Michael E. Porter

Bishop William Lawrence University Professor

Michael E. Porter is a leading authority on competitive strategy; the competitiveness and economic development of nations, states, and regions; and the application of competitive principles and strategic approaches to social needs, such as health care, innovation, and corporate responsibility.

Professor Porter is generally recognized as the father of the modern strategy field, and has been identified in rankings and surveys as the world’s most influential thinker on management and competitiveness. He serves as an advisor to countries, corporations, non-profits, and academic circles across the globe.

As the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor based at Harvard Business School, Professor Porter has received the highest professional recognition that can be awarded to a Harvard faculty member. In 2001, Harvard Business School and Harvard University jointly created the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, which is dedicated to furthering his work and research.

The author of 18 books and over 125 articles, Professor Porter received a B.S.E. with high honors in aerospace and mechanical engineering from Princeton University in 1969, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. He then received an M.B.A. with high distinction in 1971 from the Harvard Business School, where he was a George F. Baker Scholar, and a Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University in 1973.

Teaching

Professor Porter's ideas are the foundation for courses on strategy and competitiveness, and his work is taught at virtually every business school in the world.

His Microeconomics of Competitiveness course at Harvard is open to graduate students across the schools at the university. It is also taught in partnership with more than 80 other universities from every continent using curriculum, video content and instructor support developed at Harvard.

Professor Porter developed and chairs the New CEO Workshop, a Harvard Business School program for newly appointed CEOs of the world’s largest and more complex corporations. Held twice each year by invitation only, the workshop focuses on the challenges facing new CEOs in assuming leadership. His Harvard Business Review article with Jay Lorsch and Nitin Nohria, ‘Seven Surprises for New CEOs’ (October 2004), describes some of the learning from this ongoing body of work.

Professor Porter speaks widely on strategy, competitiveness, health care delivery, related subjects to business, government, non-profit, and philanthropic leaders.

Research

Strategy

Professor Porter’s core field is competitive strategy, which remains a major focus of his research. His book, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, is in its 63rd printing and has been translated into 19 languages. His second major strategy book, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, was published in 1985 and is in its 38th printing. His book On Competition (2008) contains his most influential articles on strategy and competition, including the award-winning Harvard Business Review article 'What is Strategy?' (1996) and 'The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy' (2008), a revised and extended version of his classic article on industry analysis. Professor Porter’s next major book on strategy is in process.

Competitiveness of Nations and Regions

Professor Porter's 1990 book, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, presents a new theory of how nations and regions compete and their sources of economic prosperity. Motivated by his appointment by President Ronald Reagan to the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, the book has guided economic policy in countless nations and regions. Subsequent articles have expanded on the concept of clusters (geographic concentrations of related industries that occur in particular fields) and other aspects of the theory.

National Competitiveness. Professor Porter has published books about national competitiveness covering New Zealand, Canada, Sweden, and Switzerland. His book Can Japan Compete? (2000) challenged long-held views about the Japanese economic miracle.

Professor Porter chairs the Global Competitiveness Report, an annual ranking of the competitiveness and growth prospects of more than 120 countries published by the World Economic Forum.

Clusters. Professor Porter’s ideas on clusters, first introduced in 1990, have given rise to a large body of theory and practice throughout the world. Cluster-based economic development thinking has resulted in many hundreds of public-private cluster initiatives in virtually every country. The article “Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Companies, Governments, and Institutions” and On Competition (1998) provide a summary.

Regional Competitiveness. Professor Porter extended his work on competitiveness to states, provinces, and other sub-national regions. He led the Clusters of Innovation project which developed a framework for economic policy in U.S. regions. He also created the U.S. Cluster Mapping Project, which provides rich data on the economic geography of U.S. regions and clusters on an interactive website and received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Commerce's Economic Development Administration. Professor Porter’s methodology is the basis for comprehensive new data on the economic geography of the 27 countries of the European Union. The article ‘The Economic Performance of Regions’ (2003) summarizes some of the important findings from this data, and a new paper, ‘Convergence, Clusters and Economic Performance’ (2006), with Mercedes Delgado and Scott Stern, presents the first comprehensive statistical examination of U.S. regional performance using cluster data.

Innovation. Professor Porter is co-author (with Professor Scott Stern and others) of a body of work on the sources of innovation in national and regional economies, including The New Challenge to America's Prosperity: Findings from the Innovation Index (1999), 'The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity' (2000), and 'Measuring the 'Ideas' Production Function: Evidence from International Patent Output' (2000).

