Roy D. Shapiro

Philip Caldwell Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

Roy D. Shapiro is the Philip Caldwell Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration.  He is currently the faculty co-chair of the School's Technology and Operations Management Unit and chairs the MBA Required Course of the same name. He has taught elective courses in supply chain management and operations strategy as well as in Harvard University's Economics Department.  He has also served as the School's Senior Associate Dean for Faculty Planning.

He graduated from M.I.T. with an S.B. in Mathematics, an M.S. in Operations Research, and an E.E. in Electrical Engineering. After some time designing computer models for radar tracking with Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass., he spent several years as an associate with Control Analysis Corp., a small Palo Alto, California-based consulting firm while obtaining a Ph.D. in Operations Research from Stanford University.

Professor Shapiro researches innovative systems and management approaches that integrate and coordinate material and information flows through the supply chain, so as to reduce or eliminate redundant activities. His work addresses coordinating mechanisms (e.g., continuous product replenishment, CPFR) that tie different supply chain entities together; how the attendant relationships are defined, forged, and managed; and information flows among relationship partners and how they are effectively generated, shared, and communicated.

Professor Shapiro has designed and/or taught executive programs for companies including Arthur Andersen, Ciba-Geigy, General Electric, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, Sara Lee, Schneider Electric, and Unilever. He has served as a consultant in both the public and private sectors: for Boston's Children's Hospital, the states of New York and California, and the Steel Service Center Institute; and for firms including Barilla, Eastman Kodak, Italtel, Johnson & Johnson, Frito-Lay, Perkin Elmer, and others. In addition to his activities in the U.S., Professor Shapiro has designed and taught executive programs and consulted in the U.K., Finland, France, Italy, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, Brazil, China and Japan.

Books

Journal Articles

  1. From Supply Chain to Demand Chain: The Role of Lead Time Reduction in Improving Demand Chain Performance

    Suzanne de Treville, Roy D. Shapiro and Ari-Pekka Hameri

    Keywords: Supply Chain; Performance; Distribution;

    Citation:

    de Treville, Suzanne, Roy D. Shapiro, and Ari-Pekka Hameri. "From Supply Chain to Demand Chain: The Role of Lead Time Reduction in Improving Demand Chain Performance." Journal of Operations Management 21, no. 6 (January 2004): 613–627. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Preface

    Roy D. Shapiro and Bruce Isaacson

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Bruce Isaacson. "Preface." Preface to JIT II: Revolution in Buying & Selling, edited by Roy D. Shapiro and Bruce Isaacson. Newton, MA: Cahners Publishing Company, 1994. View Details

Working Papers

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Delwarca Software Remote Support Unit

    Roy D. Shapiro and Paul E. Morrison

    Delwarca Software provides business software to large corporate clients around the world. The firm serves customers who prefer to assemble corporate solutions using a combination of software programs from various suppliers rather than implementing a single enterprise resource planning system. Consequently, Delwarca must provide telephone support services for complex software-hardware interaction and performance problems in addition to the typical software support issues around software installation and upgrades, malware attacks, and processing failures. The manager of the remote support unit implemented a new triage program for customer calls hoping to reduce customer wait time, improve customer satisfaction, and reduce costs. After one year, customer dissatisfaction is at an all-time high and he must perform a quantitative analysis of the current process, considering wait times for customers as well as cost per call, before making a final recommendation. This case can be used in a first-year MBA course in Service Management or Operations Management or a course in industrial engineering. It can also be used to introduce simple queuing theory.

    Keywords: Service Operations; Service Delivery; Mathematical Methods; Software; Problems and Challenges; Customer Satisfaction; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Paul E. Morrison. "Delwarca Software Remote Support Unit." Harvard Business School Brief Case 913-541, December 2012. View Details
  2. Bayonne Packaging, Inc.

    Roy D. Shapiro and Paul E. Morrison

    A printer and paper converter produces customized packaging used by industrial customers to deliver promotional materials, software, luxury beverages, and gift food and candy. The company specializes in creating innovative packaging solutions for its customers and providing full service from design through final delivery. Even though revenue has tripled, performance has been declining and the firm posted its first loss in over 10 years. The new VP of Operations has been hired to address operational problems resulting in cost overruns, quality problems, and late deliveries. He tours key departments including quality control and sales and visits the various work centers in the plant as he investigates the challenges in the current production process. This case can be used in a first-year MBA-level course in Operations Management. Students are asked to create a process flow diagram and perform break-even, capacity, utilization, and yield analyses before making their final recommendations for improving the firm's performance.

