Bruce R. Scott

Paul Whiton Cherington Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

Bruce R. Scott is the Paul W. Cherington Professor of Business Administration. His particular area of interest is the impact of public policy on the business environment. From 1963 to 1968 he lived in Europe and researched the French system of industrial planning. In 1972 he was asked to head the required MBA course which has subsequently been named Business, Government and the International Economy. Since 1979 he has taught in various executive education programs as well as a second year MBA elective in Economic Strategies of Nations.

For several years his research and writing have focused on a book that is titled Capitalism: Its Origins and Evolution as a System of Governance, which was published in 2010. 

His outside activities have included participation in the scenario planning activities of Royal Dutch/Shell, a scenario analysis of the Venezuelan economy (1983-85) and similar analyses of the prospects for transition in South Africa (1990-91, and for Luxembourg (1997).

His books are Industrial Planning in France (with John McArthur), U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy (with George Lodge), South Africa: Prospects for Successful Transition (with Robert S.K. Tucker), and EUROPE 2012 Globalisation et Cohesion Sociale: Les Scenarios Luxembourgeois.

In 1991 Professor Scott was appointed by the U.S. Senate as one of its four representatives on the U.S. Competitiveness Policy Council, an advisory board established by the Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988.

Professor Scott holds a B.A. in economics (Swarthmore College, 1954) and M.B.A. and D.B.A. degrees from Harvard Business School (1958, 1963).

Professor Scott is married, with three children and three stepchildren. His extracurricular interests focus on making trails in the woods in New Hampshire.

Books

  1. Capitalism: Its Origins and Evolution as a System of Governance

    Capitalism, as defined in this book, is an indirect, three-level system of governance for economic relationships (i.e., economic, administrative, and political). Whereas economic markets can coordinate supply and demand within an existing system thanks to the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism, capitalism must have the administrative capability to regulate the behavior of economic actors within those markets and the political capability to redesign their institutions; regulation and the design of market frameworks require the visible hand and coercive powers of a political authority. This three-level structure closely parallels that of all organized team sports. The play on the field is like the markets of capitalism, and the actions of the players are regulated by referees who enforce a set of rules created and promulgated by a political authority that enjoys an anti-trust immunity. Capitalism is not a natural system and it did not emerge or spread by an unguided process like biological evolution; it has only existed since the liberation of the markets for land, labor, and capital, i.e., the end of feudalism. Its spread is a story of the politics of hostile takeovers and/or liberation. Capitalist evolution requires the continuing transformation of its three levels of governance.

    Keywords: Economic Systems; Price; Governance; Government and Politics; Books; Markets; Relationships; System;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. Capitalism: Its Origins and Evolution as a System of Governance. Springer, 2011.
  2. The Concept of Capitalism

    This monograph on the concept of capitalism is the intellectual core of a larger work, entitled Capitalism, Its Origins and Evolution as a System of Governance, due for publication November 2009. The purpose of this monograph is to put forth an original concept of capitalism as a system of governance, including a theory of how it functions at any point in time and how it evolves through time.

    Keywords: Economic Systems; Framework; Governance; History; System; Theory;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. The Concept of Capitalism. Springer, 2009. (Online version available by clicking on title.)
  3. EUROPE 2012 Globalisation et Cohesion Sociale: Les Scenarios Luxembourgeois

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues;

    Citation:

    Bressand, Albert, B. R. Scott, Manuel Baldauff, Leon Halbach, Gerard Hoffmann, and Thierry Wolter. EUROPE 2012 Globalisation et Cohesion Sociale: Les Scenarios Luxembourgeois. Luxembourg: Fondation Alphonse Weicker, 1997.
  4. South Africa: Prospects for Successful Transition, Nedcor-Old Mutual Scenarios

    Keywords: Transition; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Tucker, R., and B. R. Scott, eds. South Africa: Prospects for Successful Transition, Nedcor-Old Mutual Scenarios. Kenwyn, South Africa: Juta Academic, 1992.
  5. U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy

    Keywords: Competition; Globalized Economies and Regions; United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and George C. Lodge, eds. U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1985.
  6. Industrial Planning in France

    Keywords: Planning; Industrial Products Industry; France;

    Citation:

    McArthur, John, and Bruce R. Scott. Industrial Planning in France. Boston: Harvard Business School, Division of Research, 1969.

