Clayton M. Christensen

Kim B. Clark Professor of Business Administration

Clayton M. Christensen is the Kim B. Clark Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School; and is regarded as one of the world's top experts on innovation and growth.

Professor Christensen holds a B.A. with highest honors in economics from Brigham Young University (1975), and an M.Phil. in applied econometrics from Oxford University (1977), where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar. He received an MBA with High Distinction from the Harvard Business School in 1979, graduating as a George F. Baker Scholar. In 1982 Professor Christensen was named a White House Fellow, and served through 1983 as assistant to U.S. Transportation Secretaries Drew Lewis and Elizabeth Dole. He was awarded his DBA from the Harvard Business School in 1992. Professor Christensen became a faculty member there in 1992, and was awarded a full professorship with tenure in 1998. He holds five honorary doctorates and an honorary chaired professorship at the Tsinghua University in Taiwan.

Christensen has served as a director of many companies, and has advised the executives of scores of the world's major corporations. These companies generate tens of billions of dollars in revenues every year from product and service innovations that were inspired by his research.

Christensen, an experienced entrepreneur, has started four successful companies. Prior to joining the HBS faculty, in 1984 he and three MIT professors founded CPS Technologies, which has become a leading developer and manufacturer of products from high-technology materials.

In 2000, Christensen founded Innosight, a consulting firm that uses his theories of innovation to help companies create new growth businesses. In 2007, he founded Rose Park Advisors, a firm that identifies and invests in disruptive companies. He is also the founder of Innosight Institute, a non-profit think tank whose mission is to apply his theories to vexing societal problems such as healthcare and education.

Professor Christensen is the best-selling author of eight books and more than a hundred articles. The Innovator's Dilemma received the Global Business Book Award as the best business book of the year (1997); and in 2011 The Economist named it as one of the six most important books about business ever written.  His other articles and books have received the Abernathy, Newcomen, James Madison, and Circle Prizes. Five times he has received the McKinsey Award, given to the two best articles published in the Harvard Business Review each year; and has received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Tribeca Films Festival (2010). He has been featured twice (1998 and 2011) as the cover story in Forbes Magazine. In 2011 in a poll of thousands of executives, consultants and business school professors, Christensen was named as the most influential business thinker in the world.

Professor Christensen was born in Salt Lake City, Utah. He worked as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Republic of Korea from 1971 to 1973; speaks fluent Korean; and continues to serve in his church in as many ways as he can. He served the Boy Scouts of America for 25 years as a scoutmaster, cubmaster, den leader, troop and pack committee chairman. He and his wife Christine live in Belmont, MA. They are the parents of five children and grandparents to five grandchildren.

Books

  1. How Will You Measure Your Life?

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., James Allworth, and Karen Dillon. How Will You Measure Your Life? HarperBusiness, 2012.
  2. The Innovator's DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators

    Some people are just natural innovators, right? With no apparent effort, they discover ideas for new products, services, and entire businesses. It may look like innovators are born, not made. But according to Jeffrey Dyer, Hal Gregersen, and Clay Christensen anyone can become more innovative. How? Master the discovery skills that distinguish innovative entrepreneurs and executives from ordinary managers. In The Innovator's DNA, the authors identify five capabilities demonstrated by the best innovators: (1) Associating: drawing connections between questions, problems, or ideas from unrelated fields; (2) Questioning: posing queries that challenge common wisdom; (3) Observing: scrutinizing the behavior of customers, suppliers, and competitors to identify new ways of doing things; (4) Experimenting: constructing interactive experiences and provoking unorthodox responses to see what insights emerge; and (5) Networking: meeting people with different ideas and perspectives. The authors explain how to generate ideas with these skills, collaborate with "delivery-driven" colleagues to implement ideas, and build innovation skills throughout your organization to sharpen its competitive edge. They also provide a self-assessment for rating your own innovator's DNA. Practical and provocative, this book is an essential resource for all teams seeking to strengthen their innovative prowess.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Disruptive Innovation; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Dyer, Jeffrey H., Hal B. Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen. The Innovator's DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2011.
  3. The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care

    A groundbreaking prescription for health care reform—from a legendary leader in innovation. Our health care system is in critical condition. Each year, fewer Americans can afford it, fewer businesses can provide it, and fewer government programs can promise it for future generations. We need a cure, and we need it now. Harvard Business School's Clayton M. Christensen—whose bestselling The Innovator's Dilemma revolutionized the business world—presents The Innovator's Prescription, a comprehensive analysis of the strategies that will improve health care and make it affordable. Christensen applies the principles of disruptive innovation to the broken health care system with two pioneers in the field—Dr. Jerome Grossman and Dr. Jason Hwang. Together, they examine a range of symptoms and offer proven solutions.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Health Care and Treatment; Disruptive Innovation; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Jerome H. Grossman M.D., and Jason Hwang M.D. The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care. McGraw-Hill, 2009. (Winner of James A. Hamilton Award Given annually to the author of a management or healthcare book judged outstanding by the American College of Healthcare Executives' Book of the Year Committee presented by American College of Healthcare Executives.)
  4. Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns

    According to recent studies in neuroscience, the way we learn doesn't always match up with the way we are taught. If we hope to stay competitive—academically, economically, and technologically—we need to rethink our understanding of intelligence, reevaluate our educational system, and reinvigorate our commitment to learning. In other words, we need “disruptive innovation.”

    Keywords: Learning; Teaching; Disruptive Innovation; Competitive Advantage; Technology Adoption;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Michael B. Horn, and Curtis W. Johnson. Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns. McGraw-Hill, 2008.
  5. Seeing What's Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change

    Keywords: Theory; Innovation and Invention; Change; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., Scott D. Anthony, and Erik A Roth. Seeing What's Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.
  6. Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation

    Keywords: Strategy; Management; Technology; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Burgelman, Robert A., Clayton M. Christensen, and Steven C. Wheelwright. Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003.
  7. The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Success; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael E. Raynor. The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2003.
  8. Innovation and the General Manager

    Keywords: Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. Innovation and the General Manager. Homewood, IL: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999.
  9. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail

    His work is cited by the world's best known thought leaders, from Steve Jobs to Malcolm Gladwell. In this classic bestseller, innovation expert Clayton M. Christensen shows how even the most outstanding companies can do everything right—yet still lose market leadership. Read this revolutionary book and avoid a similar fate.

    Christensen—who recently authored the award-winning Harvard Business Review article "How Will You Measure Your Life"—explains why most companies miss out on new waves of innovation. No matter the industry, he says a successful company with established products WILL get pushed aside unless managers know how and when to abandon traditional business practices. Offering both successes and failures from leading companies as a guide, The Innovator's Dilemma gives you a set of rules for capitalizing on the phenomenon of disruptive innovation.

    Sharp, cogent, provocative, and one of the most influential business books of all time—The Innovator's Dilemma is the book no manager or entrepreneur should be without.

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.

Journal Articles

  1. Consulting on the Cusp of Disruption

    Consulting fundamental business model has not changed in more than 100 years: very smart outsiders go into organizations for a finite period of time and recommend solutions for the most difficult problems confronting their clients. But at traditional strategy-consulting firms, the share of work that is classic strategy has sharply declined over the past 30 years, from 60% or 70% to only about 20%. What accounts for this trend? Disruption is coming for management consulting, the authors say, as it has recently come for law. For many years the professional services were immune to disruption, for two reasons: opacity and agility. Clients find it very difficult to judge a firm's performance in advance, because they are usually hiring it for specialized knowledge and capability that they themselves lack. Price becomes a proxy for quality. And the top consulting (or law) firms have human capital as their primary assets; they aren't hamstrung by substantial resource allocation decisions, giving them remarkable flexibility. Now incumbent firms are seeing their competitive position eroded by technology, alternative staffing models, and other forces. Market research companies and database providers are enabling the democratization of data. The vast turnover at consultancies means armies of experienced strategists are available for hire by former clients, whose increasing sophistication allows them to allocate work instead of relying on one-stop shops as they did in the past. Drawing on the theory of disruption, the authors offer three scenarios for the future of consulting.

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Dina Wang, and Derek van Bever. "Consulting on the Cusp of Disruption." Harvard Business Review 91, no. 10 (October 2013): 106–114.
  2. The New M&A Playbook

    Companies spend more than $2 trillion on acquisitions every year, yet the M&A failure rate is between 70% and 90%. Executives can dramatically increase their odds of success, the authors argue, if they understand how to select targets, how much to pay for them, and whether and how to integrate them. The most common reasons for making an acquisition include holding on to a premium position or cutting costs. But to realize those benefits, the acquirer needs to achieve economies of scale by absorbing the target's resources into its operations. CEOs, who are often unrealistic about the performance boost from such acquisitions, must be sure not to pay too much for them. A less-familiar reason for making an acquisition is to fundamentally change a company's growth trajectory. In those deals, the acquirer uses the target's business model as a platform for growth. Because the business models with the most transformative potential are often disruptive, they can be difficult to evaluate, and CEOs often believe that such acquisitions are overpriced. In fact, however, those are the ones that can pay off spectacularly.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Model; Disruptive Innovation; Growth and Development Strategy; Integration;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Richard Alton, Curtis Rising, and Andrew Waldeck. "The New M&A Playbook." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 3 (March 2011).
  3. Picking Green Tech's Winners and Losers

    Keywords: Technology;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Shuman Talukdar, Richard Alton, and Michael B. Horn. "Picking Green Tech's Winners and Losers." Stanford Social Innovation Review (spring 2011).
  4. How Will You Measure Your Life?

