila Lifshitz - Assaf. "Open Innovation and Organization Design." Special Issue on The Future of Organization Design. Journal of Organization Design 1, no. 1 (2012): 24–27. (SSRN's top ten download list for: Organizational Structural Designs, Innovation & Product Development.)
  5. Meta-Organizational Design: Rethinking Design in Inter-Organizational and Community Contexts

    This paper provides conceptual foundations for analyzing organizations comprising multiple legally autonomous entities, which we call meta-organizations. We assess the antecedents of the emergence of such collectives and the design choices they entail. The paper identifies key parameters on which such meta-organizations' designs differ from each other. It also presents a taxonomy that elucidates how such forms of collective action vary and the constraints they must address to be successful. We conclude with implications for research on meta-organizational design.

    Keywords: Design; Organizations; Civil Society or Community; Relationships;

    Citation:

    Gulati, Ranjay, Phanish Puranam, and Michael Tushman. "Meta-Organizational Design: Rethinking Design in Inter-Organizational and Community Contexts." Special Issue on Strategy and the Design of Organizational Architecture edited by R. Gulati, P. Puranam, M. Tushman Strategic Management Journal 33, no. 6 (June 2012): 571–586.
  6. The Ambidextrous CEO

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Wendy K. Smith, and Andy Binns. "The Ambidextrous CEO." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 6 (June 2011): 74–80.
  7. Organizational Ambidexterity in Action: How Managers Explore and Exploit

    Dynamic capabilities have been proposed as a useful way to understand how organizations are able to adapt to changes in technology and markets. Organizational ambidexterity, the ability of senior managers to seize opportunities through the orchestration and integration of existing assets to overcome inertia and path dependence, is a core dynamic capability. While promising, research on dynamic capabilities and ambidexterity has not yet been able to specify the specific mechanisms through which senior managers are actually able to reallocate resources and reconfigure assets to simultaneously explore and exploit. Using interviews and qualitative case studies from thirteen organizations, this article explores the actions senior managers took to implement ambidextrous designs and identify which ones helped or hindered them in their attempts. A set of interrelated choices of organization design and senior team process determines which attempts to build ambidextrous organizations are successful.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Management Practices and Processes; Resource Allocation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    O'Reilly, Charles A., III, and Michael L. Tushman. "Organizational Ambidexterity in Action: How Managers Explore and Exploit." California Management Review 53, no. 4 (summer 2011): 5–21.
  8. Ambidextrous Leadership: Emerging Challenges for Business and HR Leaders

    Keywords: Leadership; Problems and Challenges; Human Resources;

    Citation:

    Probst, Gilbert, Sebastian Raisch, and Michael Tushman. "Ambidextrous Leadership: Emerging Challenges for Business and HR Leaders." Organizational Dynamics 40, no. 4 (2011): 326–334.
  9. Organizational Designs and Innovation Streams

    This article empirically explores the relations between alternative organizational designs and a firm's ability to explore as well as exploit. We operationalize exploitation and exploration in terms of innovation streams—incremental innovation in existing products as well as architectural and/or discontinuous innovation. Based on in-depth, longitudinal data from 13 business units and 22 innovations, we describe the consequences of organization design choices on innovation outcomes as well as the ongoing performance of existing products. We find that ambidextrous organization designs are relatively more effective in executing innovation streams than functional, cross-functional, and spinout designs. Further, transitions to ambidextrous designs are associated with increased innovation outcomes, while shifts away from ambidextrous designs are associated with decreased innovation outcomes. We describe the nature of ambidextrous organizational designs—their characteristics, underlying processes, and boundary conditions. More broadly, we suggest that the locus of integration and degree of structural differentiation together affect a firm's ability to explore and exploit. We suggest that the senior team's ability to attend to and deal with contradictory internal architectures is a crucial determinant of a firm's ability to exploit in the short-term and explore over time.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Innovation and Invention; Management Teams; Product Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Design; Outcome or Result; Performance Improvement;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, Wendy K. Smith, Robert Chapman Wood, George Westerman, and Charles A. O'Reilly III. "Organizational Designs and Innovation Streams." Industrial and Corporate Change 19, no. 5 (October 2010): 1331–1366. (doi: 10.1093/icc/dtq040.)
  10. Complex Business Models: Managing Strategic Paradoxes Simultaneously

    Keywords: Business Model; Management; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Smith, Wendy K., Andrew Binns, and Michael Tushman. "Complex Business Models: Managing Strategic Paradoxes Simultaneously." Special Issue on Business Models. Long Range Planning 43, no. 2 (April 2010): 448–461.
  11. Exploration and Exploitation within and across Organizations

    Jim March's framework of exploration and exploitation has drawn substantial interest from scholars studying phenomena such as organizational learning, knowledge management, innovation, organizational design, and strategic alliances. This framework has become an essential lens for interpreting various behaviors and outcomes within and across organizations. Despite its straightforwardness, this framework has generated debates concerning the definition of exploration and exploitation and their measurement, antecedents, and consequences. We critically review the growing literature on exploration and exploitation discuss various perspectives, raise conceptual and empirical concerns, underscore challenges for further development of this literature, and provide directions for future research.

    Keywords: Learning; Framework; Innovation and Invention; Knowledge Management; Organizational Design; Outcome or Result; Alliances; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Lavie, Dovev, Uriel Stettner, and Michael Tushman. "Exploration and Exploitation within and across Organizations." Academy of Management Annals 4, no. 1 (2010): 109–155.
  12. M@n@gement in Times of Economic Crisis: Insights Into Organizational Ambidexterity

    Keywords: Management; Financial Crisis; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Schmitt, Achim, Gilbert Probst, and Michael Tushman. "M@n@gement in Times of Economic Crisis: Insights Into Organizational Ambidexterity." M@n@gement 13, no. 3 (2010): 128–150.
  13. Organizational Ambidexterity: Balancing Exploitation and Exploration for Sustained Performance

    Organizational ambidexterity has emerged as a new research paradigm in organization theory, yet several issues that are fundamental to this debate remain controversial. We explore four central tensions here: Should organizations achieve ambidexterity through differentiation or through integration? Does ambidexterity occur at the individual or organizational level? Must organizations take a static or dynamic perspective on ambidexterity? Finally, can ambidexterity arise internally or do firms have to externalize some processes? We provide an overview of the seven articles included in this special issue and suggest several avenues for future research.

    Keywords: Change; Innovation and Invention; Business Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Research; Integration;

    Citation:

    Raisch, Sebastian, Julian Birkinshaw, Gilbert Probst, and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Ambidexterity: Balancing Exploitation and Exploration for Sustained Performance." Organization Science 20, no. 4 (July–August 2009): 685–695.
  14. Organizational Ambidexterity: IBM and Emerging Business Opportunities

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Management Skills; Competitive Advantage; Leadership; Theory; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    O'Reilly, Charles A., III, J. Bruce Harreld, and Michael L. Tushman. "Organizational Ambidexterity: IBM and Emerging Business Opportunities." California Management Review (summer 2009): 75–99. (Winner of Accenture Award for the article published in the California Management Review that has made the most important contribution to improving the practice of management​.)
  15. Perspectives on the Productivity Dilemma

    For more than a century, operations researchers have recognized that organizations can increase efficiency by adhering strictly to proven process templates, thereby rendering operations more stable and predictable. For several decades, researchers have also recognized that these efficiency gains can impose heavy costs. The capabilities that enable consistent execution can also hinder learning and innovation, leaving organizations rigid and inflexible. By optimizing their processes for efficiency in the short term, organizations become brittle. In the “Productivity Dilemma”, Abernathy conjectured that short-term efficiency and long-term adaptability are inherently incompatible. Organization theorists have conceptualized Abernathy's dilemma as the challenge of balancing exploitation and exploration. Exploitation leverages existing knowledge and capabilities, resulting in stable and efficient performance. Exploration creates new knowledge, enabling organizations to innovate and adapt to changing conditions. Enduring organizational performance requires ambidexterity, the ability to sustain both exploration and exploitation. Various techniques have been proposed for achieving ambidexterity, such as differentiated exploratory subunits and meta-routines that modify underlying processes. Ambidexterity requires operational processes that combine high levels of efficiency with the flexibility to evolve and improve over time. Thus, the perspectives of operations management are essential to understanding the mechanics of ambidexterity. Moreover, theories of ambidexterity raise important questions for operations management. This article synthesizes several recent perspectives on the dynamics of ambidexterity and the productivity dilemma.