Journal Articles

  1. An Economy for Kosovo, One Building Block at a Time

    Keywords: Economy; Kosovo;

    Citation:

    Moss, David A., and Bruce R. Scott. "An Economy for Kosovo, One Building Block at a Time." New York Times (July 4, 2001), A15.
  2. The Great Divide in the Global Village

    Keywords: Global Range;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "The Great Divide in the Global Village." Foreign Affairs 80, no. 1 (January 2001): 160–177.
  3. How Do Economies Grow?

    Keywords: Economy;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "How Do Economies Grow?" Harvard Business Review 75, no. 3 (May–June 1997).
  4. Competitiveness: Self-Help for a Worsening Problem

    Keywords: Competition; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Competitiveness: Self-Help for a Worsening Problem." Harvard Business Review 67, no. 4 (July–August 1989): 115–121.
  5. Can Industry Survive the Welfare State?

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Can Industry Survive the Welfare State?" Harvard Business Review 60, no. 5 (September–October 1982): 70–83.
  6. OPEC- The American Scapegoat

    Keywords: Organizations; Energy Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "OPEC- The American Scapegoat." Harvard Business Review 59, no. 1 (January–February 1981).
  7. How Practical Is National Economic Planning?

    Keywords: Economics; Planning;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "How Practical Is National Economic Planning?" Harvard Business Review 56, no. 2 (March–April 1978).
  8. The Industrial State: Old Myths and New Realities

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "The Industrial State: Old Myths and New Realities." Harvard Business Review 51, no. 2 (March–April 1973).

Book Chapters

  1. Capitalism as a Social System

    Keywords: Economic Systems; Society;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Capitalism as a Social System." Chap. 2 in Capitalism, Democracy and Development, edited by Bruce R. Scott. Springer-Verlag, 2012.
  2. Creating Capitalism

    Keywords: Economic Systems; Developing Countries and Economies;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Creating Capitalism." Chap. 3 in Capitalism, Democracy and Development, edited by Bruce R. Scott. Springer-Verlag, 2012.

Working Papers

  1. The Political Economy of Capitalism

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "The Political Economy of Capitalism." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 07-037, December 2006.

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Chile: The Conundrum of Inequality

    Following the violent overthrow of the Allende regime, Chile embarked on economic reforms that emphasized free markets. These reforms were followed by rising inequality as well as growth. In 2005, business leaders speak out on the necessity of reducing the inequalities.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Economic Systems; Equality and Inequality; Government and Politics; Markets; Chile;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jessica Leight. "Chile: The Conundrum of Inequality." Harvard Business School Case 907-411, February 2007. (Revised September 2007.)
  2. Brcko and the Arizona Market

    Explores the role of the U.S. military in facilitating the establishment of a spectacularly successful free trade area in one of the most devastated areas of Bosnia. NATO's imposition of law and order, plus protection from local political protection rackets, led to spontaneous growth of a market with over $100 million in annual sales.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Trade; Economic Growth; Industry Growth; Government Legislation; Emerging Markets; Bosnia and Hercegovina; United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Edward Murphy. "Brcko and the Arizona Market." Harvard Business School Case 905-411, December 2004. (Revised August 2006.)
  3. Capitalism and Democracy in a New World (TN)

    Teaching Note to (706-030).

    Keywords: United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Capitalism and Democracy in a New World (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 706-059, May 2006.
  4. Capitalism and Democracy in a New World

    Focuses on the formulation of the Northwestern Ordinance as the core of a development strategy for capitalism and democracy in the United States. A precursor to the Constitution, the Northwestern Ordinance was based on the New England Model to achieve a broad and relatively equal distribution of land, ensuring that the distribution of economic and political power was also roughly congruent. By the time Alexis de Tocqueville made his study of American democracy, he observed that capitalism was producing economies of scale and increasing productivity, leading to heightened inequality and the eventual formation of an aristocracy, i.e., capitalism was driving incongruities between economic and political power.

