David E. Bell

George M. Moffett Professor of Agriculture and Business
Unit Head, Marketing

David E. Bell is the George M. Moffett Professor of Agriculture and Business at Harvard Business School. He teaches the MBA course in Agribusiness and also runs the annual Agribusiness Seminar that attracts 200 leading food executives each January to the HBS campus, and each year to one other location around the globe. The next such off-site seminar is in Shanghai in May 2014. He studies all aspects of the food chain, from farming to distribution to trends in consumer eating habits.

During 35 years on the HBS faculty David has taught a variety of courses to both MBAs and executives, including marketing, retailing, risk management and economics. Most recently he has taught the MBA Leadership and Corporate Accountability course. He has held a number of administrative positions at HBS including a previous term as chairman of the school’s marketing faculty (2002-8) and Senior Associate Dean for Planning and Recruiting (2008-12).

David has degrees in mathematics from Oxford University (BA) and MIT (PhD). He has published many papers on decision analysis, the best known being on psychological aspects of risk taking. In recognition of his research he was awarded the Ramsey Medal in 2001 and elected as an INFORMS Fellow in 2011.

Outside HBS, David is an active speaker and consultant. He currently serves as an advisor to Paine & Partners, and as a director of Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation.

Books

  1. Decisions under Uncertainty

    Keywords: Decisions; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E., and A. Schleifer Jr. Decisions under Uncertainty. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Course Technology Inc. (CTI), 1996.
  2. Strategic Retail Management

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E., and W. J. Salmon. Strategic Retail Management. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 1996.
  3. An Introduction to Retailing

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E., and W. J. Salmon. An Introduction to Retailing. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 1996.
  4. Decisions under Uncertainty

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E., and A. Schleifer Jr. Decisions under Uncertainty. Cambridge, MA: Course Technology Inc. (CTI), 1995.
  5. Data Analysis, Regression, and Forecasting

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction;

    Citation:

    Schleifer, A., Jr., and D. E. Bell. Data Analysis, Regression, and Forecasting. Cambridge, MA: Course Technology Inc. (CTI), 1995.

Journal Articles

  1. One-Switch Conditions for Multiattribute Utility Functions

    We introduce a variety of new independence conditions for multiattribute utility functions that permit preference dependencies among the attributes of a decision problem. The hierarchy of new conditions varies in the degree to which it specifies the functional form, ranging from more general solutions with weaker constraints, to more specific solutions with stronger constraints. This formulation provides a wealth of new functional forms that a decision maker may use in a multiattribute decision problem. In addition, it may be used to tailor the utility elicitation process to the comfort level of the decision maker. The new conditions, and the corresponding functional forms, are based on the idea of limiting the number of switches that a decision maker may make between two decision alternatives as a parameter of the problem varies. We show how this formulation also relates many widely used concepts in single and multiattribute utility theory.

    Keywords: one-switch; utility independence; risk aversion; multiattribute utility; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Abbas, Ali E., and David E. Bell. "One-Switch Conditions for Multiattribute Utility Functions." Operations Research 60, no. 5 (September–October 2012): 1199–1212.
  2. KFC's Radical Approach to China

    Global companies face a crucial question when they enter emerging markets: how far should they go to localize their offerings? Typically they try to sell core products or services pretty much as they've been sold in Europe or the United States, with headquarters calling all the shots—and usually with disappointing results. The authors examined why KFC China has been able to find fertile ground in a market that is notoriously challenging for Western fast-food chains. KFC's executives believed that the dominant logic behind the chain's growth in the U.S.—a limited menu, small stores, and an emphasis on takeout—wouldn't produce the kind of success they were looking for in China. KFC China offers important lessons for global executives seeking guidance in determining how much of their existing business model to keep in emerging markets—and how much to throw away.

