Michael E. Porter

Bishop William Lawrence University Professor

Michael E. Porter is a leading authority on competitive strategy; the competitiveness and economic development of nations, states, and regions; and the application of competitive principles and strategic approaches to social needs, such as health care, innovation, and corporate responsibility.

Professor Porter is generally recognized as the father of the modern strategy field, and has been identified in rankings and surveys as the world’s most influential thinker on management and competitiveness. He serves as an advisor to countries, corporations, non-profits, and academic circles across the globe.

As the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor based at Harvard Business School, Professor Porter has received the highest professional recognition that can be awarded to a Harvard faculty member. In 2001, Harvard Business School and Harvard University jointly created the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, which is dedicated to furthering his work and research.

The author of 18 books and over 125 articles, Professor Porter received a B.S.E. with high honors in aerospace and mechanical engineering from Princeton University in 1969, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. He then received an M.B.A. with high distinction in 1971 from the Harvard Business School, where he was a George F. Baker Scholar, and a Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University in 1973.

Teaching

Professor Porter's ideas are the foundation for courses on strategy and competitiveness, and his work is taught at virtually every business school in the world.

His Microeconomics of Competitiveness course at Harvard is open to graduate students across the schools at the university. It is also taught in partnership with more than 80 other universities from every continent using curriculum, video content and instructor support developed at Harvard.

Professor Porter developed and chairs the New CEO Workshop, a Harvard Business School program for newly appointed CEOs of the world’s largest and more complex corporations. Held twice each year by invitation only, the workshop focuses on the challenges facing new CEOs in assuming leadership. His Harvard Business Review article with Jay Lorsch and Nitin Nohria, ‘Seven Surprises for New CEOs’ (October 2004), describes some of the learning from this ongoing body of work.

Professor Porter speaks widely on strategy, competitiveness, health care delivery, related subjects to business, government, non-profit, and philanthropic leaders.

Research

Strategy

Professor Porter’s core field is competitive strategy, which remains a major focus of his research. His book, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, is in its 63rd printing and has been translated into 19 languages. His second major strategy book, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, was published in 1985 and is in its 38th printing. His book On Competition (2008) contains his most influential articles on strategy and competition, including the award-winning Harvard Business Review article 'What is Strategy?' (1996) and 'The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy' (2008), a revised and extended version of his classic article on industry analysis. Professor Porter’s next major book on strategy is in process.

Competitiveness of Nations and Regions

Professor Porter's 1990 book, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, presents a new theory of how nations and regions compete and their sources of economic prosperity. Motivated by his appointment by President Ronald Reagan to the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, the book has guided economic policy in countless nations and regions. Subsequent articles have expanded on the concept of clusters (geographic concentrations of related industries that occur in particular fields) and other aspects of the theory.

National Competitiveness. Professor Porter has published books about national competitiveness covering New Zealand, Canada, Sweden, and Switzerland. His book Can Japan Compete? (2000) challenged long-held views about the Japanese economic miracle.

Professor Porter chairs the Global Competitiveness Report, an annual ranking of the competitiveness and growth prospects of more than 120 countries published by the World Economic Forum.

Clusters. Professor Porter’s ideas on clusters, first introduced in 1990, have given rise to a large body of theory and practice throughout the world. Cluster-based economic development thinking has resulted in many hundreds of public-private cluster initiatives in virtually every country. The article “Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Companies, Governments, and Institutions” and On Competition (1998) provide a summary.

Regional Competitiveness. Professor Porter extended his work on competitiveness to states, provinces, and other sub-national regions. He led the Clusters of Innovation project which developed a framework for economic policy in U.S. regions. He also created the U.S. Cluster Mapping Project, which provides rich data on the economic geography of U.S. regions and clusters on an interactive website and received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Economic Development Administration. Professor Porter’s methodology is the basis for comprehensive new data on the economic geography of the 27 countries of the European Union. The article ‘The Economic Performance of Regions’ (2003) summarizes some of the important findings from this data, and a new paper, ‘Convergence, Clusters and Economic Performance’ (2006), with Mercedes Delgado and Scott Stern, presents the first comprehensive statistical examination of U.S. regional performance using cluster data.

Innovation. Professor Porter is co-author (with Professor Scott Stern and others) of a body of work on the sources of innovation in national and regional economies, including The New Challenge to America's Prosperity: Findings from the Innovation Index (1999), 'The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity' (2000), and 'Measuring the 'Ideas' Production Function: Evidence from International Patent Output' (2000).

Competition and Society

Professor Porter's third major body of work has addressed the relationship between competition and important social issues such as poverty and the natural environment.

Economically Distressed Communities. Professor Porter offered a new approach to revitalizing distressed urban communities, beginning with the Harvard Business Review article 'The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City'. In 1994, he founded The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC), a non-profit, private-sector organization to catalyze inner-city business development across the country. Professor Porter is Chairman of the ICIC, a national organization that works in cities across America. Professor Porter has also written on economic development in rural areas.

The Natural Environment. Professor Porter introduced a controversial theory that environmental progress and economic competitiveness were not inconsistent but complementary, first put forth in his Scientific American essay, 'America's Green Strategy' (1991), and developed in more detail in his article 'Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship' (1995). The “Porter Hypothesis” has been the subject of more than 100 articles and has spawned a rich literature. The theory is now gaining widening acceptance and is guiding corporate practice and thinking about regulation.

Philanthropy and Corporate Social Responsibility. Professor Porter has devoted growing attention to philanthropy and the role of corporations in society. His Harvard Business Review article with Mark Kramer, 'Philanthropy's New Agenda: Creating Value' (1999), introduced a new framework for developing strategy in foundations and other philanthropic organizations.

His Harvard Business Review article, 'The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy' (2002), focused on how corporations can create more social benefit with their philanthropy. His Harvard Business Review article with Mark Kramer, 'Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility' (2006), puts forth an approach for companies to think strategically about corporate social responsibility.

With Mark Kramer, Professor Porter co-founded the Center for Effective Philanthropy, a non-profit organization dedicated to creating concepts and measurement tools to improve foundation performance. He also co-founded FSG, an international non-profit advisory firm that provides advice and innovative ideas about social strategy to foundations, corporations, and social service organizations.

Health Care Delivery

Since 2001, Professor Porter has devoted considerable attention to competition in the health care system, with a focus on improving health care delivery. His work with Professor Elizabeth Teisberg, including the book Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), is influencing thinking and practice not only in the United States but numerous other countries. Curriculum growing out of this research is being taught at Harvard and elsewhere.

Advisory and Civic Roles

Professor Porter has served as a strategy advisor to top management in numerous leading U.S. and international companies, among them Caterpillar, DuPont, Procter & Gamble, Royal Dutch Shell, Scotts Miracle-Gro, SYSCO, and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company.

Professor Porter currently serves on the board of directors of two public companies, Thermo Fisher Scientific Corporation and Parametric Technology Corporation.

Professor Porter serves as senior strategy advisor to the Boston Red Sox, a major league baseball team. He has advised numerous educational and community organizations on strategy.

Professor Porter is actively involved in assisting governments in the United States and abroad. He plays an active role in U.S. economic policy with the Executive Branch, Congress, and international organizations. Professor Porter is a founding member and member of the Executive Committee of the Council on Competitiveness, America’s leading private-sector competitiveness organization made up of chief executive officers of major corporations, unions, and universities. He also chairs the selection committee for the annual Corporate Stewardship Award of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

Professor Porter advises national leaders in numerous countries on competitiveness including Armenia, Colombia, Ireland, Nicaragua, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom. He has personally led major studies of economic strategy for the governments of such countries as Canada, India, Kazakhstan, Libya, New Zealand, Portugal, and Thailand.

Professor Porter’s thinking about economic development for groups of neighboring countries has resulted in a long-term initiative within Central America, including the formation of the Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS), a permanent institution based in Costa Rica.

At the state and local level, Professor Porter has worked extensively in his home state of Massachusetts and numerous others. He has been honored by governments for his work in Basque Country, Catalonia, Connecticut, and South Carolina. He chaired the Governor’s Council on Economic Growth and Technology in Massachusetts during the period when Massachusetts made dramatic improvements in competitiveness.

Honors and Awards

Professor Porter has been widely recognized for his work. Some of these honors (in chronological order) include Harvard's David A. Wells Prize in Economics (1973) for his research in industrial organization. He received the Graham and Dodd Award of the Financial Analysts Federation in 1980. His book Competitive Advantage won the George R. Terry Book Award of the Academy of Management in 1985 as the outstanding contribution to management thought.

Professor Porter was elected a Fellow of the International Academy of Management in 1985, a Fellow of the Academy of Management in 1988, and a Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in 1991. In 1991, he received the Charles Coolidge Parlin Award for outstanding contribution to the field of marketing and strategy, given by the American Marketing Association. Professor Porter was honored by the Massachusetts State Legislature in 1991 for his work on Massachusetts competitiveness.

In 1993, Professor Porter was named the Richard D. Irwin Outstanding Educator in Business Policy and Strategy by the Academy of Management.

He was the 1997 recipient of the Adam Smith Award of the National Association of Business Economists, given in recognition of his exceptional contributions to the business economics profession. In 1998, he received the International Academy of Management’s first-ever Distinguished Award for Contribution to the Field of Management.

In 2001, the annual Porter Prize, akin to the Deming Prize, was established in Japan in his name to recognize Japan’s leading companies in terms of strategy.

In 2003, the Academy of Management recognized Professor Porter with its highest award, for scholarly contributions to management.

In 2005, Professor Porter became an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. That year, he was awarded the John Kenneth Galbraith Medal (presented by the American Agricultural Economics Association. That year, he was also honored by the South Carolina legislature for his efforts in assisting and promoting economic development in that state.

In 2007, Professor Porter’s book, Redefining Health Care, was awarded the James A. Hamilton Award as the outstanding health care book of the year.

In 2008, he received the first ever Lifetime Achievement Award from the United States Department of Commerce for his contribution to economic development.

Professor Porter has received six McKinsey Awards for the best Harvard Business Review article of the year, including an unprecedented four first-place awards.

Professor Porter has received honorary doctorates from the Stockholm School of Economics; Erasmus University (the Netherlands); HEC (France); Universidada Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal); Adolfo Ibanez University (Chile); INCAE (Central America); The University of Deusto (Basque Country); The University of Iceland; Universidad de los Andes (Colombia); HHL-Leipzig Graduate School of Management (Germany); Universidad San Martin de Porres (Peru); Johnson and Wales University (United States); and Mt. Ida College (United States).

Professor Porter has also been awarded national honors including the Creu de St. Jordi (Cross of St. George) from Catalonia (Spain) and the Jose Dolores Estrada Order of Merit, the highest civilian honor awarded by the Government of Nicaragua.

Personal History

Professor Porter was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and lived and traveled throughout the world as the son of a career Army officer. He was an all-state high school football and baseball player in the state of New Jersey where he attended high school. At Princeton, he played intercollegiate golf and was New England champion. He was named to the 1968 NCAA Golf All-American Team. After graduating from college, Professor Porter served through the rank of captain in the U.S. Army Reserve. He maintains a long-time interest in the esthetics and business of music and art, having worked on the problems of strategy with arts organizations and aspiring musicians. Professor Porter has two daughters and resides in Brookline, Massachusetts.

9/08

Books

  1. Redefining German Health Care: Moving to a Value-Based System

    The German health care system is on a collision course with budget realities. Costs are high and rising, and quality problems are becoming ever more apparent. Decades of reforms have produced little change to these troubling trends. Why has Germany failed to solve these cost and quality problems? The reason is that Germany has not set value for patients as the overarching goal, defined as the patient health outcomes achieved per euro expended. This book lays out an action agenda to move Germany to a high value system: care must be reorganized around patients and their medical conditions, providers must compete around the outcomes they achieve, health plans must take an active role in improving subscriber health, and payment must shift to models that reward excellent providers. Also, private insurance must be integrated in the risk-pooling system. These steps are practical and achievable, as numerous examples in the book demonstrate. Moving to a value-based health care system is the only way for Germany to continue to ensure access to excellent health care for everyone.

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Clemens Guth. Redefining German Health Care: Moving to a Value-Based System. Heidelberg: Springer, 2012. View Details
  2. On Competition

    Competition is one of society's most powerful forces for making things better in many fields of human endeavor. The study of competition and the creation of value, in their full richness, have preoccupied me for several decades. Competition is pervasive, whether it involves companies contesting markets, countries coping with globalization, or social organizations responding to societal needs. Every organization needs a strategy in order to deliver superior value to its customers. This is truer today than ever before, as competition has intensified dramatically over the last several decades in almost all domains. It has spread across geography, so that nations must compete to maintain their existing prosperity, much less enhance it. Competition has also spread to all sectors of society, including fields like the arts, education, health care, and philanthropy, where there are growing needs but scarce resources. Today organizations in all spheres must compete to deliver value. Value is the ability to meet or exceed the needs of customers, and do so efficiently. Companies have to deliver value to their customers, and countries have to deliver value as business locations. This is now just as true for a hospital delivering health care, or a foundation making charitable contributions, as it is for a company producing a product or service. Delivering social value—high social benefits per dollar expended—is fast becoming the imperative for any organization that seeks to advance the public good. In understanding competition and value creation, my aim is to capture the complexity of what actually happens on the ground. While trained as an economist and steeped in the discipline of economic reasoning, I have sought both to advance theory and make that theory operational for practitioners. My goal has been to develop rigorous and useful frame-works that effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice. This book brings together in one place the full range of concepts and tools I have developed to understand competition and value creation. This includes both my newer work and the original foundations on which it is built. The articles here examine competition at multiple levels and in different settings, but with a common framework that connects them all. This expanded edition is organized in five parts: Part I, "Competition and Strategy: Core Concepts," lays out the core concepts of competitive strategy for companies, first at the level of a single industry and then for multi-business or diversified companies. The drivers of industry competition, the ways in which companies gain and sustain competitive advantage, and the principles of developing a distinctive strategy are at the core of competition. A sophisticated understanding of how to be competitive in a particular business provides the foundation on which other corporate choices are built; diversification, for example, cannot be approached sensibly without linking it directly to competition in individual businesses. Also, the principles in Part I are as relevant for nonprofits as for companies. 1. The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy (January 2008 HBR Version) Michael E. Porter 2. What Is Strategy? Michael E. Porter 3. How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage Michael E. Porter and Victor E. Millar 4. Strategy and the Internet (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter 5. From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy Michael E. Porter Part II, "The Competitiveness of Locations," addresses the role of location in competition. As competition has spread and intensified, interest in the competitiveness of nations, states, and cities has exploded. As technology has allowed companies to become more global in their activities and as capital moves more freely across borders, many theorists claim that location diminishes in importance. The articles in Part II, however, challenge this notion. In them, I show how the prosperity of both companies and entire countries is dependent on the local environment in which competition takes place. Traditionally, the competitiveness of a region or a nation has been seen primarily as an issue for governments seeking to promote investment and job creation. The new model of competitiveness reveals unfamiliar roles for companies in shaping their competitive context; the need for a new type of relationship between business, government, and other local institutions; and entirely new ways of thinking about government policy. Understanding the influence of location on competition, together with the ideas in Part I, is also essential to setting global strategy for companies. 6. The Competitive Advantage of Nations Michael E. Porter 7. Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Companies, Governments, and Institutions Michael E. Porter 8. Competing Across Locations: Enhancing Competitive Advantage through a Global Strategy Michael E. Porter Part III, "Competitive Solutions to Societal Problems," draws on the frameworks in Parts I and II to address important societal issues. The environment, urban poverty and income inequality, and health care, among others, are normally seen as social problems. However, each of them is inextricably bound up with economics and, more specifically, with competition. I am increasingly convinced that lasting, self-sustaining solutions to these problems lie in our ability to apply effectively the deepest lessons of competition. There are huge win-win opportunities for both society and for companies if we approach issues such as the environment, disadvantaged communities, and health-care delivery in the right way. Creating positive-sum competition in these arenas will foster innovation that produces enormous value for society. 9. Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate Michael E. Porter and Claas Van Der Linde 10. The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City Michael E. Porter 11. Redefining Competition in Health Care (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg Part IV, "Strategy, Philanthropy, and Corporate Social Responsibility," applies strategy principles to philanthropy and giving by both social organizations and corporations. In a world of scarce public resources and rising aspirations to address social needs, the need for philanthropy to deliver value is urgent. The social sector must justify the enormous resources being devoted to giving, many of which are tax subsidized and thus supported by all citizens. The act of giving can no longer be seen as beneficial for its own sake. Instead, giving must achieve true social impact. The corporate sector is being asked to participate in social issues as never before, often under the banner of corporate social responsibility. How and where corporations should engage social issues, and how they should invest their philanthropic giving, is a pressing issue for every corporate leader. The key to doing this well is understanding that social issues and economic issues are not mutually exclusive but can be mutually reinforcing, as highlighted in Part III. Thus, social considerations can and should become part of a company's strategy, not a separate agenda. 12. Philanthropy's New Agenda: Creating Value (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer 13. The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer 14. Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer Part V, "Strategy and Leadership," recognizes that leadership is needed to achieve superior value creation. For any organization, developing a strategy is an act of leadership, and strategy represents perhaps the most powerful tool available to leaders to get all the individuals in the organization aligned around a common purpose and direction. As crucial as leadership is, we still know surprisingly little about the role of leaders, especially the leaders of large complex organizations such as those that populate the Fortune 100 or Fortune 500. Such organizations are too large and complex for any leader to fully understand all of the businesses, manage the many thousands of employees, or make even a small fraction of all the decisions. In such organizations, the roles of leaders are subtle and indirect, and we have begun to explore these roles in recent work. 15. Seven Surprises for New CEOs (New to this edition) Michael E. Porter, Jay W. Lorsch, and Nitin Nohria

    Keywords: Leadership; Practice; Competitive Strategy; Theory; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. On Competition. Updated and Expanded Ed. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2008. View Details
  3. Global Competitiveness Report 2008/2009

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Klaus Schwab, eds. Global Competitiveness Report 2008/2009. Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2008. View Details
  4. Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008

    The World Economic Forum continues its tradition of excellence with the 29th edition of the annual Global Competitiveness Report featuring the latest indicators from the Executive Opinion Survey. The Report assesses over 130 developed and emerging economies and presents country profiles highlighting strengths and weaknesses of each economy.

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; Strength and Weakness; Competition;

    Citation:

    Lopez-Claros, Augusto, Michael Porter, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, and Klaus Schwab. Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008. World Economic Forum, 2007. View Details
  5. Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results

    Keywords: Health; Value; Competition; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Elizabeth O. Teisberg. Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006. View Details
  6. The Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Klaus Schwab and Xavier Sala-i-Martin, eds. The Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004. Oxford University Press, 2004. View Details
  7. Nihon no Kyōsō Senryaku [Can Japan Compete?]

    The result of a major piece of research, this book reveals that there have long been two Japans, the familiar one that was highly competitive, and another Japan, almost invisible, that was highly uncompetitive. The authors unravel this puzzle, and provide a solution that challenges the conventional wisdom on the drivers of Japanese competitiveness.

    Keywords: Competition; Economy; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Hirotaka Takeuchi, and M. Sakakibara. Nihon no Kyōsō Senryaku [Can Japan Compete?]. Tokyo: Daiyamondosha [Diamond, Inc.], 2000, Japanese ed. (English ed., Basingstoke: MacMillan, 2000; New York: Basic Books, 2000.) View Details
  8. Can Japan Compete?