    Keywords: Learning; Innovation and Invention; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Operations; Business Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Performance Efficiency; Performance Improvement; Performance Productivity; Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Adler, Paul S., Mary Benner, David James Brunner, John Paul MacDuffie, Emi Osono, Bradley R. Staats, Hirotaka Takeuchi, Michael Tushman, and Sidney G. Winter. "Perspectives on the Productivity Dilemma." Journal of Operations Management 27, no. 2 (April 2009): 99–113.
  16. Crossing Boundaries to Increase Relevance in Organizational Research

    Keywords: Organizations; Research;

    Citation:

    Polzer, Jeffrey, Ranjay Gulati, Rakesh Khurana, and Michael Tushman. "Crossing Boundaries to Increase Relevance in Organizational Research." Journal of Management Inquiry 18, no. 4 (2009): 280–286.
  17. Managing Corporate Social Networks

    Keywords: Management; Business Ventures; Networks;

    Citation:

    Kleinbaum, Adam M., and Michael L. Tushman. "Managing Corporate Social Networks." HBS Centennial Issue. Harvard Business Review 86, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2008).
  18. Ambidexterity as a Dynamic Capability: Resolving the Innovator's Dilemma

    How do organizations survive in the face of change? Underlying this question is a rich debate about whether organizations can adapt—and if so, how. One perspective, organizational ecology, presents evidence suggesting that most organizations are largely inert and ultimately fail. A second perspective argues that some firms do learn and adapt to shifting environmental contexts. Recently, this latter view has coalesced around two themes. The first, based on research in strategy, suggests that dynamic capabilities, the ability of a firm to reconfigure assets and existing capabilities, explains long-term competitive advantage. The second, based on organizational design, argues that ambidexterity, the ability of a firm to simultaneously explore and exploit, enables a firm to adapt over time. In this paper we review and integrate these comparatively new research streams and identify a set of propositions that suggest how ambidexterity acts as a dynamic capability. We suggest that efficiency and innovation need not be strategic tradeoffs and highlight the substantive role of senior teams in building dynamic capabilities.

    Keywords: Change Management; Competency and Skills; Innovation and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Performance Efficiency; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    O'Reilly, Charles, and Michael Tushman. "Ambidexterity as a Dynamic Capability: Resolving the Innovator's Dilemma." Research in Organizational Behavior 28 (2008): 185–206.
  19. Building Bridges: The Social Structure of Interdependent Innovation

    Keywords: Society; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Kleinbaum, Adam M., and Michael Tushman. "Building Bridges: The Social Structure of Interdependent Innovation." Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 1, nos. 1-2 (November 2007): 103–122.
  20. Relevance and Rigor: Executive Education as a Lever in Shaping Practice and Research

    As professional schools, business schools aspire to couple research rigor with managerial relevance. There has been, however, a concern that business schools are increasingly uncoupled from practice and that business school research lacks real world relevance. This relevance-rigor gap affects the quality of our teaching as well as the institutional legitimacy of our business schools. We argue that executive education is an underutilized context that can enhance the quality of faculty research as well as our impact on managerial practice. Using evaluation data from variations of a single executive education program, we find that action-learning programs significantly enhance both individual and organizational outcomes compared to traditional executive education formats. Action-learning programs also enhance our teaching and research efforts. Building on these results and experiences, we suggest that executive education in general, and action-learning in particular, are fertile contexts where business schools can bridge the relevance-rigor gap.

    Keywords: Business Education; Executive Education; Learning; Teaching; Management; Practice; Research;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Amy Fenollosa, Dan McGrath, Charles A. O'Reilly, and Adam Michael Kleinbaum. "Relevance and Rigor: Executive Education as a Lever in Shaping Practice and Research." Academy of Management Learning & Education 6, no. 3 (September 2007): 345–365.
  21. Research and Relevance: Implications of Pasteur's Quadrant for Doctoral Programs and Faculty Development

    Keywords: Research; Education; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and Charles A. O’Reilly III. "Research and Relevance: Implications of Pasteur's Quadrant for Doctoral Programs and Faculty Development." Academy of Management Journal 50, no. 4 (August 2007): 769–774.
  22. On the Co-Evolution of Knowing and Doing: A Personal Perspective on the Synergies between Research and Practice

    Keywords: Knowledge; Perspective; Research; Practice;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L. "On the Co-Evolution of Knowing and Doing: A Personal Perspective on the Synergies between Research and Practice." Journal of Management Inquiry 16, no. 2 (June 2007): 132–138.
  23. Dynamic Capabilities at IBM: Driving Strategy into Action

    Keywords: Strategy; Technology; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Harreld, J. Bruce, Charles A. O’Reilly III, and Michael L. Tushman. "Dynamic Capabilities at IBM: Driving Strategy into Action." California Management Review 49, no. 4 (summer 2007).
  24. Managing Strategic Contradictions: A Top Management Model for Managing Innovation Streams

    Keywords: Management; Strategy; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Smith, W., and M. Tushman. "Managing Strategic Contradictions: A Top Management Model for Managing Innovation Streams." Organization Science 16, no. 5 (September–October 2005).
  25. From Engineering Management/R&D Management, to the Management of Innovation, to Exploiting and Exploring over Value Nets: 50 Years of Research Initiated by IEEE-TEM

    Keywords: Engineering; Management; Research and Development; Innovation and Invention; Value; Research;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L. "From Engineering Management/R&D Management, to the Management of Innovation, to Exploiting and Exploring over Value Nets: 50 Years of Research Initiated by IEEE-TEM." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 51, no. 4 (November 2004): 409–411. (Invited Essay.)
  26. The Ambidextrous Organization

    Keywords: Organizations;

    Citation:

    O'Reilly, Charles A., III, and Michael L. Tushman. "The Ambidextrous Organization." Harvard Business Review 82, no. 4 (April 2004): 74–81.
  27. Exploitation, Exploration, and Process Management: The Productivity Dilemma Revisited

    We develop a contingency view of process management's influence on both technological innovation and organizational adaptation. We argue that while process management activities are beneficial for organizations in stable contexts, they are fundamentally inconsistent with all but incremental innovation and change. But dynamic capabilities are rooted in both exploitative and exploratory activities. We argue that process management activities must be buffered from exploratory activities and that ambidextrous organizational forms provide the complex contexts for these inconsistent activities to coexist.

    Keywords: Management; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Benner, Mary J., and Michael L. Tushman. "Exploitation, Exploration, and Process Management: The Productivity Dilemma Revisited." Academy of Management Review 28, no. 2 (April 2003): 238–256. (Winner of Academy of Management Review. Best Paper Award​. Also the 2013 AMR Decade Award winner.)
  28. Process Management and Technological Innovation: A Longitudinal Study of the Photography and Paint Industries

    Keywords: Management; Technology; Innovation and Invention; Arts;

    Citation:

    Benner, Mary J., and Michael Tushman. "Process Management and Technological Innovation: A Longitudinal Study of the Photography and Paint Industries." Administrative Science Quarterly 47, no. 4 (December 2002): 676–706.
  29. A Structural Approach to Assessing Innovation: Construct Development of Innovation Locus, Type and Characteristics

    Keywords: Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Gatignon, Hubert, Michael L. Tushman, Wendy Smith, and Philip Anderson. "A Structural Approach to Assessing Innovation: Construct Development of Innovation Locus, Type and Characteristics." Management Science 48, no. 9 (September 2002): 1103–1122.
  30. Introduction to Special Topic Forum on Time and Organizational Research

    Keywords: Organizations; Research;

    Citation:

    Ancona, D., P. Goodman, B. Lawrence, and M. Tushman. "Introduction to Special Topic Forum on Time and Organizational Research." Academy of Management Review 26, no. 4 (October 2001): 507–511.
  31. Time: A New Research Lens

    Keywords: Research;

    Citation:

    Ancona, D., P. Goodman, B. Lawrence, and M. Tushman. "Time: A New Research Lens." Academy of Management Review 26, no. 4 (October 2001): 645–663.
  32. Organizational Environments and Industry Exit: The Effects of Uncertainty, Munificence and Complexity

    Keywords: Organizations; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Anderson, Philip, and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Environments and Industry Exit: The Effects of Uncertainty, Munificence and Complexity." Industrial and Corporate Change 10, no. 3 (August 2001): 675–711.
  33. The Organization of the Future: Principles of Design for the 21st Century

    Keywords: Design; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. "The Organization of the Future: Principles of Design for the 21st Century." Organizational Dynamics 28, no. 1 (summer 1999): 45–60.
  34. The Coevolution of Community Networks and Technology: Lessons From the Flight Simulation Industry