    Keywords: production controls; manufacturing; capacity analysis; quality control; performance management; process analysis; Quality; Production; Performance Productivity; Performance Capacity; Business Processes; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Paul E. Morrison. "Bayonne Packaging, Inc." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-420, April 2012. View Details
  3. ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis, User's Guide

    Roy D. Shapiro and Ann E. Gray

    Designed to be used with ExtendSim Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (A) and (B). Unadvertised per Case Records.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Ann E. Gray. "ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis, User's Guide." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-043, September 1993. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  4. ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (A2)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Solutions and detailed discussion of exercises from the (A) case. Unadvertised per Case Records.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (A2)." Harvard Business School Supplement 695-019, September 1994. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  5. ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (B2))

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Solutions and detailed discussion of exercises from the (B) case. Unadvertised per Case Records.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (B2))." Harvard Business School Supplement 695-020, September 1994. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  6. ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (A)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    First set of exercises meant to be used with ExtendSim, a simulation system created by Imagine That, Inc. of San Jose, California. These exercises allow students to investigate the impact of variable processing times on the performance of simple in-line processes. Unadvertised per Case Records. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Operations; Business Processes; Performance; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (A)." Harvard Business School Exercise 694-039, September 1993. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  7. ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (B)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Second set of exercises meant to be used with ExtendSim, a simulation package created by Imagine That, Inc. of San Jose, California, that allows students to investigate the impact of adding buffers to simple in-line processes with uncertain processing times.

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Operations; Production; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "ExtendSim® Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (B)." Harvard Business School Exercise 694-040, September 1993. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  8. National Cranberry Cooperative, 1996

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Describes the continuous flow process used to process cranberries into juice and/or sauce. Requires student to analyze process flows to determine where the bottlenecks are and to decide how, and whether, to expand capacity. Original version written by J.G. Miller and R.P. Olson.

    Keywords: Logistics; Performance Capacity; Performance Improvement; Supply Chain; Mathematical Methods; Cost vs Benefits; Production;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "National Cranberry Cooperative, 1996." Harvard Business School Case 688-122, May 1988. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  9. Toyota Motor Corporation: 1990-2010

    Roy D. Shapiro and Stephanie van Sice

    This case follows Toyota's remarkable growth and geographic expansion from 1990 to 2010 and, in the recalls of 2009 and 2010, poses questions about the impact of that growth. Issues of increasing technological complexity also play a part.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Problems and Challenges; Expansion; Complexity; Technology; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Stephanie van Sice. "Toyota Motor Corporation: 1990-2010." Harvard Business School Supplement 611-035, October 2010. View Details
  10. IFP, Indonesia

    Roy D. Shapiro

    IFP, Ltd. is a Europe-based multinational mining and minerals company contemplating an investment to produce forest products in Indonesia. The primary case decisions are 1) how to assess political and operating risk, 2) how to integrate economic and political risk analysis in order to select among the alternative spatial and operating configurations, and 3) how to manage operations in order to minimize risk. This case is an effective vehicle for discussing the complex issues involved in operating in the difficult, uncertain political environment of a developing country.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Investment; Geographic Location; Risk Management; Supply Chain Management; Business and Government Relations; Forest Products Industry; Indonesia;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "IFP, Indonesia." Harvard Business School Case 610-052, January 2010. (Revised February 2010.) View Details
  11. DR Corporation

    Roy D. Shapiro

    DR Corporation is a manufacturer of major appliances. The traffic manager is facing a decision of selecting a carrier for the inbound movement of motors. The primary case decisions are 1) what factors are critical to the decision; 2) how to calculate the tradeoffs among transportation costs, inventory costs, and order costs; and 3) how the company's managers should coordinate to make the decision. Acts as a very effective introduction to total supply chain cost calculations and problems of internal coordination for supply chain decision making. Coupled with ChemBright, DR Corporation is a particularly effective way to introduce supply chain management.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Decision Choices and Conditions; Managerial Roles; Logistics; Supply Chain Management; Truck Transportation; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "DR Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 610-049, January 2010. View Details
  12. Vitreon Corporation: The Hyalite Project

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Considers decisions facing the leader of a manufacturing staff project team assigned to a plant where yields have deteriorated sharply. The process is complex: the plant organization is not cooperative, and there are deep disagreements about what is wrong and how to fix it. Provides an opportunity to analyze yields and productivity, as well as the organizational and personal challenges inherent in line-staff interaction.

    Keywords: Leadership; Production; Organizational Culture; Performance Productivity; Groups and Teams; Conflict Management; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Vitreon Corporation: The Hyalite Project." Harvard Business School Case 607-031, October 2006. (Revised January 2009.) View Details
  13. Reading Rehabilitation Hospital: Implementing Patient-Focused Care (A) (Abridged)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Reading Rehab Hospital has experimented with a popular concept in health care--patient-focused care--intended to increase quality and reduce costs by organizing care delivery around particular diagnoses or "service lines," rather than around the functions or disciplines of the care providers. It is equivalent to a product rather than a process focus. Unfortunately, it is not clear whether the benefits of this new healthcare model are sufficient to compensate for the drawbacks.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Quality; Cost; Management Practices and Processes; Business Strategy; Service Delivery; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Reading Rehabilitation Hospital: Implementing Patient-Focused Care (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 608-070, September 2007. (Revised January 2009.) View Details
  14. Halloran Metals

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Two competitors in the Northeast steel service center industry have made very different choices with regards to logistics and operating strategy. One distributes from a large central location; the other operates seven widely scattered warehouses. Students can diagnose and discuss the significant impacts of these choices, especially in an economic downturn.