    The result of a major piece of research, this book reveals that there have long been two Japans, the familiar one that was highly competitive, and another Japan, almost invisible, that was highly uncompetitive. The authors unravel this puzzle, and provide a solution that challenges the conventional wisdom on the drivers of Japanese competitiveness.

    Keywords: Economics; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Hirotaka Takeuchi, and M. Sakakibara. Can Japan Compete? New York: Basic Books, 2000. View Details
  9. Can Japan Compete?

    The result of a major piece of research, this book reveals that there have long been two Japans, the familiar one that was highly competitive, and another Japan, almost invisible, that was highly uncompetitive. The authors unravel this puzzle, and provide a solution that challenges the conventional wisdom on the drivers of Japanese competitiveness.

    Keywords: Competition; Economy; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Hirotaka Takeuchi, and M. Sakakibara. Can Japan Compete? Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishing, 2000. View Details
  10. On Competition

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. On Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  11. The Competitive Advantage of Nations

    In the modern competitive marketplace, nations have their own competitive advantages. These are investigated and discussed in-depth.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. 2nd ed. New York: Free Press, 1998. (1st ed. New York: Free Press, 1990.) View Details
  12. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Performance Consistency;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. [2nd ed.] New York: Free Press, 1998. View Details
  13. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press, 1998. View Details
  14. Canada at the Crossroads: The Reality of a New Competitive Environment

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Canada;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and The Monitor Company. Canada at the Crossroads: The Reality of a New Competitive Environment. Ottawa: Business Council on National Issues, 1992. View Details
  15. Internationale Wettbewerbsvorteile: Ein Strategisches Konzept fur die Schweiz (International Competitive Advantage: A New Strategic Concept for Switzerland)

    Keywords: Global Range; Competitive Advantage; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., S. Borner, R. Weder, and M. J. Enright. Internationale Wettbewerbsvorteile: Ein Strategisches Konzept fur die Schweiz (International Competitive Advantage: A New Strategic Concept for Switzerland). Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag, 1991. View Details
  16. Advantage Sweden

    Keywords: Industry Clusters; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy; Industry Structures; Global Strategy; Economy; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Orjan Solvell, and I. Zander. Advantage Sweden. Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 1991. (Second ed., Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik, 1993.) View Details
  17. Upgrading New Zealand's Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; New Zealand;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., G. T. Crocombe, and M. J. Enright. Upgrading New Zealand's Competitive Advantage. Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1991. View Details
  18. Strategy: Seeking and Securing Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Montgomery, C. A., and M. E. Porter, eds. Strategy: Seeking and Securing Competitive Advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1991. View Details
  19. The Competitive Advantage of Nations

    In the modern competitive marketplace, nations have their own competitive advantages. These are investigated and discussed in-depth.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.) View Details
  20. Competition in Global Industries

    Keywords: Competition; Globalized Markets and Industries;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., ed. Competition in Global Industries. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1986. View Details
  21. Business Policy: Text and Cases

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Corporate Strategy; Policy;

    Citation:

    Andrews, K., J. Bower, C. R. Christensen, R. Hamermesh, and M. E. Porter. Business Policy: Text and Cases. 6 Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1986. View Details
  22. The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Performance Consistency;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. NY: Free Press, 1985. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.) View Details
  23. Cases in Competitive Strategy

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. Cases in Competitive Strategy. NY: Free Press, 1982. View Details
  24. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press, 1980. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.) View Details
  25. Competition in an Open Economy: A Model Applied to Canada

    Keywords: Competition; Business Model; Canada;

    Citation:

    Caves, R. E., M. E. Porter, and A. M. Spence. Competition in an Open Economy: A Model Applied to Canada. Vol. 150, Harvard Economic Studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980. View Details
  26. Studies in Canadian Industrial Organization

    Keywords: Industry Structures; Canada;

    Citation:

    Caves, R. E., M. E. Porter, A. M. Spence, and J. T. Scott. Studies in Canadian Industrial Organization. Toronto: Canadian Commission on Corporate Concentration, 1977. View Details
  27. Interbrand Choice, Strategy and Bilateral Market Power

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Brands and Branding;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. Interbrand Choice, Strategy and Bilateral Market Power. Vol. 146, Harvard Economic Studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance

    This paper evaluates the role of regional cluster composition in regional industry performance. On the one hand, diminishing returns to specialization in a location can result in a convergence effect: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be declining in the level of economic activity of that industry. At the same time, positive spillovers across complementary economic activities can provide an impetus for agglomeration: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be increasing in the "strength" (i.e., relative presence) of related industries. Building on Porter (1998, 2003), we develop a systematic empirical framework to analyze the role of regional clusters—groups of closely related industries operating within a particular region—in the growth of regional industries. We exploit data from the U.S. Cluster Mapping Project to examine the effects of agglomeration within regional clusters after controlling for convergence at the region-industry level. Our findings suggest that industries located in a strong cluster register higher employment and patenting growth. Regional industry growth also increases with the strength of related clusters in the region and with the strength of similar clusters in adjacent regions. We also find evidence of the complementarity between employment and innovation performance in regional clusters: both the initial employment and patenting strength of a cluster have a separate positive effect on the employment and patenting growth of the constituent industries. Finally, we find that new regional industries emerge where there is a strong cluster. These findings are consistent with multiple types of externalities arising in clusters, including knowledge, skills, and input-output linkages.

    Keywords: clusters; economics; growth and development; Industry Clusters; Economy; Growth and Development; United States;

    Citation:

    Delgado, Mercedes, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance." Research Policy (forthcoming). View Details
  2. Delivering Global Health

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Sachin Jain, Rebecca Weintraub, Joseph Rhatigan, and Jim Yong Kim. "Delivering Global Health." Student BMJ 16, no. 227 (June 2008). View Details
  3. A Blueprint for Pharmacy Benefit Managers to Increase Value

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Shrank, William H., Michael E. Porter, Sachin Jain, and Niteesh K. Choudhry. "A Blueprint for Pharmacy Benefit Managers to Increase Value." American Journal of Managed Care 15, no. 2 (February 2009): 87–93. View Details
  4. A Strategy for Health Care Reform—Toward a Value-Based System

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "A Strategy for Health Care Reform—Toward a Value-Based System." New England Journal of Medicine 361, no. 2 (July 9, 2009): 109–112. View Details
  5. How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Kaplan, Robert S., and Michael E. Porter. "How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 9 (September 2011): 47–64. View Details
  6. How Physicians Can Change the Future of Health Care

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg. "How Physicians Can Change the Future of Health Care." JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association 297, no. 10 (March 14, 2007): 1103–1111. View Details
  7. Value-Based Health Care Delivery

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Value-Based Health Care Delivery." Annals of Surgery 248, no. 4 (October 2008). View Details
  8. The Finnish Health Care System: A Value Based Perspective

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Finnish Health Care System: A Value Based Perspective." Sitra Reports (2009). View Details
  9. What Is Value in Health Care?

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "What Is Value in Health Care?" New England Journal of Medicine 363, no. 26 (December 23, 2010): 2477–2481. View Details
  10. Discovering—and Lowering—the Real Costs of Health Care

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Discovering—and Lowering—the Real Costs of Health Care." Harvard Business Review 89, nos. 1-2 (January–February 2011). (The HBR Agenda 2011.) View Details
  11. Why Health Care Is Stuck—And How to Fix It

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Why Health Care Is Stuck—And How to Fix It." HBR Blog Network (September 17, 2013). View Details
  12. Redesigning Primary Care: A Strategic Vision to Improve Value by Organizing Around Patients' Needs

    Primary care in the United States currently struggles to attract new physicians and to garner investments in infrastructure required to meet patients' needs. We believe that the absence of a robust overall strategy for the entire spectrum of primary care is a fundamental cause of these struggles. To address the absence of an overall strategy and vision for primary care, we offer a framework based on value for patients to sustain and improve primary care practice. First, primary care should be organized around subgroups of patients with similar needs. Second, team-based services should be provided to each patient subgroup over its full care cycle. Third, each patient's outcomes and true costs should be measured by subgroup as a routine part of care. Fourth, payment should be modified to bundle reimbursement for each subgroup and reward value improvement. Finally, primary care patient subgroup teams should be integrated with relevant specialty providers. We believe that redesigning primary care using this framework can improve the ability of primary care to play its essential role in the health care system.

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Erika A. Pabo, and Thomas H. Lee. "Redesigning Primary Care: A Strategic Vision to Improve Value by Organizing Around Patients' Needs." Health Affairs 32, no. 3 (March 2013): 516–525. View Details
  13. Redefining Global Health-care Delivery

    Initiatives to address the unmet needs of those facing both poverty and serious illness have expanded significantly over the past decade. But many of them are designed in an ad-hoc manner to address one health problem among many; they are too rarely assessed; best practices spread slowly. When assessments of delivery do occur, they are often narrow studies of the cost-effectiveness of a single intervention rather than the complex set of them required to deliver value to patients and their families. We propose a framework for global health-care delivery and evaluation by considering efforts to introduce HIV/AIDS care to resource-poor settings. The framework introduces the notion of care delivery value chains that apply a systems-level analysis to the complex processes and interventions that must occur, across a health-care system and over time, to deliver high-value care for patients with HIV/AIDS and cooccurring conditions, from tuberculosis to malnutrition. To deliver value, vertical or stand-alone projects must be integrated into shared delivery infrastructure so that personnel and facilities are used wisely and economies of scale reaped. Two other integrative processes are necessary for delivering and assessing value in global health: one is the alignment of delivery with local context by incorporating knowledge of both barriers to good outcomes (from poor nutrition to a lack of water and sanitation) and broader social and economic determinants of health and wellbeing (jobs, housing, physical infrastructure). The second is the use of effective investments in care delivery to promote equitable economic development, especially for those struggling against poverty and high burdens of disease. We close by reporting our own shared experience of seeking to move towards a science of delivery by harnessing research and training to understand and improve care delivery.

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Kim, Jim Yong, Paul E. Farmer, and Michael E. Porter. "Redefining Global Health-care Delivery." Lancet 382, no. 9897 (September 21, 2013). View Details
  14. Better Measuring a Country: GDP Is Not the Best Way to Quantify National Success

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Better Measuring a Country: GDP Is Not the Best Way to Quantify National Success." Boston Globe (January 12, 2014). View Details
  15. Grist: A Strategic Approach to Climate

    Climate change will affect everything businesses do, as government efforts to mitigate carbon emissions cause their prices to rise steeply. This special edition of Forethought takes a hard-nosed look at the risks and opportunities of climate change. Michael E. Porter and Forest L. Reinhardt argue that the effects of climate change on companies' operations are now so tangible and certain that the issue is best addressed with the tools of the strategist, not the philanthropist.

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Leadership; Logistics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Improvement; Weather and Climate Change; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Forest Reinhardt. "Grist: A Strategic Approach to Climate." Forethought. Harvard Business Review 85, no. 10 (October 2007): 22–26. View Details
  16. Toward a Common Language: Listening to CEOs and Other Experts Talk About Performance Measurement in Philanthropy

    Charitable foundations justly take pride in the good works that they enable. But what does it mean for a foundation to perform well? And how can its performance be measured? These are the difficult questions that we posed during the autumn of 2001 to 74 foundation executives, CEOs, and expert observers of philanthropy.

    Keywords: Society;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Toward a Common Language: Listening to CEOs and Other Experts Talk About Performance Measurement in Philanthropy." Center for Effective Philanthropy (February 2002). View Details
  17. Perspectives on Fundamental Antitrust Theory

    Report of the Task Force on Fundamental Theory American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law.

    Keywords: Society;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Perspectives on Fundamental Antitrust Theory." American Bar Association, Section of Antitrust Law (2001). View Details
  18. Understanding the Drivers of National Innovative Capacity

    Motivated by R&D productivity differences across countries, we evaluate the determinants of country-level international patenting. Our framework is built on the concept of national innovative capacity. Our results suggest that (a) patenting is well-characterized by a small but nuanced set of observable economic factors that may be affected by public policy and (b) the OECD has experienced substantial convergence in national innovative capacity over the last quarter century.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Furman, Jeffrey L., Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "Understanding the Drivers of National Innovative Capacity." Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings (2000). View Details
  19. The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity

    Motivated by differences in innovation intensity across advanced economies, this paper presents an empirical examination of the determinants of country-level production of international patents. We introduce a novel framework based on the concept of national innovative capacity. National innovative capacity is the ability of a country to produce and commercialize a flow of innovative technology over the long term.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Furman, Jeffrey L., Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity." Research Policy 31, no. 6 (August 2002): 899–933. View Details
  20. What Do We Know About Variance in Accounting Profitability?

    In this paper, we analyze the variance of accounting profitability among a broad cross-section of firms in the American economy from 1981 to 1994. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on accounting profitability among operating businesses across sectors. The findings indicate that industry and corporate-parent effects are important and related to one another. As expected, business-specific effects, which arise from competitive positioning and other factors, have a large influence on performance. The analysis reconciles the results of previous studies by exploring differences in method and data. We also identify the broad contributions and limitations of the research, and suggest avenues for further study. New approaches are necessary to generate significant insights about the relationships between industry, corporate-parent, and business influences on firm profitability.

    Keywords: Strategy; United States;

    Citation:

    McGahan, Anita M., and Michael E. Porter. "What Do We Know About Variance in Accounting Profitability?" Management Science 486, no. 7 (July 2002): 834–851. View Details
  21. The Emergence and Sustainability of Abnormal Profits

    In this paper, we examine the emergence and the sustainability of abnormal profits among businesses that were part of U.S. public corporations between 1981 and 1994 and that reported financial results for at least six years. Our results reveal strong asymmetries between high and low performers. Overall, high performance is more stable than low performance. High performers show profits above the average a decade earlier. In contrast, low performers show profits that are slightly above average a decade earlier. Industry and corporate-parent effects influence high performance to a far greater degree than low performance. Low performance is dominated by business-specific effects.

    Keywords: Strategy; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Anita M. McGahan. "The Emergence and Sustainability of Abnormal Profits." Strategic Organization 1, no. 1 (February 2003): 79–108. View Details
  22. Now Is the Time to Rediscover Strategy

    Now is the time to rediscover strategy.

    Keywords: Strategy; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Now Is the Time to Rediscover Strategy." Wall Street Journal (November 2001). View Details
  23. How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy

    Harvard Business School competitiveness guru Michael E. Porter urges large organizations to invest in small businesses in inner cities.

    Keywords: Society; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy." Bloomberg Businessweek (May 6, 2010). View Details
  24. Competition and Antitrust: A Productivity-Based Approach to Evaluating Mergers and Joint Ventures

    This article seeks to contribute thinking on how the intellectual foundations of antitrust might be updated, based on a large body of theoretical and empirical research on company strategy, competition, and economic development. The aim is to outline a new direction for antitrust that can be incorporated into government policy and legal practice and pursued in litigation and legislation, both in the United States and internationally.

    Keywords: Society; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Competition and Antitrust: A Productivity-Based Approach to Evaluating Mergers and Joint Ventures." Antitrust Bulletin 46, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 919–958. (Revised May 30, 2002.) View Details
  25. Why America Needs an Economic Strategy

    The Harvard Business School competitiveness guru offers his prescription for long-term prosperity. Cover Story.

    Keywords: Economics; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Why America Needs an Economic Strategy." Bloomberg Businessweek (November 10, 2008). (cover story.) View Details
  26. Clusters and Entrepreneurship

    This article examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. We focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing returns to entrepreneurship at the region-industry level can result in a convergence effect, the presence of complementary economic activity creates externalities that enhance incentives and reduce barriers for new business creation. Clusters are a particularly important way through which location-based complementarities are realized. The empirical analysis uses a novel panel dataset from the Longitudinal Business Database of the Census Bureau and the US Cluster Mapping Project. Using this dataset, there is significant evidence of the positive impact of clusters on entrepreneurship. After controlling for convergence in start-up activity at the region-industry level, industries located in regions with strong clusters (i.e. a large presence of other related industries) experience higher growth in new business formation and start-up employment. Strong clusters are also associated with the formation of new establishments of existing firms, thus influencing the location decision of multi-establishment firms. Finally, strong clusters contribute to start-up firm survival.

    Keywords: Economics;

    Citation:

    Delgado, Mercedes, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "Clusters and Entrepreneurship." Journal of Economic Geography 10, no. 4 (July 2010): 495–518. (U.S. Census Bureau Center for Economic Studies Paper, No. CES-WP-10-31.) View Details
  27. Clusters and the New Economics of Competition

    This article explains how clusters foster high levels of productivity and innovation and lays out the implications for competitive strategy and economic policy. Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions—from suppliers to universities to government agencies—that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous examples are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things—knowledge, relationships, and motivation—that distant rivals cannot replicate.

    Keywords: Economics; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Clusters and the New Economics of Competition." Harvard Business Review 76, no. 6 (November–December 1998): 77–90. View Details
  28. The Tax Cut That Could Pay Dividends

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Tax Cut That Could Pay Dividends." FT.com (January 13, 2003). View Details
  29. The Pluses in Corporate Philanthropy

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. "The Pluses in Corporate Philanthropy." Boston Globe (January 13, 2003). View Details
  30. The Importance of Being Strategic

    At the Balanced Scorecard Collaborative's recent North American Summit, Michael E. Porter, Bishop William Lawrence Professor at Harvard Business School, addressed the question "Is the world changing too fast for companies to have a long-term strategy?" "No," said Porter, a preeminent strategy expert; in the wake of the dot-com shakeout, strategy is more important than ever. See why he says this, and read the accompanying sidebar, "What Strategy Isn't."

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Importance of Being Strategic." Balanced Scorecard Report 4, no. 2 (March–April 2002): 9–11. View Details
  31. The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context—the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company not only to give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. Adopting a context-focused approach requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective.

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. "The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy." Harvard Business Review 80, no. 12 (December 2002): 56–69. View Details
  32. Competitiveness in a Globalised World: Michael Porter on the Microeconomic Foundations of the Competitiveness of Nations, Regions, and Firms

    In this paper, we provide the text of an interview with Professor Michael Porter discussing his research and ideas relating to the microeconomic foundations of global competitiveness. The discussion provides a microeconomic perspective on some of the key issues relating to recent research on competitiveness, productivity, clusters, US economic leadership, economic growth and development.

    Keywords: Economics;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Brian Snowdon, and George Stonehouse. "Competitiveness in a Globalised World: Michael Porter on the Microeconomic Foundations of the Competitiveness of Nations, Regions, and Firms." Journal of International Business Studies 37 (2006): 163–175. View Details
  33. The Adam Smith Address: Location, Clusters, and the 'New' Microeconomics of Competition

    The new microeconomics of competition is contained in frameworks that structure the complexity of competition and inform managers of the choices they must make. The role of location has shifted from factor endowments and size to productivity growth; factor inputs are abundant and accessed via globalization. To increase productivity, factor inputs must improve in efficiency, quality and ultimately specialization to particular cluster areas. A cluster is a critical mass of companies in a particular location (a country, state, region or even a city). Governments have significant roles in creating an environment to support rising productivity, and companies have a different agenda than just building offices or factories. The impacts of this approach on contemporary policy issues, especially the environment and inequality, are presented.