    Keywords: Networks; Technology; Learning; Aerospace Industry;

    Citation:

    Rosenkopf, L., and Michael Tushman. "The Coevolution of Community Networks and Technology: Lessons From the Flight Simulation Industry." Industrial and Corporate Change 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 311–346.
  35. Dominant Designs, Innovation Types and Organizational Outcomes

    Keywords: Design; Innovation and Invention; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and P. Murmann. "Dominant Designs, Innovation Types and Organizational Outcomes." Research in Organizational Behavior 20 (1998). (Winner of Stephan Schrader Best Paper Award presented by Academy of Management.)
  36. Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change

    Keywords: Management; Change;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and C. O'Reilly. "Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change." California Management Review 38, no. 4 (summer 1996): 8–30. (Winner of Andersen Consulting Award For the article published in the California Management Review that has made the most important contribution to improving the practice of management.)
  37. Executive Succession, Strategic Reorientation and Performance Growth: A Longitudinal Study in the U.S. Cement Industry in Stable Environments

    Keywords: Management; Strategy; Performance; Growth and Development; Information; Balance and Stability; Construction Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and L. Rosenkopf. "Executive Succession, Strategic Reorientation and Performance Growth: A Longitudinal Study in the U.S. Cement Industry in Stable Environments." Management Science 42, no. 7 (July 1996): 939–953.
  38. The Influence of Supervisory Promotion and Network Location on Subordinate Careers in a Dual Ladder RD&E Setting

    Keywords: Human Resources; Personal Development and Career; Research and Development;

    Citation:

    Katz, R., Michael Tushman, and T. Allen. "The Influence of Supervisory Promotion and Network Location on Subordinate Careers in a Dual Ladder RD&E Setting." Management Science 41, no. 5 (May 1995): 848–863.
  39. Organization Transformation as Punctuated Equilibrium: An Empirical Test

    Keywords: Organizations; Transformation; Information;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and E. Romanelli. "Organization Transformation as Punctuated Equilibrium: An Empirical Test." Academy of Management Journal 34 (1994): 1141–1166.
  40. Environmental and Organization Context and Executive Team Characteristics

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Demographics;

    Citation:

    Keck, S., and Michael Tushman. "Environmental and Organization Context and Executive Team Characteristics." Academy of Management Journal 36 (1993): 1314–1344.
  41. Executive Succession and Organization Outcomes in Turbulent Environments: An Organizational Learning Approach

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Organizations; Learning; Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, B. Virany, and E. Romanelli. "Executive Succession and Organization Outcomes in Turbulent Environments: An Organizational Learning Approach." Organization Science 3, no. 4 (November 1992): 72–92.
  42. Exploring the Dynamics of Dual Ladders: A Longitudinal Study

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and R. Katz. "Exploring the Dynamics of Dual Ladders: A Longitudinal Study." Management of High Technology Firms, edited by E. Lawless and G. Mejia. Journal of High Technology Management Research 4 (spring 1992).
  43. The Role of Executive Team Actions in Shaping Dominant Designs: Towards Shaping Technological Progress

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Design; Technology;

    Citation:

    McGrath, R., Ian MacMillan, and M. Tushman. "The Role of Executive Team Actions in Shaping Dominant Designs: Towards Shaping Technological Progress." Strategic Management Journal 13, no. 1 (January 1992): 137–161.
  44. On the Organizational Determinants of Technological Change: Towards a Sociology of Technological Evolution

    Keywords: Organizations; Change; Technology; Society; Science;

    Citation:

    Rosenkopf, L., and M. Tushman. "On the Organizational Determinants of Technological Change: Towards a Sociology of Technological Evolution." Research in Organizational Behavior 14 (1992).
  45. Managing through Cycles of Technological Change

    Keywords: Management; Technology; Change;

    Citation:

    Anderson, Phil, and Michael Tushman. "Managing through Cycles of Technological Change." Research Technology Management 34 (1991): 26–31.
  46. Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change

    Keywords: Leadership; Organizations; Change;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. "Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change." California Management Review 32, no. 2 (winter 1990): 77–97.
  47. Technology, Organizations and Innovation: An Introduction

    Keywords: Technology; Organizations; Innovation and Invention; Information;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and R. Nelson. "Technology, Organizations and Innovation: An Introduction." Administrative Science Quarterly 35, no. 1 (March 1990): 1–8.
  48. Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change

    Keywords: Technology; Design; Change;

    Citation:

    Anderson, P., and Michael Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35, no. 1 (March 1990): 604–633.
  49. Organizational Frame-Bending: Principles for Managing Reorientations

    Keywords: Organizations; Management; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Frame-Bending: Principles for Managing Reorientations." Academy of Management Executive 3, no. 3 (August 1989): 194–204.
  50. Top Management Teams and Corporate Success in an Emerging Industry

    Keywords: Management; Groups and Teams; Success; Supply and Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and B. Virany. "Top Management Teams and Corporate Success in an Emerging Industry." Journal of Business Venturing 1, no. 3 (autumn 1986): 261–274.
  51. Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments

    Keywords: Technology; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and Philip Anderson. "Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments." Administrative Science Quarterly 31, no. 3 (September 1986): 439–465.
  52. Convergence and Upheaval: Managing the Unsteady Pace of Organizational Evolution

    Keywords: Management; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., W. Newman, and E. Romanelli. "Convergence and Upheaval: Managing the Unsteady Pace of Organizational Evolution." California Management Review 29, no. 1 (fall 1986): 29–44. (Winner of Pacific Telesis Foundation Award For the article published in the California Management Review that has made the most important contribution to improving the practice of management.)
  53. Inertia, Environments and Strategic Choice: Quasi-Experimental Designs for Comparative Research

    Keywords: Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Design; Research;

    Citation:

    Romanelli, E., and Michael Tushman. "Inertia, Environments and Strategic Choice: Quasi-Experimental Designs for Comparative Research." Management Science 32, no. 5 (May 1986): 608–621.
  54. Organizing for Innovation

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and D. Nadler. "Organizing for Innovation." California Management Review 28, no. 3 (spring 1986): 74–92.
  55. Executive Succession, Strategic Reorientation and Organization Evolution

    Keywords: Management Succession; Strategy; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, B. Virany, and E. Romanelli. "Executive Succession, Strategic Reorientation and Organization Evolution." Technology in Society 7 (1985): 297–314.
  56. Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation

    Keywords: Organizations;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and E. Romanelli. "Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation." Research in Organizational Behavior 7 (1985).
  57. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Boundary Spanning Supervision on Turnover and Promotion in Research and Development

    Keywords: Human Resources; Research and Development; Information; Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and R. Katz. "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Boundary Spanning Supervision on Turnover and Promotion in Research and Development." Academy of Management Journal 26, no. 3 (September 1983): 437–459.
  58. Uncertainty, Social Location and Influence in Decision Making: A Sociometric Analysis

    Keywords: Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and E. Romanelli. "Uncertainty, Social Location and Influence in Decision Making: A Sociometric Analysis." Management Science 29, no. 1 (January 1983): 12–23.
  59. Managerial Roles and Career Paths of Gatekeepers and Project Supervisors

    Keywords: Management; Personal Development and Career;

    Citation:

    Katz, R., and Michael Tushman. "Managerial Roles and Career Paths of Gatekeepers and Project Supervisors." R & D Management 11 (1982).
  60. Does Gatekeeping Make a Difference?