Competition and Society

Professor Porter's third major body of work has addressed the relationship between competition and important social issues such as poverty and the natural environment.

Economically Distressed Communities. Professor Porter offered a new approach to revitalizing distressed urban communities, beginning with the Harvard Business Review article 'The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City'. In 1994, he founded The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC), a non-profit, private-sector organization to catalyze inner-city business development across the country. Professor Porter is Chairman of the ICIC, a national organization that works in cities across America. Professor Porter has also written on economic development in rural areas.

The Natural Environment. Professor Porter introduced a controversial theory that environmental progress and economic competitiveness were not inconsistent but complementary, first put forth in his Scientific American essay, 'America's Green Strategy' (1991), and developed in more detail in his article 'Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship' (1995). The “Porter Hypothesis” has been the subject of more than 100 articles and has spawned a rich literature. The theory is now gaining widening acceptance and is guiding corporate practice and thinking about regulation.

Philanthropy and Corporate Social Responsibility. Professor Porter has devoted growing attention to philanthropy and the role of corporations in society. His Harvard Business Review article with Mark Kramer, 'Philanthropy's New Agenda: Creating Value' (1999), introduced a new framework for developing strategy in foundations and other philanthropic organizations.

His Harvard Business Review article, 'The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy' (2002), focused on how corporations can create more social benefit with their philanthropy. His Harvard Business Review article with Mark Kramer, 'Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility' (2006), puts forth an approach for companies to think strategically about corporate social responsibility.

With Mark Kramer, Professor Porter co-founded the Center for Effective Philanthropy, a non-profit organization dedicated to creating concepts and measurement tools to improve foundation performance. He also co-founded FSG, an international non-profit advisory firm that provides advice and innovative ideas about social strategy to foundations, corporations, and social service organizations.

Health Care Delivery

Since 2001, Professor Porter has devoted considerable attention to competition in the health care system, with a focus on improving health care delivery. His work with Professor Elizabeth Teisberg, including the book Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), is influencing thinking and practice not only in the United States but numerous other countries. Curriculum growing out of this research is being taught at Harvard and elsewhere.

Advisory and Civic Roles

Professor Porter has served as a strategy advisor to top management in numerous leading U.S. and international companies, among them Caterpillar, DuPont, Procter & Gamble, Royal Dutch Shell, Scotts Miracle-Gro, SYSCO, and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company.

Professor Porter currently serves on the board of directors of two public companies, Thermo Fisher Scientific Corporation and Parametric Technology Corporation.

Professor Porter serves as senior strategy advisor to the Boston Red Sox, a major league baseball team. He has advised numerous educational and community organizations on strategy.

Professor Porter is actively involved in assisting governments in the United States and abroad. He plays an active role in U.S. economic policy with the Executive Branch, Congress, and international organizations. Professor Porter is a founding member and member of the Executive Committee of the Council on Competitiveness, America’s leading private-sector competitiveness organization made up of chief executive officers of major corporations, unions, and universities. He also chairs the selection committee for the annual Corporate Stewardship Award of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

Professor Porter advises national leaders in numerous countries on competitiveness including Armenia, Colombia, Ireland, Nicaragua, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom. He has personally led major studies of economic strategy for the governments of such countries as Canada, India, Kazakhstan, Libya, New Zealand, Portugal, and Thailand.

Professor Porter’s thinking about economic development for groups of neighboring countries has resulted in a long-term initiative within Central America, including the formation of the Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS), a permanent institution based in Costa Rica.

At the state and local level, Professor Porter has worked extensively in his home state of Massachusetts and numerous others. He has been honored by governments for his work in Basque Country, Catalonia, Connecticut, and South Carolina. He chaired the Governor’s Council on Economic Growth and Technology in Massachusetts during the period when Massachusetts made dramatic improvements in competitiveness.

Honors and Awards

Professor Porter has been widely recognized for his work. Some of these honors (in chronological order) include Harvard's David A. Wells Prize in Economics (1973) for his research in industrial organization. He received the Graham and Dodd Award of the Financial Analysts Federation in 1980. His book Competitive Advantage won the George R. Terry Book Award of the Academy of Management in 1985 as the outstanding contribution to management thought.

Professor Porter was elected a Fellow of the International Academy of Management in 1985, a Fellow of the Academy of Management in 1988, and a Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in 1991. In 1991, he received the Charles Coolidge Parlin Award for outstanding contribution to the field of marketing and strategy, given by the American Marketing Association. Professor Porter was honored by the Massachusetts State Legislature in 1991 for his work on Massachusetts competitiveness.