    Keywords: Logistics; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Business Cycles; Decision Choices and Conditions; Metals and Minerals; Supply Chain; Steel Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Halloran Metals." Harvard Business School Case 683-062, December 1982. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  15. eShip-4U

    Roy D. Shapiro and Timothy M. Laseter

    eShip is a small Israeli start-up with a potentially exciting new concept for the residential package-delivery value chain--the Automatic Delivery Machine (ADM). Much like today's ubiquitous ATMs, ADMs would allow consumers to have parcels delivered to a nearby ADM rather than to their residences. When a package is delivered, the consumer would be contacted, given a PIN, and could retrieve the package anytime, day or night. Currently, carriers (FedEx, UPS, and the U.S. Postal Service) bear huge costs for local deliveries (the so-called last-mile cost), perhaps as much as $6 billion annually. Most of this cost would disappear if packages could be delivered to ADMs rather than to residences. At the core of eShip's concept is a sophisticated information system that links all the ADMs over the Internet. This case focuses on eShip's attempt to formulate a business model to facilitate entering the U.S. market. The dilemma centers on the role that eShip should play in the value chain and with whom it should partner. Although the ADM concept potentially creates huge value, capturing some of that value is a daunting challenge, particularly in the face of the size and power of U.S. carriers.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Business Model; Service Operations; Logistics; Corporate Strategy; Technology; Competitive Strategy; Value Creation; Saving; Innovation and Invention; Transportation Industry; Service Industry; Shipping Industry; Israel; United States;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Timothy M. Laseter. "eShip-4U." Harvard Business School Case 603-076, October 2002. (Revised December 2003.) View Details
  16. EXTEND Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (C), Exercise Three

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Third set of exercises meant to be used with EXTEND, a simulation system created by Imagine That, Inc. of San Jose, California. These exercises allow students to investigate the impact of variable processing times on the performance of simple in-line processes. Unadvertised per Case Records.

    Keywords: Business Processes;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "EXTEND Simulation Exercises in Process Analysis (C), Exercise Three." Harvard Business School Exercise 695-021, September 1994. (Revised August 2003.) View Details
  17. Baker Precision Instruments, Inc., TN

    Roy D. Shapiro and Donald Rosenfield

    Teaching Note for (9-687-052).

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Production; Decisions; Technology; Planning; Performance Capacity; Management; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Donald Rosenfield. "Baker Precision Instruments, Inc., TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-099, June 1998. (Revised January 2002.) View Details
  18. Procter & Gamble Italy: The Pringles Launch (A)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Procter & Gamble's (P&G) Pringles potato chips have been a very successful brand. This case reviews the development and first launch in the United States, then in markets around the world. Italy is one of the last countries where Pringles will be launched. Should P&G Italy employ the successful launch strategy used throughout Europe or devise its own?

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Product Launch; Emerging Markets; Product Development; Adoption; Value Creation; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Procter & Gamble Italy: The Pringles Launch (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-070, October 2000. View Details
  19. Intercon Japan TN

    Roy D. Shapiro and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty

    Teaching Note for (9-688-056).

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Production; Business Subsidiaries; Conflict and Resolution; Supply Chain; Manufacturing Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty. "Intercon Japan TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-011, October 1996. (Revised March 2000.) View Details
  20. Comments on Standard Times and the Division of Labor

    Roy D. Shapiro

    A brief note on the origins and uses of standard times in production process flow diagrams and on the benefits and drawbacks of division of labor. A rewritten version of two earlier notes.

    Keywords: Labor; Management Practices and Processes; Standards; Production;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Comments on Standard Times and the Division of Labor." Harvard Business School Background Note 600-013, July 1999. View Details
  21. Donner Co.

    Roy D. Shapiro

    The management of a small manufacturer of circuit boards faces a number of production and operations management problems. The first day on this case is used to analyze the production capacity of various stages in the process and to examine bottlenecks and key production flow decisions. The emphasis is on physical flows. The second day the emphasis is on information flows. We look in detail at the problems faced by the company, discuss the tools and techniques of process analysis that can be used to determine the relative importance of those problems, identify solutions, and discuss implementation issues.