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and R. Katz. "Does Gatekeeping Make a Difference?" Chemtech 12 (1982): 151–61.
  61. Boundary Spanning Individuals: Their Role in Information Transfer and Their Antecedents

    Keywords: Communication;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and T. Scanlan. "Boundary Spanning Individuals: Their Role in Information Transfer and Their Antecedents." Academy of Management Journal 24, no. 2 (June 1981): 289–305.
  62. Characteristics and External Orientation of Boundary Spanning Individuals

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and Thomas Scanlan. "Characteristics and External Orientation of Boundary Spanning Individuals." Academy of Management Journal 24, no. 1 (March 1981): 83–98.
  63. A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior

    Keywords: Organizations; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and Michael Tushman. "A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior." Organizational Dynamics 9, no. 2 (autumn 1980): 35–51.
  64. R&D Performance as a Function of Internal Communication, Project Management, and the Nature of the Work

    Keywords: Research and Development; Performance; Communication; Projects; Management;

    Citation:

    Allen, Thomas J., Denis M.S. Lee, and Michael Tushman. "R&D Performance as a Function of Internal Communication, Project Management, and the Nature of the Work." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 27 (1980): 2–11.
  65. External Communication and Project Performance: An Investigation Into the Role of Gatekeepers

    Keywords: Communication; Performance; Information;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and R. Katz. "External Communication and Project Performance: An Investigation Into the Role of Gatekeepers." Management Science 26 (1980): 1071–1085.
  66. Communication and Technical Roles in R&D Laboratories: An Information Processing Approach

    Keywords: Communication; Technology; Research and Development; Information;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and D. Nadler. "Communication and Technical Roles in R&D Laboratories: An Information Processing Approach." Special Issue on R&D Management. Management Science 15 (1980): 91–112.
  67. Managing Communication Networks in Research and Development Laboratories

    Keywords: Research and Development; Communication; Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Managing Communication Networks in Research and Development Laboratories." MIT Sloan Management Review 20, no. 2 (winter 1979): 37–49.
  68. Social Network Analysis for Organizations

    Citation:

    Tichy, N., Michael Tushman, and C. Fombrum. "Social Network Analysis for Organizations." Academy of Management Review 4, no. 4 (October 1979): 507–520.
  69. Impacts of Perceived Environmental Variability of Patterns of Work-Related Communication

    Keywords: Communication; Perception;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Impacts of Perceived Environmental Variability of Patterns of Work-Related Communication." Academy of Management Journal 22, no. 3 (September 1979): 482–500.
  70. Communication Patterns, Project Performance, and Task Characteristics: An Empirical Evaluation and Integration in an R&D Setting

    Keywords: Communication; Projects; Performance; Information; Integration; Research and Development;

    Citation:

    Katz, Ralph, and Michael Tushman. "Communication Patterns, Project Performance, and Task Characteristics: An Empirical Evaluation and Integration in an R&D Setting." Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 23, no. 2 (April 1979): 139–162.
  71. Determinants of Subunit Communication Structure: A Contingency Analysis

    Keywords: Communication; Theory;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Determinants of Subunit Communication Structure: A Contingency Analysis." Administrative Science Quarterly 24, no. 1 (March 1979): 82–98.
  72. Modes of Technology Transfer as a Function of Position in the Research-Development-Technical Service Spectrum

    Keywords: Technology; Communication; Research and Development;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and T. J. Allen. "Modes of Technology Transfer as a Function of Position in the Research-Development-Technical Service Spectrum." Academy of Management Journal 22 (1979): 694–708.
  73. Technical Communication in R&D Laboratories: Impacts of Project Work Characteristics

    Keywords: Technology; Communication; Research and Development; Projects;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Technical Communication in R&D Laboratories: Impacts of Project Work Characteristics." Academy of Management Journal 21, no. 4 (December 1978): 624–645.
  74. Information Processing as an Integrating Concept in Organization Design

    Keywords: Organizations; Design; Integration;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and D. Nadler. "Information Processing as an Integrating Concept in Organization Design." Academy of Management Review 3 (1978): 613–624.
  75. A Political Approach to Organizations: A Review and Rationale

    Keywords: Organizations; Planning;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "A Political Approach to Organizations: A Review and Rationale." Academy of Management Review 2, no. 2 (April 1977): 206–216.
  76. Special Boundary Roles in the Innovation Process

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Special Boundary Roles in the Innovation Process." Administrative Science Quarterly 22 (1977): 587–605.

Book Chapters

  1. Innovating without Information Constraints: Organization, Communities, and Innovation when Information Costs Approach Zero

    Innovation has traditionally taken place within an organization's boundaries and/or with selected partners. This Chandlerian approach to innovation has been rooted in transaction costs, organizational boundaries, and information processing challenges associated with distant search. Information processing, storage, and communication costs have long been an important constraint on innovation and a reason for innovative activities to take place inside the boundaries of an organization. However, exponential technological progress has led to a dramatic decrease in information constraints. In a range of contexts, information costs approach zero. In this chapter, we discuss how sharply reduced information costs enable organizations to engage with communities of developers, professionals, and users for core innovative activities, frequently through platform-based businesses and ecosystems and by incorporating user innovation. We then examine how this ease of external engagement impacts the organization and its strategic activities. Specifically, we consider how this shift in information processing costs affects organization boundaries, business models, interdependence, leadership, identity, search, and intellectual property. We suggest that much of the received wisdom in these areas of organization theory requires revisiting. We then discuss the implications for an organization's management of innovation and conclude with research opportunities.

    Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Cost; Innovation and Management; Collaborative Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Altman, Elizabeth J., Frank Nagle, and Michael Tushman. "Innovating without Information Constraints: Organization, Communities, and Innovation when Information Costs Approach Zero." In Oxford Handbook of Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship: Multilevel Linkages, edited by Christina E. Shalley, Michael A. Hitt, and J. Zhou. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, in press.
  2. Open Innovation and Organizational Boundaries: Task Decomposition, Knowledge Distribution and the Locus of Innovation

    This chapter contrasts traditional, organization-centered models of innovation with more recent work on open innovation. These fundamentally different and inconsistent innovation logics are associated with contrasting organizational boundaries and organizational designs. We suggest that when critical tasks can be modularized and when problem-solving knowledge is widely distributed and available, open innovation complements traditional innovation logics. We induce these ideas from the literature and with extended examples from Apple, NASA, and LEGO. We suggest that task decomposition and problem-solving knowledge distribution are not deterministic but are strategic choices. If dynamic capabilities are associated with innovation streams, and if different innovation types are rooted in contrasting innovation logics, there are important implications for firm boundaries, design, and identity.

    Keywords: innovation; organizational boundaries; Institutional Logics; modular innovation; open innovation; Knowledge Sharing; Innovation Strategy; Organizational Design; Boundaries; Collaborative Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Lakhani, Karim R., Hila Lifshitz - Assaf, and Michael Tushman. "Open Innovation and Organizational Boundaries: Task Decomposition, Knowledge Distribution and the Locus of Innovation." Chap. 19 in Handbook of Economic Organization: Integrating Economic and Organization Theory, edited by Anna Grandori, 355–382. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.
  3. Technology and Innovation Management

    The goal of this annotated bibliography on technology and innovation is to organize and present the most important literature relevant to a scholar seeking to understand and advance the field. It includes articles that are highly-cited and foundational pieces, as well as recent articles that help give the reader a sense of where the field is headed and where likely opportunities for future research lie. This article seeks to strike an equilibrium among the variety of perspectives that exist in technology and innovation literature, balancing new and old research as well as economic, organizational, and cross-disciplinary methodologies. The innovative process is broadly considered here, as well as the technologies that result from it, including business model innovation, service-level innovation, and product innovation, highlighting articles that utilize diverse levels of analysis.

    Keywords: technology; technological change; innovation streams; organizational evolution; executive leadership; organizational architecture; Technology; Technological Innovation; Innovation and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leadership; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Altman, Elizabeth J., Frank Nagle, and Michael Tushman. "Technology and Innovation Management." In Oxford Bibliographies: Management, edited by Ricky W. Griffin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  4. Organizational Sustainability: Organization Design and Senior Leadership to Enable Strategic Paradox

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Management Teams; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Smith, W., Maryanne Lewis, and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Sustainability: Organization Design and Senior Leadership to Enable Strategic Paradox." Chap. 61 in Handbook on Positive Organizational Psychology, edited by K. Cameron and G. Spreitzer, 798–810. Oxford University Press, 2011.
  5. On Knowing and Doing: A Perspective on the Synergies between Research and Practice

    The current rigor/relevance debate is a central strategic issue for business schools and their faculty. I argue that ongoing relationships with firms, rooted on the joint acknowledgement of the importance of faculty research by firms and respect for practice by faculty, increase the quality and impact of faculty research. With roles and boundaries clear, such ongoing relationships with firms, particularly those rooted in executive education venues, increase the insightfulness of our research questions and the quality of our data. Such relationships also benefit doctoral training. Further, to the extent that these relationships help faculty translate our field’s research into practice, we are able to live into our institutions' promise to shape managerial practice. These engaged relationships with firms help faculty and their business schools excel in both rigor as well as relevance. This paper provides a personal example of these synergistic relationships and discusses boundary issues associated with these faculty/firm collaborations. Executive education in general, and custom programs in particular, may be an underleveraged vehicle in reducing the rigor/relevance gap between business schools and the world of practice.