In 1993, Professor Porter was named the Richard D. Irwin Outstanding Educator in Business Policy and Strategy by the Academy of Management.

He was the 1997 recipient of the Adam Smith Award of the National Association of Business Economists, given in recognition of his exceptional contributions to the business economics profession. In 1998, he received the International Academy of Management’s first-ever Distinguished Award for Contribution to the Field of Management.

In 2001, the annual Porter Prize, akin to the Deming Prize, was established in Japan in his name to recognize Japan’s leading companies in terms of strategy.

In 2003, the Academy of Management recognized Professor Porter with its highest award, for scholarly contributions to management.

In 2005, Professor Porter became an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. That year, he was awarded the John Kenneth Galbraith Medal (presented by the American Agricultural Economics Association. That year, he was also honored by the South Carolina legislature for his efforts in assisting and promoting economic development in that state.

In 2007, Professor Porter’s book, Redefining Health Care, was awarded the James A. Hamilton Award as the outstanding health care book of the year.

In 2008, he received the first ever Lifetime Achievement Award from the United States Department of Commerce for his contribution to economic development.

Professor Porter has received six McKinsey Awards for the best Harvard Business Review article of the year, including an unprecedented four first-place awards.

Professor Porter has received honorary doctorates from the Stockholm School of Economics; Erasmus University (the Netherlands); HEC (France); Universidada Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal); Adolfo Ibanez University (Chile); INCAE (Central America); The University of Deusto (Basque Country); The University of Iceland; Universidad de los Andes (Colombia); HHL-Leipzig Graduate School of Management (Germany); Universidad San Martin de Porres (Peru); Johnson and Wales University (United States); and Mt. Ida College (United States).

Professor Porter has also been awarded national honors including the Creu de St. Jordi (Cross of St. George) from Catalonia (Spain) and the Jose Dolores Estrada Order of Merit, the highest civilian honor awarded by the Government of Nicaragua.

Personal History

Professor Porter was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and lived and traveled throughout the world as the son of a career Army officer. He was an all-state high school football and baseball player in the state of New Jersey where he attended high school. At Princeton, he played intercollegiate golf and was New England champion. He was named to the 1968 NCAA Golf All-American Team. After graduating from college, Professor Porter served through the rank of captain in the U.S. Army Reserve. He maintains a long-time interest in the esthetics and business of music and art, having worked on the problems of strategy with arts organizations and aspiring musicians. Professor Porter has two daughters and resides in Brookline, Massachusetts.

9/08

  1. Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2013 from the Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Paraguay.

  2. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2012 from the Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla in Mexico.

  3. McKinsey Award. First Place: Won the first place 2011 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “Creating Shared Value” with with Mark R. Kramer.

  4. Illinois Institute of Technology. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2011 from the Illinois Institute of Technology in the United States.

  5. Universidad del Pacífico. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2009 from the Universidad del Pacífico in Lima, Peru.

  6. University of Toronto. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2009 from the University of Toronto in Canada.

  7. McGill University. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2009 from McGill University in Montreal, Canada.

  8. Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2009 from the Nyenrode Business Universiteit in The Netherlands.

  9. United States Dept. of Commerce. Lifetime Achievement Award in Economic Development: Received the first Lifetime Achievement Award in Economic Development from the U.S. Department of Commerce in 2008.

  10. HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2008 from the Leipzig Graduate School of Management in Germany.

  11. Universidad de los Andes. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2007 from the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota, Colombia.

  12. Universidad Deusto. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2007 from the Universidad Deusto in Bilbao, Spain.

  13. James A. Hamilton Award: Winner of the 2007 James A. Hamilton Book of the Year Award from the American College of Healthcare Executives for Redefining Health Care with Elizabeth O. Teisberg (Harvard Business School Press, 2006).

  14. Háskóli Íslands. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2006 from the Háskóli Islands (University of Iceland) in Reykjavik.

  15. McKinsey Award. First Place: Won the first place 2006 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility” with Mark R. Kramer.

  16. John Kenneth Galbraith Medal: Awarded the 2005 John Kenneth Galbraith Medal by the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA) for his “breakthrough discoveries in economics and outstanding contributions to humanity through leadership, research, and service.”

  17. Fellow, Royal Society of Edinburgh: Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 2005.

  18. Charter Member, Fellows of the Strategic Management Society: Elected a charter member of the Fellows of the Strategic Management Society in 2005.

  19. Distinguished Contributor Award: Received the 2005 Distinguished Contributor to Case Research and Teaching Award from the North American Case Research Association (NACRA).