    Keywords: Economics;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Adam Smith Address: Location, Clusters, and the 'New' Microeconomics of Competition." Business Economics 33, no. 1 (January 1998). View Details
  34. The Strategy That Will Fix Health Care

    In health care, the days of business as usual are over. Around the world, every health care system is struggling with rising costs and uneven quality, despite the hard work of well-intentioned, well-trained clinicians. Health care leaders and policy makers have tried countless incremental fixes—attacking fraud, reducing errors, enforcing practice guidelines, making patients better "consumers," implementing electronic medical records—but none have had much impact. It's time for a fundamentally new strategy. At its core is maximizing value for patients: that is, achieving the best outcomes at the lowest cost. We must move away from a supply-driven health care system organized around what physicians do and toward a patient-centered system organized around what patients need. We must shift the focus from the volume and profitability of services provided—physician visits, hospitalizations, procedures, and tests—to the patient outcomes achieved. And we must replace today's fragmented system, in which every local provider offers a full range of services, with a system in which services for particular medical conditions are concentrated in health-delivery organizations and in the right locations to deliver high-value care. The strategy for moving to a high-value health care delivery system comprises six interdependent components: organizing around patients' medical conditions rather than physicians' medical specialties, measuring costs and outcomes for each patient, developing bundled prices for the full care cycle, integrating care across separate facilities, expanding geographic reach, and building an enabling IT platform. The transformation to value-based health care is well under way. Some organizations, such as the Cleveland Clinic and Germany's Schön Klinik, have undertaken large-scale changes involving multiple components of the value agenda. The result has been striking improvements in outcomes and efficiency, and growth in market share.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy; Value; Customer Focus and Relationships; Health Care and Treatment; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Thomas H. Lee. "The Strategy That Will Fix Health Care." Harvard Business Review 91, no. 10 (October 2013): 50–70. View Details
  35. The Looming Challenge to U.S Competitiveness

    The United States is a competitive location to the extent that companies operating in the U.S. are able to compete successfully in the global economy while supporting high and rising living standards for the average American. By this standard, U.S. competitiveness is in grave danger. The erosion of U.S. competitiveness began well before the Great Recession. The U.S. faces competition from a widening range of nations with lower wages and improving economic strategies. But a short-term focus in many businesses and political gridlock have prevented the U.S. from taking the steps needed to meet the challenge. The U.S. retains core strengths in areas such as entrepreneurship and higher education. However, these are increasingly nullified by weaknesses in the tax code, fiscal policy, K-12 education, and other areas. To address its challenges, America needs a strategy and a consensus on direction.  Government will play a crucial role, but business must lead the way.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jan W. Rivkin. "The Looming Challenge to U.S Competitiveness." Harvard Business Review 90, no. 3 (March 2012): 54–61. View Details
  36. Choosing the United States

    The U.S. is not winning its appropriate share of location decisions, even those involving the high-value-adding activities that the country has long been able to attract. In part, this is because U.S. policy makers are not addressing weaknesses in the national business environment and are doing little to fight economic distortions that disfavor location in the United States. In addition, executives are prone to leave or overlook U.S. locations because they ignore many hidden costs associated with offshoring and do not consider how to enhance the economic potential of U.S. locations. Although both government and business must urgently address some unnecessary weaknesses in the U.S. business environment, there are hopeful signs that sophisticated management teams are reevaluating their rush offshore and, in some instances, are moving high-end mobile activities back to the United States.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jan W. Rivkin. "Choosing the United States." Harvard Business Review 90, no. 3 (March 2012): 80–91. View Details
  37. How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care

    Existing health care costing systems have serious flaws that make it impossible to measure costs accurately at the individual patient and medical condition level. This gap has severely limited meaningful cost reduction throughout the system. The paper describes a new (for health care) approach that can accurately measure the costs incurred over the care cycle for a patient's condition. Combining this cost information along with the patient outcomes achieved reveals major opportunities for health care providers and third-party payers to transform the economics of delivering health care. We illustrate multiple ways for providers to drive costs out of the system while simultaneously improving the quality of care they deliver.

    Keywords: Cost; Health Care and Treatment; Measurement and Metrics; Service Delivery; Outcome or Result; Quality; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Kaplan, Robert S., and Michael E. Porter. "How to Solve the Cost Crisis in Health Care." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 9 (September 2011): 47–64. View Details
  38. Creating Shared Value

    The capitalist system is under siege. In recent years business has been criticized as a major cause of social, environmental, and economic problems. Companies are widely thought to be prospering at the expense of their communities. Trust in business has fallen to new lows, leading government officials to set policies that undermine competitiveness and sap economic growth. Business is caught in a vicious circle. A big part of the problem lies with companies themselves, which remain trapped in an outdated, narrow approach to value creation. Focused on optimizing short-term financial performance, they overlook the greatest unmet needs in the market as well as broader influences on their long-term success. Why else would companies ignore the well-being of their customers, the depletion of natural resources vital to their businesses, the viability of suppliers, and the economic distress of the communities in which they produce and sell? It doesn't have to be this way, say Porter, of Harvard Business School, and Kramer, the managing director of the social impact advisory firm FSG. Companies could bring business and society back together if they redefined their purpose as creating "shared value"-generating economic value in a way that also produces value for society by addressing its challenges. A shared value approach reconnects company success with social progress. Firms can do this in three distinct ways: by reconceiving products and markets, redefining productivity in the value chain, and building supportive industry clusters at the company's locations. A number of companies known for their hard-nosed approach to business-including GE, Wal-Mart, Nestlé, Johnson & Johnson, and Unilever-have already embarked on important initiatives in these areas. Nestlé, for example, redesigned its coffee procurement processes, working intensively with small farmers in impoverished areas who were trapped in a cycle of low productivity, poor quality, and environmental degradation. Nestlé provided advice on farming practices; helped growers secure plant stock, fertilizers, and pesticides; and began directly paying them a premium for better beans. Higher yields and quality increased the growers' incomes, the environmental impact of farms shrank, and Nestlé's reliable supply of good coffee grew significantly. Shared value was created. Shared value could reshape capitalism and its relationship to society. It could also drive the next wave of innovation and productivity growth in the global economy as it opens managers' eyes to immense human needs that must be met, large new markets to be served, and the internal costs of social deficits-as well as the competitive advantages available from addressing them. But our understanding of shared value is still in its genesis. Attaining it will require managers to develop new skills and knowledge and governments to learn how to regulate in ways that enable shared value, rather than work against it.

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Economic Growth; Economic Systems; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Trust; Human Needs; Welfare or Wellbeing; Competitive Advantage; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. "Creating Shared Value." Harvard Business Review 89, nos. 1-2 (January–February 2011). View Details
  39. From a Declaration of Values to the Creation of Value in Global Health

    To make best use of the new dollars available for the treatment of disease in resource poor settings, global health practice requires a strategic approach that emphasizes value for patients, defined as health outcomes per dollar spent. Practitioners and global health academics should seek to identify and elaborate the set of factors that drive value for patients through the detailed study of actual care delivery organizations in multiple settings.  Several frameworks can facilitate this study, including the care delivery value chain, as well as a systematic approach to considering shared delivery infrastructure. A new field of global health delivery science, which seeks to understand the true complexities of health care delivery will lead to insights that can rapidly improve the health of the poor throughout the world.

    Keywords: Globalization; Health Care and Treatment; Infrastructure; Service Delivery; Outcome or Result; Poverty; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Kim, Jim Yong, Joseph Rhatigan, Sachin H. Jain, and Michael E. Porter. "From a Declaration of Values to the Creation of Value in Global Health." Global Public Health (December 2009). View Details
  40. A Blueprint for Pharmacy Benefits Managers to Increase Value

    Pharmacy benefits managers (PBMs) have a unique opportunity to promote public health and generate value in the healthcare system. However, PBMs are largely evaluated on their ability to control costs rather than improve health. PBMs should be evaluated along three dimensions in which they can increase value: 1) the use of cost-effective medications, 2) the timely initiation of appropriate medications, and 3) adherence to those medications. Value promotion requires the development of integrated data systems, stronger partnerships with patients and physicians and improved measurement and reporting of results. Incentives for PBMs to promote value should drive innovation and improve health outcomes.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Health; System; Cost Management; Partners and Partnerships; Motivation and Incentives; Value; Innovation and Invention; Performance Effectiveness; Health Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Shrank, William, Michael E. Porter, Sachin H. Jain, and Niteesh K. Choudhary. "A Blueprint for Pharmacy Benefits Managers to Increase Value." American Journal of Managed Care (February 2009). View Details
  41. Delivering Global Health

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Jain, Sachin H., Rebecca Weintraub, Joseph Rhatigan, Michael E. Porter, and Jim Yong Kim. "Delivering Global Health." Editorials. Student BMJ 16, no. 227 (June 2008). View Details
  42. The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy

    This article includes a one-page preview that quickly summarizes the key ideas and provides an overview of how the concepts work in practice along with suggestions for further reading. In 1979, a young associate professor at Harvard Business School published his first article for HBR, "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." In the years that followed, Michael Porter's explication of the five forces that determine the long-run profitability of any industry has shaped a generation of academic research and business practice. In this article, Porter undertakes a thorough reaffirmation and extension of his classic work of strategy formulation, which includes substantial new sections showing how to put the five forces analysis into practice. The five forces govern the profit structure of an industry by determining how the economic value it creates is apportioned. That value may be drained away through the rivalry among existing competitors, of course, but it can also be bargained away through the power of suppliers or the power of customers or be constrained by the threat of new entrants or the threat of substitutes. Strategy can be viewed as building defenses against the competitive forces or as finding a position in an industry where the forces are weaker. Changes in the strength of the forces signal changes in the competitive landscape critical to ongoing strategy formulation. In exploring the implications of the five forces framework, Porter explains why a fast-growing industry is not always a profitable one, how eliminating today's competitors through mergers and acquisitions can reduce an industry's profit potential, how government policies play a role by changing the relative strength of the forces, and how to use the forces to understand complements. He then shows how a company can influence the key forces in its industry to create a more favorable structure for itself or to expand the pie altogether. The five forces reveal why industry profitability is what it is. Only by understanding them can a company incorporate industry conditions into strategy.

    Keywords: Profit; Five Forces Framework; Industry Growth; Industry Structures; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy." Special Issue on HBS Centennial. Harvard Business Review 86, no. 1 (January 2008): 78–93. View Details
  43. Strategy and Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Keywords: Strategy; Society; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Mark R. Kramer. "Strategy and Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business Review 84, no. 12 (December 2006). View Details
  44. Seven Surprises for New CEOs

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jay W. Lorsch, and Nitin Nohria. "Seven Surprises for New CEOs." R0410C. Harvard Business Review 82, no. 10 (October 2004): 62–72. View Details
  45. Redefining Competition in Health Care

    Keywords: Competition; Health; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg. "Redefining Competition in Health Care." Harvard Business Review 82, no. 6 (June 2004). View Details
  46. The Economic Performance of Regions

    Keywords: Economics; Performance;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Economic Performance of Regions." Regional Studies 37, nos. 6-7 (August–October 2003). View Details
  47. Innovation: Location Matters

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Geographic Location;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Innovation: Location Matters." MIT Sloan Management Review 42, no. 4 (summer 2001). View Details
  48. Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese History

    The study explores the influence of domestic competition on international trade performance, using data from a broad sample of Japanese industries. Domestic rivalry is measured directly using market-share instability rather than employing structural variables such as seller concentration. We find robust evidence that domestic rivalry has a positive and significant relationship with trade performance measured by world export share, particularly when R&D intensity reveals opportunities for dynamic improvement and innovation. Conversely, trade protection reduces export performance. These findings support the view that local competition—not monopoly, collusion, or a sheltered home market—pressures dynamic improvement that leads to international competitiveness.

    Keywords: Competition; Global Range; History; Japan;

    Citation:

    Sakakibara, Mariko, and Michael E. Porter. "Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese History." Review of Economics and Statistics 83, no. 2 (May 2001). View Details
  49. Strategy and the Internet

    Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-coms and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service.

    It did not have to be this way—and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy.

    Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it often makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them.

    Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies.

    Keywords: Strategy; Online Technology;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Strategy and the Internet." Harvard Business Review 79, no. 3 (March 2001): 62–78. View Details
  50. Freeing Oneself from Non-Differentiated Across-the-Board Competition

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Michael E. Porter. "Freeing Oneself from Non-Differentiated Across-the-Board Competition." Japan Center for Economic Research Journal (2001). View Details
  51. Location, Competition and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy

    Keywords: Competition; Economics; Growth and Development; Global Range; Geographic Location; Economy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Location, Competition and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy." Economic Development Quarterly 14, no. 1 (February 2000): 15–34. View Details
  52. Philanthropy's New Agenda: Creating Value

    Keywords: Giving and Philanthropy; Value;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. "Philanthropy's New Agenda: Creating Value." Harvard Business Review 77, no. 6 (November–December 1999). View Details
  53. Fixing What Really Ails Japan

    Conventional wisdom claims that Japan’s “economic miracle” stemmed from its unique model of government guidance and its revolutionary corporate management techniques. An in-depth study proves this seriously wrong. Rampant government intervention has caused more business failures than successes, and a fundamental cautiousness has led Japanese companies to ignore strategic thinking and shun risk. To pull out of its current slump, Japan must embrace competition, innovation, and bold leadership.

    Keywords: Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Hirotaka Takeuchi. "Fixing What Really Ails Japan." Foreign Affairs 78, no. 3 (May–June 1999): 66–81. View Details
  54. The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability

    In this study, we use data for 1981 through 1994 on a large sample of U.S. companies to examine the persistence of incremental industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on profitability. Our results indicate that the incremental effects of industry on profitability persist longer than the incremental effects of the corporate parent and of the specific business. Changes in industry structure have a more persistent impact on profitability than do changes in firm structure.

    Keywords: Profit; System Shocks; Strategy;

    Citation:

    McGahan, Anita M., and Michael E. Porter. "The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability." Review of Economics and Statistics 81, no. 1 (February 1999): 143–153. View Details
  55. The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development and Competitiveness

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Economics; Growth and Development; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development and Competitiveness." Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter 46 (1999). View Details
  56. Clusters and the New Economy

    Keywords: Economy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Clusters and the New Economy." Harvard Business Review 76, no. 6 (November–December 1998). (Reprinted in Managing in the New Economy, HBSP, 1999; and in Systems of Innovation: Growth, Competitiveness and Employment, Edward Elgar, 2000.) View Details
  57. Competition in Global Industries: A Conceptual Framework

    Keywords: Competition; Global Range; Business Ventures; Framework;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Competition in Global Industries: A Conceptual Framework." Hitotsubashi bijinesu rebyū [Hitotsubashi Business Review] 35, no. 4 (March 1998). View Details
  58. Industrial Ecology and Competitiveness

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Dan Esty. "Industrial Ecology and Competitiveness." Journal of Industrial Ecology 2, no. 1 (winter 1998). View Details
  59. The Bottom-Up Solution

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Yagil Weinberg, and Noreena Hertz. "The Bottom-Up Solution." Financial Times (September 1997). View Details
  60. How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?

    In this paper, we examine the importance of year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on the profitability of U.S. public corporations within specific 4-digit SIC categories. Our results indicate that year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects account for 2 percent, 19 percent, 4 percent, and 32 percent, respectively, of the aggregate variance in profitability. We also find that the importance of the effects differs substantially across broad economic sectors. Industry effects account for a smaller portion of profit variance in manufacturing but a larger portion in lodging/entertainment, services, wholesale/retail trade, and transportation. Across all sectors we find a negative covariance between corporate-parent and industry effects. A detailed analysis suggests that industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects are related in complex ways.

    Keywords: Supply and Industry; Strategy;

    Citation:

    McGahan, A. M., and M. E. Porter. "How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?" Special Issue on Organizational and Competitive Interactions. Strategic Management Journal 18 (Summer 1997): 15–30. View Details
  61. The Inner City's Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: City; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Tapan Munroe. "The Inner City's Competitive Advantage." San Francisco Examiner (February 27, 1997). View Details
  62. New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development

    Keywords: Strategy; City; Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development." Economic Development Quarterly 11, no. 1 (February 1997). View Details
  63. What Is Strategy?

    Today's dynamic markets and technologies have called into question the sustainability of competitive advantage. Under pressure to improve productivity, quality, and speed, managers have embraced tools such as TQM, benchmarking, and reengineering. Dramatic operational improvements have resulted, but rarely have these gains translated into sustainable profitability. And gradually, the tools have taken the place of strategy. As managers push to improve on all fronts, they move further away from viable competitive positions. Michael Porter argues that operational effectiveness, although necessary to superior performance, is not sufficient, because its techniques are easy to imitate. In contrast, the essence of strategy is choosing a unique and valuable position rooted in systems of activities that are much more difficult to match.

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "What Is Strategy?" Harvard Business Review 74, no. 6 (November–December 1996): 61–78. View Details
  64. Competitiveness in Central America

    Keywords: Competition; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Competitiveness in Central America." Competitiveness in Central America: Preparing Companies for Globalization (July 1996). View Details
  65. Competitive Advantage, Agglomeration Economies, and Regional Policy

    Keywords: Economy; Competition; Policy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Competitive Advantage, Agglomeration Economies, and Regional Policy." International Regional Science Review 19, nos. 1-2 (1996). View Details
  66. Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship

    Keywords: Relationships; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Claas van der Linde. "Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship." Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 4 (fall 1995). View Details
  67. Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate

    Keywords: Competition; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Claas van der Linde. "Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate." Harvard Business Review 73, no. 5 (September–October 1995). View Details
  68. How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Information; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Victor A. Millar. "How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage." Harvard Business Review 73, no. 4 (July–August 1995). View Details
  69. The Rise of the Urban Entrepreneur

    Keywords: Urban Scope; Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Rise of the Urban Entrepreneur." Special Issue on The State of Small Business. Inc. (May 16, 1995). View Details
  70. The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City

    Keywords: Competition; City;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City." Harvard Business Review 73, no. 3 (May–June 1995). View Details
  71. Making Competition in Health Care Work

    Keywords: Competition; Health; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Teisberg, Elizabeth O., M. E. Porter, and Gregory B. Brown. "Making Competition in Health Care Work." Harvard Business Review 72, no. 4 (July–August 1994). View Details
  72. Innovation: Medicine's Best Cost-Cutter

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Health; Cost;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., Elizabeth Teisberg, and Gregory Brown. "Innovation: Medicine's Best Cost-Cutter." New York Times (February 27, 1994). View Details
  73. The Role of Location in Competition

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Role of Location in Competition." Journal of the Economics of Business 1, no. 1 (1994). View Details
  74. Will Japan Remain a Long-Term Investor?