    Keywords: Equality and Inequality; Economic Systems; Income Characteristics; Laws and Statutes; Government and Politics; Growth and Development Strategy; Power and Influence; United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., Sarah Potvin, and Alison Adams. "Capitalism and Democracy in a New World." Harvard Business School Case 706-030, January 2006. (Revised April 2006.)
  5. Taiwan: "Only the Paranoid Survive"

    Taiwan has enjoyed remarkable growth since 1950. This case presents differing views of the role and contribution of the state in this process. Then it explores recent industrial policy in semiconductors.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Business and Government Relations; Semiconductor Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and James R. Matthews. Taiwan: "Only the Paranoid Survive". Harvard Business School Case 700-039, September 1999. (Revised May 2005.)
  6. U.S. Market Framework for Gasoline, The: Individual Incentives and Societal Goals in Global Markets

    Traces the role of gasoline taxes in financing U.S. highways and the use of regulations to increase fuel economy to show how and why the U.S. market framework for gasoline is so different from that in Europe. Focuses on whether the U.S. tax should be raised, as advocated by the CEOs of Ford and General Motors.

    Keywords: Taxation; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Energy Sources; Market Platforms; Sovereign Finance; Growth and Development Strategy; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Edward Murphy. "U.S. Market Framework for Gasoline, The: Individual Incentives and Societal Goals in Global Markets." Harvard Business School Case 705-012, September 2004. (Revised April 2005.)
  7. China's Rural Leap Forward

    Collectively owned township and village enterprises (TVEs) played a pivotal role in China's rapid growth during the 1980s and 1990s. Although they originated in the policies and institutions of the Maoist era, TVEs thrived only after Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms redistributed property rights, taxing powers, and responsibility for the provision of public goods. These reforms made local governments dependent on their TVEs for tax revenues and gave party cadres powerful incentives to promote economic growth. Local officials often helped TVEs under their jurisdiction to gain access to technologies, capital, and production permits. Instead of rapidly privatizing its state-owned enterprises (SOEs), China gradually liberalized aspects of its economy in a controlled manner, often establishing a "market track" alongside its planned system. As the SOEs' share of output and employment shrank, that of the TVEs dramatically increased. By the mid- to late 1990s, TVEs accounted for nearly 40% of China's industrial output and had created about 100 million jobs. Nevertheless, party officials questioned whether the TVEs were a viable form of organization for an economy with ever-larger firms, more complex products and production processes, and the need for more capital and more skilled managers.

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations; Public Sector; Public Ownership; Development Economics; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Macroeconomics; Emerging Markets; China;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jamie Matthews. "China's Rural Leap Forward." Harvard Business School Case 703-024, November 2002. (Revised June 2003.)
  8. Netherlands:The, A "Third Way?"

    The economic success of The Netherlands in the 1960s can be attributed to Dutch wages that were kept substantially below those in neighboring countries. But increased pressures in the 1970s led to a wage explosion, which in turn pushed unemployment and disguised unemployment (i.e., disability/sickness schemes and early retirement), up to extraordinary levels--a situation that came to be known as the Dutch disease. Through a series of meetings in the early 1980s, union and employer groups came to a consensus to bring wage levels down. As a result, employee compensation as a share of GDP dropped from almost 60% in 1980 to just over 50% in the mid-1990s. After other reforms, the Netherlands had clearly turned the situation around. By the mid-1990s, it was back up to nearly full employment, was growing at a faster rate than its neighbors, and had a productivity/hour rate that was among the highest in the world. In addition, its corporate profitability performance matched or exceeded that in the United States and, unlike Germany, the Netherlands seemed to be keeping up in the high-technology sector. All this was in striking contrast to Sweden, a country that has experienced much more difficulty in trying to bring its wages back down.

    Keywords: Wages; History; Policy; Problems and Challenges; Macroeconomics; Economic Systems; Employment; Performance Productivity; Jobs and Positions; Economic Growth; Netherlands;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jamie Matthews. Netherlands:The, A "Third Way?". Harvard Business School Case 702-015, December 2001. (Revised February 2003.)
  9. Corporate Renewal in America (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-702-018).