    Keywords: Food; Food and Beverage Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "KFC's Radical Approach to China." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 11 (November 2011).
  3. One-Switch Independence for Multiattribute Utility Functions

    Citation:

    Abbas, Ali E., and David E. Bell. "One-Switch Independence for Multiattribute Utility Functions." Operations Research 59, no. 3 (May–June 2011): 764–771.
  4. The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing

    Keywords: Sales; Customer Focus and Relationships;

    Citation:

    Lal, Rajiv, and David E. Bell. "The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing." Quantitative Marketing and Economics 1, no. 2 (June 2003).
  5. Sequential Testing in Product Development

    Keywords: Research and Development; Product;

    Citation:

    Thomke, S., and David E. Bell. "Sequential Testing in Product Development." Management Science 47, no. 2 (February 2001).
  6. Strong One-Switch Utility

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E., and Peter C Fishburn. "Strong One-Switch Utility." Management Science 47, no. 2 (February 2001).
  7. Utility Functions for Wealth

    Keywords: Wealth;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Peter C Fishburn. "Utility Functions for Wealth." Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 20 (January 2000): 1–5.
  8. A Contextual Uncertainty Condition for Behavior under Risk

    Keywords: Behavior; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "A Contextual Uncertainty Condition for Behavior under Risk." Management Science 41, no. 7 (July 1995): 1145–1150.
  9. Risk, Return, and Utility

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Finance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Risk, Return, and Utility." Management Science 41, no. 1 (January 1995): 23–30.

Book Chapters

  1. Altruistic Utility Functions for Joint Decisions

    All of us make decisions that are not entirely self-centered; we voluntarily anticipate what we think to be the preferences of others and incorporate them into our decision making. We do this, not because of legal requirements or social norms, but because we are altruistic; we care intrinsically about the welfare of others. In this paper, we illustrate for these types of decisions how confusion may arise because the distinction between our personal (egotistical) preferences and our altruistic concerns is not carefully distinguished. We first define the distinction between personal and altruistic preferences, and then show how to use both of these kinds of preferences in prescriptive decision making methodologies.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Personal Characteristics; Welfare or Wellbeing;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ralph L. Keeney. "Altruistic Utility Functions for Joint Decisions." In The Mathematics of Preference, Choice and Order, edited by Steven Brams, William V. Gehrlein, and Fred S. Roberts, 27–38. Studies in Choice and Welfare. Springer, 2009.
  2. Utility and Risk Preferences

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Utility and Risk Preferences." In Advances in Decision Analysis, edited by Ward Edwards, Ralph Miles, and Detlof von Winterfeldt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  3. Globalization of Retailing

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Lal, Rajiv, David E. Bell, and Walter J. Salmon. "Globalization of Retailing." In The Global Market: Developing a Strategy to Manage Across Borders, edited by John A. Quelch and Rohit Deshpandé. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004.
  4. Measuring Risk and Return for Portfolios

    Keywords: Investment Portfolio; Investment Return; Risk and Uncertainty; Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Bell, D. E. "Measuring Risk and Return for Portfolios." In Wise Choices: Decisions, Games, and Negotiations, edited by Richard Zeckhauser, Ralph Keeney, and James Sebenius. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Working Papers

  1. Incorporating the Customer's Perspective into the Newsvendor Problem

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Incorporating the Customer's Perspective into the Newsvendor Problem." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 02-024, October 2001.
  2. A Methodology for Retailing Analysis

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "A Methodology for Retailing Analysis." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-030, October 1997.

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Diageo: Innovating for Africa

    Diageo, the world's leading premium drinks business, had a long history in Africa starting from its beer brand Guinness first exported to Sierra Leone in 1827. By 2013, 13% of Diageo's global revenues were from Africa, up from 9% in 2007. Diageo Africa President Nick Blazquez was considering how to seize the opportunities presented by rising populations and incomes while navigating increased competition and the unique challenges presented by frontier markets. The case describes Diageo's innovation process and two recent product launches developed specially for Africa. It also discusses government relations and the need to develop local production and raw material supply chains.

    Keywords: Africa; emerging market; innovation; Agribusiness; beverage industry; Emerging Markets; Innovation Strategy; Marketing; Food and Beverage Industry; Africa;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary L. Shelman. "Diageo: Innovating for Africa." Harvard Business School Case 514-054, February 2014.
  2. Grupo Beta San Miguel

    In November 2013, Dr. Jose Pinto, head of Grupo Beta San Miguel (BSM), Mexico's largest private sugar producer, is weighing the future prospects of the Mexican sugar industry as he considers whether BSM should bid on one of the state-owned sugar mills slated for auction. His decision will be informed by dynamics in the North American sugar market—NAFTA affords Mexico unique duty-free access to the U.S.—as well as the world sugar market and other major sugar-producing countries, especially Brazil.