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "How Will You Measure Your Life?" Harvard Business Review 88, nos. 7-8 (July–August 2010): 46–51.
  5. The Innovator's DNA

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Dyer, Jeffrey H., Hal B. Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen. "The Innovator's DNA." Harvard Business Review 87, no. 12 (December 2009). (Winner of McKinsey Award. Second Place For the best articles published each year in the Harvard Business Review presented by McKinsey & Company.)
  6. Course Research: Using the Case Method to Build and Teach Management Theory

    Some in the Academy have questioned the usefulness of case studies in teaching sound management theory (Shugan 2006). Our research and experience suggests exactly the opposite-that case studies can unite the development of theory with the teaching of it in a single enterprise we'll call course research. Conclusions such as those that Shugan and others have reached stem from misconceptions about the relationship of research, theory, case studies, and teaching. In fact, the proper use of case studies in teaching can help faculty resolve a basic dilemma of academia: promotion is often based upon our published research, and we find that responsibilities to teach detract from the mandate to publish. When approached properly, case studies can transform teaching into research and enroll students as "course researchers," whose class participation can be exceptionally valuable in the theory-building process.

    Keywords: Business Education; Curriculum and Courses; Teaching; Cases; Research; Theory;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Paul R. Carlile. "Course Research: Using the Case Method to Build and Teach Management Theory." Academy of Management Learning & Education 8, no. 2 (2009): 240–251.
  7. Reinventing Your Business Model

    Keywords: Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Johnson, Mark W., Clayton M. Christensen, and Henning Kagermann. "Reinventing Your Business Model." Harvard Business Review 86, no. 12 (December 2008).
  8. Entrepreneur Behaviors, Opportunity Recognition, and the Origins of Innovative Ventures

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Opportunities; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Dyer, Jeffrey H., Hal B. Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen. "Entrepreneur Behaviors, Opportunity Recognition, and the Origins of Innovative Ventures." Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 2, no. 4 (December 2008): 317–338.
  9. Innovation Killers: How Financial Tools Destroy Your Capacity to Do New Things

    Most companies aren't half as innovative as their senior executives want them to be (or as their marketing claims suggest they are). What's stifling innovation? There are plenty of usual suspects, but the authors finger three financial tools as key accomplices. Discounted cash flow and net present value, as commonly used, underestimate the real returns and benefits of proceeding with an investment. Most executives compare the cash flows from innovation against the default scenario of doing nothing, assuming - incorrectly - that the present health of the company will persist indefinitely if the investment is not made. In most situations, however, competitors' sustaining and disruptive investments over time result in deterioration of financial performance. Fixed- and sunk-cost conventional wisdom confers an unfair advantage on challengers and shackles incumbent firms that attempt to respond to an attack. Executives in established companies, bemoaning the expense of building new brands and developing new sales and distribution channels, seek instead to leverage their existing brands and structures. Entrants, in contrast, simply create new ones. The problem for the incumbent isn't that the challenger can spend more; it's that the challenger is spared the dilemma of having to choose between full-cost and marginal-cost options. The emphasis on short-term earnings per share as the primary driver of share price, and hence shareholder value creation, acts to restrict investments in innovative long-term growth opportunities. These are not bad tools and concepts in and of themselves, but the way they are used to evaluate investments creates a systematic bias against successful innovation. The authors recommend alternative methods that can help managers innovate with a much more astute eye for future value.

    Keywords: Investment; Innovation and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Business and Shareholder Relations; Prejudice and Bias; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Stephen P. Kaufman, and Willy C. Shih. "Innovation Killers: How Financial Tools Destroy Your Capacity to Do New Things." Special Issue on HBS Centennial. Harvard Business Review 86, no. 1 (January 2008).
  10. Finding the Right Job for your Product

    Keywords: Jobs and Positions; Product;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Scott D. Anthony, Gerald N. Berstell, and Denise Nitterhouse. "Finding the Right Job for your Product." MIT Sloan Management Review 48, no. 3 (spring 2007).
  11. Disruptive Innovation for Social Change

    Keywords: Disruption; Innovation and Invention; Change; Society;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Heiner Baumann, Rudy Ruggles, and Thomas M. Sadtler. "Disruptive Innovation for Social Change." Harvard Business Review 84, no. 12 (December 2006).
  12. The Tools of Cooperation and Change

    Keywords: Cooperation; Change; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Matt Marx, and Howard H. Stevenson. "The Tools of Cooperation and Change." Harvard Business Review 84, no. 10 (October 2006).
  13. The Ongoing Process of Building a Theory of Disruption

    Keywords: Theory; Disruption;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Ongoing Process of Building a Theory of Disruption." Journal of Product Innovation Management 23 (January 2006): 39–55.
  14. Marketing Malpractice: The Cause and the Cure

    Keywords: Marketing; Health;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall. "Marketing Malpractice: The Cause and the Cure." Harvard Business Review 83, no. 12 (December 2005).
  15. New Avenues to Growth

    Keywords: Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott D. Anthony. "New Avenues to Growth." Strategy & Innovation 2, no. 6 (November 15, 2004).
  16. Are You Reading the Right Signals?

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and Scott D. Anthony. "Are You Reading the Right Signals?" Strategy & Innovation 2, no. 5 (September 15, 2004).
  17. Maximizing the Returns from Research

    Keywords: Research; Profit;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., Christopher S. Musso, and Scott D. Anthony. "Maximizing the Returns from Research." Research Technology Management 47, no. 4 (July–August 2004).
  18. The Rules of the Game

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and Scott D. Anthony. "The Rules of the Game." Strategy & Innovation 2, no. 3 (May 15, 2004).
  19. Cheaper, Faster, Easier: Disruption in the Service Sector

    Keywords: Disruption; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott D. Anthony. "Cheaper, Faster, Easier: Disruption in the Service Sector." Strategy & Innovation 2, no. 1 (January/February 2004).
  20. Performance, Convenience, Price: What's Your Brand About?

    Keywords: Performance; Price; Brands and Branding;

    Citation:

    Anthony, Scott D., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Performance, Convenience, Price: What's Your Brand About?" Strategy & Innovation 1, no. 4 (November/December 2003).
  21. Why Hard-Nosed Executives Should Care About Management Theory

    Keywords: Management; Theory;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and Michael Raynor. "Why Hard-Nosed Executives Should Care About Management Theory." Harvard Business Review 81, no. 9 (September 2003).
  22. Do You Know What You Do Best?

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott D. Anthony. "Do You Know What You Do Best?" Strategy & Innovation 1, no. 3 (September/October 2003).
  23. Solving the Dilemmas of Growth

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott D. Anthony. "Solving the Dilemmas of Growth." Strategy & Innovation 1, no. 2 (July/August 2003).
  24. Beyond The Innovator's Dilemma

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Beyond The Innovator's Dilemma." Strategy & Innovation 1, no. 1 (March/April 2003).
  25. A Prescription for Health Care Cost Reform

    Keywords: Cost; Health; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Ulwick, Anthony W., Clayton M. Christensen, and Jerome H Grossman. "A Prescription for Health Care Cost Reform." Strategy & Innovation 1, no. 1 (March/April 2003).
  26. Disruption, Disintegration, and the Dissipation of Differentiability

    Keywords: Disruption; Segmentation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Matt Verlinden, and George Westerman. "Disruption, Disintegration, and the Dissipation of Differentiability." Industrial and Corporate Change 11, no. 5 (November 2002): 955–993.
  27. The Great Leap: Driving Innovation from the Base of the Global Pyramid

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Global Range;

    Citation:

    Hart, Stuart L., and Clayton M. Christensen. "The Great Leap: Driving Innovation from the Base of the Global Pyramid." MIT Sloan Management Review 44, no. 1 (fall 2002): 51–56.
  28. The Rules of Innovation

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Rules of Innovation." Technology Review (June 2002).
  29. If You View the Customer's World in Terms of Products and Features Rather Than Jobs That Need to Be Done, You'll Miss the Target

    Keywords: Customers; Product;

  30. Disruptive Innovation: A New Diagnosis for Health Care's 'Financial Flu'

    Keywords: Disruption; Innovation and Invention; Health; Finance;

    Citation:

    Kenagy, John, and C. M. Christensen. "Disruptive Innovation: A New Diagnosis for Health Care's 'Financial Flu'." Healthcare Financial Management (May 2002): 62–66.
  31. The Future of the Microprocessor Business

    Keywords: Hardware; Business Ventures; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Bass, Michael J., and Clayton M. Christensen. "The Future of the Microprocessor Business." IEEE Spectrum 39, no. 4 (April 2002).
  32. Foundations for Growth: How to Identify and Build Disruptive New Businesses

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Disruption; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Mark W. Johnson, and Darrell K. Rigby. "Foundations for Growth: How to Identify and Build Disruptive New Businesses." MIT Sloan Management Review 43, no. 3 (spring 2002).
  33. Disruptive Innovation -- New Diagnosis and Treatment for the Systemic Maladies of Healthcare

    Keywords: Disruption; Innovation and Invention; Health Care and Treatment;

    Citation:

    Kenagy, John W., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Disruptive Innovation -- New Diagnosis and Treatment for the Systemic Maladies of Healthcare." World Markets Series, Business Briefing (Global Healthcare 2002): 14–17.
  34. Skate to Where the Money Will Be

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., Michael Raynor, and Matthew Verlinden. "Skate to Where the Money Will Be." Harvard Business Review 79, no. 10 (November 2001).
  35. Assessing Your Organization's Innovation Capabilities

    Keywords: Organizations; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Assessing Your Organization's Innovation Capabilities." Leader to Leader, no. 21 (summer 2001): 27–37.
  36. The Great Disruption

    Keywords: Disruption;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Thomas Craig, and Stuart Hart. "The Great Disruption." Foreign Affairs 80, no. 2 (March/April 2001).
  37. The Past and Future of Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Past and Future of Competitive Advantage." MIT Sloan Management Review 42, no. 2 (winter 2001).
  38. Will Disruptive Innovations Cure Health Care?