    Keywords: United States; Germany; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Thomas S. Mondschean. "Corporate Renewal in America (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 703-023, November 2002.
  10. Corporate Renewal in America

    Discusses various macroeconomic, regulatory, technological, and financial forces that led to increased corporate restructuring in the United States beginning in the mid-1980s. The U.S. financial system is often viewed as the most developed in the world and a model for other countries to follow. Similarly, the U.S. model of corporate governance--with its emphasis on shareholder value and an active market for corporate control--is also viewed as a model. Examines pressures for corporate restructuring and the emergence of an active market for corporate control for very large firms beginning in the early 1970s. Discusses the effects of this restructuring on corporate profitability and productivity, and provides data on the evolution of a number of indicators of performance, including productivity by sector, market capitalization relative to replacement cost, and rates of return both on assets and on equity. In brief, it finds that U.S. firms showed significantly improved after-tax returns on shareholder equity over the period while failing to make significant improvements on their pretax returns on assets--adjusted for the effects of the business cycle. Given the lack of comparable accounting data on returns across countries, conclusions about the performance of U.S. firms versus European ones isn't possible.

    Keywords: Performance Evaluation; Corporate Governance; Macroeconomics; Economic Systems; Restructuring; Markets; Private Sector; Corporate Finance; Germany; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Thomas S. Mondschean. "Corporate Renewal in America." Harvard Business School Case 702-018, January 2002. (Revised September 2002.)
  11. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (A)

    GDP per person in northern Italy caught up with average incomes in Britain, France, and Germany in the 1970s, but incomes in southern Italy (the Mezzogiorno) fell further behind. This was partly due to cultural and societal differences that dated to the Renaissance, but even more obviously to northern dominance of the new nation in 1860 and Mafia dominance of much of the south. This case focuses on 50 years of efforts to correct this problem. Italy, with its north-south income divergence, is a good metaphor for the global economy with its divergence between First World and Third World incomes. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; Development Economics; Crime and Corruption; Social Issues; Economy; Government and Politics; Macroeconomics; Italy;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jamie Matthews. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (A). Harvard Business School Case 702-096, June 2002. (Revised August 2002.)
  12. Austin, Texas: Building a High-Tech Economy, TN

    Teaching Note for (9-799-038).

    Keywords: Texas;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Austin, Texas: Building a High-Tech Economy, TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 702-095, June 2002.
  13. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (B)

    In 1992, a corruption investigation and two assassinations created a crisis that prompted the Italian government to dispatch 7,000 troops to Sicily to "retake the island" from the Mafia. This case examines the crisis and the efforts of both the Italian state and the city of Palermo to deal with it. Also explicitly contrasts two development theories in an attempt to explain the economic problems of the South: one cultural (proposed by Robert Putnam); the other political (contained in the writings of Samuel Huntington, Sidney Tarrow, and Simona Piattoni). A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; National Security; Crime and Corruption; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Italy;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jamie Matthews. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (B). Harvard Business School Case 702-097, June 2002.
  14. Austin, Texas: Building a High-Tech Economy

    Members of the community decide to try to diversify the economy of Austin, Texas, by welcoming high-technology firms and by augmenting the electrical engineering faculty at University of Texas--Austin.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Diversification; Information Technology; Policy; Government and Politics; Engineering; Technological Innovation; Competitive Advantage; Higher Education; Texas;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Srinivas Sunder. "Austin, Texas: Building a High-Tech Economy." Harvard Business School Case 799-038, October 1998. (Revised June 2002.)
  15. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (A) and (B) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-702-096) and (9-702-097).

    Keywords: Italy;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "One Country, Two Systems"? Italy and the Mezzogiorno (A) and (B) TN. Harvard Business School Teaching Note 701-144, June 2001. (Revised June 2002.)
  16. Taiwan: "Only the Paranoid Survive" TN

    Teaching Note for (9-700-039).