    Keywords: Mexico; Jose Pinto; Beta San Miguel; Polycrom; sugar; world sugar trade; NAFTA; Strategy; Trade; Futures and Commodity Futures; Agribusiness; Price; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Mexico; United States; North America;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Grupo Beta San Miguel." Harvard Business School Case 514-005, December 2013.
  3. Marks and Spencer: Plan A (TP)

    Teaching Note for 509029.

    Keywords: Marketing; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Strategic Planning; Environmental Sustainability; Competitive Advantage; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David, and Michael Norris. "Marks and Spencer: Plan A (TP)." Harvard Business School Teaching Plan 513-029, April 2013.
  4. Fonterra (TN)

    Teaching Note for Fonterra

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Dairy; Cooperatives; commodity prices; organizational structure; Agribusiness; Organizational Structure; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; New Zealand;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman. "Fonterra (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 513-076, February 2013.
  5. K&N's: Health and Happiness for Pakistan (TN)

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Pakistan; Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Pakistan;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary Shelman. "K&N's: Health and Happiness for Pakistan (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 513-077, February 2013.
  6. Kepak and the Future of the Irish Beef Industry (TN)

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Ireland; Beef; Animal-Based Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary Shelman. "Kepak and the Future of the Irish Beef Industry (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 513-081, February 2013.
  7. Domino's Pizza (TN)

    Teaching Note for Domino's Pizza

    Keywords: risk management; commodity prices; supply chain management; price volatility; Agribusiness; QSR; franchise; Food; Supply Chain Management; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman. "Domino's Pizza (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 513-075, January 2013.
  8. OSI in China

    OSI, one of the world's largest suppliers of processed meats to McDonald's and other QSRs, was in the middle of a $400M expansion in China that included backward integration into poultry production. However, its current customers took only a portion of each bird produced and OSI had to develop a go-to-market strategy for the rest. The case describes the opportunities and challenges of operating in China and raises questions involving vertical integration, competitive positioning, corporate strategy, organizational design, marketing and branding, and the management of business and political risk.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; China; corporate strategy; Vertical Integration; competitive positioning; organizational design; channels of distribution; Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman. "OSI in China." Harvard Business School Case 513-045, January 2013. (Revised April 2013.)
  9. Olam: On a New Course

    From modest beginnings as a cashew trader in Nigeria, Olam, founded by Indian nationals in 1989, has grown into a leading global agricultural trading company, with annual revenues of $14 billion. The company recently has begun investing in farms and in the production of packaged goods, shifting from its traditional focus on the midstream of the value chain. The case raises questions involving competitive positioning, corporate strategy, sustainable development, and the management of business and political risk.

    Keywords: Risk Management; Leadership; Customer Value and Value Chain; Corporate Strategy; Organizational Culture; Environmental Sustainability; Expansion; Competitive Advantage; Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Nigeria;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Forest Reinhardt, and Mary Shelman. "Olam: On a New Course." Harvard Business School Case 513-044, December 2012. (Revised April 2013.)
  10. Exima Agro-Industrial Holdings

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Damien P. McLoughlin. "Exima Agro-Industrial Holdings." Harvard Business School Case 513-062, December 2012. (Revised April 2013.)
  11. Ocean Mist Farms

    In late 2012, Kori Tuggle, director of marketing and business development at Ocean Mist Farms, a California produce company, examines her social media-based marketing program and her attempts to create a brand for a bulk commodity.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; United States; California;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Jose B. Alvarez, Mary Shelman, and Michael Norris. "Ocean Mist Farms." Harvard Business School Case 513-027, December 2012.
  12. Greencore

    Patrick Coveney, CEO of Greencore, one of the top producers of private label prepared foods sold through UK grocery retailers, was assessing Greencore's growth options. Growth potential was limited in the UK, a mature market in which retailers were unlikely to grant much greater market share to Greencore or any of its competitors. In the U.S., where Greencore had struggled to gain traction since its initial entry in 2008, the market for fresh, chilled prepared foods was far less developed. Can Greencore translate its success in the UK to the U.S.? Should Coveney focus on developing the U.S. market or on maximizing Greencore's position in the UK?