    Keywords: Information Management; Management; Management Practices and Processes; Production; Performance Capacity; Problems and Challenges; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Donner Co." Harvard Business School Case 689-030, September 1988. (Revised December 1998.) View Details
  22. Measure of Delight: The Pursuit of Quality at AT&T Universal Card Services (A)

    Roy D. Shapiro and Michael D. Watkins

    AT&T's Universal Card Services (UCS) has been extremely successful during its short lifetime. Dedicated to improving service quality and customer satisfaction, chief quality officer Rob Davis and his quality team have designed and put into place an unusual measurement and compensation system based on more than 100 performance measures monitored and communicated daily.

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Policy; Compensation and Benefits; Performance Evaluation; Quality; System; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Michael D. Watkins. "Measure of Delight: The Pursuit of Quality at AT&T Universal Card Services (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-047, October 1993. (Revised July 1997.) View Details
  23. International Sourcing at Intercon TN

    Roy D. Shapiro and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty

    Teaching Note for (9-688-055).

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Supply Chain; Selection and Staffing; Business Subsidiaries; Production; Manufacturing Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty. "International Sourcing at Intercon TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-010, October 1996. View Details
  24. Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Ruentex Industries, Ltd. Case Series TN

    Roy D. Shapiro and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty

    Teaching Note for (9-690-048), (9-690-049), and (9-690-050).

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Production; Cooperation; Supply Chain; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty. "Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Ruentex Industries, Ltd. Case Series TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-014, October 1996. View Details
  25. Ellis Manufacturing Co.

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Ellis finds itself in a weakening competitive position largely due to the lack of rationalization in its plants. Driven by a strong traditionally decentralized sales organization, Ellis finds that all plants want control over all product lines. As a result, overall economics of scale are not achieved, and duplication of resources has weakened Ellis' cost position. Case gives enough data for students to make specific recommendations.

    Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Cost; Data and Data Sets; Brands and Branding; Performance Capacity; Competitive Strategy; Construction Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Ellis Manufacturing Co." Harvard Business School Case 682-103, June 1982. (Revised May 1995.) View Details
  26. Bose Corporation: The JIT II Program (A), (B), (C), (D), and Videotape TN

    Roy D. Shapiro and Bruce Isaacson

    Teaching Note for (9-694-001), (9-694-002), (9-694-003), (9-694-004), and (9-695-504).

    Keywords: Distribution Channels; Customer Relationship Management;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Bruce Isaacson. "Bose Corporation: The JIT II Program (A), (B), (C), (D), and Videotape TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 695-017, September 1994. View Details
  27. Note on Process Analysis (Abridged)

    Roy D. Shapiro

    Provides an introductory note to production processes and the use of flow diagrams.

    Keywords: Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Management Practices and Processes; Production;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D. "Note on Process Analysis (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Background Note 689-032, September 1988. (Revised September 1994.) View Details
  28. Bose Corp.: The JIT II Program (A)

    Roy D. Shapiro and Bruce Isaacson

    Bose Corp. is evaluating an unusual plan to manage relationships with vendors that supply components for Bose speakers. The company must decide: 1) which planning and ordering activities should be performed by Bose and which can be performed by vendors, 2) how much access vendors should have to Bose computer systems and facilities, and 3) how to adapt vendor relations as the company grows or as markets change. Students are asked to consider both the buyer's and the vendor's perspective on the buyer-seller relationship.

    Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Planning; Production; Alliances; Order Taking and Fulfillment; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Bruce Isaacson. "Bose Corp.: The JIT II Program (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-001, March 1994. View Details
  29. Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Ruentex Industries, Ltd. (Abridged)

    Roy D. Shapiro and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty

    Details the evolution of a value-creating supplier-buyer partnership. Describes the buyer's (Liz Claiborne) manufacturing and marketing strategy, and details the workings of the firm's relationship with an important Taiwanese supplier of piece goods (Ruentex Industries Ltd.).

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Order Taking and Fulfillment; Production; Supply Chain Management; Alliances; Value Creation; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Shapiro, Roy D., and Marie-Therese M. Flaherty. "Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Ruentex Industries, Ltd. (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 693-098, March 1993. View Details
  30. Quantum Semiconductor, Inc.

    Janice H. Hammond and Roy D. Shapiro

    Quantum is faced with a difficult ethical dilemma--industry studies provide evidence that chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing may cause women working in fabrication cleanrooms to suffer a higher likelihood of spontaneous abortions. The possibility of other reproductive health risks exist also. Barring all women of child-bearing age from fabrication areas may be viewed as sex discrimination and cause legal ramifications. Full automation is too costly for this small company. What should they do?

    Keywords: Safety; Prejudice and Bias; Law; Equality and Inequality; Cost; Production; Ethics; Health; Gender Characteristics; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Hammond, Janice H., and Roy D. Shapiro. "Quantum Semiconductor, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 690-059, February 1990. (Revised March 1990.) View Details

Other Publications and Materials