    Keywords: Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. Taiwan: "Only the Paranoid Survive" TN. Harvard Business School Teaching Note 701-146, June 2001.
  17. Bradesco School System, The

    Keywords: Education;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Bradesco School System, The." Harvard Business School Case 701-045, October 2000. (Revised March 2001.)
  18. Country Analysis in a "Global Village"

    Substantially rewritten to establish the relevance of countries in the global context. It does so in terms of their differing economic performance in recent decades, and also by contrasting those that have "converged" toward the rich country norm (as theory would predict) from those that have not. It then develops the country analysis framework, with a scheme to identify context, strategy, and performance. Adds a political dimension, following Sam Huntington's emphasis on the strength of a state/government rather than its form; Hernando de Soto's notion that property rights are more important for most Third World countries than FDI receipts; and Joe Stiglitz's thesis that the notion of differing positions on a common production function is simply not plausible. Thus, advantages remain to be created, and substandard returns should be expected in order to catch up. In addition, provides an economic strategy matrix for the classification of strategies, or for the analysis of their evolution through time. A short bibliography is included. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; Macroeconomics; Trade; Business Strategy; Performance Evaluation; Industry Growth; Currency; Policy; Development Economics;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. Country Analysis in a "Global Village". Harvard Business School Background Note 701-074, January 2001.
  19. Economic Reform in the Czech Republic: Velvet Revolution or Velvet Blanket? TN

    Teaching Note for (9-700-100).

    Keywords: Czech Republic;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Thomas S. Mondschean. "Economic Reform in the Czech Republic: Velvet Revolution or Velvet Blanket? TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 701-001, July 2000.
  20. Economic Reform in the Czech Republic: Velvet Revolution or Velvet Blanket?

    Describes the economic reforms from 1990 to 1998, their success, the subsequent 1997 crisis, and the fall of the Klaus government.

    Keywords: History; Sovereign Finance; Development Economics; Privatization; Policy; Government and Politics; Economics; Czech Republic;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Thomas S. Mondschean. "Economic Reform in the Czech Republic: Velvet Revolution or Velvet Blanket?" Harvard Business School Case 700-100, June 2000. (Revised June 2000.)
  21. Chilean Model, The: Then and Now

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Karen Beth Kaufman. "Chilean Model, The: Then and Now." Harvard Business School Case 700-045, October 1999.
  22. Japan D1: A Strategy for Economic Growth TN

    Teaching Note for (9-378-106).

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Japan D1: A Strategy for Economic Growth TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 799-140, April 1999.
  23. Japan (D1): A Strategy for Economic Growth

    Data on Japan's unparalleled economic growth in the post-war era: How was it achieved and what future risks might be foreseen in 1971?

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Growth and Development Strategy; Risk and Uncertainty; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (D1): A Strategy for Economic Growth." Harvard Business School Case 378-106, October 1977. (Revised April 1998.)
  24. California: The American Future?

    California has long been a lead state in terms of population growth, income, and societal norms. In the 1990s, California voters approved referenda to restrict benefits to immigrants and to prohibit affirmative action. Is this likely to be another leading indicator for the country as a whole?

    Keywords: Fairness; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Laws and Statutes; Civil Society or Community; Public Opinion; California;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Kevin Price. "California: The American Future?" Harvard Business School Case 798-001, December 1997.
  25. Japan at the Crossroads?

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., Haruhiko Saitoh, and Takashi Yatsunami. "Japan at the Crossroads?" Harvard Business School Case 797-067, April 1997.
  26. Family Assistance Plan, The (A)

    Keywords: Welfare or Wellbeing;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Paul Bastone. "Family Assistance Plan, The (A)." Harvard Business School Case 797-065, December 1996.
  27. Australia (A)--1989

    Keywords: Australia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jonathan West. "Australia (A)--1989." Harvard Business School Case 390-059, October 1989. (Revised November 1995.)
  28. Australia (B)--1990

    Keywords: Australia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Jonathan West. "Australia (B)--1990." Harvard Business School Case 390-060, October 1989. (Revised July 1994.)
  29. Working Capital: Micro-Enterprise Development Via Peer-Group Lending

    Keywords: Microfinance; Working Capital;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Working Capital: Micro-Enterprise Development Via Peer-Group Lending." Harvard Business School Case 794-001, April 1994.
  30. Japan (A): 1853-1881, The Challenge to the Old Order

    Keywords: History; Policy; Economy; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (A): 1853-1881, The Challenge to the Old Order." Harvard Business School Case 375-347, September 1975. (Revised January 1994.)
  31. Japan (A), Supplement

    In an economy marked by severe inflation, a balance of payments problem, and large investment needs for modernization, the Minister of Finance has been asked to design a remedial program that cannot include borrowing abroad. He does so, and the case describes the outcome of the policies in the early 1880's. Discussion is expected to focus mainly on the long-term institutional spin-offs from these policies, and on the appropriateness of these institutions to the needs of a developing country.