  20. Distinguished Scholarly Contributions to Management Award: Won the 2003 Academy of Management Career Achievement Award for Distinguished Scholarly Contributions to Management.

  21. Handelshøyskolen BI. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2003 from Handelshøyskolen BI (the BI Norwegian School of Management) in Oslo.

  22. Order of José Dolores Estrada, Batalla de San Jacinto, with the rank of Great Cross: Received the Order of José Dolores Estrada, Batalla de San Jacinto, with the rank of Great Cross, from the government of Nicaragua in 2002.

  23. McKinsey Award. Second Place: Won the second place 2002 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy” with Mark R. Kramer.

  24. McKinsey Award. First Place: Won the first place 2001 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “Strategy and the Internet.”

  25. Universidad de San Martín de Porres. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 2001 from the Universidad de San Martín de Porres in Lima, Peru.

  26. Ecole des hautes études commerciales de Paris. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1999 from the Ecole des hautes études commerciales et Paris (HEC School of Management) in France.

  27. Creu de Sant Jordi: Received the Creu de Sant Jordi in 1998 from the Government of Catalonia, Spain

  28. Distinguished Award for Contribution to the Field of Management: Received the 1998 Award for Distinguished Contribution to the Field of Management from the International Academy of Management.

  29. Adam Smith Award: Won the 1997 Adam Smith Award from the National Association for Business Economics.

  30. INCAE Business School. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1996 from INCAE Business School in Alajuela, Costa Rica.

  31. McKinsey Award. Second Place: Won the second place 1996 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “What Is Strategy?”

  32. Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1995 from the Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez in Santiago, Chile.

  33. Fellow, World Academy of Productivity Science: Selected as a Fellow of the World Academy of Productivity Science in 1995.

  34. Mount Ida College. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1994 from Mount Ida College in the United States.

  35. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1994 from the Universidade Técnica de Lisboa in Portugal.

  36. Award for Academic Contributions to Competitiveness: Received the 1994 Award for Outstanding Contribution to Competitiveness from the American Society for Competitiveness.

  37. Erasmus University. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1993 from Erasmus University in The Netherlands.

  38. Irwin Outstanding Educator Award: Received the 1993 Irwin Outstanding Educator Award from the Academy of Management.

  39. Johnson & Wales University. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1991 from Johnson & Wales University in the United States.

  40. Charles Coolidge Parlin Marketing Research Award: Won the 1991 Charles Coolidge Parlin Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Field of Marketing and Strategy from the American Marketing Association.

  41. Foreign Member: Elected in 1991 as a foreign member of the Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademien (Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences) in Sweden.

  42. Stockholm School of Economics. Honorary doctorate: Received an Honorary Doctorate in 1989 from Stockholm School of Economics in Sweden.

  43. McKinsey Award. First Place: Won the first place 1987 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy.”

  44. George R. Terry Book Award: Winner of the 1985 George R. Terry Book Award from the Academy of Management for Competitive Advantage (Free Press, 1985).

  45. Fellow, International Academy of Management: Elected a Fellow of the International Academy of Management in 1985.

  46. Outstanding Academic Books: Competitive Strategy (Free Press, 1980) was selected as one of the Outstanding Academic Books for 1980–1981 by Choice Magazine.

  47. McKinsey Award. First Place: Won the first place 1979 McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review for “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy.”

  48. Graham and Dodd Scroll Award: Winner of a 1980 Graham and Dodd Scroll Award from the Financial Analysts Journal for "Industry Structure and Competitive Strategy: Keys to Profitability" (1980).

  49. David A. Wells Prize in Economics: Winner of the 1973–1974 David A. Wells Prize in Economics from Harvard University for “Consumer Behavior, Retailer Power, and Manufacturer Strategy in Consumer Goods Industries” (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1973).

  50. Baker Scholar: Distinguished as a Baker Scholar in 1971 at Harvard Business School.

  51. BSE with High Honors: Received a BSE with High Honors, Princeton University, 1969.

  52. Phi Beta Kappa: Phi Beta Kappa, 1969.

  53. Sigma Xi: Sigma Xi, 1969.

  54. Tau Beta Pi: Tau Beta Pi, 1969.

  55. NCAA Golf All-American Team: Member, NCAA Golf All-American Team, 1968.

  56. Eastern Intercollegiate Golf Champion: Winner of the 1968 Eastern Intercollegiate Golf Championship.

  57. All State Football Team: Member, All State Football Team, New Jersey, 1965 and previous years.

  58. All State Baseball Team: Member, All State Baseball Team, New Jersey, 1965 and previous years.