    Keywords: Investment; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Rebecca E. Wayland. "Will Japan Remain a Long-Term Investor?" Nikkei bijinesu [Nikkei Business] (December 1992). View Details
  75. America's Long-Term Investment Problem

    Keywords: Investment; Problems and Challenges; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Rebecca E. Wayland. "America's Long-Term Investment Problem." Nikkei bijinesu [Nikkei Business] (December 1992). View Details
  76. Capital Disadvantage: America's Falling Capital Investment System

    Keywords: Capital; Investment; System; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Capital Disadvantage: America's Falling Capital Investment System." Harvard Business Review 70, no. 5 (September–October 1992). View Details
  77. Capital Choices: Changing the Way America Invests in Industry

    Keywords: Change; Business Ventures; Investment; Decision Choices and Conditions; Capital; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Capital Choices: Changing the Way America Invests in Industry." Continental Bank Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 5, no. 2 (summer 1992): 4–16. View Details
  78. Know Your Place: How to Assess the Attractiveness of Your Industry and Your Company's Position In It

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Rank and Position;

  79. America's Green Strategy

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "America's Green Strategy." Scientific American 264, no. 4 (April 1991). View Details
  80. Towards a Dynamic Theory of Strategy

    Keywords: Theory; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Towards a Dynamic Theory of Strategy." Strategic Management Journal (winter 1991). View Details
  81. Japan Isn't Playing by Different Rules

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Japan Isn't Playing by Different Rules." New York Times (July 22, 1990). View Details
  82. Don't Collaborate, Compete

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Don't Collaborate, Compete." Economist (June 9, 1990). View Details
  83. The Competitive Advantage of Nations

    In the modern competitive marketplace, nations have their own competitive advantages. These are investigated and discussed in-depth.

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Competitive Advantage of Nations." Harvard Business Review 68, no. 2 (March–April 1990): 73–93. View Details
  84. The State of Strategic Thinking

    Keywords: Strategy; Strategic Planning;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The State of Strategic Thinking." Economist (May 23, 1987). View Details
  85. From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy

    Keywords: Competition; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business Review 65, no. 3 (May–June 1987). View Details
  86. Changing Patterns of International Competition

    Keywords: Competition; Change;

  87. Why U.S. Business Is Falling Behind

    Keywords: Business Ventures; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Why U.S. Business Is Falling Behind." Fortune (April 28, 1986). View Details
  88. The Strategic Role of International Marketing

    Keywords: Strategy; Marketing;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Strategic Role of International Marketing." Journal of Consumer Marketing 3, no. 2 (spring 1986). View Details
  89. Attacking an Industry Leader

    Keywords: Leadership; Supply and Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Attacking an Industry Leader." Fortune (April 29, 1985). View Details
  90. A Good Competitor Is Not Always a Dead Competitor

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "A Good Competitor Is Not Always a Dead Competitor." Wall Street Journal (April 1, 1985). View Details
  91. Defensive Strategy

    Keywords: Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Defensive Strategy." Strategy 7, no. 1 (1985). View Details
  92. Technology and Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Technology;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Technology and Competitive Advantage." Journal of Business Strategy 5, no. 3 (winter 1985). View Details
  93. Global Marketing no Senryaku-teki Yakuwari: Sekai-teki Kibo deno Coordination no Kanri ni tsuite (The Strategic Role of Global Marketing: Managing Coordination on a Worldwide Basis)

    Keywords: Marketing; Management; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Michael E. Porter. "Global Marketing no Senryaku-teki Yakuwari: Sekai-teki Kibo deno Coordination no Kanri ni tsuite (The Strategic Role of Global Marketing: Managing Coordination on a Worldwide Basis)." Hitotsubashi bijinesu rebyū [Hitotsubashi Business Review] (August 1983). View Details
  94. End-Game Strategies for Declining Industries

    Many companies are faced with declining product demand beyond their control. A study of the strategies of over 95 companies that confronted declining markets suggests that companies can often be very successful if they analyze all the characteristics that shape competition in the end game and act in accordance with their own needs. Strategic alternatives for declining business include leadership; niche; harvest; and quick divestment.

    Keywords: Strategy; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Harrigan, Kathryn Rudie, and M. E. Porter. "End-Game Strategies for Declining Industries." Harvard Business Review 61, no. 4 (July–August 1983). View Details
  95. How Global Companies Win Out

    Keywords: Global Range; Business Ventures; Competition;

    Citation:

    Hout, T. M., M. E. Porter, and E. Rudden. "How Global Companies Win Out." Harvard Business Review 60, no. 5 (September–October 1982). View Details
  96. Price Wars, More Liberal Credit and Other Competitive Maneuvers

    Keywords: Competition; Price; Credit;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Price Wars, More Liberal Credit and Other Competitive Maneuvers." Boardroom Reports 11, no. 1 (January 1, 1982). View Details
  97. The Contributions of Industrial Organization to Strategic Management: A Promise Beginning to Be Realized

    Keywords: Strategy; Management;

  98. More Competition Ahead: The Way to Recognize It, Respond, and Get Ahead

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "More Competition Ahead: The Way to Recognize It, Respond, and Get Ahead." Boardroom Reports 10, no. 5 (March 9, 1981). View Details
  99. Capacity Expansion: Should You Play the Preemption Game?

    Keywords: Expansion;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Capacity Expansion: Should You Play the Preemption Game?" Journal of Business Strategy (winter 1981). View Details
  100. The Dynamics of Changing Seller Concentration

    Keywords: Change; Sales;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and R. E. Caves. "The Dynamics of Changing Seller Concentration." Journal of Industrial Economics (September 1980). View Details
  101. Industry Structure and Competitive Strategy: Keys to Profitability

    Keywords: Strategy; Competition; Profit; Industry Structures;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Industry Structure and Competitive Strategy: Keys to Profitability." Financial Analysts Journal (July–August 1980). View Details
  102. The Experience Curve and Antitrust

    Keywords: Law;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Experience Curve and Antitrust." Forum on Antitrust, Economics of Scale and Experience Curve Strategies (June 1980). View Details
  103. Experience Curve

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Experience Curve." Wall Street Journal (October 22, 1979). View Details
  104. The Structure Within Industries and Companies' Performance

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Industry Structures; Performance;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Structure Within Industries and Companies' Performance." Review of Economics and Statistics (May 1979): 214–227. View Details
  105. How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy

    Many factors determine the nature of competition, including not only rivals, but also the economics of particular industries, new entrants, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers, and the threat of substitute services or products. A strategic plan of action based on this might include: positioning the company so that its capabilities provide the best defense against the competitive forces; influencing the balance of forces through strategic moves; and anticipating shifts in the factors underlying competitive forces. McKinsey Award Winner.

    Keywords: Competition; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." Harvard Business Review 57, no. 2 (March–April 1979): 137–145. View Details
  106. Market Structure, Oligopoly and the Stability of Market Shares

    Keywords: Markets; Price; Economics;

    Citation:

    Caves, R. E., and M. E. Porter. "Market Structure, Oligopoly and the Stability of Market Shares." Journal of Industrial Economics (June 1978): 289–313. View Details
  107. Optimal Advertising: An Intra-Industry Approach

    Keywords: Advertising; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Optimal Advertising: An Intra-Industry Approach." Issues in Advertising: The Economics of Persuasion (1978). View Details
  108. Interfirm Profitability Differences: Comment

    Keywords: Profit;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., R. E. Caves, and B. T. Gale. "Interfirm Profitability Differences: Comment." Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 1977): 667–675. View Details
  109. From Entry Barriers to Mobility Barriers: Conjectural Decisions and Contrived Deterrence to New Competition

    Keywords: Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and R. E. Caves. "From Entry Barriers to Mobility Barriers: Conjectural Decisions and Contrived Deterrence to New Competition." Quarterly Journal of Economics (May 1977): 241–262. View Details
  110. Please Note Location of Nearest Exit: Exit Barriers and Planning

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Business Exit or Shutdown; Market Entry and Exit;

  111. Interbrand Choice, Media Mix and Market Performance

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Media; Markets; Performance;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Interbrand Choice, Media Mix and Market Performance." American Economic Review 66, no. 2 (May 1976): 398–406. View Details
  112. Information, Politics and Economic Analysis: The Regulatory Decision Process in the Air Freight Cases

    Keywords: Information; Government and Politics; Economics; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and J. F. Sagansky. "Information, Politics and Economic Analysis: The Regulatory Decision Process in the Air Freight Cases." Public Policy 24, no. 2 (spring 1976): 263–307. View Details
  113. Scale Economies in Statistical Analyses of Market Power

    Keywords: Economics; Mathematical Methods; Markets;

    Citation:

    Caves, R. E., J. Khalizadeh-Shirazi, and M. E. Porter. "Scale Economies in Statistical Analyses of Market Power." Review of Economics and Statistics (May 1975): 133–140. View Details
  114. Consumer Behavior, Retailer Power and Performance in Consumer Goods Industries

    Keywords: Consumer Behavior; Performance; Goods and Commodities; Supply and Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Consumer Behavior, Retailer Power and Performance in Consumer Goods Industries." Review of Economics and Statistics (November 1974): 419–436. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Ranking National Environmental Regulation and Performance: A Leading Indicator of Future Competitiveness?

    This chapter from The Global Competitiveness Report analyzes the differences among countries in environmental performance and the link between environmental outcomes and national environmental policy choices. The chapter reveals the findings from an exploration of the question: must environmental quality come at the expense of competitiveness and economic development?

    Keywords: Society; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Esty, Daniel, and Michael E. Porter. "Ranking National Environmental Regulation and Performance: A Leading Indicator of Future Competitiveness?" In The Global Competitiveness Report 2001–2002, by Michael E. Porter, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Peter K. Cornelius, John W. McArthur, and Klaus Schwab, 78–101. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. View Details
  2. National Innovative Capacity

    This chapter delves in detail into the conditions that allow a country to innovate at the global technology frontier. The findings reveal the striking degree to which the national circumstances actually explain the differences across countries in innovative activity measured by US patenting.

    Keywords: Economics;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Scott Stern. "National Innovative Capacity." In The Global Competitiveness Report 2001–2002, by Michael E. Porter, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Peter K. Cornelius, John W. McArthur, and Klaus Schwab. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. View Details
  3. Building the Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index

    In The Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004
    Competitiveness has become a central preoccupation of both advanced and developing countries in an increasingly open and integrated world economy. Despite its acknowledged importance, the concept of competitiveness is often misunderstood. Here, we define competitiveness concretely, show its relationship to a nation's standard of living, and outline a conceptual framework for understanding its causes.
    The Business Competitiveness Index (BCI), based on this conceptual framework, provides a data-rich approach to measuring and analyzing the fundamental competitiveness of a large number of countries in a comparative context. This year's BCI includes 101 countries, up from 80 last year. Our aim is to rank country competitiveness across countries, identify individual countries' competitive strengths and weaknesses, reveal the trends in competitiveness in the global economy, and extend our basic knowledge about the sources of competitiveness and the process of economic development.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Building the Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index." In The Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004, edited by Michael E. Porter, Klaus Schwab, and Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 29–56. Oxford University Press, 2004. View Details
  4. Moving to a New Global Competitiveness Index

    Keywords: Globalization; Competitive Advantage; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Mercedes Delgado-Garcia, Christian H.M. Ketels, and Scott Stern. "Moving to a New Global Competitiveness Index." Chap. 1.2 in Global Competitiveness Report 2008/2009, edited by Michael E. Porter and Klaus Schwab, 43–63. Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2008. View Details
  5. What Is Leadership: The CEO's Role in Large, Complex Organizations

    What is the role of the CEO in a large, complex enterprise? What makes a CEO effective? At first blush, these questions seem easy to answer. A CEO is the epitome of leadership. He or she exercises ultimate power and is responsible for making the most critical choices facing an organization. However, these questions get far more complicated as one contemplates the realities of large organizations. Actually, the CEO cannot make most decisions, or even review them. The CEO is powerful, but multiple constituencies can exercise power as well, starting with the board. The shortening CEO tenure reveals that many leaders misunderstand the role and how to play it effectively.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Leadership; Managerial Roles; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Nitin Nohria. "What Is Leadership: The CEO's Role in Large, Complex Organizations." Chap. 16 in Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice, edited by Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana. Harvard Business Press, 2010. View Details
  6. Clusters and Industrial Districts - Common Roots, Different Perspectives

    Keywords: Industry Clusters; Local Range; Perspective;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Clusters and Industrial Districts - Common Roots, Different Perspectives." In The Handbook of Industrial Districts, edited by Giacomo Becattini, Marco Bellandi, and Lisa De Propris. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009. View Details
  7. The Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Welfare or Wellbeing; Competitive Advantage; Globalized Economies and Regions;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian H.M. Ketels, and Mercedes Delgado-Garcia. "The Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index." In Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007, edited by Augusto Lopez-Claros, Michael E. Porter, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, and Klaus Schwab. Palgrave Macmillan: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. View Details
  8. Corporate Philanthropy: Taking the High Ground

    Keywords: Giving and Philanthropy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Social Entrepreneurship; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Michael R. Kramer. "Corporate Philanthropy: Taking the High Ground." In The Accountable Corporation. Vol. 2, edited by Marc J. Epstein and Kirk O. Hanson. Praeger, 2005. View Details
  9. Regions and the New Economics of Competition

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; Trade; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Regions and the New Economics of Competition." In Global City-Regions, edited by A. J. Scott. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. View Details
  10. Location, Clusters, and Company Strategy

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Industry Clusters; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Location, Clusters, and Company Strategy." In Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, edited by G. Clark, M. Feldman, and M. Gertler. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. View Details
  11. Clusters and the New Economy

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Clusters and the New Economy." In Systems of Innovation: Growth, Competitiveness and Employment, edited by Charles Edquist and Maureen McKelvey. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000. View Details
  12. Microeconomic Competitiveness: Findings from the 1999 Executive Survey

    Keywords: Competition; Microeconomics;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Microeconomic Competitiveness: Findings from the 1999 Executive Survey." In The Global Competitiveness Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 1999. View Details
  13. Innovative Capacity and Prosperity: The Next Competitiveness Challenge

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Welfare or Wellbeing; Competition; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Bond, Gregory C., and M. E. Porter. "Innovative Capacity and Prosperity: The Next Competitiveness Challenge." In The Global Competitiveness Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 1999. View Details
  14. Competition and Strategy: The Creation of a Group and a Field

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Siggelkow, Nicolaj, and M. E. Porter. "Competition and Strategy: The Creation of a Group and a Field." In The Intellectual Venture Capitalist: John H. McArthur and the Work of the Harvard Business School, 1980-1995, edited by T. K. McCraw and J. L. Cruikshank. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999. View Details
  15. The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Development Economics;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development." In The Global Competitiveness Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 1999. View Details
  16. Measuring The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Development Economics; Microeconomics;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Measuring The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development." In The Global Competitiveness Report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 1999. View Details
  17. The Role of Geography in the Process of Innovation and Sustainable Competitive Advantage of Firms

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Innovation Strategy; Geographic Location;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Orjan Solvell. "The Role of Geography in the Process of Innovation and Sustainable Competitive Advantage of Firms." In The Dynamic Firm, edited by Alfred D. Chandler Jr., Peter Hagstrom, and Orjan Solvell. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. View Details
  18. Building Competitive Advantage: Lessons from Other Countries

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Global Range;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Building Competitive Advantage: Lessons from Other Countries." In Voices from Marrakech: Selections from the Mediterranean Development Forum, edited by Ishac Diwan and Karen Sirker. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, Economic Development Institute, 1997. View Details
  19. Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship

    Keywords: Natural Environment; Competition; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Claas van der Linde. "Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship." In A Reader on Environmental Law, edited by Bridget Hutter.Oxford Readings in Socio-Legal Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. View Details
  20. Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Claas van der Linde. "Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate." In The Earthscan Reader in Business and the Environment, edited by Richard Welford and Richard Starkey. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1996. View Details
  21. Capital Choices: National Systems of Investment

    Keywords: Capital; Investment; Sovereign Finance;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Capital Choices: National Systems of Investment." In As if the Future Mattered: Translating Social and Economic Theory into Human Behavior, edited by Neva R. Goodwin. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. View Details
  22. Global Competition and the Localization of Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Globalization; Local Range;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Rebecca E. Wayland. "Global Competition and the Localization of Competitive Advantage." In Proceedings of the Integral Strategy Collegium, edited by Hans Birger Thorelli. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1995. View Details
  23. Competitive Strategy Revisited: A View from the 1990s

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Competitive Strategy Revisited: A View from the 1990s." In The Relevance of a Decade: Essays to Mark the First Ten Years of the Harvard Business School Press, edited by Paula B. Duffy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. View Details
  24. Global Strategy: Winning in the World-Wide Marketplace

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Competitive Strategy; Global Strategy; Trade;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Global Strategy: Winning in the World-Wide Marketplace." In The Portable MBA in Strategy, edited by Liam Fahey and Robert M. Randall. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. View Details
  25. Applying the Competitive Advantage of Nations Paradigm to Norway

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Trade; Norway;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Applying the Competitive Advantage of Nations Paradigm to Norway." In Praktisk okonomi & Ledelse: et Konsurransedyktig Norge. Oslo, Norway: Bedrifsøkonomens Forlag A/S, 1993. View Details
  26. Kokusai Marketing to Kyousou Senryaku (International Marketing and Competitive Strategy)

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Trade;

    Citation:

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Michael E. Porter. "Kokusai Marketing to Kyousou Senryaku (International Marketing and Competitive Strategy)." In Nihon no Kigyou System 2: Soshiki to Senryaku (Japanese Corporate System 2: Organization and Strategy), edited by Hiroyuki Itami, Tadao Kagono, and Motoshige Ito. Bungei Shunjau, 1993, Japanese ed. View Details
  27. Korea in the Middle

    Keywords: Trade; South Korea;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Korea in the Middle." In Korean Competitiveness: A Shortcut to an Advanced Nation. Seoul, Korea: Dong-Sung Cho, 1992. View Details
  28. Can Japanese Companies Survive in Global Competition?

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Competition; Japan;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Can Japanese Companies Survive in Global Competition?" In Twenty-first Century: What Will Happen to Japanese Companies? Tokyo, Japan: NHK Publications, 1989, Japanese ed. View Details
  29. Patterns of International Coalition Activity

    Keywords: International Relations; Alliances;

    Citation:

    Ghemawat, Pankaj, Michael E. Porter, and Richard Anthony Rawlinson. "Patterns of International Coalition Activity." In Competition in Global Industries, edited by M. E. Porter, 345–365. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986. View Details
  30. Three Roles of International Marketing in Global Strategy

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Global Strategy; Marketing;

    Citation:

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka, and Michael E. Porter. "Three Roles of International Marketing in Global Strategy." In Competition in Global Industries, edited by M. E. Porter. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986. View Details
  31. U.K. Conglomerates: A View of Hanson Trust

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "U.K. Conglomerates: A View of Hanson Trust." In The World in 1987. London, England: Economist Group, 1986. View Details
  32. The Technological Dimension of Competitive Strategy

    Keywords: Innovation Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Technology;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "The Technological Dimension of Competitive Strategy." In Research on Technological Innovation, Management and Policy. Vol. 7, edited by Robert A Burgelman and Henry Chesbrough. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 2001. View Details
  33. Analyzing Competitors: Predicting Competitor Behavior and Formulating Offensive and Defensive Strategy

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Forecasting and Prediction; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Analyzing Competitors: Predicting Competitor Behavior and Formulating Offensive and Defensive Strategy." In Policy, Strategy, and Implementation, edited by Milton Leontiades. Random House, 1983. View Details
  34. Industrial Organization and the Evolution of Concepts for Strategic Planning: The New Learning

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E. "Industrial Organization and the Evolution of Concepts for Strategic Planning: The New Learning." In Corporate Strategy: The Integration of Corporation Planning Models and Economics, edited by T. H. Taylor. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982. View Details
  35. The Capacity Expansion Process in a Growing Oligopoly: The Case of Corn Wet Milling

    Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Duopoly and Oligopoly; Food; Performance Capacity; Expansion; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Spence, A. Michael, and M. E. Porter. "The Capacity Expansion Process in a Growing Oligopoly: The Case of Corn Wet Milling." In The Economics of Information and Uncertainty, edited by J. J. McCall. University of Chicago Press, 1982. View Details
  36. A Framework for Looking at Endgame Strategies

    Keywords: Strategy; Framework;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and Kathryn Rudie Harrigan. "A Framework for Looking at Endgame Strategies." In Strategic Management and Business Policy, edited by B. Glueck. McGraw-Hill, 1981. View Details
  37. Barriers to Exit

    Keywords: Business Exit or Shutdown;

    Citation:

    Porter, M. E., and R. E. Caves. "Barriers to Exit." In Essays on Industrial Organization in Honor of Joe S. Bain, edited by Joe Staten Bain, Robert T. Masson, and P. David Qualles. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1976. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance

    This paper evaluates the role of regional cluster composition in the economic performance of industries, clusters, and regions. On the one hand, diminishing returns to specialization in a location can result in a convergence effect: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be declining in the level of activity of that industry. At the same time, positive spillovers across complementary economic activities provide an impetus for agglomeration: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be increasing in the size and "strength" (i.e., relative presence) of related economic sectors. Building on Porter (1998, 2003), we develop a systematic empirical framework to identify the role of regional clusters—groups of closely related and complementary industries operating within a particular region—in regional economic performance. We exploit newly available data from the U.S. Cluster Mapping Project to disentangle the impact of convergence at the region-industry level from agglomeration within clusters. We find that, after controlling for the impact of convergence at the narrowest unit of analysis, there is strong evidence for cluster-driven agglomeration. Industries participating in a strong cluster register higher employment growth as well as higher growth of wages, number of establishments, and patenting. Industry and cluster level growth also increases with the strength of related clusters in the region and with the strength of similar clusters in adjacent regions. Importantly, we find evidence that new regional industries emerge where there is a strong cluster environment. Our analysis also suggests that the presence of strong clusters in a region enhances growth opportunities in other industries and clusters. Overall, these findings highlight the important role of cluster-based agglomeration in regional economic performance.