    Keywords: Design; Developing Countries and Economies; Inflation and Deflation; Borrowing and Debt; Policy; Outcome or Result; Problems and Challenges; Programs;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Japan (A), Supplement." Harvard Business School Supplement 394-066, October 1993. (Revised January 1994.)
  32. Case of Unidentified Countries

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Monica Brand. "Case of Unidentified Countries." Harvard Business School Case 793-145, June 1993.
  33. Malaysia (A)

    Riots in 1969 bring martial law and a new, more firmly Malay government which sets out to promote redistribution of opportunity, income, and wealth by race-based quotas. Dr. Mahatherl, a Malay nationalist says Malays have a non-competitive alliance which must be forced to change.

    Keywords: Wealth and Poverty; Change Management; Race Characteristics; Conflict and Resolution; Power and Influence; Malaysia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Malaysia (A)." Harvard Business School Case 792-101, April 1992.
  34. U.S. Health Care in Comparative Perspective

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "U.S. Health Care in Comparative Perspective." Harvard Business School Background Note 792-045, November 1991. (Revised February 1992.)
  35. Foreign Investment in Canada (A)

    Keywords: Investment; Development Economics; Business and Government Relations; Canada;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Foreign Investment in Canada (A)." Harvard Business School Case 375-133, November 1974. (Revised December 1991.)
  36. France (A): From Liberation to the Debate on the Common Market

    Keywords: Economy; Planning; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (A): From Liberation to the Debate on the Common Market." Harvard Business School Case 376-177, March 1976. (Revised April 1990.)
  37. Development Strategies and Economic Performance

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Development Strategies and Economic Performance." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-177, May 1987. (Revised March 1990.)
  38. U.S.-Japan Trade Problem

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "U.S.-Japan Trade Problem." Harvard Business School Background Note 390-118, December 1989. (Revised December 1989.)
  39. Venezuela 1988

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Business and Government Relations; Venezuela;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Venezuela 1988." Harvard Business School Case 389-034, December 1988.
  40. Beveridge Plan and the Welfare State

    Keywords: Welfare or Wellbeing;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Joshua F. Dienstag. "Beveridge Plan and the Welfare State." Harvard Business School Case 388-032, September 1987.
  41. Venezuela 1986

    Keywords: Venezuela;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Venezuela 1986." Harvard Business School Case 388-025, August 1987.
  42. Singapore (B)

    Keywords: Singapore;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Amar Bhide. "Singapore (B)." Harvard Business School Case 383-056, November 1982. (Revised August 1987.)
  43. Saudi Arabia (B)

    Keywords: Saudi Arabia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Saudi Arabia (B)." Harvard Business School Case 387-124, February 1987.
  44. Saudi Arabia (C)

    Keywords: Saudi Arabia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Saudi Arabia (C)." Harvard Business School Case 387-125, February 1987.
  45. Saudi Arabia (A)

    Keywords: Saudi Arabia;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Saudi Arabia (A)." Harvard Business School Case 382-002, July 1981. (Revised January 1987.)
  46. Puerto Rico--1980

    Keywords: Puerto Rico;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Puerto Rico--1980." Harvard Business School Case 381-012, August 1980. (Revised November 1986.)
  47. Japan as Number One?