    Keywords: Disruption; Innovation and Invention; Health; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Richard M.J. Bohmer, and John Kenagy. "Will Disruptive Innovations Cure Health Care?" Harvard Business Review 78, no. 5 (September–October 2000): 102–117.
  39. Limits of the New Corporation

    Keywords: Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Limits of the New Corporation." Business Week (August 28, 2000), 180–181.
  40. Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change

    Keywords: Disruption; Change; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael Overdorf. "Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change." Harvard Business Review 78, no. 2 (March–April 2000): 66–76.
  41. Patterns of Disruption in Retailing

    Keywords: Disruption; Sales;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and R. S. Tedlow. "Patterns of Disruption in Retailing." Harvard Business Review 78, no. 1 (January–February 2000): 42–45.
  42. Coping with Change: A Framework for the New Millennium

    Keywords: Change; Framework;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Coping with Change: A Framework for the New Millennium." Special Issue on Millennium Edition. Business Technology Journal (December 1999): 2–17.
  43. Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries

    Keywords: Strategy; Supply and Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., F. F. Suarez, and J. M. Utterback. "Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries." Management Science 44, no. 12 (December 1998): S207–S220.
  44. Disruptive Technologies: A Credible Threat to Leading Programs in Continuing Medical Education?

    Keywords: Disruption; Technology; Programs; Health; Education;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Elizabeth G Armstrong. "Disruptive Technologies: A Credible Threat to Leading Programs in Continuing Medical Education?" Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 69, no. 80 (spring 1998): 69–80.
  45. Making Strategy: Learning by Doing

    Keywords: Strategy; Learning;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Making Strategy: Learning by Doing." Harvard Business Review 75, no. 6 (November–December 1997).
  46. Discovering New and Emerging Markets

    Keywords: Emerging Markets;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Discovering New and Emerging Markets." Chemtech (September 1997): 42–47.
  47. Patterns in the Evolution of Product Competition

    Keywords: Competition;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Patterns in the Evolution of Product Competition." European Management Journal 15 (April 1997): 117–127.
  48. Customer Power, Strategic Investment, and the Failure of Leading Firms

    Keywords: Customers; Strategy; Failure; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Bower, J. L., and C. M. Christensen. "Customer Power, Strategic Investment, and the Failure of Leading Firms." Strategic Management Journal 17, no. 3 (March 1996): 197–218.
  49. Explaining the Attacker's Advantage: Technological Paradigms, Organizational Dynamics, and the Value Network

    Keywords: Technology; Organizations; Value; Networks;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and R. S. Rosenbloom. "Explaining the Attacker's Advantage: Technological Paradigms, Organizational Dynamics, and the Value Network." Research Policy 24, no. 2 (March 1995).
  50. Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave

    Keywords: Disruption; Technology;

    Citation:

    Bower, J. L., and C. M. Christensen. "Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave." Harvard Business Review 73, no. 1 (January–February 1995): 43–53.
  51. Technological Discontinuities, Organizational Capabilities, and Strategic Commitments

    Keywords: Technology; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Rosenbloom, R. S., and C. M. Christensen. "Technological Discontinuities, Organizational Capabilities, and Strategic Commitments." Industrial and Corporate Change 3, no. 3 (1994): 655–685.
  52. The Rigid Disk Drive Industry, 1956-90: A History of Commercial and Technological Turbulence

    Keywords: History; Technology; Hardware; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M. "The Rigid Disk Drive Industry, 1956-90: A History of Commercial and Technological Turbulence." Business History Review 67 (winter 1993): 531–588.
  53. Exploring the Limits of the Technology S-curve, Part 1: Component Technologies

    Keywords: Technology; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Exploring the Limits of the Technology S-curve, Part 1: Component Technologies." Production and Operations Management 1 (fall 1992): 334–357.
  54. Exploring the Limits of the Technology S-curve, Part 2: Architectural Technologies

    Keywords: Technology; Design;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M. "Exploring the Limits of the Technology S-curve, Part 2: Architectural Technologies." Production and Operations Management 1 (fall 1992): 358–66.
  55. Fatal Attraction: The Dangers of too Much Technology

    Keywords: Technology;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Fatal Attraction: The Dangers of too Much Technology." Computerworld Leadership Series (June 16, 1977), 3–11.

Book Chapters

  1. Anomaly Seeking Research: Thirty Years of Development in Resource Allocation Theory

    Keywords: Resource Allocation; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Gilbert, Clark, and Clayton M. Christensen. "Anomaly Seeking Research: Thirty Years of Development in Resource Allocation Theory." In From Resource Allocation to Strategy, edited by Joseph L. Bower and Clark Gilbert. U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  2. Impact of Disruptive Technologies in Telecommunications

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Disruption; Communication Technology; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Impact of Disruptive Technologies in Telecommunications." In Bringing PC Economies to the Telecommunications Industry. PulsePoint Communications, 1999.
  3. Explaining the Attacker's Advantage: Technological Paradigms, Organizational Dynamics, and the Value Network

    Keywords: Technology; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Value;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and R. S. Rosenbloom. "Explaining the Attacker's Advantage: Technological Paradigms, Organizational Dynamics, and the Value Network." In Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment, edited by David B. Audretsch and Steven Klepper. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  4. Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Technological Innovation; Disruption;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave." Chap. 29 in The Entrepreneurial Venture. 2nd ed. by William A. Sahlman, Howard H. Stevenson, Michael J Roberts, and Amar V. Bhide, 506–520. Harvard Business School Press, 1999.
  5. The Evolution of Innovation

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Evolution of Innovation." In Technology Management Handbook, edited by Richard Dorf. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998.
  6. Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Technological Innovation; Disruption;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave." In Seeing Differently: Insights on Innovation, edited by John Seely Brown. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.

Working Papers

  1. The Cycles of Theory Building in Management Research

    Citation:

    Carlile, Paul R., and Clayton M. Christensen. "The Cycles of Theory Building in Management Research." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-057, February 2005.
  2. The Policymaker's Dilemma: The Impact of Government Intervention on Innovation in the Telecommunications Industry

    Citation:

    Anthony, Scott D., Erik A. Roth, and Clayton M. Christensen. "The Policymaker's Dilemma: The Impact of Government Intervention on Innovation in the Telecommunications Industry." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 02-075, April 2002.
  3. The Process of Building Theory

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and David Sundahl. "The Process of Building Theory." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 02-016, September 2001.
  4. Technology Markets, Technology Organization, and Appropriating the Returns of Research

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Henry Chesbrough. "Technology Markets, Technology Organization, and Appropriating the Returns of Research." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 99-115, February 2001.
  5. The Process of Strategy Development and Implementation

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "The Process of Strategy Development and Implementation." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 00-075, April 2000.
  6. Markets for Technology and the Returns on Research

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Markets for Technology and the Returns on Research." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-108, June 1998.
  7. Patterns in the Evolution of Product Competition

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Patterns in the Evolution of Product Competition." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 97-048, January 1997.
  8. Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Fernando F. Suarez, and James M. Utterback. "Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 97-009, August 1996.

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Integrating Around the Job to Be Done

    Unlike traditional market segmentations that are based on a correlation of product sales or service with the attributes of the purchaser (such as age, gender, income level, and education level), jobs-based segmentation seeks to understand the causal roots of purchase—when a buyer needs to “hire” a product or service to get a “job” done. This note details the thought process and the methodology behind a jobs-based segmentation and provides numerous examples. It highlights three levels in the architecture of a job: 1) What is the fundamental job or problem the customer is facing? This includes political, functional, emotional, and social dimensions; 2) What are the experiences in purchase and use that, if all provided, would sum up to nailing the job perfectly? (The “hiring criteria”); and 3) What do we need to integrate, and how must we knit those things together, so that we can provide these experiences?

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Jobs and Positions; Marketing Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Integration; Segmentation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Integrating Around the Job to Be Done." Harvard Business School Module Note 611-004, August 2010.
  2. Disruptive IPOs? WR Hambrecht & Co.

    Bill Hambrecht faces a dilemma: should he accept a high profile client for his online Dutch auction IPO? Though it would be viewed as a real coup, what would accepting the business mean to WR Hambrecht? Should he seek other high profile clients like this, or should he try to work with those companies on lower profile financing activities like secondary offerings? Or perhaps he should work with companies that are too small to attract the attention of the big investment banks, who really don't like the whole Dutch auction idea. The case offers a very different setting to apply the theory of disruptive innovation, yet one in an industry that might be quite familiar to many students.

    Keywords: Capital Markets; Initial Public Offering; Disruptive Innovation; Auctions; Online Technology; Financial Services Industry; San Francisco;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Disruptive IPOs? WR Hambrecht & Co." Harvard Business School Case 610-065, March 2010. (Revised May 2010.)
  3. A Big (Double) Deal: Anadarko's Acquisition of Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources

    On June 23, 2006, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation announced that it was simultaneously acquiring two public companies, Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources, in all-cash deals. The total price was about $24 billion, a figure close to Anadarko's market cap at the time. The parallel deal flows and negotiations had been completed in a matter of months. The specific dynamics of this "deal" were extraordinary. Anadarko, Kerr-McGee and Western were all companies with rich and dynamic histories. The combination of resources, processes and people involved in these deals was complex and powerful. The announcement presented a real investor relations challenge for Anadarko. How would Anadarko explain the deals? How would the companies combine to build the most value? What would be divested to pay back the cash? What was the strategy behind these transformative deals? How was this pulled off so quickly and effectively?