    Keywords: Industry Clusters; Performance; Economics;

    Citation:

    Delgado, Mercedes, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance." NBER Working Paper Series, No. 18250, July 2012. View Details
  2. The Determinants of National Competitiveness

    We define foundational competitiveness as the expected level of output per working-age individual that is supported by the overall quality of a country as a place to do business. The focus on output per potential worker, a broader measure of national productivity than output per current worker, reflects the dual role of workforce participation and output per worker in determining a nation's standard of living. Our framework highlights three broad and interrelated drivers of foundational competitiveness: social infrastructure and political institutions, monetary and fiscal policy, and the microeconomic environment. We estimate this framework using multiple data sets covering more than 130 countries over the 2001–2008 period. We find a positive and separate influence of each driver on output per potential worker. The microeconomic environment has a positive effect on output per potential worker even after controlling for historical legacies. Using our framework we define a new concept, global investment attractiveness, which is the cost of factor inputs relative to a country's competitiveness. This analysis reveals important insight into the economic trajectory of individual countries. Our framework also offers a novel methodology for the estimation of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated measure of national competitiveness.

    Keywords: Country; Competition; Microeconomics; Macroeconomics;

    Citation:

    Delgado, Mercedes, Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "The Determinants of National Competitiveness." NBER Working Paper Series, No. 18249, July 2012. View Details
  3. Applying the Care Delivery Value Chain: HIV/AIDS Care in Resource Poor Settings

    The care delivery value chain is a framework that can help conceptualize the organization and structure of care delivery for medical conditions.  We apply this framework to HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings. Several conclusions arise than can help inform the design of care delivery platforms for HIV/AIDS.

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Framework; Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Service Delivery;

    Citation:

    Rhatigan, Joseph, Sachin H Jain, Joia S. Mukherjee, and Michael E. Porter. "Applying the Care Delivery Value Chain: HIV/AIDS Care in Resource Poor Settings." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-093, February 2009. View Details
  4. Redefining Competition in Health Care

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Elizabeth O. Teisberg. "Redefining Competition in Health Care." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 03-042, October 2002. View Details
  5. Measuring the 'Ideas' Production Function: Evidence from International Patent Output

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Scott Stern. "Measuring the 'Ideas' Production Function: Evidence from International Patent Output." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 00-073, May 2001. View Details
  6. Contextuality Within Activity Systems

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Nicolag Siggelkow. "Contextuality Within Activity Systems." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 01-053, March 2001. View Details
  7. Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese Industry

    The study explores the influence of domestic competition on international trade performance, using data from a broad sample of Japanese industries. Domestic rivalry is measured directly using market share instability rather than employing structural variables such as seller concentration. We find robust evidence that domestic rivalry has a positive and significant relationship with trade performance measured by world export share, particularly when R&D intensity reveals opportunities for dynamic improvement and innovation. Conversely, trade protection reduces export performance. These findings support the view that local competition—not monopoly, collusion, or a sheltered home market—pressures dynamic improvement that leads to international competitiveness.

    Keywords: Competition; Globalized Markets and Industries;

    Citation:

    Sakakibara, Mariko, and Michael E. Porter. "Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese Industry." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 01-019, October 2000. View Details
  8. The Drivers of National Innovative Capacity: Implications for Spain and Latin America

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jeffrey L. Furman, and Scott Stern. "The Drivers of National Innovative Capacity: Implications for Spain and Latin America." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 01-004, August 2000. View Details
  9. The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity

    Citation:

    Stern, Scott, Michael E. Porter, and Jeffrey L. Furman. "The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 00-034, October 1999. View Details
  10. Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese Industry

    Citation:

    Sakakibara, Mariko, and M. E. Porter. "Competing at Home to Win Abroad: Evidence from Japanese Industry." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 99-036, September 1998. View Details
  11. Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Companies, Governments, and Institutions

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Companies, Governments, and Institutions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-080, March 1998. View Details
  12. Activity Systems as Barriers to Imitation

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael, and Jan W. Rivkin. "Activity Systems as Barriers to Imitation." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-066, January 1998. View Details
  13. The Emergence and Sustainability of Abnormal Profits

    Citation:

    McGahan, Anita M., and Michael E. Porter. "The Emergence and Sustainability of Abnormal Profits." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 97-103, June 1997. View Details
  14. The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability: Comparing the Market-Structure and Chicago Views

    Citation:

    McGahan, Anita M., and Michael E. Porter. "The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability: Comparing the Market-Structure and Chicago Views." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 97-102, June 1997. View Details
  15. How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?

    Citation:

    McGahan, Anita M., and Michael E. Porter. "How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 97-101, June 1997. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Martini Klinik: Prostate Cancer Care

    Since its establishment in 2005, Hamburg's Martini Klinik had single-mindedly focused on prostate cancer care with a commitment to measure long-term health outcomes for every patient. A wholly owned subsidiary of the Hamburg University Hospital, Martini was a "hospital in a hospital" in close proximity to other hospital departments and services. By 2013, Martini Klinik had become the largest prostate cancer treatment program in the world with 5,000 outpatient cases and more than 2,200 surgical cases annually, with patients coming from all over Germany and from other countries. However, German private insurers were cutting reimbursement for prostate cancer by 15 percent, and denying extra payment for some new procedures, while reimbursement by public health plans was not covering costs. Dr. Hartwig Huland, Martini's founder and Medical Director, was considering how to respond.

    Keywords: health care; Germany; Michael Porter; Jens Deerberg-Wittram; Clifford Marks; prostate cancer; health care policy; value agenda; integrated practice units; outcomes measurement; Value; Health Disorders; Insurance; Medical Specialties; Outcome or Result; Business Processes; Insurance Industry; Health Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jens Deerberg-Wittram, and Clifford Marks. "Martini Klinik: Prostate Cancer Care." Harvard Business School Case 714-471, March 2014. (Revised June 2014.) View Details
  2. Remaking Singapore

    Keywords: competitiveness; economc development; Strategy; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian Ketels. "Remaking Singapore." Harvard Business School PowerPoint Supplement 714-438, October 2013. View Details
  3. Remaking Singapore

    Keywords: competitiveness; economic development; Strategy; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Remaking Singapore." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 714-437, October 2013. View Details
  4. European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge

    The case discusses the origins and development of the European Integration process from the post-war period up to 2007, focusing particularly on the efforts of the Lisbon-agenda under way since 2000 to enhance Europe's competitiveness. It discusses the different policy areas that have been approached at the European level over time, and provides background on the architecture of European institutions. The case enables students to understand how European integration has affected competitiveness across the continent. It provides a platform to discuss the impact of collaboration across countries in large geographies on competitiveness, and the lessons that the European integration experience might hold for other world regions.

    Keywords: Integration; Globalized Economies and Regions; Competition; Development Economics; Global Range; Policy; Failure; European Union; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian Ketels. "European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge." Harvard Business School Case 714-405, July 2013. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  5. New York City: Bloomberg's Strategy for Economic Development

    Traces the economic development of New York City from its founding in the 17th century through 2012. Focuses on the decisions made by New York City officials, past and present, highlighting the challenges of economic development at the city level. Enables deep examination of the interdependence and interrelation of economic policies at the city, state, and federal level and explores the role of economic and cluster performance. Detailed historical economic and social data allow for an evaluation of policy results. The case finishes highlighting the main economic challenges the city was facing in 2012.

    Keywords: History; Development Economics; Industry Clusters; Policy; Government Administration; Financial Crisis; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian H.M. Ketels, and Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo. "New York City: Bloomberg's Strategy for Economic Development." Harvard Business School Case 714-404, July 2013. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  6. Estonia: From Transition to EU Membership

    The case discusses the economic development of Estonia, focusing on the period regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 to 2007. It tracks the process from the initial transition towards a market economy to becoming an EU member country, and profiles the economy, its key clusters, and the quality of its business environment in 2007 when the first signs of overheating were emerging. The case provides the background for a discussion of policy reforms in a transition economy, and the role of legacy and geographical neighborhood in the process of economic upgrading.

    Keywords: Economy; Macroeconomics; Microeconomics; Policy; Government and Politics; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy; Estonia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian Ketels, and Orjan Solvell. "Estonia: From Transition to EU Membership." Harvard Business School Case 713-479, June 2013. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  7. Schön Klinik: Eating Disorder Care (TN)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Emma Stanton, Jessica Hohman, and Caleb Stowell. "Schön Klinik: Eating Disorder Care (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 713-527, April 2013. View Details
  8. The New Carolina Initiative

    The New Carolina Initiative case explores the process of fostering competitiveness in the subnational region, South Carolina, one of the poorest states in the United States. The case has been developed primarily for the use in the course "Microeconomics of Competitiveness", developing the concept of organizations for competitiveness in a subnational region and the elements of constructing an economic strategy. The case also outlines the adopted cluster vision of development for the state and the various task forces created to upgrade the business environment of the state. South Carolina's Council on Competitiveness, New Carolina, is an organization with significant capacity to mobilize regional actors in various task forces and cluster initiatives. Showcasing the complexity and organizational challenges of building a competitiveness initiative, the case emphasizes the importance of engagement from both private and public sector representatives. The case also provides an opportunity to discuss the competitive position of the South Carolina economy in 2011.

    Keywords: Public Sector; Poverty; Competitive Strategy; Private Sector; Economic Growth; South Carolina;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo. "The New Carolina Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 713-462, January 2013. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  9. Vietnam: Sustaining the Growth of an Asian Tiger

    The case tracks Vietnam's economic policy choices and performance from the end of the Vietnam war to the Doi Moi economic reforms and the economic transformation that followed. Throughout this period, the country had become a darling of the international aid community. As the country was preparing for the 2011 Party Congress, however, signs of growing economic frictions were becoming increasingly visible. The case closes by setting the scene for the challenges the new leadership was going to face.

    Keywords: Conflict Management; Leadership; Policy; Transformation; Economic Growth; Developing Countries and Economies; Macroeconomics; Viet Nam;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Vietnam: Sustaining the Growth of an Asian Tiger." Harvard Business School Case 713-480, January 2013. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  10. Reconfiguring Stroke Care in North Central London

    In 2006, surgeon Ara Darzi identified several key areas, including acute stroke care, for improving health care across London. In response to his seminal call to action, stroke care was reorganized around eight hyper-acute stroke units covering London's five sectors, replacing the more than thirty units that had previously delivered acute stroke care. This case profiles the roll-out of the new care delivery model in North Central London, where acute stroke care had previously been fragmented among five acute hospital trusts with varying care resources, capacity, and protocols. In the new model, stroke care would be delivered across facilities in an integrated fashion, with a single hyper-acute facility designed for the care of the most acute and severe cases.

    Keywords: health care; Health Care and Treatment; Performance Improvement; Performance Efficiency; Integration; Health Industry; London;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., James Mountford, Kamalini Ramdas, and Samuel Takvorian. "Reconfiguring Stroke Care in North Central London ." Harvard Business School Case 712-496, June 2012. View Details
  11. Schön Klinik: Eating Disorder Care

    The Schön Klinik is a private, for-profit German hospital group trying to establish itself as a premium health care provider in a competitive German market. The case details Schön Klinik's founding, its early focus on measurement and improvement, and the design and implementation of a system-wide structure for measuring and reporting actual health outcomes. The case details the care cycle for eating disorder patients and highlights the role outcomes measurement has played in improving eating disorder care over time. It ends with a discussion of Schön's innovative bundled reimbursement models and challenges the reader to explore how to develop new pricing and care delivery models that encourage integration of care around patient medical conditions. The case also discusses the German health care system, its regulatory constraints, and Schön's attempts to change the paradigm of competition in the sector.

    Keywords: health care quality; outcomes; quality improvement; strategy and performance measurement; Integration; Measurement and Metrics; Competition; Health Disorders; Health Care and Treatment; Outcome or Result; Performance Evaluation; Business Processes; Health Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Emma Stanton, Jessica A. Hohman, and Caleb Stowell. "Schön Klinik: Eating Disorder Care." Harvard Business School Case 712-475, March 2012. (Revised April 2013.) View Details
  12. Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center: Breast Cancer Care in Taiwan

    Taiwan's Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center has developed an integrated, team-based care delivery model for breast cancer care that is being expanded to other cancer types in 2009. A decade earlier, President and CEO Dr. Andrew Huang and the Center had worked with the Taiwan National Health Insurance system to create a pay-for-performance reimbursement program for breast cancer care that has since been adopted by five other providers. The program issues capitated, per patient base payments for breast cancer care, with bonus payments based upon provider reporting and performance on a set of quality measures. This case allows readers to examine health care provider strategy, development and implementation of bundled reimbursement, integrated care delivery, quality measurement, and Taiwan's universal health care system.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Service Delivery; Outcome or Result; Performance Effectiveness; Quality; Integration; Health Industry; Insurance Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jennifer F Baron, and C. Jason Wang. "Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center: Breast Cancer Care in Taiwan." Harvard Business School Case 710-425, December 2009. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  13. The UCLA Medical Center: Kidney Transplantation (TN)

    Teaching Note for 711410.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Service Delivery; Price; Programs; Measurement and Metrics; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "The UCLA Medical Center: Kidney Transplantation (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 711-413, August 2010. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  14. Ghana: National Economic Strategy

    Set in the year 2001, as President John Kufuor contemplates a national economic strategy following his election in the first democratic transfer of power in Ghana's history. Focuses on Ghana's long history of poor economic performance and intractable poverty, highlighting the challenges of economic development in Africa and in other low-income countries. Provides a brief political and economic history of Ghana, focusing on the Nkrumah era of 1957-1966, the World Bank and IMF-led structural reforms of the 1980s, and the continuation of reforms after the first democratic elections in 1992. Details Ghana's economic and political context and cluster performance in 2001 and summarizes initiatives taken by the Kufuor administration to promote development. Detailed historical economic and social data allow an evaluation of policy results.

    Keywords: History; Economic Growth; Government Administration; Developing Countries and Economies; Growth and Development Strategy; Ghana;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Kjell Ke-Li Carlsson. "Ghana: National Economic Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 706-497, April 2006. (Revised April 2012.) View Details
  15. Colombia: Organizing for Competitiveness

    The case is designed to explore the process of building competitiveness, particularly in an unstable environment, with a focus on organizing for competitiveness.

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Industry Clusters; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Ramirez-Vallejo, Jorge, and Michael E. Porter. "Colombia: Organizing for Competitiveness." Harvard Business School Case 710-417, September 2009. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  16. The UCLA Medical Center: Kidney Transplantation

    In 2010, organ transplantation remained among the few sets of medical conditions in the U.S. for which bundled payments were a dominant reimbursement model, and for which patient health outcomes were universally measured and reported. In 1986, UCLA Medical Center was approached by Kaiser to develop a new bundled-pricing approach to kidney transplant care that was quickly adopted by many payers and providers for various transplant types. This case study examines the history and current state of care delivery, reimbursement, and measurement for the UCLA Kidney Transplant Program, among the nation's highest-volume transplant providers. The UCLA Kidney Program is an interdisciplinary unit that involves clinicians from multiple departments and engages in continuous care management throughout the often protracted transplant care cycle.

    Keywords: Insurance; Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Measurement and Metrics; Outcome or Result; Competitive Strategy; Integration; Health Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jennifer F Baron, Jacob Mathew Chacko, and Robin Jian Tang. "The UCLA Medical Center: Kidney Transplantation." Harvard Business School Case 711-410, August 2010. (Revised March 2012.) View Details
  17. Cleveland Clinic: Growth Strategy 2012

    The Cleveland Clinic's health care services are internationally renowned for quality. In 2008, The Clinic is restructuring the organization into teams defined around patient needs, rather than traditional medical specialties. "Patients First!" takes shape as the teams measure and report outcomes, coordinate care, and develop to support improving value for patients. In addition to restructuring care delivery in the hospitals and throughout northeastern Ohio, The Clinic has investments, facilities, and staff in several other states in the U.S. as well as in Canada and Abu Dhabi. It is also considering initiatives in Austria, China, and India. Students can explore strategy transformation, geographic expansion, the process of introducing new measurement approaches, alignment of activities with strategic goals, and issues in leading change both within a company and across an economic sector.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Leading Change; Goals and Objectives; Growth and Development Strategy; Measurement and Metrics; Service Delivery; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Outcome or Result; Health Industry; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Elizabeth O. Teisberg. "Cleveland Clinic: Growth Strategy 2012." Harvard Business School Case 709-473, February 2009. (Revised February 2013.) View Details
  18. Moving to Universal Coverage: Health Care Reform in Massachusetts

    State health care reform in Massachusetts has involved a phased process, focusing first on coverage expansion and then turning to delivery system innovation and cost containment. In 2006, the state adopted an individual mandate to obtain health care coverage which, along with a Medicaid expansion and creation of an exchange for two new health insurance programs, reduced the proportion of uninsured to below 3% within three years. In 2009, high and rising health care spending called into question the sustainability of these reforms. Massachusetts prepared to implement its second wave of changes, which included delivery system reforms and a proposed shift from fee-for-service to "global payments" covering all or most of an individual's care. The case examines the content and sequencing of both phases of health care reform in Massachusetts, enabling discussion of health care system-level strategy and the relationship between coverage, care delivery, and spending.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Business and Government Relations; Insurance; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Moving to Universal Coverage: Health Care Reform in Massachusetts." Harvard Business School Case 712-466, February 2012. (Revised June 2013.) View Details
  19. Highland District County Hospital: Gastroenterology Care in Sweden

    Sweden's Highland District County Hospital, similar to a community hospital in the US, undertook a major restructuring to integrate care delivery for medical conditions served by the Department of Medicine. Each subspecialty within the Department would form a single, co-located unit with its own budget that encompassed both inpatient and outpatient care. This case examines the experience of the Highland Gastroenterology Unit, comparing the delivery model for inflammatory bowel disease in 2001 and 2009, before and after the reorganization. The case can be used to examine health care provider strategy, integrated care delivery, and quality measurement. The case also profiles Sweden's single-payer health care system, allowing for a discussion of national health systems and health policy.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jennifer F Baron, and Martin Rejler. "Highland District County Hospital: Gastroenterology Care in Sweden." Harvard Business School Case 710-469, March 2010. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  20. Building a Cluster: Electronics and Information Technology in Costa Rica

    Describes the actions of Costa Rica President Figueres and his cabinet in attracting an Intel assembly and testing plant to their country. The effort was part of a government strategy that sought to develop further the Costa Rican electronics and information technology cluster.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Clusters; Business and Government Relations; Information Technology; Electronics Industry; Information Technology Industry; Costa Rica;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Niels W. Ketelhohn. "Building a Cluster: Electronics and Information Technology in Costa Rica." Harvard Business School Case 703-422, November 2002. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  21. The West German Headache Center: Integrated Migraine Care

    Describes the joint efforts of the German health plan KKH and Essen University Hospital to develop an integrated practice unit (IPU), and the West German Headache Center's efforts to improve the quality of migraine care. Provides an overview of the German health care system detailing its provider, health plan, and reimbursement structure. Following new legislation in 2004, which allowed health plans and selected providers to contract outside of the regular group purchasing scheme, KKH and Dr. Deiner of Essen University Hospital developed a novel delivery structure for migraine care. Challenges and hurdles to implementation are described for both the health plan and the IPU. Provides detailed data to allow students to evaluate success, identify current challenges, and recommend improvements to the integrated care system.