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; United Kingdom; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Greencore." Harvard Business School Case 513-052, December 2012. (Revised April 2013.)
  13. Agriculture in Mexico

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Regina Garcia-Cuellar, and Cintra Scott. "Agriculture in Mexico." Harvard Business School Case 513-065, December 2012. (Revised March 2013.)
  14. Fonterra (TP)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Mary Shelman, and Annelena Lobb. "Fonterra (TP)." Harvard Business School Teaching Plan 513-024, April 2013.
  15. Marine Harvest: Leading Salmon Aquaculture (TP)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ryan Johnson. "Marine Harvest: Leading Salmon Aquaculture (TP)." Harvard Business School Teaching Plan 513-049, September 2012.
  16. Brasil Foods (TP)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Brasil Foods (TP)." Harvard Business School Teaching Plan 513-035, August 2012.
  17. K&N's: Health and Happiness for Pakistan

    Keywords: Family Business; Growth and Development Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Pakistan;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary Shelman. "K&N's: Health and Happiness for Pakistan." Harvard Business School Case 512-002, December 2011. (Revised May 2012.)
  18. Domino's Pizza

    Domino's Pizza is the world's second-largest pizza company with 9,436 stores globally, 95% of which are franchised. Domino's franchisees in the U.S. market were able to purchase fresh dough, cheese, pizza toppings, and other menu ingredients and store supplies directly from the company-owned supply chain system. When commodity prices became more volatile in 2007 and 2008, executives at Domino's changed the way they worked with suppliers and franchisees to manage costs and risks, and better leverage the assets of the supply chain system. As the company prepared to accelerate international growth in 2011 and beyond, executives contemplated how to best apply their purchasing and supply chain knowledge into new international markets.

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Phillip Andrews, and Mary Shelman. "Domino's Pizza." Harvard Business School Case 512-004, December 2011. (Revised April 2013.)
  19. Brasil Foods

    In mid-2011, the management of Brasil Foods, a leading Brazilian branded foods producer and protein exporter, is evaluating strategies for international and domestic growth. The team has just received approval from Brazil's antitrust authorities to complete the merger of Perdigao and Sadia, the two massive food producers that had combined to form Brasil Foods in 2009. Now, the team is free to focus on their ambitious plan to double revenues by 2015. Domestically, the plan calls for Brasil Foods to maintain its allowed retail market share and expand its presence in the fast-growing food service sector. Internationally, the plan sets out a vision of Brasil Foods evolving from an exporter to a true multinational. The team believes their operational expertise and scale combined with Brazil's booming economy and vast agricultural resources form the ideal platform for achieving their vision. Yet, amid a wealth of possibilities, they face tough choices, such as which emerging markets to pursue first. They also face serious personnel issues, including integrating employees from Perdigao and Sadia—longtime industry rivals—and developing an international team that understands foreign markets.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Brasil Foods." Harvard Business School Case 512-013, December 2011. (Revised April 2013.)
  20. Fonterra

    Keywords: Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman. "Fonterra." Harvard Business School Case 512-003, December 2011. (Revised February 2012.)
  21. Monsanto: Helping Farmers Feed the World

    Monsanto has led the effort to bring biotechnology to bear on food production. Through some management missteps and consumer resistance the company had difficulties in its early years. But since Hugh Grant became CEO the picture has brightened with widespread adoption of the company's products. This case focuses on the company's product pipeline and the galvanizing effect of the CEO's promise to substantially improve global food production by 2030.

    Keywords: Food; Global Strategy; Leadership; Production; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Carin-Isabel Knoop, and Mary Shelman. "Monsanto: Helping Farmers Feed the World." Harvard Business School Case 510-025, December 2009. (Revised February 2012.)
  22. Yum! China

    Since the first KFC opened in China in 1987, Yum--under Sam Su's leadership--had built the largest restaurant company by far in mainland China. Averaging one new restaurant opening a day for the past five years, in 2010 Yum ran over 3,600 restaurants in 650 cities and employed over 250,000 people, many of them college students in their first jobs. In the third quarter of 2010, Yum China's revenues surpassed U.S. revenues for the first time and many analysts expected that Yum's China business--driven by a rapidly growing middle class--would be twice as large as its U.S. business within five years. But before rushing out to open thousands more stores, Su wondered what the company should do to forestall some of the problems plaguing the fast food industry in the West.

    Keywords: Business Processes; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Strategy; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Beijing Shi;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Shelman. "Yum! China." Harvard Business School Case 511-040, December 2010. (Revised February 2012.)
  23. Marine Harvest: Leading Salmon Aquaculture

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ryan Johnson. "Marine Harvest: Leading Salmon Aquaculture." Harvard Business School Case 512-042, December 2011.
  24. Asian Agri and the Future of Palm Oil (TN)

    Teaching Note for 511015.