    Keywords: Acquisition; Business Model; Transformation; Negotiation; Organizational Culture; Public Ownership; Business and Shareholder Relations; Alignment; Valuation; Energy Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Curtis Rising. "A Big (Double) Deal: Anadarko's Acquisition of Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources." Harvard Business School Case 610-020, October 2009.
  4. OnStar: Not Your Father's General Motors

    After two years of less than stellar performance resulting in sales well below plan, senior management at General Motors (GM) mobile telecommunications service start-up, OnStar, recognized that without a substantial change in their strategy, support for the venture would dwindle. Chet Huber (HBS 1979) faced one of the toughest decisions of his career. He had to decide whether to press GM executives to approve a plan to factory install OnStar hardware on every vehicle it manufactured-a new strategy requiring a dramatic increase in the corporation's commitment to the struggling technology venture. The alternative would be to continue with the current strategy of selling OnStar as an aftermarket product at GM dealerships. GM produced over five million new vehicles a year. Installing OnStar on every vehicle could exponentially increase the subscriber base but would cost hundreds of millions of dollars and lead to an unknown number of changes both within OnStar and at GM factories.

    Keywords: Change Management; Decision Choices and Conditions; Growth and Development Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Technology; Risk and Uncertainty; Joint Ventures; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Product Positioning; Risk Management; Auto Industry; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "OnStar: Not Your Father's General Motors." Harvard Business School Case 610-029, September 2009.
  5. What Are Business Models, and How Are They Built?

    Keywords: Business Model;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Mark W. Johnson. "What Are Business Models, and How Are They Built?" Harvard Business School Module Note 610-019, August 2009. (Revised August 2009.)
  6. Assessing Your Organization's Capabilities: Resources, Processes and Priorities

    Summarizes a model that helps managers determine what sorts of initiatives an organization is capable and incapable of managing successfully. The factors that affect what an organizational unit can and cannot accomplish can be grouped as resources, processes, and the priorities embedded in the business model. Demonstrates what kinds of changes are required in an organization and team structure for each different type of innovation.

    Keywords: Business Model; Experience and Expertise; Innovation and Management; Business Processes; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Stephen P. Kaufman. "Assessing Your Organization's Capabilities: Resources, Processes and Priorities." Harvard Business School Module Note 607-014, September 2006. (Revised August 2008.)
  7. Strategic Innovation Simulation: Back Bay Battery

    This online simulation allows students to play the role of a business unit manager at Back Bay Battery Company who faces the dilemma of balancing a portfolio of investment strategies across products in the rechargeable battery space. Players have to manage R&D investment tradeoffs between sustaining investment in the unit's existing battery business versus investing in a new, potentially disruptive battery technology. The student must also decide which market opportunities to pursue, each of which offers the student varying levels of market intelligence and differing short- and long-term payoff prospects. Students manage the investment portfolios over eight simulated years. Throughout the simulation the student is forced to address a number of challenges including timing and level of investment across both mature and new businesses, choices regarding market opportunities and inherent product performance characteristics, requirements to meet constraining financial objectives and constant trade-offs between investment options, all in the context of uncertain market information. The entire simulation can be played in 1.5 seat hours. A Facilitator's Guide contains an overview of simulation screens/elements as well as a comprehensive Teaching Note. Hardware requirements: Computer with minimum 1024x768 screen resolution, high speed internet connection (DSL / cable modem quality), Windows 2000, XP, or Vista / Macintosh operating systems, Internet Explorer 6+ / Firefox 2.0+ web browser with javascript and cookies enabled, Flash Player 9+ browser plug-in (Users with earlier versions of Flash will be notified automatically and given the option to upgrade. This is a free browser plug-in), Microsoft Excel (optional). Learning objective: 1. Best opportunities for new products are not visible early on. New applications can appear unattractive, but often represent best long-term opportunity. 2. Timing and level of R&D spending is difficult to gauge. 3. Assessing emerging market opportunities is difficult using standard approaches. 4. Balancing dual requirements for simultaneously investing in core business and innovation is challenging. 5. Constraining financial criteria and an organization's impatience for growth can make innovation difficult. Subjects covered: Competitive strategy, Military R&D, Operations, Product evolution, Simulation. Geographic: United States. Industry: Batteries

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Disruptive Innovation; Growth and Development Strategy; Innovation and Management; Investment; Product Development; Research and Development; Battery Industry;

    Citation:

    Shih, Willy C., and Clayton Christensen. "Strategic Innovation Simulation: Back Bay Battery." Simulation and Teaching Note. Watertown, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2008. Electronic. (2656-HTM-ENG.)
  8. Pitney Bowes Inc. (TN)

    Teaching Note for [607034].

    Keywords: Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Ho Howard Yu. "Pitney Bowes Inc. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-167, May 2008.
  9. Making SMaL Big: SMaL Camera Technologies

    Teaching Note for [603116].

    Keywords: Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Making SMaL Big: SMaL Camera Technologies." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-166, May 2008.
  10. Trends in the United States Steel Market,1980-1996

    Provides a brief background on the history and structure of the steel industry in the United States. Focuses in some depth on the technological changes that have been difficult for the leading steel companies to implement. Shows that they stumbled when confronted with sustaining technologies, but may be destroyed by disruptive ones.

    Keywords: History; Technology; Trends; Steel Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Trends in the United States Steel Market,1980-1996." Harvard Business School Background Note 698-018, August 1997. (Revised March 2008.)
  11. SonoSite: A View Inside

    After its spin-off from one of the world's largest ultrasound makers, Sonosite attempts to popularize a new kind of handheld ultrasound units. Sonosite needs to decide if it should focus on new markets that will value the portability and ease of use of its products, or if it should evolve its offerings so that they appeal to radiologists and cardiologists, the largest purchasers of ultrasound systems.

    Keywords: Customers; Disruptive Innovation; Product Positioning; Demand and Consumers;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Jeremy Dann. "SonoSite: A View Inside." Harvard Business School Case 602-056, August 2001. (Revised February 2008.)
  12. The ColorMatch Hair Color System

    Describes the challenge of finding the right market for a product.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Innovation and Invention; Markets; Product; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Matthew Beecher. "The ColorMatch Hair Color System." Harvard Business School Case 607-030, October 2006. (Revised March 2007.)
  13. Nick Fiore: Healer or Hitman? (A)

    Many general managers face this predicament at one time or another: if I don't deliver the numbers, senior management won't invest in our growth. But what it takes to deliver the desired numbers may include layoffs and other undesirable solutions. Is it better to back off the short-term solutions and weather the revenue losses, or will cutting back in the short term actually help to deliver the long-term results? Looks at one general manager's struggle with these issues.

    Keywords: Risk Management; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Strategic Planning; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Nick Fiore: Healer or Hitman? (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-062, October 2000. (Revised March 2007.)
  14. QuickBase

    Describes the challenge that engineers and marketing executives at Intuit Corp. faced when finding markets and applications for their QuickBase product. The breakthrough occurred when they abandoned their conventional modes of market segmentation, and instead strove to understand the jobs that their customers were "hiring" the product to do.

    Keywords: Software; Engineering; Product Marketing; Segmentation; Jobs and Positions; Consumer Behavior; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Mark Szigety. "QuickBase." Harvard Business School Case 607-029, September 2006. (Revised March 2007.)
  15. Pitney Bowes Inc.

    Pitney Bowes, the world's dominant maker of equipment used in generating and handling mail, is facing flattening growth in its core businesses and needs to create new growth products and businesses. Describes how a group of employees use state-of-the-art techniques for understanding customers' needs to conceive and develop a postage meter for small businesses. Also describes the challenges the team faced in forging an appropriate disruptive channel to this market.

    Keywords: Expansion; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Distribution Channels; Growth and Development Strategy; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Ho Howard Yu. "Pitney Bowes Inc." Harvard Business School Case 607-034, November 2006. (Revised December 2006.)
  16. Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk (B)

    Keywords: Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 606-089, January 2006. (Revised November 2006.)
  17. Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk (A)

    Hewlett-Packard decided that, to grow more rapidly, it needed to design a revolutionary disk drive product that would create an entirely new market or application for magnetic recording technology. The company followed most of the "rules" good managers follow in such situations: heavyweight project team, lots of senior management support, etc. But it still failed.

    Keywords: Management; Hardware; Innovation and Management; Product Development; Computer Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk (A)." Harvard Business School Case 606-088, January 2006. (Revised October 2006.)
  18. What's the Big Idea? (B)

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "What's the Big Idea? (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 606-040, September 2005. (Revised August 2006.)
  19. What Is an Organization's Culture?

    A synopsis of the writings of Edgar Schein, Modesto Maidique, and B.J. Zirger on what organizational culture is, where it comes from, how it can be changed, and how it inhibits change.