    Keywords: Business Model; Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Industry Structures; Service Delivery; Integration; Health Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Clemens Guth, and Elisa M. Dannemiller. "The West German Headache Center: Integrated Migraine Care." Harvard Business School Case 707-559, May 2007. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  22. The West German Headache Center: Integrated Migraine Care (TN)

    Teaching note to 707-559.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Germany;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Clemens Guth, and Elisa M. Dannemiller. "The West German Headache Center: Integrated Migraine Care (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 707-560, May 2007. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  23. The Dutch Flower Cluster (TN)

    Teaching Note for 711507.

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Auctions; Industry Clusters; Competition; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Netherlands; China; Colombia; Ecuador; Kenya;

    Citation:

    Ramirez-Vallejo, Jorge, and Michael E. Porter. "The Dutch Flower Cluster (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 711-534, May 2011. View Details
  24. The Dutch Flower Cluster

    Describes the Dutch Flower cluster, or the group of interconnected growers, suppliers, service providers, and flower-related institutions located in The Netherlands. Examines the role of the FloraHolland auction in the value chain. Also describes the flower clusters in China, Colombia, Ecuador, and Kenya, the four other major international competitors.

    Keywords: Globalization; Auctions; Industry Clusters; Competition; Competitive Advantage; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Netherlands;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo, and Fred van Eenennaam. "The Dutch Flower Cluster." Harvard Business School Case 711-507, March 2011. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  25. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: Network Strategy

    In 2009 Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) had been recognized as the best children's hospital in the country for six years in a row; but leadership saw CHOP as more than the large main campus in western Philadelphia. Beginning in the 1990s, CHOP had created a large network of Primary Care Providers, Specialty Care Centers, Ambulatory Surgery Centers, and community hospital affiliations. CHOP leadership wanted to ensure that the quality they had demonstrated at CHOP would translate out to these facilities, and more, that the combination of many parts could actually work together to provide even better care than the main hospital could do on its own.

    Keywords: Communication; Health Care and Treatment; Service Delivery; Organizational Structure; Networks; Integration; Health Industry; Philadelphia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Carolyn Daly, and Andrew Peter Dervan. "The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: Network Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 710-463, January 2010. (Revised March 2011.) View Details
  26. Finland and Nokia: Creating the World's Most Competitive Economy

    Finland, with a special language and culture, has developed as a country in between the west (the Nordic region and Europe) and the east (especially its neighbor Russia). In the 1980s, a process started of moving out of an investment-driven economy into an innovation-driven one. With the collapse of the Soviet Union around 1990, Finland reached a crisis. This case covers policy changes made in the 1990s and how, by 2002, the country had managed to become one of the most competitive in the world. A large part of the success could be attributed to the dynamic telecommunications cluster--especially Nokia, accounting for some 70% to 80% of the cluster exports and the world leader in mobile phones. Nokia also reached a crisis around 1990.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Economic Growth; Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Clusters; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Telecommunications Industry; Finland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Finland and Nokia: Creating the World's Most Competitive Economy." Harvard Business School Case 702-427, January 2002. (Revised March 2011.) View Details
  27. Colombia: Organizing for Competitiveness (TN)

    Teaching Note for 710417.

    Keywords: Situation or Environment; Competition; Organizations; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Ramirez-Vallejo, Jorge, and Michael E. Porter. "Colombia: Organizing for Competitiveness (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 711-481, January 2011. View Details
  28. Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center: Spine Care

    Describes the Spine Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, a multidisciplinary unit that offers patients suffering from spinal problems "one-stop" access to a range of providers including orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, medical specialists in physical medicine and pain management, mental health providers, and occupational and physical therapists. The Center was created to address what its founder, James Weinstein, M.D., saw as the uncoordinated and inefficient delivery of spinal care in the United States. The Center emphasized using non-surgical treatments (e.g., physical therapy and exercise, behavioral modification, pain-relieving drugs) as either a complement to, or substitute for, surgical procedures, and patients were actively engaged in the process of determining what type of care to pursue. In addition, Weinstein and his staff collected data from the Center's clinical practice to conduct academic research on the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to treatment. The case allows for a critical analysis of the Spine Center's unique approach to care delivery and provides an opportunity to examine the applicability of this model in other clinical areas.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Integration; Value Creation; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Huckman, Robert S., Michael E. Porter, Rachel Gordon, and Natalie Kindred. "Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center: Spine Care." Harvard Business School Case 609-016, March 2009. (Revised September 2010.) View Details
  29. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Interdisciplinary Cancer Care

    In 2006, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center was an internationally leading institution for cancer care, education, and research. Since 1996, it had successfully reorganized itself from a cancer hospital that was physically organized around clinical specialties into one that was organized into disease-based integrated practice units called multidisciplinary care centers. These units were supported by a new construction project that had created new disease-specific facilities and a widely-supported administrative plan in which physicians reported both to leadership of specialty-based academic departments and disease-based clinical centers.

    Keywords: Buildings and Facilities; Health Disorders; Organizational Structure; Medical Specialties; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Value Creation; Service Delivery; Research; Health Care and Treatment; Education Industry; Health Industry; Texas;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Sachin H Jain. "The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Interdisciplinary Cancer Care." Harvard Business School Case 708-487, May 2008. (Revised February 2013.) View Details
  30. Partners In Health: HIV Care in Rwanda

    In 2005, Partners in Health (PIH) was invited by the Rwandan Ministry of Health to assume responsibility for the management of public health care in two rural districts in Eastern Rwanda and create an HIV treatment program at these sites. PIH successfully implemented a comprehensive program focusing on four principles: health systems improvement, HIV prevention and care, accompaniment, and social and economic support. By January 2007, the Rwinkwavu site had conducted 67,137 HIV tests and provided antiretroviral therapy to more than 2,000 patients, of which, fewer than 1% had been switched to second-line drug regimens, 3.8% had died, and only one patient had been lost to follow up. A costing analysis done by the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative suggested that the model could feasibly be spread to other districts. Dr. Agnes Binagwaho, Executive Director of Rwanda's National AIDS Control Commission and her colleagues in the Ministry of Health are contemplating how the program could be improved and whether it should be expanded nationally.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Health Care and Treatment; Health Testing and Trials; Medical Specialties; Service Delivery; Nonprofit Organizations; Expansion; Health Industry; Rwanda;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Scott S. Lee, Joseph Rhatigan, and Jim Yong Kim. "Partners In Health: HIV Care in Rwanda." Harvard Business School Case 709-474, April 2009. (Revised May 2010.) View Details
  31. Brigham and Women's Hospital: Shapiro Cardiovascular Center (TN)

    Teaching Note for 608-175.

    Keywords: Health; Non-Governmental Organizations; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Huckman, Robert S., and Michael E. Porter. "Brigham and Women's Hospital: Shapiro Cardiovascular Center (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 610-030, September 2009. (Revised April 2010.) View Details
  32. Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center: Spine Care (TN)

    Teaching Note for [609016].

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Research; Performance Effectiveness; Outcome or Result; Education Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Huckman, Robert S., and Michael E. Porter. "Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center: Spine Care (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 610-068, April 2010. View Details
  33. The Australian Wine Cluster: Supplementary Information

    Supplements The California Wine Cluster.

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "The Australian Wine Cluster: Supplementary Information." Harvard Business School Supplement 703-492, March 2003. (Revised March 2010.) View Details
  34. Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center: Breast Cancer Care in Taiwan (TN)

    Teaching Note for [710425].

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Strategy; Service Delivery; Quality; Performance; Insurance; Growth and Development; Health Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center: Breast Cancer Care in Taiwan (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 710-465, February 2010. View Details
  35. The Cleveland Clinic: Growth Strategy 2008 (TN)

    Teaching Note for 709473.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Value; Restructuring; Groups and Teams; System; Transformation; Expansion; Integration; Alignment; Goals and Objectives; Leading Change; Customer Focus and Relationships; Health Industry; Cleveland; United States; Abu Dhabi; Canada;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Elizabeth O. Teisberg, Jennifer F Baron, and Carolyn Daly. "The Cleveland Clinic: Growth Strategy 2008 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 710-466, February 2010. View Details
  36. ThedaCare: System Strategy

    Over the 1980s and 1990s, America's changing health care payer environment resulted in mergers of numerous community hospitals into hospital systems. Based in Appleton, Wisconsin, ThedaCare stood out among community hospital systems in its pursuit of service rationalization, clinical quality improvement, and value-based delivery. Driven by determined leadership, ThedaCare began site-based service line rationalization and introduced innovative care delivery models. ThedaCare is a metaphor for the challenges of transforming American community hospital systems. Can be used to teach: the evolution of structure, organization, and strategy of U.S.-based community hospital systems; integrated practice units and care cycles; management of health care quality improvement processes; challenges in diffusion of care delivery innovation; and cost transparency and quality measurement.

    Keywords: Value Creation; Health Care and Treatment; Problems and Challenges; Innovation and Invention; Health Industry; Wisconsin;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Sachin H. Jain. "ThedaCare: System Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 708-424, November 2007. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  37. The Joslin Diabetes Center (TN)

    Teaching Note for [710424].

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Groups and Teams; Medical Specialties; Programs; Opportunities; Service Delivery; Alliances; Value Creation; Health Industry; Boston;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Elizabeth O. Teisberg, and Scott Wallace. "The Joslin Diabetes Center (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 710-458, January 2010. View Details
  38. The Joslin Diabetes Center

    The Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, Massachusetts is a leading center for diabetes care, clinician training, and research. The incidence of diabetes is rising precipitously worldwide, challenging quality of life with its complications and rapidly accelerating health care expenditures for employers and governments. The Joslin's multispecialty, team-based care and patient education programs provide opportunities to examine integrated practice units, early-stage and preventive care, and clinical coordination along the full care cycle. The focus on diabetes also enables discussion of what services need to be included in integrated practice units serving patients with complex, chronic diseases. However, despite its renown, the Joslin's clinical operations lose money, raising the challenge of how to align financial success and clinical success in health care delivery. The case can be used to teach strategy in health care delivery, value creation, outcome measurement, reimbursement, and strategic alliances.

    Keywords: Integration; Service Delivery; Medical Specialties; Health Care and Treatment; Outcome or Result; Corporate Finance; Health Industry; Boston;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg, and Scott Wallace. "The Joslin Diabetes Center." Harvard Business School Case 710-424, October 2009. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  39. Ledina Lushko: Navigating Health Care Delivery

    Ledina Lushko was diagnosed with Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma in 2008 and sought care at a highly regarded medical institution in the United States. This case lays out her journey through the health care system in detail and all of the effort involved in finding appropriate care. It is meant not to illustrate good or bad care, but to reflect on the nature of the current health care delivery system and serve as a starting point for discussion.

    Keywords: Health; Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Service Delivery; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Jain, Sachin H., Michael E. Porter, Fatima Akrouh, and Carolyn Daly. "Ledina Lushko: Navigating Health Care Delivery." Harvard Business School Case 710-459, January 2010. View Details
  40. Global Health Partner: Obesity Care

    Teaching Note for [709494].

    Keywords: Value; Quality; Performance Improvement; Competitive Advantage; System; Private Ownership; Medical Specialties; Integration; Health Industry; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Zayed Muhammed Yasin, and Jennifer F Baron. "Global Health Partner: Obesity Care." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 710-431, October 2009. View Details
  41. Iceland: Small fish in a global pond

    Describes the economic development of Iceland since 1945, focusing in particular on the years since 2000, when Iceland experienced strong growth and Icelandic companies aggressively internationalized.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Competition; Macroeconomics; Iceland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Iceland: Small fish in a global pond." Harvard Business School Case 708-472, November 2007. (Revised August 2009.) View Details
  42. MassMEDIC: The Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council

    Set in 2004, as Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council (MassMEDIC) President Tom Sommer contemplates the future direction of a successful medical device cluster association. Focuses on the formation of cluster organizations and their roles and effectiveness, highlighting the importance of these organizations in enabling cross-cluster collaboration between firms, universities, regulators and other government officials, and other institutions. Details the events that led to the formation of MassMEDIC and the initial challenges the organization faced. Discusses the evolution of MassMEDIC's activities, from its formation in 1996 through 2004, and the views of different MassMEDIC stakeholders on the future direction of the organization. Provides detailed data about MassMEDIC and the Massachusetts medical device cluster to enable an evaluation of results and inform future direction.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Industry Clusters; Nonprofit Organizations; Social and Collaborative Networks; Cooperation; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, Michael E. Porter, and Spencer Wallace. "MassMEDIC: The Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council." Harvard Business School Case 706-498, June 2006. (Revised July 2009.) View Details
  43. De Beers: Addressing the New Competitiveness Challenges

    Traces the development of De Beers and the diamond industry from its inception in the mid-1800s to the year 2000. Discusses De Beer's history and strategy as the industry leader and its role in industry development. Enables deep examination of the interdependence of companies and the locations and communities in which they operate and the role of a company in economic and social development. In 2000, De Beers faces critical choices about both its economic and social policies and how they interrelate.

    Keywords: History; Strategy; Geographic Location; Conflict Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Community Relations; Developing Countries and Economies; Mining Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Sonia D. Marciano, and Alyson Warhurst. "De Beers: Addressing the New Competitiveness Challenges." Harvard Business School Case 706-501, May 2006. (Revised May 2009.) View Details
  44. Global Health Partner: Obesity Care

    Global Health Partner (GHP) was founded in 2006 as a privately owned health care provider in Sweden serving both public and private paying patients. In contrast to most providers in the country, GHP organized around specific service lines where it saw the potential to provide the most value. This case details the GHP approach to both Spine Care and Obesity Care demonstrating the power of specialization for quality improvement as a basis for competitive advantage. Students will examine the organization of integrated multidisciplinary care, the impact of volume on learning and efficiency, and the importance of demonstrating quality through outcomes reporting. The case also provides a window into the Swedish Health Care System.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Service Delivery; Organizational Structure; Outcome or Result; Quality; Competitive Advantage; Integration; Health Industry; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Zayed Muhammed Yasin, and Jennifer F Baron. "Global Health Partner: Obesity Care." Harvard Business School Case 709-494, May 2009. View Details
  45. The State of Connecticut: Strategy for Economic Development

    Describes the history of Connecticut's economy, its competitive challenges in the 1990s, and the steps taken to develop an economic plan for the state. A prominent issue is the competitive position of Connecticut's industry clusters and the efforts to create a formal cluster development process involving state government, the private sector, and universities.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Economy; Government and Politics; Industry Clusters; Competition; Connecticut;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Kaia Miller. "The State of Connecticut: Strategy for Economic Development." Harvard Business School Case 703-426, January 2003. (Revised March 2009.) View Details
  46. Pitney Bowes: Employer Health Strategy

    Pitney Bowes, a Fortune 500 mail and document management firm, offered its first health plans in the years following World War II. Over the ensuing decades, Pitney Bowes adapted its approach to employee health amid rising health care costs, shifting employer attitudes towards health benefits and a rapidly changing policy environment. By 2008, the firm was widely regarded as an innovator in employee health, having dedicated substantial time and resources to its health benefits under the leadership of then CEO Michael Critelli and Corporate Medical Director Jack Mahoney. The case provides an overview of the history of employee health benefits in the U.S. and at Pitney Bowes. The range of health plans Pitney Bowes offered to employees in 2008, as well as the firm's contracting policies with commercial insurers and self-insured plan administrators, are examined in detail. Pitney Bowes health and wellness programs are also described, enabling an analysis of the firm's overall employee health strategy in 2008 and a discussion of where Pitney Bowes should focus its attention moving forward.

    Keywords: Cost; Insurance; Policy; Health Care and Treatment; Compensation and Benefits; Employees; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Pitney Bowes: Employer Health Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 709-458, January 2009. (Revised February 2009.) View Details
  47. Pitney Bowes: Employer Health Strategy (TN)

    Teaching Note for 709458.

    Keywords: Health; Employees; Cost; Policy; Situation or Environment; Innovation and Invention; Contracts; Programs; Strategy; Manufacturing Industry; Service Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Pitney Bowes: Employer Health Strategy (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 709-483, February 2009. View Details
  48. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Interdisciplinary Cancer Care (TN)

    Teaching Note for [708487].

    Keywords: health care; Health Industry; Texas;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Sachin H Jain. "The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Interdisciplinary Cancer Care (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 709-482, February 2009. (Revised from original February 2009 version.) View Details
  49. Commonwealth Care Alliance: Elderly and Disabled Care (TN)

    Teaching Note for [708502].