    Keywords: Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Indonesia; Malaysia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Asian Agri and the Future of Palm Oil (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 512-014, July 2011.
  25. Taylor Fresh Foods (TN)

    Teaching Note for 509008.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Food; Demand and Consumers; Competition; Opportunities; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Taylor Fresh Foods (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 511-128, April 2011.
  26. Yum! China (TN)

    Teaching Note for 511040.

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Beijing Shi;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Yum! China (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 511-106, April 2011.
  27. Kepak and the Future of the Irish Beef Industry

    As Ireland's third largest beef processor, Kepak faces new opportunities as well as significant challenges from the collapse of the "Celtic Tiger." The government has identified food and agriculture as one way the country could significantly grow exports. However, the beef industry is suffering from overcapacity and from an inefficient farming structure. CEO John Horgan is considering the best way to position Kepak for success, including the possibility of an umbrella Irish beef brand, opportunities for "co-opetition" within the industry, and how to expand the firm's successful convenience foods business to more countries.

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Economic Sectors; Policy; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing; Competition; Cooperation; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Republic of Ireland;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Damien P. McLoughlin, and Mary Shelman. "Kepak and the Future of the Irish Beef Industry." Harvard Business School Case 511-070, December 2010. (Revised April 2013.)
  28. Red Lobster

    Red Lobster, a 40-year-old chain of seafood restaurants, has just completed some market research revealing an opportunity to shift its target customer segment. The chain is in the final stages of a 10-year plan of rejuvenation under CEO Kim Lopdrup. When he took over as CEO in 2004 the chain was closing restaurants and suffering declining same-store sales and declining customer satisfaction. But in 2010, even in a recession, the fortunes of the chain are improving. A recently commissioned market research study has revealed, unexpectedly, that 25% of Red Lobster's customers are "experientials," people coming for a "good evening out" rather than Red Lobster's traditional core customer who came because of a craving for seafood. Should this news cause Lopdrup to do anything differently?

    Keywords: Advertising; Customer Satisfaction; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Research; Segmentation; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Jason Riis. "Red Lobster." Harvard Business School Case 511-052, September 2010. (Revised February 2011.)
  29. Los Grobo: Farming's Future?

    This case describes the international expansion plans of the second largest grain producer in Latin America, Los Grobo. Based in Argentina with US$550 million in annual sales, Los Grobo also operated in Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay--usually with local partners. Los Grobo had an unusual business model: it did not own land nor farm machinery. Instead, it created a network of partnered producers and suppliers. In other words, it outsourced as much as possible. CEO Gustavo Grobocopatel believed that Los Grobo's network model was the best way to work within "farming's new paradigm," in which knowledge and technological advancements were farmers' most important tools.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Business Model; Ownership; Networks; Expansion; Information Technology; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Argentina;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Cintra Scott. "Los Grobo: Farming's Future?" Harvard Business School Case 511-088, December 2010. (Revised January 2011.)
  30. Note on Store Location

    Reviews some basic issues to be considered in selecting a new location for a retail store.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Geographic Location; Expansion; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Jose B. Alvarez. "Note on Store Location." Harvard Business School Background Note 593-112, April 1993. (Revised January 2011.)
  31. Asian Agri and the Future of Palm Oil

    For Asian Agri and other Indonesian palm oil producers, the future promised rising demand from fast-growing Asian populations, but also intensifying criticism from environmental groups. With the highest yield and lowest production cost of any edible oil, palm oil constituted an abundant, inexpensive source of food for Asian and, to a lesser extent, international markets. Its production had soared from 1970 to 2010, sparking concern from environmentalists over the conversion of high-value conservation land in Malaysia and Indonesia (where nearly 90% of palm oil was produced) into palm oil plantations. Critics had intensified their campaigns in recent years, urging—at times successfully—packaged food makers and investors to boycott palm oil suppliers accused of environmental mismanagement. While noting that some accusations were unjustified, palm oil producers argued the industry was making strides towards greater sustainability and cited the unique advantages of palm oil: it was free of unhealthy trans fats, for example, and required less land to produce more oil than any known substitute. Asian Agri, an established Indonesian palm oil grower and exporter, had thus far avoided public scrutiny. The company was a key source of employment in many rural communities, had extensive experience negotiating the complex Indonesian regulatory environment, and was moving to certify its operations according to industry-set sustainability guidelines. In 2010, Asian Agri appeared well positioned to capitalize on the growing palm oil market, but the broad-strokes vilification of the palm oil industry was a source of serious concern. In the face of great uncertainty, the management team needed to devise a strategy for the future.

    Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Social Marketing; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business Strategy; Supply Chain Management; Natural Environment; Marketing Strategy; Environmental Sustainability; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Indonesia; Malaysia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Asian Agri and the Future of Palm Oil." Harvard Business School Case 511-015, December 2010. (Revised March 2013.)
  32. Ebro Puleva

    Once Spain's largest sugar company, Ebro Puleva has been transformed through a series of international acquisitions into the world's largest package rice company and second largest pasta company. In 2009, Chairman Antonio Hernandez Callejas must decide how to proceed now that the firm's sugar business has been sold. A specific question is whether the firm should sell its dairy business, which is limited to Spain. The case discusses the firm's branding strategy, approach to integration, and organizational structure used to manage a global business. The case also describes several changes in consumer behavior and the retail food market brought on by the global financial crisis.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Financial Crisis; Globalized Firms and Management; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Brands and Branding; Consumer Behavior; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Retail Industry; Spain;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Antonio Garcia de Castro, Rocio Reina Paniagua, and Mary Louise Shelman. "Ebro Puleva." Harvard Business School Case 510-026, December 2009. (Revised June 2010.)
  33. Diamond Foods (TN)

    Teaching Note for 510013..

    Keywords: Cooperative Ownership; Transformation; Advertising Campaigns; Corporate Strategy; Product; Organizational Culture; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Natalie Kindred, and Mary Louise Shelman. "Diamond Foods (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-067, June 2010.
  34. Ebro Puleva (TN)

    Teaching Note for 510026.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Transformation; Decision Choices and Conditions; Business or Company Management; Strategy; Brands and Branding; Financial Crisis; Business Exit or Shutdown; Organizational Structure; Globalization; Food and Beverage Industry; Spain;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Ebro Puleva (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-100, June 2010.
  35. Monsanto: Helping Farmers Feed the World (TN)

    Teaching Note for [510025].

    Keywords: Food; Production; Adoption; Leadership Style; Globalized Markets and Industries; Performance Productivity; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Monsanto: Helping Farmers Feed the World (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-101, June 2010.
  36. PureCircle (TN)

    Teaching Note for #510-032.

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "PureCircle (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-072, June 2010.
  37. Woolf Farming & Processing (TN)

    Teaching Note for [510033].

    Keywords: Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Woolf Farming & Processing (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-108, June 2010.
  38. Codevasf

    With many countries facing scarcity of freshwater and farmable land, Brazil decided to leverage its wealth of both resources to attract global agribusiness players to the historically poor Sao Francisco Valley (SFV) in the country's northeast. To do so, Brazil was instituting its first public-private partnership (PPP) in irrigation at Pontal, a partially built irrigation project in the SFV. In exchange for partial reimbursement from the Brazilian government and free use of 30,000 hectares land for 25 years, the private-sector partner would finish constructing the irrigation infrastructure and establish agricultural operations on the project; the partner was also required to integrate some local smallholders into the production chain. In December 2009, Codevasf was almost ready to start accepting bids for Pontal. For Clementino de Souza Coelho, director of infrastructure for Codevasf, the stakes were high: if successful at Pontal, PPPs could be replicated throughout the SFV, transforming the historically poor region into an agribusiness hub, as well as be a model for the rest of the world.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Resource Allocation; Bids and Bidding; Infrastructure; Supply Chain; Business and Government Relations; Natural Environment; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Marcos Fava Neves, Luciano Thome e Castro, and Natalie Kindred. "Codevasf." Harvard Business School Case 510-042, December 2009. (Revised May 2010.)
  39. Codevasf (TN)

    Teaching Note for 510042.

    Keywords: Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Natalie Kindred. "Codevasf (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-070, April 2010. (Revised May 2010.)
  40. Rabobank: The Global Food and Agriculture Bank

    Rabobank decides to focus primarily on food and agriculture firms and farms on a global basis.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Banks and Banking; Food; Globalization; System; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Ray A. Goldberg, Mary Louise Shelman, and Aldo Sesia. "Rabobank: The Global Food and Agriculture Bank." Harvard Business School Case 510-024, December 2009. (Revised April 2010.)
  41. Alltech...naturally (TN)

    Teaching Note for [508033].