    Keywords: Change Management; Business or Company Management; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Kristin Shu. "What Is an Organization's Culture?" Harvard Business School Background Note 399-104, February 1999. (Revised August 2006.)
  20. Identifying and Developing Capable Leaders

    Presents a synopsis of High Flyers, by Morgan McCall. Offers a method for identifying and training managers with potential--to build management bench strength.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Recruitment; Job Design and Levels; Management; Talent and Talent Management;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Morgan McCall Jr. "Identifying and Developing Capable Leaders." Harvard Business School Background Note 601-054, September 2000. (Revised July 2006.)
  21. Reaching the Bottom: UniGlobe's Small Local Stores Dilemma

    To distribute products to very small retailers in a very fragmented retail environment, the local subsidiary of a large consumer products company created an innovative distribution mechanism. The subsidiary's Small Local Stores division employed middlemen who distributed vans full of consumer products throughout the Philippines. The channel was growing rapidly, but it was the company's least profitable. Now the subsidiary had to decide what to do. Should it try to squeeze more margins out of the channel, even if that would lower the middlemen's incentives? Should it scrap the channel altogether? Or should it try to build an internal capability to reach the smallest stores, even if it involved significant capital expenditures? Regional management was due to arrive and the company had to come up with a plan.

    Keywords: Distribution Channels; Innovation and Invention; Consumer Products Industry; Philippines;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Lana Newishy. "Reaching the Bottom: UniGlobe's Small Local Stores Dilemma." Harvard Business School Case 603-114, February 2003. (Revised April 2006.)
  22. Gallardo's Goes to Mexico

    The theories of market segmentation and brand building in Chapter 3, What Products Will Customers Want to Buy? in The Innovator's Solution by Clayton Christensen and Michael Raynor suggest that when companies segment markets and build brands in ways that match how the customer sees the market--customers hire products to get jobs done--their success rate in innovation increases. Gallardo's is a privately held firm whose products--salsas, sauces, and seasonings for Latin American dishes--were sold primarily in the southwestern United States. When the company had saturated that geographical market, its CEO decided to invade Mexico. Describes how Gallardo's marketers learned what jobs Mexican housewives hired these products to do. Shows how the company used these market insights to segment the market along different lines than its competitors. Gallardo's products and advertisements ended up spurring significant growth in the market, but most of the growth was captured by its primary competitor. What went wrong? Were Gallardo's branding and segmentation strategies consistent with the jobs-to-be-done model? Does the company have the chance to relaunch its products more successfully?

    Keywords: Innovation Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Global Strategy; Brands and Branding; Segmentation; Food and Beverage Industry; United States; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Gallardo's Goes to Mexico." Harvard Business School Case 605-072, May 2005. (Revised September 2005.)
  23. What's the BIG Idea? (A)

    CEO Michael Collins must decide if and how a process he developed to further innovation in the kids' industry could port over to other industries. The process was based on Collins' experiences as an inventor and as a venture capitalist, and it allowed his company to be an intermediary between inventors and innovation-seeking companies. The process seemed to be working quite well in the kids' industry and Collins had to decide what would "travel" to a different vertical.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott Duncan Anthony. "What's the BIG Idea? (A)." Harvard Business School Case 602-105, November 2001. (Revised September 2005.)
  24. Tools of Cooperation, The

    Presents a theory about the tools a manager can use to get people to agree on a coordinated course of action and effect change in his or her organization. The extent to which people in the organization agree on the way the world works, and agree on what they want, determines which tools will be most effective.

    Keywords: Change Management; Framework; Managerial Roles; Organizations; Performance Effectiveness; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Howard H. Stevenson, and Jeremy Dann. "Tools of Cooperation, The." Harvard Business School Background Note 399-080, December 1998. (Revised August 2005.)
  25. Making SMaL Big: SMaL Camera Technologies

    SMaL Camera Technologies CEO Maurizio Arienzo was trying to decide what market opportunities SMaL should target. The company had developed a revolutionary imaging technology that powered small digital still and video cameras. Its first-generation product--a kit to power a credit-card-size consumer camera--was a success. Now, Arienzo had to decide whether to focus on beating back emerging competitors in the consumer space, stepping up efforts to crack the security and surveillance market, trying to reach the automotive market, developing a cellular phone camera offering, or making a "left turn." The decision would determine whether SMaL ever hit it big.

    Keywords: Product Development; Decision Making; Disruptive Innovation; Market Entry and Exit; Electronics Industry; Computer Industry; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Scott Duncan Anthony. "Making SMaL Big: SMaL Camera Technologies." Harvard Business School Case 603-116, March 2003. (Revised August 2005.)
  26. Adding Voice to the Web: A Note on Start-ups

    A study of start-up companies that have leveraged the technology of Internet Protocol (IP) telephony to develop applications that are positioned to have an impact on the offerings of traditional telecommunications organizations.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Internet; Communication Technology; Technological Innovation; Innovation Strategy; Telecommunications Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Adding Voice to the Web: A Note on Start-ups." Harvard Business School Background Note 600-081, March 2000. (Revised October 2004.)
  27. Eli Lilly and Company: Innovation in Diabetes Care

    Summarizes Eli Lilly's history of innovation in its business, describing how the dimensions along which innovations have been made in the industry have changed. Lilly's innovation strategy has been to pursue ever higher performance products, while others in the industry have pursued more convenient products. At the time of the case, Lilly is contemplating offering services, not just products, to diabetic patients.

    Keywords: Change; Product; Service Delivery; Product Development; Innovation and Management; Innovation Strategy; Health Care and Treatment; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Eli Lilly and Company: Innovation in Diabetes Care." Harvard Business School Case 696-077, February 1996. (Revised April 2004.)
  28. What's the BIG Idea? (TN)

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "What's the BIG Idea? (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 604-050, September 2003.
  29. Continuous Casting Investments at USX Corporation

    Focuses on the difficulty established companies face when confronted with disruptive technological innovations. The power that their prior asset investments, their cost structures, and their customers have in constraining their investment and innovation decisions are clearly illustrated. Rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Disruption; Assets; Cost; Investment; Technological Innovation; Problems and Challenges; Mining Industry; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Continuous Casting Investments at USX Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 697-020, July 1996. (Revised April 2003.)
  30. The Opportunity and Threat of Disruptive Technologies

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Risk and Uncertainty; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Opportunity and Threat of Disruptive Technologies." Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Class Lecture, 2003. Electronic. (Faculty Lecture: HBSP Product Number 1482C.)
  31. Nick Fiore: Healer or Hitman? (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Risk Management; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Strategic Planning; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Nick Fiore: Healer or Hitman? (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 601-063, October 2000. (Revised June 2002.)
  32. Aurora Health Care: Finding "a Better Way"

    The largest hospital system in Wisconsin is trying to respond to new threats from nontraditional care providers. This case presents the hospital's dilemma as it tries to create change from within.

    Keywords: Change Management; Disruptive Innovation; Innovation Strategy; SWOT Analysis; Competitive Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Kevin M. Dwyer. Aurora Health Care: Finding "a Better Way". Harvard Business School Case 602-043, August 2001.
  33. Gallardo's Salsa

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Gallardo's Salsa." Harvard Business School Case 301-158, June 2001.
  34. Polycom, Inc.: Visualizing Culture

    Polycom is a rapidly growing maker of video conferencing and teleconferencing equipment. Management is attempting to use "natural work groups" as an organizing mechanism, and to build into the culture implicit rules that will cause desired behaviors to be self-policing.

    Keywords: Communication Technology; Growth Management; Organizational Design; Groups and Teams; Organizational Culture; Manufacturing Industry; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Polycom, Inc.: Visualizing Culture." Harvard Business School Case 601-073, October 2000. (Revised January 2001.)
  35. Intel Corporation's Internal Ecology of Strategy Making

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and Robert A Burgelman. "Intel Corporation's Internal Ecology of Strategy Making." Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press Case, 2001.
  36. Bench Strength at Bell Atlantic

    Keywords: Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Sarah S. Khetani. "Bench Strength at Bell Atlantic." Harvard Business School Case 601-007, September 2000. (Revised December 2000.)
  37. Using Aggregate Project Planning to Link Strategy, Innovation, and the Resource Allocation Process

    Links two very useful pieces of management research--resource allocation processes as studied by Bowen and Burgelman and the aggregate project plan expounded by Wheelwright and Clark.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Innovation and Management; Resource Allocation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Using Aggregate Project Planning to Link Strategy, Innovation, and the Resource Allocation Process." Harvard Business School Background Note 301-041, September 2000.
  38. Developing Nurse Practitioners at the College of St. Catherine

    Margaret McLaughlin has just begun her new appointment as the Dean of Health Professions at the College of St. Catherine in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. As an education leader, her charge is to develop Minnesota's health care workforce for the future. She is approached by members of her nursing faculty, who want her to consider launching their very own nurse-practitioner-run clinic. Typically, clinics have been run and directed by physicians. The faculty have suggested four options for the kind of clinic they might run, and McLaughlin must advise them on a course of action. Teaching Purpose: Students will select the kind of nurse practitioner clinic that would be most appropriate for the College of St. Catherine. The analysis will begin by examining the context in which the college is operating and discuss the major criteria that need to be used in making this decision. They will consider the move "up-market" for nurse practitioners' over time, as they have taken on more responsibilities similar in nature to those of a physician. Specifically, students will discuss how nurse practitioners' work has changed over time and the regulations, technological innovations, patient needs, and infrastructure developments that have encouraged this change. Finally, students will debate whether it would make sense to launch their own clinic. They will choose among four options for how the clinic might look, whom it would serve, and how it would be organized.

    Keywords: Trends; Debates; Decision Choices and Conditions; Higher Education; Teaching; Growth and Development; Technological Innovation; Leading Change; Goals and Objectives; Value Creation; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Sarah S. Khetani. "Developing Nurse Practitioners at the College of St. Catherine." Harvard Business School Case 601-039, August 2000.
  39. Implementing Strategies for Mobile Telephony: The Cases of BellSouth and U S WEST

    Recounts how BellSouth and US WEST developed and implemented their strategies for becoming major players in the mobile telephony business. Shows how initial success at BellSouth attracted more resources and aggressive investment, while initial failures at US WEST caused the company to underinvest in the opportunity.