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Japan as Number One?" Harvard Business School Case 387-005, August 1986.
  48. Japan as a ""Rich Country""

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. Japan as a ""Rich Country"". Harvard Business School Case 387-026, August 1986.
  49. France (A): From Liberation to the Debate on the Common Market, Teaching Note

    Keywords: France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (A): From Liberation to the Debate on the Common Market, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-025, April 1984.
  50. Founding of the European Economic Community & Germany (A): The Rebirth of an Economy, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Trade; Germany; European Union;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Founding of the European Economic Community & Germany (A): The Rebirth of an Economy, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-055, April 1984.
  51. France (B): Formulation of the Fourth National Plan, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (B): Formulation of the Fourth National Plan, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-069, April 1984.
  52. France (C): The Fifth Plan, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (C): The Fifth Plan, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-070, April 1984.
  53. France (D): French Industry Faces the Sixth Plan, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (D): French Industry Faces the Sixth Plan, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-071, April 1984.
  54. France (E): The French Economy Enters the 1980s, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (E): The French Economy Enters the 1980s, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-072, April 1984.
  55. United Kingdom (A): The Decision to Join the Common Market, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; Market Participation; United Kingdom; European Union;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "United Kingdom (A): The Decision to Join the Common Market, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-073, April 1984.
  56. France (F): The Socialist Program for the 1980s, Teaching Note

    Keywords: History; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (F): The Socialist Program for the 1980s, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 384-021, April 1984.
  57. France (B): Formulation of the Fourth National Plan

    Keywords: Economy; Planning; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "France (B): Formulation of the Fourth National Plan." Harvard Business School Case 375-179, December 1974. (Revised December 1983.)
  58. France (C): The Fifth Plan

    Keywords: France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (C): The Fifth Plan." Harvard Business School Case 375-180, December 1974. (Revised December 1983.)
  59. France (D): French Industry Faces the Sixth Plan

    Keywords: Economy; Planning; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "France (D): French Industry Faces the Sixth Plan." Harvard Business School Case 375-181, January 1975. (Revised December 1983.)
  60. Founding of the European Economic Community

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; International Relations; Economy; Europe;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Founding of the European Economic Community." Harvard Business School Case 378-217, March 1978. (Revised December 1983.)
  61. France (E): The French Economy Enters the 1980s

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations; Economy; Planning; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Janice McCormick. "France (E): The French Economy Enters the 1980s." Harvard Business School Case 380-202, May 1980. (Revised December 1983.)
  62. United Kingdom (A): The Decision to Join the Common Market

    Keywords: Economy; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "United Kingdom (A): The Decision to Join the Common Market." Harvard Business School Case 382-071, November 1981. (Revised December 1983.)
  63. France (F): The Socialist Program for the 1980s

    Keywords: Economy; Planning; Economic Systems; France;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "France (F): The Socialist Program for the 1980s." Harvard Business School Case 383-003, December 1982. (Revised December 1983.)
  64. National Industrial Planning: France and the EEC, Course Module

    Keywords: Economics; Planning; Economy; Policy; France; European Union;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "National Industrial Planning: France and the EEC, Course Module." Harvard Business School Case 984-001, September 1983.
  65. Midway Foods Corp. (B1)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (B1)." Harvard Business School Case 306-132, March 1960. (Revised May 1983.)
  66. Midway Foods Corp. (A)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 306-131, March 1960. (Revised April 1983.)
  67. Case Studies in Political Economy: Japan --1854-1977, Course Module

    Keywords: Economy; Government and Politics; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., John W. Rosenblum, and Audrey T. Sproat. "Case Studies in Political Economy: Japan --1854-1977, Course Module." Harvard Business School Case 980-003, August 1980. (Revised January 1983.)
  68. Sri Lanka (B)

    Keywords: Sri Lanka;

    Citation:

    Bhide, Amar, and Bruce R. Scott. "Sri Lanka (B)." Harvard Business School Case 382-011, July 1981.
  69. Singapore (A)

    Keywords: Singapore;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Amar Bhide. "Singapore (A)." Harvard Business School Case 381-013, August 1980. (Revised June 1981.)
  70. Introduction to Balance of Payments Analysis

    Minimal background to permit interpretation of positive or negative balances in the key summary accounts of a balance of payments statement; also to permit relating these balances and relevant supporting detail to a possible national development strategy. Designed for use with Foreign Investment in Canada (A).

