Elon Kohlberg

Royal Little Professor of Business Administration

Elon Kohlberg is the Royal Little Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. His research is mainly in Game Theory, in particular the study of non-cooperative equilibrium.

Professor Kohlberg has taught many courses in the MBA, Ph.D., and executive programs at Harvard Business School, including, Managerial Economics, Competitive Decision Making, Strategy, and Finance.  He is currently teaching the Advanced Microeconomics course in the doctoral program, as well as the elective MBA course Games of Chance and Games of Strategy.

Professor Kohlberg serves on the board of directors of Medinol and Digi-Block, Inc.  Previously, he served on the boards of Teva Pharmaceuticals and Ormat Technologies.

He received a B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. in mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Journal Articles

  1. A Strong Law of Large Numbers for Nonexpansive Vector-Valued Stochastic Processes

    Keywords: Law;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Abraham Neyman. "A Strong Law of Large Numbers for Nonexpansive Vector-Valued Stochastic Processes." Israel Journal of Mathematics 111 (1999). View Details
  2. Profit Maximization Problem

    Keywords: Profit; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Hemenway, David, and Elon Kohlberg. "Profit Maximization Problem." Economic Inquiry 35, no. 4 (October 1997). View Details
  3. Independence on Relative Probability Spaces and Consistent Assessments in Game Trees

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Philip J. Reny. "Independence on Relative Probability Spaces and Consistent Assessments in Game Trees." Journal of Economic Theory 75, no. 2 (August 1997): 280 – 313. View Details
  4. On the Strategic Stability of Equilibria

    Keywords: Strategy; Balance and Stability;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Jean Francois Mertens. "On the Strategic Stability of Equilibria." Econometrica 54, no. 5 (September 1986): 1003–1039. View Details
  5. Convergence in Hilbert's Metric and Convergence in Direction

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Abraham Neyman. "Convergence in Hilbert's Metric and Convergence in Direction." Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 93, no. 1 (April 1983): 104 – 108. View Details
  6. Equilibrium Store Locations When Consumers Minimize Travel Time Plus Waiting Time

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Customers;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Equilibrium Store Locations When Consumers Minimize Travel Time Plus Waiting Time." No. 3. Economics Letters 11, no. 3 (1983): 211–216. View Details
  7. Consistency of Finite Systems of Convex Inequalities

    Keywords: System;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Consistency of Finite Systems of Convex Inequalities." Mathematical Programming 25 (1983): 359 – 362. View Details
  8. The Perron-Frobenius Theorem Without Additivity

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "The Perron-Frobenius Theorem Without Additivity." Journal of Mathematical Economics 10, no. 23 (September 1982): 299–303. View Details
  9. The Contraction Mapping Approach to the Perron-Frobenius Theory: Why Hilbert's Metric?

    Keywords: Theory; Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and John W. Pratt. "The Contraction Mapping Approach to the Perron-Frobenius Theory: Why Hilbert's Metric?" Mathematics of Operations Research, no. 7 (1982): 198–210. View Details
  10. Equilibrium in a Simple Price Location Model

    Keywords: Price;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and William Novshek. "Equilibrium in a Simple Price Location Model." Economics Letters 9, no. 1 (1982): 7 – 16. View Details
  11. Asymptotic Behavior of Nonexpansive Mappings in Uniformly Convex Banach Spaces

    Keywords: Behavior;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Abraham Neyman. "Asymptotic Behavior of Nonexpansive Mappings in Uniformly Convex Banach Spaces." Art. 88. American Mathematical Monthly 88, no. 9 (November 1981): 698–700. View Details
  12. Asymptotic Behavior of Nonexpansive Mappings in Normed Linear Spaces

    Keywords: Behavior;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Abraham Neyman. "Asymptotic Behavior of Nonexpansive Mappings in Normed Linear Spaces." Art. 38. Israel Journal of Mathematics, no. 4 (1981): 269–275. View Details
  13. Invariant Half-Lines of Nonexpansive Piecewise-Linear Transformations

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Invariant Half-Lines of Nonexpansive Piecewise-Linear Transformations." Mathematics of Operations Research, no. 5 (1980): 366–372. View Details
  14. On Stochastic Games with Stationary Optimal Strategies

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bewley, Truman F., and Elon Kohlberg. "On Stochastic Games with Stationary Optimal Strategies." Mathematics of Operations Research, no. 3 (1978): 104–125. View Details
  15. Value

    Keywords: Value;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Value." Handworterbuch der Mathematischen Wirtschaftswissenschaften (1977): 479–486. View Details
  16. Partial Equilibrium Approach to the Free-Rider Problem

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Green, Jerry R., Jean Jacque Laffont, and Elon Kohlberg. "Partial Equilibrium Approach to the Free-Rider Problem." Journal of Public Economics 6, no. 4 (November 1976): 375 – 394. View Details
  17. A Model of Economic Growth With Altruism Between Generations

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Relationships;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "A Model of Economic Growth With Altruism Between Generations." Journal of Economic Theory 13, no. 1 (August 1976): 1–13. View Details
  18. The Asymptotic Theory of Stochastic Games

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Theory;

    Citation:

    Bewley, Truman F., and Elon Kohlberg. "The Asymptotic Theory of Stochastic Games." Mathematics of Operations Research, no. 1 (1976): 197 – 208. View Details
  19. The Asymptotic Solution of a Recursion Equation Occurring in Stochastic Games

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling;

    Citation:

    Bewley, Truman F., and Elon Kohlberg. "The Asymptotic Solution of a Recursion Equation Occurring in Stochastic Games." Mathematics of Operations Research, no. 1 (1976): 321 – 337. View Details
  20. The Information Revealed in Infinitely Repeated Games of Incomplete Information