    Keywords: Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Alltech...naturally (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 510-086, March 2010.
  42. Woolf Farming and Processing

    Woolf Farming Company, a privately owned family farming business in California's Central Valley, found its business threatened by a lack of water, brought on by a combination of drought, poor quality well water and unavailability of surface water due to federally imposed pumping restrictions. Woolf had been farming crops for more than 30 years, but this was the first time they suffered a water shortage so severe that crops had to be abandoned in the field. Even if there was short-term relief in the form of an increased allocation of water from the government, Woolf was concerned about water reliability and the need for additional infrastructure to provide long term water security to the region. If convinced that the water problem would be resolved, then Woolf should move quickly to purchase more land which was currently available at distressed prices. Yet some board members questioned the logic of additional investment in the region whose resources were so uncertain and wondered whether it was more prudent to pursue growth elsewhere. At the same time, some of Woolf's owners began to believe that more of the company's resources should be prioritized for dividends and other distributions as opposed to purely growth. What, if anything, could Woolf and other farmers do to influence the outcome?

    Keywords: Family Business; Resource Allocation; Quality; Business and Government Relations; Decision Choices and Conditions; Infrastructure; Investment; Growth and Development Strategy; Weather and Climate Change; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Laura Winig, and Mary Louise Shelman. "Woolf Farming and Processing." Harvard Business School Case 510-033, December 2009. (Revised March 2013.)
  43. ViniBrasil: New Latitude Wines

    ViniBrasil is a small wine venture in Brazil started by a top Portuguese wine company, Dao Sul. ViniBrasil grows its grapes in a novel environment (close to the equator) using innovative management practices such as controlled irrigation and year-round harvesting. ViniBrasil “Rio Sol” wines, which have received several awards, are sold mainly in Brazil where per capita wine consumption is low and there is strong competition from inexpensive imports. Dao Sul must decide how to expand the Brazilian market and also if there is international potential for the new Brazilian wines.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Global Strategy; Innovation and Invention; Management Practices and Processes; Demand and Consumers; Competition; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Marcos Flava Neves, Luciano Thome e Castro, and Mary Louise Shelman. "ViniBrasil: New Latitude Wines." Harvard Business School Case 509-003, December 2008. (Revised February 2010.)
  44. Diamond Foods

    CEO Michael Mendes has transformed a grower-owned cooperative into a publicly traded top marketer of snack foods. Diamond's organization, culture, product development process, advertising and promotion strategy, and specifically its marketing department have been built "from the ground up" to address fundamental changes in retail structure and consumer behavior. Can the Diamond model be successfully applied to other food categories?

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Business Model; Customer Focus and Relationships; Leadership; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Cooperative Ownership; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Diamond Foods." Harvard Business School Case 510-013, December 2009.
  45. PureCircle

    In December 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that high-purity Rebaudioside A (Reb A), a natural and calorie-free product that a young company named PureCircle manufactured from the Stevia plant, could be used in beverages, foods, and as a table top sweetener in the U.S.—the largest market for sugar and sweeteners in the world. While the FDA's determination was the breakthrough the company had hoped for, much remained uncertain—most obviously, would consumers accept Reb A as a substitute for sugar or the myriad sweeteners already established in the market place? The potential seemed high given consumers' growing concerns about obesity and diabetes. Yet, nothing was certain. What worried the company's leadership was the prospect of Reb A taking off—that is, being widely accepted by consumers and used by food and beverage (F&B) companies in mainstream mass-market products such as carbonated soft drinks—and the timing of the take off. If Reb A did go mainstream PureCircle would need to at least double its capacity to secure its position in the industry. If leadership overbuilt the company's capacity and Rebaudioside A ultimately remained a niche product they would severely jeopardize PureCircle's viability. Yet if leadership waited too long, the opportunity to create substantial wealth for the company's shareholders would be lost. As it was, the company's founder and CEO had already gambled by investing in enough production capacity for acceptance in the niche beverage market—before a market for Reb A had been established.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Investment; Globalization; Leadership; Risk Management; Product Launch; Production; Performance Productivity; Business and Shareholder Relations; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Aldo Sesia. "PureCircle." Harvard Business School Case 510-032, November 2009. (Revised March 2013.)
  46. Hungerit

    Hungary's top producer of poultry products is deciding the company's future strategy in the face of new opportunities in Central and Eastern Europe, a changing retail market in Hungary, and the possibility of increased global competition.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Corporate Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Global Strategy; Animal-Based Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Hungary;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Sarah Morton, and Mary Louise Shelman. "Hungerit." Harvard Business School Case 510-010, December 2009.
  47. Nestle

    In April 2008, Paul Bulcke took over as CEO of the world's largest food and beverage company. His predecessor, Peter Brabeck, had delivered 12 years of outstanding results while moving the company toward a new vision of health, nutrition, and wellness. Bulcke's challenge was to swiftly execute the vision and deliver the organic growth and improved margins necessary to meet the "Nestlé model."