    Keywords: Accounting; Development Economics; Planning; Accounting Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Introduction to Balance of Payments Analysis." Harvard Business School Background Note 378-043, August 1977. (Revised February 1981.)
  71. Japan (B): The Military Challenge to Civilian Control

    Keywords: Business and Government Relations; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (B): The Military Challenge to Civilian Control." Harvard Business School Case 375-029, August 1974. (Revised November 1980.)
  72. Japan (B), Supplement II

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (B), Supplement II." Harvard Business School Case 375-030, September 1974. (Revised November 1980.)
  73. Japan (B), Supplement III

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (B), Supplement III." Harvard Business School Case 375-031, September 1974. (Revised November 1980.)
  74. Japan (C)--1945-52: From Occupation to Independence

    Keywords: Policy; Economy; Business and Government Relations; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (C)--1945-52: From Occupation to Independence." Harvard Business School Case 375-032, October 1974. (Revised November 1980.)
  75. Japan (E1)--1972-77: Recurring Trade Imbalance and Trouble with Trade Partners

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Trade; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (E1)--1972-77: Recurring Trade Imbalance and Trouble with Trade Partners." Harvard Business School Case 379-162, March 1979. (Revised November 1980.)
  76. Japan (B), Supplement I

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (B), Supplement I." Harvard Business School Case 380-067, November 1979. (Revised November 1980.)
  77. Five Supplementary Cases on Japan

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Five Supplementary Cases on Japan." Harvard Business School Case 380-217, November 1980.
  78. Japan (D2): A Strategy for Meeting the Problems of Growth

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Problems and Challenges; Strategy; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Japan (D2): A Strategy for Meeting the Problems of Growth." Harvard Business School Case 378-107, October 1977. (Revised October 1980.)
  79. Japan (E2): The End of ""Miracle"" Growth?

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Japan;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. Japan (E2): The End of ""Miracle"" Growth? Harvard Business School Case 379-163, April 1979. (Revised October 1980.)
  80. Irish Republic

    Keywords: Republic of Ireland;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R., and Audrey T. Sproat. "Irish Republic." Harvard Business School Case 379-194, April 1979. (Revised May 1979.)
  81. Sri Lanka (A)

    Keywords: Sri Lanka;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Sri Lanka (A)." Harvard Business School Case 377-199, April 1977. (Revised February 1979.)
  82. Stages of Corporate Development (Part I)

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Stages of Corporate Development (Part I)." Harvard Business School Background Note 371-294, December 1970. (Revised December 1977.)
  83. American Motors Corp.: Corporate Strategy

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "American Motors Corp.: Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 364-001, June 1963. (Revised November 1977.)
  84. Midway Foods Corp. (B2)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (B2)." Harvard Business School Case 306-133, March 1960. (Revised November 1968.)
  85. Midway Foods Corp. (B3)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (B3)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-134, March 1960. (Revised November 1968.)
  86. Midway Foods Corp. (H)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Andrews, Kenneth R., Norman A. Berg, and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (H)." Harvard Business School Case 314-051, May 1964.
  87. International Manufacturing Co. (A)

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "International Manufacturing Co. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 309-249, February 1964.
  88. Midway Foods Corp. (B4)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (B4)." Harvard Business School Case 306-135, March 1960.
  89. Midway Foods Corp. (C)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (C)." Harvard Business School Case 306-136, March 1960.
  90. Midway Foods Corp. (D3)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (D3)." Harvard Business School Case 306-139, March 1960.
  91. Midway Foods Corp. (E1)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (E1)." Harvard Business School Case 306-140, March 1960.
  92. Midway Foods Corp. (E2)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Learned, Edmund P., and Bruce R. Scott. "Midway Foods Corp. (E2)." Harvard Business School Case 306-141, March 1960.
  93. Acoustic Research, Inc. (A)

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Acoustic Research, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 312-020, April 1959.
  94. Acoustic Research, Inc. (B)

    Keywords: Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Acoustic Research, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 312-021, April 1959.
  95. Acoustic Research, Inc. (C)

    Keywords: Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Scott, Bruce R. "Acoustic Research, Inc. (C)." Harvard Business School Case 312-022, April 1959.