    Keywords: Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Commonwealth Care Alliance: Elderly and Disabled Care (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 709-467, January 2009. View Details
  50. Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    It's great to have a blockbuster quarter or a revolutionary product or service, but true business excellence demands sustainability. Maintaining your competitive advantage requires a strategy that makes your business unique and carries you forward as the world around you changes. What makes a winning, sustainable strategy? Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage is a multimedia resource developed by ten faculty members in the Strategy Department at Harvard Business School. Included in this resource are faculty presentation, animated frameworks, print- and video-based case studies, and workbooks to help business leaders formulate action plans specific to their own companies.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Anand, Bharat N., Stephen P. Bradley, Pankaj Ghemawat, Tarun Khanna, Cynthia A. Montgomery, Michael E. Porter, Jan W. Rivkin, Michael G. Rukstad, John R. Wells, and David B. Yoffie. "Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage." Harvard Business School Class Lecture 705-509, June 2005. (Revised September 2008.) View Details
  51. In-Vitro Fertilization: Outcomes Measurement

    As of 2007, there were very few examples of widespread measurement and reporting of health outcomes, a critical quality measure. In-vitro fertilization clinics have been required to report their patient's health outcomes since 1995. The protagonist of the case, Dr. James Goldfarb, faces a number of challenges. As the medical director of a nationally-renowned fertility program at the Cleveland Clinic, he must run an efficient and effective practice that draws patients from both the surrounding area and from around the world. As a leader of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, he must contribute toward the continuing evolution of the practice of in-vitro fertilization and ensure that the outcome measurement system is creating proper incentives and delivering timely, accurate, and useful information to patient, physicians, and researchers.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Measurement and Metrics; Operations; Outcome or Result; Health Industry; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Saquib Rahim, and Benjamin Chung-Shi Tsai. "In-Vitro Fertilization: Outcomes Measurement." Harvard Business School Case 709-403, July 2008. (Revised August 2008.) View Details
  52. Brigham and Women's Hospital: Shapiro Cardiovascular Center

    Considers the situation facing Gary Gottlieb, president of Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), prior to the opening of BWH's integrated cardiovascular center. This case allows students to develop an appreciation of the strategic, financial, organizational, clinical, and physical aspects of integrating health care delivery around specific categories of disease. It provides an opportunity to evaluate BWH's approach to integration along all of these dimensions and to identify the nature of the tradeoffs that hospitals-specifically, academic medical centers-face as they attempt to create disease-specific models of integrated care. Finally, students have the opportunity to evaluate the degree to which integrated models of care can be developed within academic medical centers.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Health Disorders; Service Delivery; Organizational Design; Integration; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Robert S. Huckman, and Jeremy Lance Friese. "Brigham and Women's Hospital: Shapiro Cardiovascular Center." Harvard Business School Case 608-175, June 2008. View Details
  53. Commonwealth Care Alliance: Elderly and Disabled Care

    Individuals enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid, known as dual eligibles, are among the highest-cost beneficiaries in the US. Commonwealth Care Alliance, a small nonprofit insurer and care delivery system in Massachusetts, operated under a public demonstration program designed to provide comprehensive coverage and care for the elderly dual eligible population. Led by Dr. Robert Master, Commonwealth Care Alliance worked with its contracted providers to implement and support a care delivery model that could allow as many members as possible to live independently outside of nursing homes. The case examines Commonwealth Care Alliance's insurance and care delivery approaches amidst a changing policy environment and various resource constraints. This case can be used to teach: Approaches to value-based insurance and care delivery; Insurance and care delivery considerations for underserved, high-cost populations; Evolution and structure of US Medicare and state Medicaid programs and demonstrations; and payer and provider reimbursement models.

    Keywords: Programs; Public Sector; Alliances; Policy; Age Characteristics; Service Delivery; Value; Health Care and Treatment; Welfare or Wellbeing; Insurance Industry; Health Industry; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jennifer F Baron. "Commonwealth Care Alliance: Elderly and Disabled Care." Harvard Business School Case 708-502, April 2008. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  54. The California Wine Cluster

    Describes the California wine cluster, or the group of interconnected wineries, grape growers, suppliers, service providers, and wine-related institutions located in California. Also describes the wine cluster in France, Italy, Australia, and Chile, the four other major international competitors.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Geographic Location; Industry Clusters; Business and Government Relations; Competition; Food and Beverage Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Gregory C Bond. "The California Wine Cluster." Harvard Business School Case 799-124, June 1999. (Revised February 2013.) View Details
  55. AFP Provida

    Describes the evolution of AFP Provida, one of the early entrants into the Chilean pension fund system established in 1981. By 1999, AFP Provida was not only the largest pension fund administrator in Chile, but also the largest in Latin America in terms of number of affiliates and the second largest in terms of assets under management, after the Brazilian company Previ. Provida was also the most international firm in the industry. At the turn of the 20th century, Provida's senior management was considering how to extend the company's position in a rapidly expanding international marketplace. Describes the firm's internationalization process in terms of timing, geographic choices, and modes of entry. Also discusses Chilean special conditions for the pension fund industry, including local factors, context for strategy and rivalry, demand conditions, and related and supporting industries. Allows for the discussion of the origins of clusters in developing economies as well as the sources of international competitive advantage. Also provides an interesting evaluation of Provida's strategic choices and the sustainability of its international leadership.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Globalized Firms and Management; Industry Clusters; Competitive Advantage; Expansion; Financial Services Industry; Chile;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Arturo L. Condo, and Andrea Prado. "AFP Provida." Harvard Business School Case 703-424, February 2003. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  56. Atlas Electrica: International Strategy

    Atlas must decide whether to acquire La Indeca, increasing its Central American presence, or to focus on larger Latin American markets where higher growth is possible. In the year 2000, Jorge Rodriguez was in charge of Atlas Electrica, the largest home appliance firm in Central America. Although it had almost doubled its sales in the 1990s, by the end of the decade Atlas was experiencing a declining market share in its home region and facing increasing competition from outside the region, especially from Mexican and Korean multinationals. At the time, Atlas' main competitor in Central America, El Salvador-based Indeca, was up for sale. Atlas Electrica, based in Costa Rica, served more than a dozen Latin American countries. Since its establishment in 1961, it had served Central American markets with different types of home appliances, later focusing on white-goods for middle-income segments of Central American consumers. In the mid-1990s, through a strategic alliance with Sweden's AG Electrolux, Atlas had expanded to Latin American markets beyond Central America.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Growth and Development Strategy; Markets; Partners and Partnerships; Competition; Expansion; Latin America; Central America;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Arturo Condo. "Atlas Electrica: International Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 704-435, November 2003. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  57. Finland and Nokia (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-702-427).

    Keywords: Telecommunications Industry; Finland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Finland and Nokia (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 705-435, December 2004. (Revised April 2008.) View Details
  58. ThedaCare: System Strategy (TN)

    Teaching Note for 708-424.

    Keywords: Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Sachin H. Jain. "ThedaCare: System Strategy (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 708-442, February 2008. View Details
  59. Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession

    Describes the economic development of Latvia, a small eastern European country on the shores of the Baltic Sea, from regaining independence in 1991 to European Union (EU) accession in 2004 and is set on May 1st, 2004, the day Latvia became an EU member. Latvia had achieved strong growth since regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1990. Describes Latvia's economic development over this period, discussing the economic policy efforts that have taken place and includes general information on the country, its history and politics, and the business environment that companies faced in 2004. A special focus is the influence that the EU accession process has on the Latvian economy and on economic policy choices in the country. Challenges students to discuss how the environment changes as EU membership is achieved, and which new priorities the country might need to define for its economic policy.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Economic Growth; Policy; Business and Government Relations; European Union; Latvia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession." Harvard Business School Case 707-515, February 2007. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  60. Understanding Industry Structure

    Examines the structural determinants of industry attractiveness (the Five Forces framework) and the implications of industry structure for strategy.

    Keywords: Five Forces Framework; Industry Structures; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Understanding Industry Structure." Harvard Business School Background Note 707-493, December 2006. (Revised August 2007.) View Details
  61. Rwanda: National Economic Transformation (TN)

    Teaching Note to 706491.

    Keywords: Economy; Problems and Challenges; Development Economics; Policy; Poverty; Transformation; Performance Evaluation; Political Elections; Rwanda;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Michael Patrick McCreless. "Rwanda: National Economic Transformation (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 708-437, July 2007. View Details
  62. Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession (TN)

    Teaching note to 707515.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Emerging Markets; Market Entry and Exit; Perspective; Opportunities; Retail Industry; Latvia; Russia; China; Germany; India;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 707-524, March 2007. View Details
  63. Volvo Trucks (C): Closing Volvo Global Trucks

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competitive Strategy; Five Forces Framework; Truck Transportation; Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Manufacturing Industry; Retail Industry; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (C): Closing Volvo Global Trucks." Harvard Business School Case 702-444, February 2002. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  64. St. Louis: Inner-City Economic Development

    Describes the history and challenges of the economically distressed inner city areas of St. Louis, a major U.S. metropolitan area. Profiles regional and inner city economics and describes a new effort by community leaders to develop and implement a strategy to revitalize the inner city economy.

    Keywords: Strategy; Leading Change; Urban Development; Problems and Challenges; Public Administration Industry; Saint Louis;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Anne S. Habiby, and Joanne Lasala. "St. Louis: Inner-City Economic Development." Harvard Business School Case 704-492, March 2004. (Revised April 2006.) View Details
  65. Asociacion Colombiana de Industrias Plasticas (Acoplasticos)

    Acoplasticos was established in 1961 as a lobbying group for Colombia's major plastics manufacturing companies. In the early 1980s, the organization shifted its focus toward improving the productivity of the Colombian plastics and rubber cluster, which also included certain petrochemical, manmade fiber, paint, and ink industries. Over time, the organization's activities expanded to include cluster technology upgrading, training, trade fair production, joint procurement, and information collection and dissemination. Despite significant improvement in the performance of the Colombian plastics and rubber cluster during the 1990s, however, Executive Director Carlos Garay was concerned about the challenging economic and political environment in 2002.

    Keywords: Cooperation; Technology; Alliances; Research and Development; Business and Government Relations; Performance Productivity; Developing Countries and Economies; Manufacturing Industry; Chemical Industry; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Willis M. Emmons III. "Asociacion Colombiana de Industrias Plasticas (Acoplasticos)." Harvard Business School Case 703-437, February 2003. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  66. Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM)

    Le Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique S.A. (CSEM)--the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology--was a major nonprofit research institution located in Neuchatel, Switzerland, with roots in the Swiss watch industry. CSEM maintained close links to several Swiss universities, and over time, the center's activities expanded to include basic and applied research, contract production, and technology consulting. By the late 1990s, CSEM began spinning off promising commercial ventures and incorporating them as for-profit companies. In 2001, CEO Thomas Hinderling wondered whether any adjustments in CSEM's strategy were necessary or desirable going forward.

    Keywords: Cooperation; Technology; Alliances; Research and Development; Performance Productivity; Innovation and Invention; Nonprofit Organizations; Electronics Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Willis M. Emmons III, and Christian Fenner. "Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM)." Harvard Business School Case 703-438, February 2003. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  67. Volvo Trucks (A): Penetrating the U.S. Market

    Volvo Trucks has worked on a global strategy for several decades. Beginning in the mid-1970s, the company decided to enter the largest market for trucks: the United States. Over time, the company has struggled to get a significant share of the U.S. market and at the same time integrate operations around the world into a truly global strategy. However, the competitive structure (five-force model) differs significantly between Europe and the United States, and in spite of heavy investments, the global synergies seem far-fetched. This case illustrates clearly that entry and penetration of a market is a learning process for Volvo, where the initial strategic logic and underlying assumptions have to be changed several times.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competitive Strategy; Five Forces Framework; Truck Transportation; Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Manufacturing Industry; Retail Industry; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (A): Penetrating the U.S. Market." Harvard Business School Case 702-418, February 2002. (Revised February 2006.) View Details
  68. Volvo Trucks (C): Closing Volvo Global Truck (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-702-444).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (C): Closing Volvo Global Truck (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 705-438, December 2004. View Details
  69. Volvo Trucks (A): Penetrating the U.S. Market (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-702-418).

    Keywords: United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (A): Penetrating the U.S. Market (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 705-436, December 2004. View Details
  70. Volvo Trucks (B): Acquisition of RVI (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-702-419).

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (B): Acquisition of RVI (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 705-437, December 2004. View Details
  71. Volvo Trucks (B): Acquisition of RVI

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competitive Strategy; Five Forces Framework; Truck Transportation; Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Manufacturing Industry; Retail Industry; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Orjan Solvell. "Volvo Trucks (B): Acquisition of RVI." Harvard Business School Case 702-419, February 2002. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  72. Institutions for Collaboration: Overview

    Provides an overview of the wide variety of organizations other than firms, government ministries and regulatory agencies, and universities that may have significant effects on competitiveness. These intermediary entities, referred to as institutions for collaboration (IFCs), include, for example, chambers of commerce, industry associations, professional associations, trade unions, technology transfer organizations, quality centers, think tanks, university alumni associations, and others.

    Keywords: Globalization; Labor Unions; Organizations; Competitive Strategy; Technology;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Willis M. Emmons III. "Institutions for Collaboration: Overview." Harvard Business School Background Note 703-436, January 2003. View Details
  73. Competition & Strategy: Course Structure TN

    Provides an overview of the Competition & Strategy course, a first course on business strategy, as taught at Harvard Business School during the summer of 1999. Describes the role of the course in the overall MBA curriculum, the superstructure of the course, and the concepts emphasized in each module and case. Emphasizes how the parts of the course fit together to form an integrated body of ideas and analytical tools.

    Keywords: Curriculum and Courses; Higher Education; Management; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Management Practices and Processes; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jan W. Rivkin. "Competition & Strategy: Course Structure TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 700-091, January 2000. (Revised March 2001.) View Details
  74. Industry Transformation

    One of the steepest challenges a strategist faces is to navigate his or her company through a period of industry transformation--an era of rapid and wholesale changes in industry structure. This note considers how periods of transformation typically unfold. It then examines how the core tools of the strategist can be deployed during such periods and how new tools come to the fore. Periods of industry transformation pose grave threats and tremendous opportunities to companies. Industry leaders are often unseated during such times, replaced by underdogs and entrants. Perhaps most importantly, periods of transformation give companies unusual latitude to influence future industry structure. Teaching purpose: Designed to support course modules that consider strategy-making under uncertainty or the intersection of competitive strategy and technology.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Management; Management Practices and Processes; Industry Growth; Industry Structures; Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Consulting Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jan W. Rivkin. "Industry Transformation." Harvard Business School Background Note 701-008, July 2000. View Details
  75. Scotts Company: North American Corporate Strategy

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; North America;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Brian S. Silverman. "Scotts Company: North American Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 701-002, July 2000. View Details
  76. Robert Mondavi: Competitive Strategy

    Describes the competitive situation facing Robert Mondavi, the leading premium California winery. Mondavi has been an industry innovator and has recently taken steps to become more international. Mondavi has to cope with growing domestic competition as well as market share growth by wineries from Chile and Australia.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Technological Innovation; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Growth Management; Industry Structures; Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Food and Beverage Industry; California; Australia; Chile;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Gregory C Bond. "Robert Mondavi: Competitive Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 799-125, June 1999. (Revised June 2000.) View Details
  77. Edward Jones

    Edward Jones is a leading, highly profitable retail brokerage firm with a unique strategy very different from those of its rivals. The case describes Jones's activities and allows a rich discussion of its positioning choices, supporting activities, and tradeoffs. Jones must cope with a rapidly evolving industry, which, at least on the surface, is a threat to its strategy.

    Keywords: Financial Institutions; Business or Company Management; Goals and Objectives; Growth and Development Strategy; Growth Management; Business Strategy; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Banking Industry; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Gregory C. Bond. "Edward Jones." Harvard Business School Case 700-009, July 1999. (Revised June 2000.) View Details
  78. Eckerd Corporation

    Describes the history and current situation in the retail pharmacy industry, including competition from new merchants and Internet drugstores. Eckerd, one of the top four drug chains, must decide how to position itself for the future.

    Keywords: Competition; Alignment; Supply and Industry; Retail Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and John E. Kelleher. "Eckerd Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 799-141, June 1999. (Revised June 2000.) View Details
  79. Novo Industri (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Jong Hyun Lee. "Novo Industri (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 799-134, June 1999. View Details
  80. Matching Dell (A)

    After years of success with its vaunted "Direct Model" for computer manufacturing, marketing, and distribution, Dell Computer Corp. faces efforts by competitors to match its strategy. This case describes the evolution of the personal computer industry, Dell's strategy, and efforts by Compaq, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Gateway 2000 to capture the benefits of Dell's approach. Students are called on to formulate strategic plans of action for Dell and its various rivals.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Competitive Strategy; Industry Structures; Adoption; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Rivkin, Jan W., Michael E. Porter, Charles E. Bruin, Markus Chappel, Thomas M Galizia, and Laila J Worrell. "Matching Dell (A)." Harvard Business School Case 799-158, June 1999. View Details
  81. Masco Corp. (A)

    Describes the history and corporate position of a large and successful producer of faucets and related household products. Masco is considering entry into the $14 billion furniture industry. Designed to be used with Household Furniture Industry in 1986 in a strategy course on corporate strategy for diversified firms.

    Keywords: Diversification; Market Entry and Exit; Corporate Strategy; Rank and Position; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Cynthia A. Montgomery. "Masco Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 389-186, April 1989. (Revised December 1998.) View Details
  82. Household Furniture Industry in 1986

    Profiles the household furniture industry in the United States in 1986. Designed for use with Masco Corp. (A) and (B).

    Keywords: Supply and Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Cynthia A. Montgomery. "Household Furniture Industry in 1986." Harvard Business School Background Note 389-189, April 1989. (Revised December 1998.) View Details
  83. Masco Corp. (B)

    Describes Masco's initial entry strategy and is designed as an in-class handout.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Diversification; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Cynthia A. Montgomery. "Masco Corp. (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 389-187, April 1989. (Revised November 1998.) View Details
  84. Progressive Corporation

    Progressive is a leader in providing nonstandard (high-risk) automobile insurance to drivers across America, with a long record of extraordinary profitability. Progressive is facing a challenge in its segment from Allstate, the industry leader, and must decide how to respond.

    Keywords: Insurance; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Growth Management; Planning; Business Strategy; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Auto Industry; Insurance Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Nicolaj Siggelkow. "Progressive Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 797-109, May 1997. (Revised May 1998.) View Details
  85. Masco Corporation (A) & (B) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-389-186) and (9-389-187).

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Montgomery, Cynthia A., and Michael E. Porter. "Masco Corporation (A) & (B) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 396-242, January 1996. View Details
  86. Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi-Cola and the Soft Drink Industry

    Describes the competition between Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. Provides a summary of the history of the soft drink industry prior to World War II, and over the period 1950-1990 in greater detail. Major strategic competitive moves and countermoves are described. Also profiles industry developments, including the Pepsi Challenge, the reformulation of Coca-Cola, and the consolidation of the bottler network. Provides a teaching vehicle for analysis of competitors and strategic rivalry. An updated and revised version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Competition; Industry Growth; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi-Cola and the Soft Drink Industry." Harvard Business School Case 391-179, March 1991. (Revised October 1994.) View Details
  87. Novo Industri

    Describes the structure of the insulin industry, a treatment for diabetes and Novo's strategy and competitive position in early 1982. The industry is undergoing significant change and Novo must decide how to defend and build its international position. Designed as an early case in global strategy. The class can understand how Novo has competed internationally in the past, how that relates to industry structure, and how industry changes will alter the appropriate way of competing globally. Coalitions of alliances factor into the list of strategic alternatives.

    Keywords: Change; Global Strategy; Industry Structures; Alliances; Competitive Strategy; Health Disorders; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Michael J. Enright. "Novo Industri." Harvard Business School Case 389-148, April 1989. (Revised January 1994.) View Details
  88. Hattori-Seiko and the World Watch Industry in 1980

    Focuses on the industry's development and evolution in three principal watch producing countries: Switzerland, the United States, and Japan. Based in part on two earlier cases by F.T. Knickerbocker and H.E.R. Uyterhoeven.