    Keywords: Investment; Growth and Development Strategy; Resource Allocation; Outcome or Result; Opportunities; Expansion; Mobile Technology; Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Implementing Strategies for Mobile Telephony: The Cases of BellSouth and U S WEST." Harvard Business School Case 699-123, December 1998. (Revised July 2000.)
  40. Hewlett Packard's Merced Decision TN

    Teaching Note for (9-699-011).

    Keywords: Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Hewlett Packard's Merced Decision TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 600-136, May 2000.
  41. Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged): Supplement I

    Supplements the case.

    Keywords: Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged): Supplement I." Harvard Business School Supplement 300-059, April 2000.
  42. Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged): Supplement II

    Supplements the case.

    Keywords: Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged): Supplement II." Harvard Business School Supplement 300-060, April 2000.
  43. Implementing Strategies for Mobile Telephony: The Cases of BellSouth and US West TN

    Teaching Note for (9-699-123).

    Keywords: Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Implementing Strategies for Mobile Telephony: The Cases of BellSouth and US West TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 600-127, April 2000.
  44. Lincoln Electric: Venturing Abroad TN

    Teaching Note for (9-398-095).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; Ohio;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Lincoln Electric: Venturing Abroad TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 600-131, April 2000.
  45. Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-300-002).

    Keywords: Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 300-129, April 2000.
  46. Disruptive Technology a Heartbeat Away: Ecton, Inc. TN

    Teaching Note for (9-699-018).

    Keywords: Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Disruptive Technology a Heartbeat Away: Ecton, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 600-129, March 2000.
  47. Discovering What Has Already Been Discovered: Why Did Your Customers Hire Your Product?

    Describes a methodology for identifying markets for new technologies and for defining the highest value attributes of new products or services. It helps innovators escape the trap of incremental improvements to established product concepts by asking a straightforward question: What job did my customer expect this product to do for him or her?

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Markets; Product; Technology Adoption; Value;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Discovering What Has Already Been Discovered: Why Did Your Customers Hire Your Product?" Harvard Business School Background Note 699-029, April 1999. (Revised March 2000.)
  48. Teradyne: The Aurora Project & Teradyne: Corporate Management of Disruptive Change, TN

    Teaching Note for two cases which may be taught in sequential class days or in a single extended class.

    Keywords: Disruption; Business or Company Management; Projects;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Teradyne: The Aurora Project & Teradyne: Corporate Management of Disruptive Change, TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 399-087, April 1999. (Revised March 2000.)
  49. Lockheed Martin: The Employer of Choice Mission

    A Lockheed Martin manager is faced with the decision of where to focus the organization's resources in order to develop a world-class employee development system. The manager's recommendation will serve as the basis for the company's goal of becoming an Employer of Choice in the minds of its current and prospective employees. Compounding the difficulty of his decision is the pressure from the current financial, operational, and cultural challenges facing the business. With the defense industry becoming more cost competitive and contracts being awarded to non-traditional defense industry suppliers, Lockheed Martin is faced with a need to reduce its cost structure while developing employee talent and future leaders who can adapt quickly to change and effectively lead in this new environment.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Resource Allocation; Decision Choices and Conditions; Employees; Human Resources; Leadership Development; Cost Management; Organizational Design; Aerospace Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael D Overdorf. "Lockheed Martin: The Employer of Choice Mission." Harvard Business School Case 300-032, March 2000.
  50. Required Course Sucommittee: A Sentence from Hell , The

    Describes a faculty team at a leading business school that was charged with developing an integrated, cross-discipline curriculum. Shows how and why integrated projects like this are so difficult to manage.

    Keywords: Curriculum and Courses; Integration; Groups and Teams; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Required Course Sucommittee: A Sentence from Hell , The." Harvard Business School Case 600-008, August 1999. (Revised March 2000.)
  51. Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged)

    Examines John Sculley's management approach toward transforming Apple Computer during the personal computer industry crisis in 1992. Focuses on Sculley's management style, his creation of a new management team, and his efforts to create a professional management system inside Apple.

    Keywords: Transformation; Crisis Management; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Management Style; Management Systems; Management Teams; Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992 (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 300-002, November 1999.
  52. Hewlett-Packard's Merced Decision

    Describes managing the threat of disruptive technology at the high end of the computer industry. Many aspects of the innovator's dilemma can be explored.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Risk Management; Disruptive Innovation; Computer Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Matt Verlinden. "Hewlett-Packard's Merced Decision." Harvard Business School Case 699-011, February 1999. (Revised November 1999.)
  53. NYPD New TN

    Teaching Note for (9-396-293).

    Keywords: Public Administration Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "NYPD New TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 300-056, November 1999.
  54. Processes of Strategy Definition and Implementation, The

    Strategy definition is not a short, discrete process. Rather, outside influences (market, political, technological, etc.) and the company's own resource allocation process continually reshape an organization's strategy.

    Keywords: Disruption; Management Practices and Processes; Resource Allocation; Strategic Planning; Situation or Environment; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Jeremy Dann. "Processes of Strategy Definition and Implementation, The." Harvard Business School Background Note 399-179, June 1999. (Revised November 1999.)
  55. Brainard, Bennis & Farrell TN

    Teaching Note for (9-495-037).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tracy Donovan. "Brainard, Bennis & Farrell TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 300-049, October 1999.
  56. Du Pont Kevlar Aramid Industrial Fiber (Abridged), TN

    Teaching Note for (9-698-079).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Du Pont Kevlar Aramid Industrial Fiber (Abridged), TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-171, May 1999. (Revised September 1999.)
  57. Graduate Center of Marlboro College, The

    Keywords: Higher Education; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Graduate Center of Marlboro College, The." Harvard Business School Case 600-007, August 1999.
  58. Bloomberg L.P.

    Michael Bloomberg founded his company to provide customers quick access to financial market data and analytical tools for understanding that data. As Bloomberg L.P. grew quickly,entered the ranks of "large, established companies," it grappled with a whole new range of human resources, organizational, and corporate culture issues.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., Richard G. Hamermesh, and Jeremy Dann. "Bloomberg L.P." Harvard Business School Case 399-081, February 1999. (Revised June 1999.)
  59. Linking Strategy and Innovation TN

    An overview note to guide instructors in teaching the third module of the Managing Innovation course. Describes how managers can use aggregate project planning to manage the resource allocation process in new product development.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Managerial Roles; Resource Allocation; Product Development; Planning; Projects; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Linking Strategy and Innovation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-075, March 1998. (Revised June 1999.)
  60. Markets for Technology and the Returns on Research TN

    The purpose of the readings and class discussion is to help students understand why it often is so difficult for companies that conduct research to capture its value in their commercial businesses. Often new technology leaks more easily to the market. Students can understand how they might better manage this challenge, through the readings and discussion.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Research; Commercialization; Technology Adoption; Value;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Markets for Technology and the Returns on Research TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-167, June 1999.
  61. Putting Your Finger on Capability

    Presents a model or theory about the competence or capability of organizations. Written to help managers be more precise about what the capabilities and disabilities of an organization are, and to be able to put their finger precisely on the place in the organization where capabilities and disabilities reside.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Management; Organizations; Theory;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Tara Donovan. "Putting Your Finger on Capability." Harvard Business School Background Note 399-148, March 1999. (Revised May 1999.)
  62. Techniques of Creativity, The TN

    Teaching Note for Innovation and the General Manager course.

    Keywords: Creativity; Managerial Roles; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Techniques of Creativity, The TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-027, November 1998. (Revised May 1999.)
  63. Innovation and the General Manager: Managing Innovation: Introductory Teaching Note for Instructors

    Provides instructors with an overview of the entire Managing Innovation course. It lists the cases that are recommended to be taught in each class session and summarizes the key concepts students should learn in each of the course's five modules.

    Keywords: Cases; Innovation and Management; Managerial Roles;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Innovation and the General Manager: Managing Innovation: Introductory Teaching Note for Instructors." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-162, April 1999. (Revised May 1999.)
  64. General Management: Building Capabilities, Delivering Results

    Describes the Harvard Business School's General Management course.

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "General Management: Building Capabilities, Delivering Results." Harvard Business School Background Note 699-126, January 1999. (Revised April 1999.)
  65. Nick Donovan, General Manager and Mailman: Delivering the Results

    Keywords: Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Nick Donovan, General Manager and Mailman: Delivering the Results." Harvard Business School Case 399-153, April 1999.
  66. Issues in Technology Strategy TN

    Provides instructors with an overview for the module in the Managing Innovation course, Issues in Technology Strategy. Provides an overview of the frameworks introduced in the module that can help managers in their efforts to formulate strategies relating to several key issues: decisions to invest in new technology versus extend existing technology; decisions to outsource versus develop in-house; decision to embark on research, etc.

    Keywords: Decisions; Investment; Innovation and Management; Innovation Strategy; Research; Technology Adoption; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Issues in Technology Strategy TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-168, April 1999.
  67. Value Networks and the Impetus to Change: Managing Innovation: Overview Teaching Note for Module 1

    Provides instructors with an overview teaching note for the first module of the Managing Innovation course in which the disruptive technology framework is explored and used. Summarizes this framework and provides a brief synopsis of each of the cases used in the module.