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Business Education; Executive Education; Practice; Relationships; Research;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "On Knowing and Doing: A Perspective on the Synergies between Research and Practice." In Useful Research: Advancing Theory and Practice, edited by Susan Albers Mohrman and Edward E. Lawler III. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2011.
  6. Process Management, Technological Innovation, and Organizational Adaptation

    The promise of process management practices is that as organizations focus on variance reduction and increased process control, they will drive both speed and organizational efficiency. However, this promise also accentuates the dark side of process management. These practices will increasingly favor exploitative innovations at the expense of exploratory innovations. This inertia works to impede major change and transforms core competencies to core rigidities. Managers must exercise caution against considerable institutional pressures pushing process management activities. They need to adopt a more nuanced approach to creating organizations that can celebrate both variance reduction in the service of exploitation and variance creation in the service of exploration. This can be achieved by adopting an ambidextrous organizational design.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Innovation and Management; Technological Innovation; Management Practices and Processes; Business Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Benner, Mary, and M. Tushman. "Process Management, Technological Innovation, and Organizational Adaptation." Chap. 15 in Business Process Transformation, edited by Varun Grover and M. Lynne Markus, 317–326. Advances in Management Information Systems. Irvine, CA: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.
  7. Designs, Technology Cycles, and Organizational Outcomes

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Technology; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Westerman, George, and Michael L. Tushman. Comment on "Designs, Technology Cycles, and Organizational Outcomes." Chap. 10 Managing in the Modular Age: Architectures, Networks, and Organizations, edited by Raghu Garud, Arun Kumaraswamy, and Richard Langlois, 348–361. Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
  8. Dominant Designs, Technology Cycles, and Organizational Outcomes

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Technology; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Johann Peter Murmann. "Dominant Designs, Technology Cycles, and Organizational Outcomes." Chap. 10 in Managing in the Modular Age: Architectures, Networks, and Organizations, edited by Raghu Garud, Arun Kumaraswamy, and Richard Langlois, 316–348. Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
  9. Organizational Technology: Technological Change, Ambidextrous Organizations and Organizational Evolution

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Technological Innovation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and W. Smith. "Organizational Technology: Technological Change, Ambidextrous Organizations and Organizational Evolution." Chap. 17 in Blackwell Companion to Organizations, edited by J.A.C. Baum, 386–414. Boston: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
  10. From the Technology Cycle to the Entrepreneurship Dynamic: Placing Dominant Designs in Social Context

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Technology; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Murmann, J., and M. Tushman. "From the Technology Cycle to the Entrepreneurship Dynamic: Placing Dominant Designs in Social Context." In The Entrepreneurship Dynamic: The Origins of Entrepreneurship and Its Role in Industry Evolution, edited by K. Schoonhoven and E. Romanelli, 178–203. Stanford University Press, 2001.
  11. Technology Cycles, Innovation Streams and Ambidextrous Organizations

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Technology; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Anderson, P., M. Tushman, and C. O'Reilly. "Technology Cycles, Innovation Streams and Ambidextrous Organizations." In Managing Strategic Innovation and Change, edited by P. Anderson and M. Tushman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  12. Types of Organization Change: From Incremental Improvements to Discontinuous Transformation

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Performance Improvement; Transformation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M. "Types of Organization Change: From Incremental Improvements to Discontinuous Transformation." In Discontinuous Change, edited by E. Walton, D. Nadler, and R. Shaw. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.
  13. Designing Organizations that Have Good Fit: A Framework for Understanding New Architectures

    Keywords: Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., and D. Nadler. "Designing Organizations that Have Good Fit: A Framework for Understanding New Architectures." In Organization Architecture, edited by M. Gerstein, D. Nadler, and R. Shaw. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.
  14. Leadership and Organization Change: Beyond the Magic Leader

    Keywords: Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M. "Leadership and Organization Change: Beyond the Magic Leader." In Large Scale Organization Change, edited by A. Mohram. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989.
  15. Executive Leadership and Organization Evolution: Managing Incremental and Discontinuous Change

    Keywords: Management Teams; Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Fluctuation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M. "Executive Leadership and Organization Evolution: Managing Incremental and Discontinuous Change." In Corporate Transformation, edited by T. Covin and R. Kilman. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.
  16. Executive Leadership and Organizational Outcomes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Keywords: Management Teams; Leadership; Outcome or Result; Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M. "Executive Leadership and Organizational Outcomes: An Evolutionary Perspective." In The Executive Effect: Research in Executive Leadership, edited by D. Hambrick. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1988.
  17. Managing Innovation Over the Product Life Cycle

    Keywords: Product; Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M. "Managing Innovation Over the Product Life Cycle." In Reading in the Management of Innovation, edited by W. Moore and M. Tushman. Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing, 1982.
  18. Information Processing as an Integrating Concept in Organizational Design

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Knowledge Use and Leverage;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Information Processing as an Integrating Concept in Organizational Design." In Organizations and Management, edited by D. Fisher. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1980.
  19. Network Analysis on Organization

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Networks; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Network Analysis on Organization." In Organizational Assessment: Perspectives on the Measurement of Organizational Behavior and the Quality of Working Life, edited by Edward Lawler. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980.
  20. A Diagnostic Model for Organizational Behavior

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Nadler, D., and M. Tushman. "A Diagnostic Model for Organizational Behavior." In Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, edited by Richard J. Hackman, Edward E. Lawler, Lyman W. Porter, and Patricia S. Nave. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.

Working Papers

  1. Innovating How to Innovate: Evolutionary Model of Dynamic R&D Paths with Shifting Loci of Innovation

    Until recently, the prevailing consensus among various streams of theoretical and empirical literature in strategy, economics and organizational theory has been that innovation does and should take place within the boundaries of the firm. However, growing empirical evidence and emergent theoretical work suggests that the locus of innovation is shifting beyond the boundaries of the firm. A growing number of organizations currently experiment with changing and opening the boundaries of their R&D processes to various degrees. As a result, the complexity of managing R&D systems has increased and our theoretical models and terminology are inadequate. This paper suggests an organizational evolutionary model that captures the changing organizational boundaries of innovation. The analysis suggests the conditions in which organizations will close or open of these boundaries. For each phase of the innovation process—variation, selection, and retention—we identify the drivers shifting the loci of innovation. We suggest that task decomposition is a critical strategic capability and a choice that determines the boundaries of the innovation process. We build on the existing knowledge theory of the firm and the evolutionary perspective streams of literature with extended examples from Apple, NASA, and IBM. The resulting model captures the rising complexity of managing R&D in organizations across various boundary modes and has important implications for organizational boundaries, capabilities, design, and identity.

    Keywords: managing innovation; organizational boundaries; Evolutionary Perspective on Strategic Management; problem decomposition; Innovation and Management; Boundaries; Change;

    Citation:

    Lifshitz - Assaf, Hila, Michael Tushman, and Karim R. Lakhani. "Innovating How to Innovate: Evolutionary Model of Dynamic R&D Paths with Shifting Loci of Innovation." Working Paper, August 2013.
  2. Innovating Without Information Constraints: Organizations, Communities, and Innovation When Information Costs Approach Zero

    Innovation has traditionally taken place within an organization's boundaries and/or with selected partners. This Chandlerian approach to innovation has been rooted in transaction costs, organizational boundaries, and information processing challenges associated with distant search. Information processing, storage, and communication costs have long been an important constraint on innovation and a reason for innovative activities to take place inside the boundaries of an organization. However, exponential technological progress has led to a dramatic decrease in information constraints. In a range of contexts, information costs approach zero. In this chapter, we discuss how sharply reduced information costs enable organizations to engage with communities of developers, professionals, and users for core innovative activities, frequently through platform-based businesses and ecosystems and by incorporating user innovation. We then examine how this ease of external engagement impacts the organization and its strategic activities. Specifically, we consider how this shift in information processing costs affects organization boundaries, business models, interdependence, leadership, identity, search, and intellectual property. We suggest that much of the received wisdom in these areas of organization theory requires revisiting. We then discuss the implications for an organization's management of innovation and conclude with research opportunities.