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Information;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "The Information Revealed in Infinitely Repeated Games of Incomplete Information." International Journal of Game Theory 4, no. 2 (June 1975): 57–59. View Details
  21. Optimal Strategies in Repeated Games with Incomplete Information

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Strategy; Information;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Optimal Strategies in Repeated Games with Incomplete Information." International Journal of Game Theory 4, no. 1 (March 1975): 7 – 24. View Details
  22. Repeated Games of Incomplete Information: The Symmetric Case

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Information;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Shmuel Zamir. "Repeated Games of Incomplete Information: The Symmetric Case." Annals of Statistics 2, no. 5 (September 1974): 1040–1041. View Details
  23. Equally Distributed Correspondences

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and S. Hart. "Equally Distributed Correspondences." Journal of Mathematical Economics 1 (August 1974): 167–174. View Details
  24. On Equilibrium Allocations as Distributions on the Commodity Space

    Keywords: Goods and Commodities;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, S. Hart, and W. Hildenbrand. "On Equilibrium Allocations as Distributions on the Commodity Space." Journal of Mathematical Economics 1 (August 1974): 159–166. View Details
  25. Repeated Games with Absorbing States

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Repeated Games with Absorbing States." Annals of Statistics 2, no. 4 (July 1974): 724–738. View Details
  26. On Non-Atomic Games

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "On Non-Atomic Games." International Journal of Game Theory 2, no. 1 (December 1973): 87 – 98. View Details
  27. The Nucleolus as a Solution to a Minimization Problem

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "The Nucleolus as a Solution to a Minimization Problem." SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics 23, no. 1 (July 1972): 34 – 39. View Details
  28. On the Nucleolus of a Characteristic Function Game

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "On the Nucleolus of a Characteristic Function Game." SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics 20 (January 1971): 62–66. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Foundations of Strategic Equilibria

    Keywords: Strategy; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Hillas, John, and Elon Kohlberg. "Foundations of Strategic Equilibria." In Handbook of Game Theory, edited by Robert J. Aumann and Sergiu Hart. Elsevier Science, 2002. View Details
  2. Refinement of Nash Equilibrium: The Main Ideas

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, E. "Refinement of Nash Equilibrium: The Main Ideas." In Game Theory and Applications, edited by T. Ichiishi, A. Neyman, and Y. Tauman. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990. View Details
  3. The Future Evolution of the Central Office Switching Industry

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Communication Technology; Forecasting and Prediction; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Hausman, Jerry A., and Elon Kohlberg. "The Future Evolution of the Central Office Switching Industry." In Future Competition in Telecommunications, edited by Stephen P. Bradley and Jerry A. Hausman. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1989. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Correlated Equilibrium and Nash Equilibrium as an Observer's Assessment of the Game

    Noncooperative games are examined from the point of view of an outside observer who believes that the players are rational and that they know at least as much as the observer. The observer is assumed to be able to observe many instances of the play of the game; these instances are identical in the sense that the observer cannot distinguish between the settings in which different plays occur. If the observer does not believe that he will be able to offer beneficial advice then he must believe that the players are playing a correlated equilibrium, though he may not initially know which correlated equilibrium. If the observer also believes that, in a certain sense, there is nothing connecting the players in a particular instance of the game then he must believe that the correlated equilibrium they are playing is, in fact, a Nash equilibrium.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Game Theory; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Hillas, John, Elon Kohlberg, and John W. Pratt. "Correlated Equilibrium and Nash Equilibrium as an Observer's Assessment of the Game." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-005, July 2007. View Details
  2. Foundations of Strategic Equilibrium

    Citation:

    Hillas, John, and Elon Kohlberg. "Foundations of Strategic Equilibrium." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 01-001, July 2000. View Details
  3. Independence on Relative Probability Spaces and Consistent Assessments in Game Trees

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon, and Philip J. Reny. "Independence on Relative Probability Spaces and Consistent Assessments in Game Trees." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 96-072, June 1996. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Quality Printing

    Keywords: Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christenson, Charles, Elon Kohlberg, Arthur Schleifer Jr., Harborne W. Stuart Jr., Paul A. Vatter, and George Wu. "Quality Printing." Harvard Business School Case 896-002, August 1995. View Details
  2. Central Office Switch Industry in 1985

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Central Office Switch Industry in 1985." Harvard Business School Background Note 187-053, October 1986. View Details
  3. Sharing Costs: The Sydvattan Co.

    Keywords: Cost;

    Citation:

    Lander, Eric S., and Elon Kohlberg. "Sharing Costs: The Sydvattan Co." Harvard Business School Case 184-108, January 1984. View Details
  4. Sharing Costs: Internal Telephone Billing Rates

    Keywords: Cost; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Sharing Costs: Internal Telephone Billing Rates." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-109, January 1982. View Details
  5. Canadian Constitution Amendment Scheme

    Keywords: Game Theory; Government and Politics; Canada;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Canadian Constitution Amendment Scheme." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-110, January 1982. View Details
  6. Bluffing at Poker I

    Keywords: Game Theory;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Bluffing at Poker I." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-111, January 1982. View Details
  7. Bluffing at Poker II

    Keywords: Game Theory;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Bluffing at Poker II." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-112, January 1982. View Details
  8. Constant Sum Games

    Keywords: Game Theory;

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Constant Sum Games." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-113, January 1982. View Details
  9. Agree I

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Agree I." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-106, November 1981. View Details
  10. Agree II

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Agree II." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-108, November 1981. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Demonstration of Strength Requires Sacrifice

    Citation:

    Kohlberg, Elon. "Demonstration of Strength Requires Sacrifice." March 2003. View Details