    Keywords: Change; Framework; Disruptive Innovation; Technology; Value;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Value Networks and the Impetus to Change: Managing Innovation: Overview Teaching Note for Module 1." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-163, April 1999.
  68. Finding New Markets for New and Disruptive Technologies: Managing Innovation, Overview Teaching Note for Module 2

    Provides instructors with an overview teaching note for the second module of the Managing Innovation course in which students explore the challenges and methods for defining and creating new markets for new technologies. In addition to summarizing each of the cases used in the module, this note also offers an overview of important market-defining tools such as the Buying Hierarchy and Discovery-Driven Planning.

    Keywords: Disruption; Disruptive Innovation; Innovation and Management; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Emerging Markets; Planning; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Finding New Markets for New and Disruptive Technologies: Managing Innovation, Overview Teaching Note for Module 2." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-164, April 1999.
  69. Understanding and Building Organizations' Capabilities to Innovate: Managing Innovation: Overview TN for Module 4

    An overview teaching note showing instructors how to link together the concepts students should learn from discussing the cases in the fourth module of the Managing Innovation course. Summarizes the "Resources, Processes, & Values" framework of organizational capability, and gives an overview of each of the cases used in the module.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Framework; Innovation and Management; Management Practices and Processes; Resource Allocation; Value;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Understanding and Building Organizations' Capabilities to Innovate: Managing Innovation: Overview TN for Module 4." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-165, April 1999.
  70. Dimensions of Technology Strategy: Managing Innovation: Overview Teaching Note for Module 5

    Provides instructors with an overview teaching note for the technology strategy module of the course. The cases in the module give students insights about several issues in technology strategy. These include: 1) Whether to be a technological leader or follower; 2) Whether to seek improvement through breakthrough technology or incremental, steady improvement to established technology; 3) Whether to outsource development or create internal capability, and 4) How to capture returns from investments in research.

    Keywords: Investment; Investment Return; Innovation and Management; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Managerial Roles; Performance Improvement; Problems and Challenges; Research; Strategy; Technology;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Dimensions of Technology Strategy: Managing Innovation: Overview Teaching Note for Module 5." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-166, April 1999.
  71. Disruptive Technology a Heartbeat Away: Ecton, Inc.

    Describes an innovating start-up company with a disruptive technology to the large, expensive echocardiography machines that leading cardiologists use to create images of heart functions for diagnostic purposes. Ecton's machine is small, cheap, portable, and can't create images as clear as those that large, expensive instruments can make. The entrepreneur is searching for a market for his product, and wonders whether he should sell out or try to build a successful commercial organization.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Disruption; Machinery and Machining; Entrepreneurship; Innovation and Invention; Marketing; Product; Commercialization; Technology; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Edward G Cape. "Disruptive Technology a Heartbeat Away: Ecton, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 699-018, December 1998. (Revised March 1999.)
  72. Managing Innovation at Nypro, Inc. (A)

    Nypro is the world's leading injection molder of precision plastic parts, operating a global network of 21 plants. Nypro's strategy is for each plant to offer identical capabilities, because its customers are global companies with worldwide sourcing needs. The case describes the way Nypro manages product and process innovation across the global plant network.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Innovation and Management; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Rebecca Voorheis. "Managing Innovation at Nypro, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 696-061, September 1995. (Revised December 1998.)
  73. Managing Innovation at Nypro, Inc. (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Managing Innovation at Nypro, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 697-057, December 1996. (Revised December 1998.)
  74. Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave TN

    Teaching Note for (95103).

    Keywords: Disruption; Technology;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-125, December 1998.
  75. Scientific Instruments Corporation TN

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Scientific Instruments Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-041, December 1998.
  76. GE Plastics: Selecting a Partner TN

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "GE Plastics: Selecting a Partner TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 699-039, November 1998.
  77. Cultivating Capabilities to Innovate: Booz.Allen & Hamilton

    Describes the efforts of the president of Booz.Allen, a major consulting firm, to understand and improve the way that products, services, and processes are developed and deployed throughout the firm. Proactive management of these processes proves very difficult because of the firm's decentralized decision structure and the firm's cultural predisposition to listen to its existing customers.

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation and Management; Management Teams; Service Operations; Organizational Culture; Customer Focus and Relationships; Decision Making; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Cultivating Capabilities to Innovate: Booz.Allen & Hamilton." Harvard Business School Case 698-027, October 1997. (Revised July 1998.)
  78. Du Pont Kevlar Aramid Industrial Fiber (Abridged)

    Describes Dupont's efforts to build commercial markets for its miracle fiber, Kevlar. Initially, it sought to create a market for Kevlar tire cord, primarily because its existing tire cord business was languishing. This market never developed, even after Dupont spent several hundred million dollars. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Crisis Management; Product Launch; Emerging Markets; Research and Development; Technology;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Du Pont Kevlar Aramid Industrial Fiber (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 698-079, May 1998.
  79. Improving the Product Development Process at Kirkham Instruments Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-058).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Improving the Product Development Process at Kirkham Instruments Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-101, May 1998.
  80. Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team (Abridged)

    Becton Dickinson's Vacutainer business was largely based in the United States, but in 1980 management determined to grow the business aggressively first in Europe and then Japan. These areas demanded new products that were tailored to local markets. Despite the change in strategy, the resource allocation process continued to allocate development resources to U.S.-targeted products.

    Keywords: Resource Allocation; Growth and Development Strategy; Change Management; Product Development; Global Strategy; Expansion; Innovation and Invention; Multinational Firms and Management; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; United States; Europe; Japan;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 698-058, April 1998.
  81. Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team (Abridged) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-698-058).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team (Abridged) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-059, April 1998.
  82. Materials Technology Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-694-075).

    Keywords: Business Startups; Market Entry and Exit; Technology; Research; Markets; Marketing Strategy; Product Development;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Materials Technology Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-032, April 1998.
  83. Vallourec's Venture into Metal Injection Molding TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-001).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Vallourec's Venture into Metal Injection Molding TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-002, March 1998.
  84. Hospital Equipment Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-086).

    Keywords: Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Hospital Equipment Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-019, March 1998.
  85. We've Got Rhythm! Medtronic Corp.'s Cardiac Pacemaker Business (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-698-004).

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "We've Got Rhythm! Medtronic Corp.'s Cardiac Pacemaker Business (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-056, March 1998.
  86. Electric Vehicles: Pipe Dream or Product of the Future? TN

    Teaching Note for (1-698-065). (A reprint not in this system).

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Technology; Performance; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Electric Vehicles: Pipe Dream or Product of the Future? TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-066, March 1998.
  87. Cultivating Capabilities to Innovate: Booz.Allen & Hamilton TN

    Teaching Note for (9-698-027).

    Keywords: Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Cultivating Capabilities to Innovate: Booz.Allen & Hamilton TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-078, March 1998.
  88. Unilever's Butter-Beater: Innovation for Global Diversity

    Unilever, one of the world's largest food product manufacturers, has achieved impressive growth in Europe, primarily by acquiring local food companies. Initially Unilever allowed each acquired company to manage its own product development in a way that was tailored to local tastes and competition. This case describes the struggles that European managers confronted in trying to establish stronger central direction over Pan-European product development, branding, and marketing.

    Keywords: Growth Management; Brands and Branding; Product Development; Mergers and Acquisitions; Local Range; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Marketing Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Innovation and Management; Food; Conflict Management; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Europe;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Jorg Zobel. "Unilever's Butter-Beater: Innovation for Global Diversity." Harvard Business School Case 698-017, August 1997. (Revised March 1998.)
  89. Unilever's Butter-Beater: Innovation for Global Diversity TN

    Teaching Note for (9-698-017).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Europe;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Unilever's Butter-Beater: Innovation for Global Diversity TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-076, March 1998.
  90. Managing Innovation at Nypro (A) and (B) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-696-061) and (9-697-057).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Managing Innovation at Nypro (A) and (B) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-077, March 1998.
  91. Linking Strategy and Innovation: Materials Technology Corporation

    Materials Technology Corp. (MTC), a high-tech materials company, is struggling in its development portfolio and to achieve a better record of delivering new products on time.

    Keywords: Technology; Innovation and Invention; Business Strategy; Time Management; Product; Production; Manufacturing Industry; Chemical Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Linking Strategy and Innovation: Materials Technology Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 696-082, January 1996. (Revised March 1998.)
  92. Vallourec's Venture into Metal Injection Molding

    Vallourec, a leading maker of seamless tubing, developed a radically new technology that used steel powders to create the tubes. To ensure a supply source, Vallourec ultimately had to acquire its supplier of metal powder, and then, to build the volume required to reduce its cost, Vallourec had to create other markets for its powders. One of these was the injection molding of powdered metal parts. Vallourec first sought licensees for its process and, finding none, had to integrate into making molded parts itself. The case describes how Vallourec developed its technology and then built a business to explain it.

    Keywords: Technology; Business Model; Diversification; Innovation and Management; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Vallourec's Venture into Metal Injection Molding." Harvard Business School Case 697-001, November 1996. (Revised March 1998.)
  93. Molding the Impossible: the NYPRO/Vistakon Disposable Contact Lens Project TN

    Teaching Note for (9-694-062).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Molding the Impossible: the NYPRO/Vistakon Disposable Contact Lens Project TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 694-081, June 1994. (Revised March 1998.)
  94. Linking Strategy and Innovation: Materials Technology Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-696-082).

    Keywords: Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Linking Strategy and Innovation: Materials Technology Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-083, March 1998.
  95. Studio Realty TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-036).

    Keywords: Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Studio Realty TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 698-055, March 1998.
  96. Improving the Product Development Process at Kirkham Instruments Corp.