    Keywords: managing innovation; Information Costs; Information Constraints; communities; Organization Boundaries; Technological Progress; Platforms and Ecosystems; User Innovation; Innovation and Management; Boundaries; Collaborative Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Altman, Elizabeth J., Frank Nagle, and Michael L. Tushman. "Innovating Without Information Constraints: Organizations, Communities, and Innovation When Information Costs Approach Zero." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-043, December 2013.
  3. Leading Strategic Renewal: Proactive Punctuated Change through Innovation Streams and Disciplined Learning

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, Charles A. OReilly, and J. Bruce Harreld. "Leading Strategic Renewal: Proactive Punctuated Change through Innovation Streams and Disciplined Learning." 2013.
  4. Towards the Theoretical Maturation of Organizational Identity: Examining Variants and Finding Synergies among Different Conceptualizations

    Citation:

    Raffaelli, Ryan, Mary Ann Glynn, and Michael Tushman. "Towards the Theoretical Maturation of Organizational Identity: Examining Variants and Finding Synergies among Different Conceptualizations." Working Paper, 2013.
  5. Organizing for Ambidexterity: Founding, Developing and Revitalizing Dynamic Capabilities over Time

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Jansen, Justin, Costas Andriopoulos, and Michael Tushman. "Organizing for Ambidexterity: Founding, Developing and Revitalizing Dynamic Capabilities over Time." January 2012.
  6. Creating New Boundaries in Established Organizations: Shaping Boundaries and Evolving Ambidexterity

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Boundaries; Diversification;

    Citation:

    Raisch, Sebastian, and Michael Tushman. "Creating New Boundaries in Established Organizations: Shaping Boundaries and Evolving Ambidexterity." 2010.
  7. Leadership, Learning, and Organization Designs: On Exploring and Exploiting in IBM's Microelectronics Division

    Keywords: Leadership; Organizational Design; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Westerman, George, Wendy Smith, Robert Chapman Wood, and Michael Tushman. "Leadership, Learning, and Organization Designs: On Exploring and Exploiting in IBM's Microelectronics Division." January 2008.

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (A) (Abridged)

    Josef Felder, CEO of Zurich Airport, faces several crises as he tries to transform the Airport from a slow-moving, conflict-ridden, government-owned entity into a privatized, world-class airport.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Leading Change; Crisis Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; State Ownership; Privatization; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 412-145, June 2012.
  2. Quietly Brilliant: Transformational Change at HTC

    The case examines smartphone maker HTC's 2006 decision to become a branded company. The case focuses on the cultural and organizational shifts HTC underwent to successfully make the transition from an ODM, founded in 1997, to a leading branded manufacturer (7% market share of smartphones in 2010), with the adoption of the tagline: "Quietly Brilliant." Significant challenges considered in the case include: transitioning HTC from a Taiwanese to a global firm, developing and maintaining a functioning global structure, building a sales and marketing force, and finding the right cultural balance between eastern and western capabilities.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Organizational Structure; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Telecommunications Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Kerry Herman. "Quietly Brilliant: Transformational Change at HTC." Harvard Business School Case 412-070, May 2012.
  3. Ganesh Natarajan: Leading Innovation and Organizational Change at Zensar (A)

    In 2005, Ganesh Natarajan, CEO of Zensar, a Pune, India-based software company, and his senior management team are considering consolidating staff and resources at the firms. Natarajan proposes an additional, possible controversial business unit to the proposed new structure. The additional unit would explore new markets for the firm's promising innvocation00Solution BluePrint (SBP). While he knew that some on his team would resist his proposal, he was eager to get the new technology into the field, and felt he had the right manager to lead the proposed group. Natarajan felt sure a group dedicated to SBP led by one of the firm's most respected technologists would help spur adoption.

    Keywords: Change Management; Technological Innovation; Leading Change; Product Launch; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Structure; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and David Kiron. "Ganesh Natarajan: Leading Innovation and Organizational Change at Zensar (A)." Harvard Business School Case 412-036, September 2011. (Revised November 2011.)
  4. Ganesh Natarajan: Leading Innovation and Organizational Change at Zensar (B)

    After Proposing a fourth business unit to help grow the market for zensar's innovative technology, to be led by Dilip Ittyera, CEO Natarajan adopted a new organizational structure focused on industry verticals.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Innovation Leadership; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Structure; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and David Kiron. "Ganesh Natarajan: Leading Innovation and Organizational Change at Zensar (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 412-037, September 2011.
  5. Leadership, Culture, and Transition at lululemon

    The case examines leadership and organizational change within a strong culture context through a multimedia study of lululemon, a specialty retailer of high-end athletic apparel. Video segments trace the company's history from its founding in 1998 as a single retail store in Vancouver, Canada, through its IPO and expansion across Canada and the United States. The case is set at a crossroads for the company, as incoming CEO Christine Day prepares to take the helm in mid 2008. At that time, lululemon was publicly traded $350 million company with close to 100 stores, including 56 in the United States, and nearly 3,000 employees. the mission from the board was to continue the company's growth trajectory by opening more stores and, ultimately, increasing sales to $1 billion. Among the challenges that Day would inherit were outperforming stores. According to Day, mismanagement of the real estate strategy had resulted in high-cost locations in many new U.S. markets with little to no demand. Lululemon was struggling to implement new inventory systems to keep pace with the demands of its expanding marketplace. Day also observed that cross-functional barriers had eroded the sense of teamwork within what was originally a strong values-led organization, resulting in an inability to achieve compromise. "The whole organization slowed down." said Day, "because people weren't aligned. "Leadership, Culture, and Transition at Lululemon" highlights the fundamental tensions that entrepreneurial companies and their leaders face when going to scale: balancing rapid growth and the need to leverage their organization architecture (and associated cultures) as the firm evolves.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Organizational Culture; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Transition; Growth Management; Management Teams; Organizational Structure; Governing and Advisory Boards; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Retail Industry; Vancouver; United States;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, Ruth Page, and Tom Ryder. "Leadership, Culture, and Transition at lululemon." Harvard Business School Video Case 410-705, December 2010.
  6. Leadership, Culture, and Transition at lululemon (TN)

    Teaching Note for 410705.

    Keywords: Vancouver; Canada; United States;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Leadership, Culture, and Transition at lululemon (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-123, December 2010.
  7. Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (B)

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 411-012, July 2010. (Revised December 2010.)
  8. Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (TN) (A) & (B)

    Teaching Note for 409022 and 411012.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Organizational Culture; Decisions; Organizational Structure; Motivation and Incentives; Human Resources; Energy Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (TN) (A) & (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-014, July 2010.
  9. Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (TN) (A) & (B)

    Teaching Note for 408023 and 408058.

    Keywords: State Ownership; Private Ownership; Crisis Management; Transformation; Air Transportation Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (TN) (A) & (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-015, July 2010.
  10. Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking (TN)

    Teaching Note for 410003.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Leadership; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-016, July 2010.
  11. Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking

    Keywords: Banking Industry; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, and David Kiron. "Ingrid Johnson and Nedbank Business Banking." Harvard Business School Case 410-003, October 2009. (Revised January 2013.)
  12. GE Money Bank: The M-Budget Card Initiative

    The M-Budget Card case study is about mastering the challenges of an exploratory strategic initiative in a context marked by time pressure and frequent change. M-Budget was the first of a series of highly successful projects that established GE Money Bank as a leader in the Swiss credit card market. The business concept was to cooperate with the country's leading retailer MIGROS to develop an innovative credit card offering, the M-Budget card. The M-Budget card was launched a mere six months later and was an immediate success. The demand for the card exceeded expectations by far and the bank was inundated by more than 100,000 applications in the first weeks. The road to the successful market launch, however, was a rocky one and the team around Pierre had to master numerous challenges. Pierre, who took the lead in the initiative, had to select the right people to compose a team that had all the expertise and knowledge required to develop an entirely new market offering. A competitive move by the second largest retailer COOP forced the team to change its initial value proposition while working under intensive time pressure. Finally, the team had to overcome a series of operational problems after the initial market launch. The case study retraces the initiative's development over time and describes the leadership and organizational challenges faced by the team on its way to the successful creation of an entirely new business segment.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Credit Cards; Leading Change; Product Launch; Product Development; Groups and Teams; Banking Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Sebastian Raisch, and Christian Welling. "GE Money Bank: The M-Budget Card Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 410-052, October 2009. (Revised December 2010.)
  13. Christine Day at LuLuLemon

    Keywords: Leadership; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael, Ruth Page, and Tom Ryder. "Christine Day at LuLuLemon." Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2009. Multimedia.
  14. GE Money Bank: The M-Budget Card Initiative (TN)

    Teaching Note for [410052].

    Keywords: Time Management; Change Management; Problems and Challenges; Projects; Banks and Banking; Innovation and Invention; Product Launch; Knowledge; Experience and Expertise; Value; Competition; Operations; Financial Services Industry; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Sebastian Raisch, and Christian Welling. "GE Money Bank: The M-Budget Card Initiative (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-053, October 2009.
  15. Bringing AMP Home: Personal Case Study

    This exercise helps AMP participants build their own personal case study. They develop a gap statement, do formal root cause analysis, and action planning. This exercise is done for each participant and each phase is shared with living group colleagues.