    Keywords: Industry Growth; Consumer Products Industry; Japan; Switzerland; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Edward J. Hoff. "Hattori-Seiko and the World Watch Industry in 1980." Harvard Business School Background Note 385-300, April 1985. (Revised September 1993.) View Details
  89. Edizione Holding, SpA: Sporting Goods (A)

    Keywords: Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Edizione Holding, SpA: Sporting Goods (A)." Harvard Business School Case 794-008, July 1993. (Revised September 1993.) View Details
  90. Sulzer Brothers Ltd. (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Sulzer Brothers Ltd. (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 386-021, July 1985. (Revised May 1992.) View Details
  91. Georgia-Pacific Corp.: Corporate Strategy

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Pulp and Paper Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Garth Saloner. "Georgia-Pacific Corp.: Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 391-174, May 1991. (Revised May 1992.) View Details
  92. Great Northern Nekoosa vs. Georgia-Pacific: Check Paper

    Keywords: Pulp and Paper Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Garth Saloner. "Great Northern Nekoosa vs. Georgia-Pacific: Check Paper." Harvard Business School Case 391-173, March 1991. (Revised May 1992.) View Details
  93. Ethical Dimensions of Competitive Analysis

    Presents some of the dilemmas of gathering competitive information and the appropriate limits for competitive analysis. Raises the issues involved and provides information about actual corporate practice.

    Keywords: Ethics; Competition; Management Practices and Processes; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Corporate Governance; Information Management;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Ethical Dimensions of Competitive Analysis." Harvard Business School Background Note 792-088, April 1992. View Details
  94. General Mills, Inc.: Corporate Strategy

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "General Mills, Inc.: Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 388-123, April 1988. (Revised January 1992.) View Details
  95. EG&G, Inc. (A) (Condensed)

    Provides background on the company and outlines its five-year plan.

    Keywords: Planning;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "EG&G, Inc. (A) (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 377-027, August 1976. (Revised January 1992.) View Details
  96. Note on the Aluminum Industry in 1983

    Keywords: Metals and Minerals;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the Aluminum Industry in 1983." Harvard Business School Background Note 391-205, April 1991. (Revised October 1991.) View Details
  97. Rockwell International (A)

    Describes the competitive situation facing Rockwell International, the market leader in the U.S. water meter industry. The industry is undergoing structural change, and competitor activity is intensifying. Rockwell must decide what, if any, actions are necessary to change its competitive posture. Whether or not to put a plastic case meter on the market is a particularly visible decision issue. Designed for use in the early part of Industry and Competitive Analysis, to facilitate the understanding of industry structural analysis and the concept of generic strategies.

    Keywords: Transformation; Decisions; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Markets; Industry Structures; Business Strategy; Competition; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Rockwell International (A)." Harvard Business School Case 383-019, August 1982. (Revised September 1991.) View Details
  98. Skil Corp., Teaching Note

    Teaching Note for (9-389-005).

    Keywords: United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Skil Corp., Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 389-021, October 1988. (Revised December 1989.) View Details
  99. Hattori-Seiko and the World Watch Industry in 1980, Teaching Note

    Teaching Note for (9-385-300).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; Japan; Switzerland; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Hattori-Seiko and the World Watch Industry in 1980, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 390-074, October 1989. View Details
  100. The Oil Tanker Shipping Industry in 1983

    Describes the international oil tanker shipping industry both historically and in 1983. Designed to provide a vehicle for practicing industry analysis in a volatile commodity business, and for formulating strategy in such an environment. Also can be used to examine industry capacity overexpansion and vertical integration policies of oil companies who own some but not all of the ships they use to transport their oil.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Globalized Markets and Industries; Goods and Commodities; Volatility; Vertical Integration; Supply and Industry; Shipping Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Oil Tanker Shipping Industry in 1983." Harvard Business School Background Note 384-034, September 1983. (Revised February 1989.) View Details
  101. Note on the World Copier Industry in 1983

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the World Copier Industry in 1983." Harvard Business School Background Note 384-152, November 1983. (Revised November 1988.) View Details
  102. Canon Inc.: Worldwide Copier Strategy

    Describes Canon's worldwide strategy in the copier business. Designed to be used to explore strategy formulation in a worldwide industry, and the principles of international competition.

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Global Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Canon Inc.: Worldwide Copier Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 384-151, November 1983. (Revised October 1988.) View Details
  103. Skil Corp.

    The portable electric power tool market in the United States was approximately $1.1 billion in 1979. There were about a dozen manufacturers competing in the U.S. market, of which five were U.S. companies. Skil was the third largest U.S. competitor. Skil was acquired by Emerson Electric in 1979. Skil was a turnaround situation from Emerson's perspective. The company faced intense competition from Black & Decker and emerging foreign competitors.

    Keywords: Competition; Competitive Strategy; Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Strategy; Emerging Markets; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Skil Corp." Harvard Business School Case 389-005, September 1988. View Details
  104. Chain Saw Industry in 1978

    For use on the second day of a two-day sequence on the U.S. chain saw industry. Describes the evolution of the industry since 1974. Illustrates issues in industry evolution, the forces causing evolution, and the strategic issues raised by evolution. The discussion can center around understanding the 1974-78 time period, and then on an analysis of the future. The class can be asked to take the perspective of different major competitors.

    Keywords: Competition; Industry Growth; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and David J. Collis. "Chain Saw Industry in 1978." Harvard Business School Case 379-176, April 1979. (Revised June 1988.) View Details
  105. Receiving Tube Industry in 1966

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Receiving Tube Industry in 1966." Harvard Business School Case 379-181, April 1979. (Revised June 1988.) View Details
  106. Note on the World Copier Industry in 1983 (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the World Copier Industry in 1983 (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Background Note 386-106, November 1985. (Revised December 1987.) View Details
  107. NFL vs. the USFL

    Keywords: Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "NFL vs. the USFL." Harvard Business School Case 386-168, March 1986. (Revised November 1987.) View Details
  108. Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry

    Keywords: Distribution; Electronics Industry; Distribution Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 377-041, September 1976. (Revised February 1987.) View Details
  109. Cramer Electronics, Inc.

    Designed to be the second day of a two-day series on the electronic component distribution industry, following a day spent discussing Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry and Raytheon Co.: Diversification. The important teaching themes which this case is designed to highlight are: 1) to practice the diagnosis of the strategic health of an industry leader, with emphasis on applying the tests of consistency for an effective strategy; 2) to provide practice in both qualitative and quantitative diagnosis of a company's resources, and the relating of these to strategic priorities; 3) to examine the strategic difficulties in attempting to be a large firm in a fragmented industry; and 4) to explore the difficulty of limiting growth and turning away opportunity as a strategic alternative. The series can be positioned either early in a course on strategy formulation, highlighting industry analysis and strategic testing, or later in such a course with the focus on strategic reaction to innovation, responding to a changing industry and assessing strategic alternatives.

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation Strategy; Management Style; Resource Allocation; Opportunities; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Distribution Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Cramer Electronics, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 377-063, October 1976. (Revised February 1987.) View Details
  110. Sweco, Inc. (A)

    Describes Sweco's decision about whether to enter the mud-processing equipment industry (used in oil well drilling). This is an internal entry decision, and the case describes Sweco's existing businesses as well as the mud-processing industry and competitors. The case contains enough data to calculate the costs of entry in the new industry, and to forecast the reactions of existing firms to the entry.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Decisions; Forecasting and Prediction; Cost; Data and Data Sets; Market Entry and Exit; Competition;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and George S. Yip. "Sweco, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 380-167, March 1980. (Revised February 1987.) View Details
  111. Sweco, Inc. (A1)

    Supplements the (A) case. Designed as an in-class handout.

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and George S. Yip. "Sweco, Inc. (A1)." Harvard Business School Supplement 380-168, March 1980. (Revised February 1987.) View Details
  112. Cramer Electronics, Inc. (Condensed)

    Keywords: Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Cramer Electronics, Inc. (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 387-121, January 1987. View Details
  113. Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-122, January 1987. View Details
  114. Sulzer Brothers Ltd.

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Sulzer Brothers Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 384-127, November 1983. (Revised January 1987.) View Details
  115. U.S. Television Set Market, Prewar to 1970 (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Ghemawat, Pankaj, and Michael E. Porter. "U.S. Television Set Market, Prewar to 1970 (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-019, November 1986. View Details
  116. Offshore Drilling Industry in 1980 (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Ghemawat, Pankaj, and Michael E. Porter. "Offshore Drilling Industry in 1980 (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-020, October 1986. View Details
  117. Bendix Corp. (A) (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Bendix Corp. (A) (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 386-177, April 1986. (Revised September 1986.) View Details
  118. U.S. Lodging Industry in 1985

    Keywords: United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "U.S. Lodging Industry in 1985." Harvard Business School Background Note 386-068, October 1985. (Revised September 1986.) View Details
  119. General Electric vs. Westinghouse in Large Turbine Generators (A)

    Describes the U.S. large turbine generator industry in early 1963, a period of severe price cutting and depressed industry conditions. Presents data to allow a structural analysis of the industry and an analysis of the strategies of the major players since 1946. The major teaching issue is the process of competitive rivalry in an oligopoly market, particularly the problems of deescalating in a situation of market warfare. This industry is one where the conditions for avoiding warfare are difficult. Subsidiary teaching issues include the structural analysis of capital goods markets and strategy for the market leader in areas like pricing, rate of technological change, and customer focus. After understanding the industry structure, the discussion should turn to what GE can do to extricate itself from the disastrous price cutting afflicting the industry.

    Keywords: Transformation; Customer Focus and Relationships; Machinery and Machining; Cost Management; Price; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Marketing Strategy; Industry Structures; Competition; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "General Electric vs. Westinghouse in Large Turbine Generators (A)." Harvard Business School Case 380-128, January 1980. (Revised August 1986.) View Details
  120. The U.S. Bicycle Industry in 1974

    Keywords: Bicycle Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The U.S. Bicycle Industry in 1974." Harvard Business School Background Note 382-030, September 1981. (Revised August 1986.) View Details
  121. The Swiss Watch Industry--1981-85

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Edward J. Hoff. "The Swiss Watch Industry--1981-85." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-033, July 1986. View Details
  122. Baby Foods Industry--1965

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Baby Foods Industry--1965." Harvard Business School Case 379-178, April 1979. (Revised June 1986.) View Details
  123. Corn Sweetener Industry

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and John R. Wells. "Corn Sweetener Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 386-154, March 1986. (Revised June 1986.) View Details
  124. Note on Diversification as a Strategy

    Presents a discussion of corporate diversification. Covers historical background, the concept of strategy for a diversified company, and concepts of value creation.

    Keywords: Diversification; Strategy; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Malcolm S. Salter. "Note on Diversification as a Strategy." Harvard Business School Background Note 382-129, March 1982. (Revised June 1986.) View Details
  125. Note on Supplying the Automobile Industry (Condensed)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on Supplying the Automobile Industry (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Background Note 386-176, April 1986. View Details
  126. Polaroid-Kodak (B4)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Technology Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B4)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-176, January 1978. (Revised March 1986.) View Details
  127. Seven-Up Division of Philip Morris

    In 1979, Philip Morris acquired the Seven-Up Co., the number three concentrate producer in the U.S. After four years of losses, Seven-Up had registered an operating profit in 1984. Industry analysts were debating the role that Seven-Up would play in Philip Morris's future.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Business Divisions; Debates; Profit; Production; Personal Development and Career; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Edward J. Hoff. "Seven-Up Division of Philip Morris." Harvard Business School Case 385-321, April 1985. (Revised March 1986.) View Details
  128. Tatung Co. (B)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Tatung Co. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 385-174, October 1984. (Revised February 1986.) View Details
  129. World Television Industry in 1979

    Keywords: Television Entertainment; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "World Television Industry in 1979." Harvard Business School Background Note 385-193, October 1984. (Revised January 1986.) View Details
  130. Water Meter Industry in 1982

    Keywords: Utilities Industry; Industrial Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Water Meter Industry in 1982." Harvard Business School Case 386-128, December 1985. View Details
  131. U.S. Television Set Market, Prewar to 1970

    Keywords: Electronics Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "U.S. Television Set Market, Prewar to 1970." Harvard Business School Background Note 380-180, April 1980. (Revised November 1985.) View Details
  132. Note on Supplying the Automobile Industry: Changing Relationships

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Pankaj Ghemawat. "Note on Supplying the Automobile Industry: Changing Relationships." Harvard Business School Background Note 386-091, October 1985. View Details
  133. Polaroid-Kodak, Addendum

    Supplements the case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak, Addendum." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-165, January 1978. (Revised October 1985.) View Details
  134. The Disposable Diaper Industry in 1974

    Describes the rapidly growing disposable diaper industry in 1974, a period in which Procter and Gamble's industry leadership faced strong challenges from Kimberly Clark, Johnson and Johnson, and Union Carbide. The latter two firms were in the process of entry into the industry. Focuses on the decision to enter the business, the barriers to entry, and the optimal reaction of going firms, in this case Procter and Gamble, to deter or impede entry. Software for this note is available (9-388-504).

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competition; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "The Disposable Diaper Industry in 1974." Harvard Business School Background Note 380-175, April 1980. (Revised September 1985.) View Details
  135. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.: Commercial Roofing Division (A)

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Change Management; Construction Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and John R. Wells. "Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.: Commercial Roofing Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 383-040, September 1982. (Revised August 1985.) View Details
  136. Offshore Drilling Industry in 1980

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Offshore Drilling Industry in 1980." Harvard Business School Background Note 384-170, December 1983. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  137. Bendix Corp. (A)

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Bendix Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 378-257, May 1978. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  138. Fiber-Optics Industry (A): Products, Technology, and Markets--1978

    Keywords: Competition; Competitive Strategy; Hardware; Communications Industry; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Fiber-Optics Industry (A): Products, Technology, and Markets--1978." Harvard Business School Case 379-136, February 1979. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  139. Receiving Tube Industry in 1967-78

    Keywords: Competition; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Receiving Tube Industry in 1967-78." Harvard Business School Case 379-184, April 1979. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  140. Baby Foods Industry--1966-78

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Baby Foods Industry--1966-78." Harvard Business School Case 379-185, April 1979. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  141. Chain Saw Industry in 1974

    Describes the structure of the chain saw industry in 1974, when it is on the threshold of a major period of growth. Data are provided on each significant competitor. The discussion should center around strategies in a growing market for differently situated competitors.

    Keywords: Industry Growth; Corporate Strategy; Industry Structures; Growth and Development Strategy; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Chain Saw Industry in 1974." Harvard Business School Case 379-157, March 1979. (Revised June 1985.) View Details
  142. Raytheon Co.: Diversification

    Centers on the question of whether Raytheon should enter the electronic component distribution industry in the context of its broad diversification approach and acquisition criteria. This industry represents a vertical integration area for Raytheon, so the analytical issues raised by vertical integration decisions can be explored as well. Used in a section of a business policy course on diversification strategy, or to motivate the comprehensive analysis of the electronic component distribution industry earlier in a policy course. Designed for use with Note on the Electronic Component Distribution Industry.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Policy; Market Entry and Exit; Distribution; Diversification; Vertical Integration; Distribution Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Raytheon Co.: Diversification." Harvard Business School Case 377-055, October 1976. (Revised May 1985.) View Details
  143. NFL vs. the USFL (A)

    Keywords: Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "NFL vs. the USFL (A)." Harvard Business School Case 385-311, May 1985. View Details
  144. NFL vs. the USFL (B)

    Keywords: Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "NFL vs. the USFL (B)." Harvard Business School Case 385-318, May 1985. View Details
  145. Note on the Corn Wet Milling Industry--1972

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the Corn Wet Milling Industry--1972." Harvard Business School Background Note 378-186, February 1978. (Revised April 1985.) View Details
  146. Chain Saw Industry in 1978, Addendum

    Supplements the case. Designed as an in-class handout.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Chain Saw Industry in 1978, Addendum." Harvard Business School Supplement 379-177, April 1979. (Revised June 1984.) View Details
  147. Hospital Affiliates International, Inc. and the Hospital Management Industry (Condensed)

    Keywords: Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Hospital Affiliates International, Inc. and the Hospital Management Industry (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 383-115, January 1983. (Revised March 1984.) View Details
  148. EG&G, Inc. (B)

    Raises the dilemmas of making strategic decisions within an organizational construct. The divestment of a division of the company raises not only strategic issues but organizational and interpersonal ones as well. The decision is framed through the strategic planning process, and the case presents data in the form the general manager had available.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Decisions; Business or Company Management; Organizations; Strategic Planning; Strategy; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "EG&G, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 376-188, February 1976. (Revised November 1983.) View Details
  149. U.S. Securities Industry in 1979

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Financial Services Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "U.S. Securities Industry in 1979." Harvard Business School Case 379-190, April 1979. (Revised October 1983.) View Details
  150. Polaroid-Kodak (B7)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B7)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-179, January 1978. (Revised October 1983.) View Details
  151. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.: Commercial Roofing Division (B)

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and John R. Wells. "Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.: Commercial Roofing Division (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 383-041, September 1982. (Revised September 1983.) View Details
  152. Rockwell International (A1)

    Supplements the (A) case. Designed as an in-class handout.

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Rockwell International (A1)." Harvard Business School Supplement 383-020, August 1982. (Revised July 1983.) View Details
  153. Note on the Structural Analysis of Industries

    Provides a framework for the analysis of industry structure. Identifies the major structural features that influence the profit potential in industries and some illustrative implications of these for strategy formulation. Can be used as a reference note for business policy courses and/or as the background for a lecture on industry analysis.

    Keywords: Industry Structures; Business Strategy; Profit;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Note on the Structural Analysis of Industries." Harvard Business School Background Note 376-054, September 1975. (Revised June 1983.) View Details
  154. Polaroid-Kodak, (B11)

    Supplements the (B1) through (B10) cases.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak, (B11)." Harvard Business School Supplement 379-149, March 1979. (Revised May 1983.) View Details
  155. Polaroid-Kodak (B1)

    Describes additional events in battle between Polaroid and Kodak outlined in Polaroid-Kodak. Includes the competitive actions taken by the companies such as the introduction of customer rebates and bonus plans with dealers. Details the new products of each company and the marketing practices employed. Designed to allow a contrast to Kodak's entry into instant cameras.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Marketing Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Product; Competitive Strategy; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B1)." Harvard Business School Case 378-173, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  156. Polaroid-Kodak (B2)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B2)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-174, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  157. Polaroid-Kodak (B3)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B3)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-175, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  158. Polaroid-Kodak (B5)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B5)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-177, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  159. Polaroid-Kodak (B6)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B6)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-178, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  160. Polaroid-Kodak (B8)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Technology Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B8)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-180, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  161. Polaroid-Kodak (B9)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak (B9)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-181, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  162. Polaroid-Kodak, (B10)

    Supplements the (B1) case.

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Polaroid-Kodak, (B10)." Harvard Business School Supplement 378-182, January 1978. (Revised February 1983.) View Details
  163. U.S. Television Set Market--1970-79

    Keywords: United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "U.S. Television Set Market--1970-79." Harvard Business School Background Note 380-181, April 1980. (Revised November 1982.) View Details
  164. Television Set Industry in 1979: Japan, Europe, and Newly Industrializing Countries

    Keywords: Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E. "Television Set Industry in 1979: Japan, Europe, and Newly Industrializing Countries." Harvard Business School Background Note 380-191, January 1980. (Revised November 1982.) View Details
  165. Fiber-Optics Industry (B): Historical Development and Competitor Profiles--1978

    Keywords: History;