    Describes the efforts of a manufacturer of scientific instruments to implement new methods of managing new product development, which its executives had learned in a Harvard Business School seminar. The executives left the seminar excited to implement a new way of working, but, through a series of seemingly logical steps, got little accomplished.

    Keywords: Change Management; Product Launch; Innovation and Invention; Product Development; Manufacturing Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Improving the Product Development Process at Kirkham Instruments Corp." Harvard Business School Case 697-058, January 1997. (Revised September 1997.)
  97. Some Thoughts on Doing Field Research

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Some Thoughts on Doing Field Research." Harvard Business School Background Note 698-020, September 1997.
  98. Raychem Corp.: Interconnection Systems Division

    Describes the highly successful efforts of a management team to turn around the performance of a $30 million Raychem division that manufactures electronic connectors. The original manufacturing system was a batch operation, with a broad product line, high inventories, and slow throughput time. Describes the process of converting the operation to a low-inventory, just-in-time plant, organized by manufacturing cells. Shows how it was done, and the impact it had on different categories of overhead cost.

    Keywords: Cost Management; Time Management; Production; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Success; Performance; Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Raychem Corp.: Interconnection Systems Division." Harvard Business School Case 694-063, March 1994. (Revised August 1997.)
  99. Studio Realty

    Studio Realty created an "electronic open house" technology, by which home buyers sitting in a comfortable setting, could tour a home, viewing its rooms, its exterior, and surroundings, by clicking on digital images. Studio Realty attempted to sell or license its system to realtors, but found that none were interested. Ultimately, its owners had to establish their own real estate agency in order to create demand for the technology. The case closes with the question of whether homes can be sold with this technology over the Internet.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Online Technology; Sales; Demand and Consumers; Failure; Innovation and Management; Market Entry and Exit; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Studio Realty." Harvard Business School Case 697-036, December 1996. (Revised July 1997.)
  100. We've Got Rhythm! Medtronic Corporation's Cardiac Pacemaker Business

    Illustrates how a new management team at Medtronic's Cardiac Pacemaker business reversed a steep decline in market share by adopting certain management principles for new product development: clarifying strategy, aggregating project planning, accommodating the number of projects to match development capacity, and establishing a platform/derivative product architecture, and others. This case is useful in both MBA courses and executive programs.

    Keywords: Management Teams; Innovation Strategy; Innovation and Management; Product Development; Health; Technology; Change Management; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "We've Got Rhythm! Medtronic Corporation's Cardiac Pacemaker Business." Harvard Business School Case 698-004, July 1997.
  101. Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-060).

    Keywords: Technology; Management; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Hewlett-Packard: The Flight of the Kittyhawk TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-122, May 1997.
  102. Continuous Casting Investments at USX Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-697-020).

    Keywords: Mining Industry; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Continuous Casting Investments at USX Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-066, April 1997.
  103. Eli Lilly and Company: Innovation in Diabetes Care TN

    Teaching Note for (9-696-077).

    Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Eli Lilly and Company: Innovation in Diabetes Care TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 697-101, March 1997.
  104. Hospital Equipment Corp.

    Hospital Equipment Corp. is a very successful maker of hospital beds. Due to outstanding performance in new product development, it grew to dominate its primary market and is searching for other opportunities to grow through new product development. It discovers that its internal system for identifying new, high-growth markets actually screens out some exciting growth possibilities.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Innovation and Management; Opportunities; Business Processes; Product Development; Technological Innovation; Expansion; Markets; Problems and Challenges; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Hospital Equipment Corp." Harvard Business School Case 697-086, March 1997.
  105. Realtor Information Network

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M., and Bret J. Baird. "Realtor Information Network." Harvard Business School Supplement 697-051, December 1996.
  106. Molding the Impossible: the NYPRO/Vistakon Disposable Contact Lens Project

    NYPRO, Inc., one of the world's leading manufacturers of plastic injection-molded products, is asked by the Vistakon Division of Johnson & Johnson to manufacture molds that Vistakon will use to produce disposable contact lenses. The required dimensional tolerances for NYPRO's molds are 10 times tighter than it has ever achieved before. The case describes how engineering teams in these two companies attempt to work together to develop a capable process for making molds and lenses.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Engineering; Management Practices and Processes; Product Development; Production; Groups and Teams; Manufacturing Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Molding the Impossible: the NYPRO/Vistakon Disposable Contact Lens Project." Harvard Business School Case 694-062, November 1993. (Revised November 1994.)
  107. Michigan Manufacturing Corp.: The Pontiac Plant--1988

    Michigan Manufacturing is a broad-line maker of components for the automotive industry. It has developed a network of nine plants as its product line has grown. Newer, higher-volume products tend to be made in newer, focused, high-volume plants, while older product lines tend to be assigned to the Pontiac plant, the oldest one in the system. Because Pontiac produces such a wide variety of products, its overhead costs are very high. Management needs to decide whether to close the Pontiac plant or find a way to make it profitable.

    Keywords: Cost Accounting; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Profit; Brands and Branding; Mission and Purpose; Networks; Auto Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Michigan Manufacturing Corp.: The Pontiac Plant--1988." Harvard Business School Case 694-051, October 1993. (Revised November 1994.)
  108. Raychem Corporation: Interconnection Systems Division TN

    Teaching Note for (9-694-063).

    Keywords: Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Raychem Corporation: Interconnection Systems Division TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 695-012, August 1994.
  109. Building Process-based Capabilities: A Principal Focus of Operations Management, Module Outline and Teaching Note

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Building Process-based Capabilities: A Principal Focus of Operations Management, Module Outline and Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 694-083, July 1994.
  110. Michigan Manufacturing Corporation: The Pontiac Plant, 1988 (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-694-051).

    Keywords: Auto Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Michigan Manufacturing Corporation: The Pontiac Plant, 1988 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 694-082, June 1994.
  111. The Development and Strategic Use of Organizational Capabilities: Business Policy Seminar Outline and Reading List

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Policy; Conferences;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "The Development and Strategic Use of Organizational Capabilities: Business Policy Seminar Outline and Reading List." Harvard Business School Background Note 394-235, June 1994.
  112. Materials Technology Corp.

    Materials Technology Corp. (MTC) is an MIT-based start-up company that identified an initial product market for its advanced materials-processing technology using conventional market research techniques. While pursuing that market--advanced microelectronic components--customers from very different markets such as steelmaking and electricians' hardware approach MTC, offering to pay MTC substantial money to develop and manufacture products for it. This calls into question MTC's initial market and product strategy.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Technology; Markets; Product Development; Innovation and Management; Electronics Industry; Computer Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Materials Technology Corp." Harvard Business School Case 694-075, March 1994.
  113. Ceramics Process Systems Corp. (A)

    A small ceramics company started by a group of MIT professors struggles with some basic technology strategy issues. A plan to take "one commercializable step" at a time in order to get a foothold in the market goes awry because of incompatibility between the company's highly innovative processing and the conventional materials they attempt to use. The case addresses issues of technology development strategy, management of research, and technical competencies. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with Ceramics Process System (B).

    Keywords: Business Startups; Technology; Problems and Challenges; Market Entry and Exit; Innovation Strategy; Technological Innovation; Research and Development; Production; Manufacturing Industry; Cambridge;

    Citation:

    Christensen, Clayton M. "Ceramics Process Systems Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 691-028, October 1990. (Revised November 1992.)
  114. Rigid Disk Drives: An Industry Note

    Keywords: Software;

    Citation:

    Wheelwright, Steven C., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Rigid Disk Drives: An Industry Note." Harvard Business School Background Note 692-014, January 1992. (Revised March 1992.)
  115. Quantum Corp.: Business and Product Teams

    Describes the adoption and evolution of product development teams and business teams at Quantum. Emphasizes integration of team capabilities with product development and competitive advantage in a rapidly changing environment.

    Keywords: Product Development; Groups and Teams; Situation or Environment; Competitive Strategy; Integration; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Wheelwright, Steven C., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Quantum Corp.: Business and Product Teams." Harvard Business School Case 692-023, January 1992. (Revised February 1992.)
  116. Continuous Casting Commitments at Bethlehem Steel Corp.

    Keywords: Competition; Competitive Strategy; Innovation and Invention; Steel Industry; Pennsylvania;

    Citation:

    Rosenbloom, Richard S., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Continuous Casting Commitments at Bethlehem Steel Corp." Harvard Business School Case 391-150, February 1991.

Other Publications and Materials

  1. A Normative Theory of Dynamic, Organizational Design: Lessons from project management

    Keywords: Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Spear, Steven, and Clayton M. Christensen. "A Normative Theory of Dynamic, Organizational Design: Lessons from project management." January 2005.
  2. Interventional Radiology: Disrupting Invasive Medicine

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Shah, Chirag D., Troyen A Brennan, and C. M. Christensen. "Interventional Radiology: Disrupting Invasive Medicine." April 2003.
  3. Integrate to Innovate: The Determinants of Success in Developing and Deploying New Services in the Communications Industry

    Keywords: Integration; Innovation and Management; Service Operations; Success; Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Raynor, Michael, and C. M. Christensen. "Integrate to Innovate: The Determinants of Success in Developing and Deploying New Services in the Communications Industry." Report Series, Deloitte Research, May 2002.
  4. Technology Strategy: The Theory and Application of the Christensen Model

    Keywords: Technology; Business Strategy; Disruptive Innovation;

    Citation:

    Christensen, C. M., and Steven Milunovich. "Technology Strategy: The Theory and Application of the Christensen Model." Merrill Lynch Report Series, March 2002.