    Keywords: Cases; Personal Development and Career; Education; Management;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L. "Bringing AMP Home: Personal Case Study." Harvard Business School Exercise 409-105, April 2009. (Revised July 2009.)
  16. Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (A)

    This case describes the evolution of a fast-growing Indian energy firm. It illustrates both leadership change as Hema is evolving as a leader, as well as how organization architecture (culture, systems, incentives, and human resources) is evolving. The case highlights a set of decisions Hema makes to build the firm.

    Keywords: Change; Decision Choices and Conditions; Leadership Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Energy Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Hema Hattangady and Conzerv (A)." Harvard Business School Case 409-022, December 2008. (Revised December 2010.)
  17. Leading Change and Organizational Renewal

    Executives who return from campus-based executive programs ready to make changes often find employees resistant to new ideas. The Leading Change and Organizational Renewal multimedia resource was created to ease transitions and empower the teacher as leader. This multimedia resource includes faculty lectures on these concepts in short video clips by Professors Michael Tushman and Charles O'Reilly. Examples of best practices are presented in video stories, complete with interviews and examples of how each company applied the concepts. Multimedia tutorials explain key frameworks. A workbook provides a logical, step-by-step approach to apply the learning to real work. These materials allow employees to share in the learning process so that they will be prepared for and will contribute to the application of these concepts.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Learning; Framework; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Leading Change; Management Practices and Processes;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Charles O'Reilley. "Leading Change and Organizational Renewal." Harvard Business School Class Lecture 409-707, September 2008.
  18. Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (A)

    Josef Felder, CEO of Zurich Airport, faces several crises as he tries to transform the Airport from a slow-moving, conflict-ridden, government-owned entity into a privatized, world-class airport.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Leading Change; Crisis Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; State Ownership; Privatization; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (A)." Harvard Business School Case 408-023, October 2007. (Revised August 2009.)
  19. Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (B)

    Keywords: Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and David Kiron. "Perfect Storm over Zurich Airport (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 408-058, October 2007. (Revised August 2009.)
  20. BT Plc: The Broadband Revolution (A)

    In early 2003, CEO Ben Verwaayen and Chief Broadband Officer Alison Ritchie of BT Plc. are trying to transform the former British Telecom from a stodgy telephone company into a 21st century broadband company. Their efforts to focus the firm on broadband issues within the UK are being thwarted by a reluctant management team. Discusses the problems Verwaayen and Ritchie face in forging a social revolution within BT and illustrates the challenges of cross line of business innovation.

    Keywords: Transformation; Innovation and Management; Management Teams; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Behavior; Telecommunications Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Adam M. Kleinbaum. "BT Plc: The Broadband Revolution (A)." Harvard Business School Case 407-001, September 2006. (Revised October 2007.)
  21. BT Plc: The Broadband Revolution (B)

    In early 2003, CEO Ben Verwaayen and Chief Broadband Officer Alison Ritchie of BT Plc. are trying to transform the former British Telecom from a stodgy telephone company into a 21st century broadband company. Their efforts to focus the firm on broadband issues within the UK are being thwarted by a reluctant management team. Discusses the problems Verwaayen and Ritchie face in forging a social revolution within BT and illustrates the challenges of cross line of business innovation.

    Keywords: Transformation; Innovation and Invention; Management Teams; Problems and Challenges; Telecommunications Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Adam M. Kleinbaum. "BT Plc: The Broadband Revolution (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 407-002, September 2006. (Revised October 2007.)
  22. Bruce Harreld: Dynamic Capabilities at IBM

    Keywords: Change;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Bruce Harreld: Dynamic Capabilities at IBM." Harvard Business School, 2006. Video.
  23. Alison Ritchie: BT Chief Broadband Officer

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Alison Ritchie: BT Chief Broadband Officer." Harvard Business School, 2006. Video.
  24. Ben Verwaayen: BT CEO

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael. "Ben Verwaayen: BT CEO." Harvard Business School, 2006. Video.
  25. Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (C)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Forest Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 405-069, May 2005. (Revised April 2011.)
  26. Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (A)

    Describes the leadership challenges involved in managing strategic innovation and change in a highly mature business unit. Allows systematic exploration of organizational structures, incentives, competencies, and culture that impede innovation. Pivots on a new leader's dilemmas in shaping both his team and larger organization to initiate both incremental as well as radical innovation.

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation and Management; Innovation Strategy; Leadership; Management Teams; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 405-067, May 2005. (Revised April 2011.)
  27. Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Forest Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "Arctic Timber AB: Engineered Woods Division (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 405-068, May 2005. (Revised April 2011.)
  28. Developing an Effective Living Group

    Discusses the importance of living room groups (eight participants who share a living room) in Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program developing into effective learning groups. The diversity of the groups is a strength, but only a conscious and concerted effort of group development can harness that strength. Outlines five steps in group development each team must take. Suggests that action learning, the skill the learning group must master to become effective, is also essential in their back-home organizations, given global competition and efficient markets. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Executive Education; Groups and Teams; Competency and Skills; Learning; Diversity Characteristics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, John J. Gabarro, and Michael L. Tushman. "Developing an Effective Living Group." Harvard Business School Background Note 406-051, September 2005. (Revised March 2009.)
  29. IBM Network Technology (A) (Abridged)

    An unconventional manager within IBM leads the creation of a business unit with multibillion-dollar potential, winning over customers and nudging the organization to make the changes needed to achieve dramatic growth. Exemplifies how organizational design and leadership behavior shape performance. Also provides an example of ambidextrous organization design.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Management Teams; Leadership Style; Growth and Development; Growth and Development Strategy; Employees; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L. "IBM Network Technology (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 406-053, September 2005.
  30. IBM Canada: Global Services (A)

    IBM Canada Global Services is losing shares in a stagnant information technology market. A new leader must overcome a senior team rife with internal conflict and change internal processes to drive innovation streams. The leader struggles to build an ambidextrous structure and senior team.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Management Teams; Innovation and Management; Conflict Management; Groups and Teams; Service Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "IBM Canada: Global Services (A)." Harvard Business School Case 403-070, April 2003.
  31. IBM Canada: Global Services (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Technological Innovation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Management Teams; Information Technology; Organizational Structure; Information Technology Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "IBM Canada: Global Services (B)." Harvard Business School Case 403-078, April 2003.
  32. IBM Canada: Global Services (C)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Technological Innovation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Management Teams; Information Technology; Organizational Structure; Information Technology Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., David Kiron, and Wendy Smith. "IBM Canada: Global Services (C)." Harvard Business School Case 403-079, April 2003.
  33. Leadership, Culture, and Change: Lou Gerstner, IBM

    Keywords: Leadership; Change; Culture;

    Citation:

    Tushman, M., ed. "Leadership, Culture, and Change: Lou Gerstner, IBM." Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 2003. Video. (Tape #10019 (for HBS use only). An edited speech by Lou Gerstner at HBS.)
  34. Leading Change and Organizational Renewal CD Set

    Keywords: Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Charles A. O'Reilly. Leading Change and Organizational Renewal CD Set. Tool. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2003. Electronic.
  35. USA Today: Pursuing the Network Strategy (A) & (B) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-402-010) and (9-402-011).

    Citation:

    Roberts, Michael J., and Michael L. Tushman. "USA Today: Pursuing the Network Strategy (A) & (B) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 802-229, June 2002. (Revised April 2003.)
  36. Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (A)

    Describes the issues surrounding the funding of a centralized research service that supports two related divisions. The company has a very decentralized and financially driven culture, and the centralized service is used unequally, setting up a conflict.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Organizational Culture; Relationships; Conflict Management; Organizational Culture; Balance and Stability; Transportation Industry; France;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Michael J. Roberts. "Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (A)." Harvard Business School Case 401-040, May 2001. (Revised May 2012.)
  37. Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (B)

    Supplements the (A) case. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement.

    Keywords: Transportation Industry; France;

    Citation:

    Roberts, Michael J., and Michael L. Tushman. "Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 401-041, May 2001. (Revised May 2012.)
  38. USA TODAY: Pursuing the Network Strategy (A)

    Describes the evolution of USA TODAY Online, the electronic version of the newspaper, within the organizational structure of the newspaper. Describes the tensions and issues that develop and the pressure from the Online division to be spun off. At the same time, CEO Tom Curley sees a greater strategic need for integration. Poses the question of what degree or type of strategic integration is required, what degree of organizational integration this implies, and how it can be achieved.

    Keywords: Business Units; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Integration; Online Technology; Organizational Design; Groups and Teams; Newspapers; Innovation and Invention; Journalism and News Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Michael J. Roberts, and David Kiron. "USA TODAY: Pursuing the Network Strategy (A)." Harvard Business School Case 402-010, July 2001. (Revised September 2005.)
  39. USA TODAY: Pursuing the Network Strategy (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Business Units; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Integration; Online Technology; Organizational Design; Groups and Teams; Newspapers; Innovation and Invention; Journalism and News Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Michael J. Roberts, and David Kiron. "USA TODAY: Pursuing the Network Strategy (B)." Harvard Business School Case 402-011, July 2001. (Revised September 2005.)
  40. IBM Network Technology (A)

    An unconventional manager within IBM leads the creation of a business unit with multibillion-dollar potential, winning over customers and nudging the organization to make the changes needed to achieve dramatic growth. This case provides an example of how organizational design and leadership behavior shape performance. Also an example of ambidextrous organization design.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Growth and Development Strategy; Leadership; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Change Management; Management Practices and Processes; Business Plan; Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Success; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Robert C Wood. "IBM Network Technology (A)." Harvard Business School Case 402-012, November 2001. (Revised October 2004.)
  41. IBM Software Solutions (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Robert Chapman Wood. "IBM Software Solutions (B)." Harvard Business School Case 402-017, August 2001. (Revised June 2002.)
  42. IBM Software Solutions (A)

    Executives and managers of key IBM software units struggle to make IBM a top player in the post-mainframe era. When one software unit introduces a visionary product with potential to create a new leadership position for the firm, the result is an epic conflict in the marketplace among market forces representing several different IBM units.

    Keywords: Business Units; Leadership Style; Leading Change; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Conflict Management; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Charles A. O'Reilly III, and Robert Chapman Wood. "IBM Software Solutions (A)." Harvard Business School Case 402-016, August 2001. (Revised June 2002.)
  43. IBM Network Technology (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Management Teams; Leadership Style; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Growth Management; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L. "IBM Network Technology (B)." Harvard Business School Case 402-013, November 2001.
  44. Bedrock Productions

    Describes a young Web consulting firm going through a very rapid period of growth in late 1999 and 2000. The founder/CEO sees himself as a strategist and marketer who is less well-suited to the operational details, that are expanding as the firm grows. A president is hired, but fired soon after. Raises issues of what the founder's role is and should be, whether a new president is required, whether the new expanded senior team can take on some of these responsibilities, and if or how the founder must change.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Management Teams; Change Management; Managerial Roles; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Roberts, Michael J., and Michael L. Tushman. "Bedrock Productions." Harvard Business School Case 401-045, June 2001.
  45. Corning 1983-1996: Transition at the Top

    Focuses on Jamie Houghton's efforts to revitalize Corning from 1983-1996, including the development of a very strong set of values and culture. The issue centers around Roger Ackerman's rise to president, then chairman/CEO, and his drive to both change the business strategically and financially and develop a new culture to support this change.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Organizational Culture; Management Teams; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Roberts, Michael J., and Michael L. Tushman. "Corning 1983-1996: Transition at the Top." Harvard Business School Case 401-034, March 2001. (Revised May 2001.)
  46. Corning 1996-2000: Growing Corning

    Focuses on Roger Ackerman's successful cultural change effort--growing Corning. Presents a detailed description of Ackerman's effort and the changes that transpired in the business, the culture, and the senior team.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Management Teams;

    Citation:

    Roberts, Michael J., and Michael L. Tushman. "Corning 1996-2000: Growing Corning." Harvard Business School Case 401-035, March 2001. (Revised May 2001.)
  47. SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A)

    The Micro-Electronic Products Division of SMA has financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by change in organization and management. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Conflict and Resolution; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael Tushman. "SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 400-084, May 2000. (Revised June 2013.)
  48. SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B)

    Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy suggested by the organizational development group for the division's problems. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Culture; Conflict Management; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael L. Tushman. "SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 400-085, May 2000. (Revised May 2012.)
  49. SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (C)

    Supplements the (B) case. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement.

    Keywords: Electronics Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael L. Tushman. "SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 400-086, May 2000. (Revised May 2012.)
  50. Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (A)

    Hewlett-Packard's Greeley Hard Copy Division is the market leader in the production of desktop flatbed scanners for personal computers. The division has been working to develop a portable scanner product for the past five years with mixed results. The new general manager, Phil Faraci, faces mounting pressures in the flatbed scanner markets, but is also presented with a new technology that has the potential to be a breakthrough for portable scanners. Faraci must decide whether or not to pursue the new portable technology, and if so, how to structure the organization to make product development successful where it has failed in the past.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Leading Change; Product Development; Organizational Structure; Hardware; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (A)." Harvard Business School Case 401-003, July 2000. (Revised April 2011.)
  51. Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Production; Product Development; Hardware; Business Divisions; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 401-004, July 2000. (Revised April 2011.)
  52. Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (C)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Computer Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Greeley Hard Copy, Portable Scanner Initiative (C)." Harvard Business School Case 401-005, July 2000. (Revised April 2011.)
  53. Rebirth of the Swiss Watch Industry, 1980-1992 (A)

    The Swiss watch industry has been devastated by new entrants from Asia in the low- and mid-priced watch segments. Japanese and Hong Kong firms have used quartz technology to lower costs dramatically. Nicolas Hayek, president of a Swiss consulting firm, is asked to help design a new strategy and structure for the two Swiss giants, ASUAG and SSIH, which have decided to merge. Ernst Thomke, managing director of ASUAG's manufacturing arm, also figures prominently. The case outlines options for the positioning of the new, inexpensive Swatch brand as well as a number of other flagship Swiss brands. Focuses on alignment of strategy with the structure of the new company. Topics to address include the management of change and the formulation of a detailed action plan to make the new company succeed.

    Keywords: Technology; Product Development; Organizational Structure; Change Management; Alignment; Product Positioning; Brands and Branding; Management Teams; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Rebirth of the Swiss Watch Industry, 1980-1992 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 400-087, June 2000.
  54. Rebirth of the Swiss Watch Industry, 1980-1992 (B): Hayek and Thomke at SMH

    Describes the course pursued by Hayek, Thomke, and others in the formation of SMH. Discusses the new strategy and its implementation, charting the dramatic recovery of the large Swiss watchmakers. Ends with an exploration of Hayek's efforts to build on SMH's successes.

    Keywords: Strategy; Organizational Structure; Cost Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Alignment; Success; Asia; Hong Kong;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Rebirth of the Swiss Watch Industry, 1980-1992 (B): Hayek and Thomke at SMH." Harvard Business School Case 400-088, June 2000.
  55. Hermes Systems

    Covers the history of Hermes, a large telecommunications and network equipment company, as it grows from a single business firm to a diversified firm from 1980-95. Examines the use of entrepreneurial subsidiaries for product development and fast growth. Other issues include the challenges of managing ambidextrous organizations and the problems a CEO faces in keeping control of fast growing divisions. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; Leadership; Business Subsidiaries; Diversification; Growth Management; Business Growth and Maturation; Business Divisions; Problems and Challenges; Product Development; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., and Daniel Radov. "Hermes Systems." Harvard Business School Case 400-056, December 1999. (Revised September 2004.)
  56. Agrochemicals at Ciba-Geigy AG (B)

    Focuses on Pierre Urech's efforts to change the division structure at Ciba-Geigy to facilitate the marketing of the new product. Details the relationships Urech cultivates and the strategy he pursues as "product champion." Also describes the restructuring of the research department into small teams to improve product development. Other topics include the marketing of the new product in different regional settings, the emergence of a "dominant design," and a slow-down in subsequent innovation.

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation Strategy; Innovation and Management; Leadership Development; Leadership Style; Research and Development; Marketing Strategy; Goods and Commodities; Product Development; Pharmaceutical Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Wendy Smith, and Daniel Radov. "Agrochemicals at Ciba-Geigy AG (B)." Harvard Business School Case 400-023, December 1999. (Revised January 2000.)
  57. Agrochemicals at Ciba-Geigy AG (A)

    After spending five years to develop a revolutionary product, the director of Ciba-Geigy's fungicide research department is handed an unfavorable market study. The case details the R&D process for the new product, including information on corporate partnerships, company structure, and departmental research procedures. The case ends with the R&D director faced with a decision about the best way of moving forward, if at all, with the product.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Research and Development; Innovation and Invention; Innovation Strategy; Product Launch; Marketing Channels; Change Management; Product Development; Business Processes; Organizational Structure; Corporate Accountability; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Tushman, Michael L., Wendy Smith, and Daniel Radov. "Agrochemicals at Ciba-Geigy AG (A)." Harvard Business School Case 400-022, December 1999.