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Globalized Markets and Industries; Leadership Style; Growth and Development Strategy; Brands and Branding; Organizational Culture; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Nestle." Harvard Business School Case 509-001, November 2008. (Revised October 2012.)
  48. Olam International

    In 20 years, Sunny Verghese had built Singapore-based Olam International from a small Nigerian export company into a $5 billion global leader in agricultural commodities with a core competence in Africa. Olam's growth had come by pursuing product and geographic adjacencies, and its “farm gate to factory gate” approach had been extended to 14 agricultural products, including cashews, sesame, cocoa, and coffee. In mid-October 2008, Olam's stock price declined to $1 a share from a high of $3.71 in early 2007 as part of the global economic crisis. Verghese had to decide whether to change the firm's strategy based on the new economic environment.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Trade; Growth and Development Strategy; Supply Chain; Expansion; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Africa; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Olam International." Harvard Business School Case 509-002, December 2008. (Revised October 2009.)
  49. Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)

    In 2006, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation joined together to form a new organization, AGRA, to tackle the historic challenge of increasing agricultural production in Africa. Launched with much fanfare and led by former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan as chairman of the board, AGRA sought to help millions of African farmers and their families achieve food security and lift themselves out of poverty. By 2008, AGRA had assembled a strong leadership team and had funded numerous small projects ranging from seed development to education. However, it needed to secure additional funding from public and private donors, gain the cooperation of governments, and catalyze private markets to achieve its goals.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Investment Funds; Food; Giving and Philanthropy; Business and Government Relations; Non-Governmental Organizations; Poverty; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Africa;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Brian Matthew Milder. "Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)." Harvard Business School Case 509-007, December 2008. (Revised October 2009.)
  50. GLOBALGAP: Food Safety and Private Standards

    In response to new laws governing liability and several food safety scares in the 1990s, European retailers drove the creation of a universal production standard based on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for fresh fruit and vegetables and a third-party certification system to monitor compliance. By 2008, the GLOBALGAP standard had expanded to cover coffee, tea, livestock, and aquaculture. Over 90,000 producers in 87 countries had been certified. Looking ahead, GLOBALGAP's board and management were discussing a number of questions, including the following: should GAP include environmental and social aspects beyond food safety; what was GLOBALGAP's role outside of Europe; and how GLOBALGAP is a 'hidden asset' compared to ethical labels such as Fair Trade.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Food; Governance Compliance; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Business and Government Relations; Safety; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "GLOBALGAP: Food Safety and Private Standards." Harvard Business School Case 509-004, January 2009. (Revised October 2009.)
  51. Disney Consumer Products: Marketing Nutrition to Children

    In an effort to capture market share in the children's foods category, Disney Consumer Products (DCP) debuted a broad line of "better for you" foods, ranging from fresh fruits and vegetables to frozen meals, through a partnership with Kroger supermarkets. In answer to a global obesity epidemic, DCP reformulated existing products and introduced new ones which met stringent nutritional requirements. Disney--and by extension, DCP--is highly influential with children: can the company use its "magic" to get children to switch from sugary, processed foods and become lifelong converts to a more nutritious diet? What is the food industry's responsibility in this controversial space?

    Keywords: Age Characteristics; Nutrition; Brands and Branding; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Partners and Partnerships; Social Issues; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Laura Winig. "Disney Consumer Products: Marketing Nutrition to Children." Harvard Business School Case 507-006, December 2006. (Revised August 2009.)
  52. COFCO Xinjiang Tunhe Co., Ltd.

    In 2005, COFCO Ltd., one of China's largest and most successful companies, acquired Xinjiang Tunhe, a tomato processing firm, which had been, in recent years, poorly managed. COFCO changed Tunhe's management team and set out to create a culture of professionalism and impressed upon the employees that the customer came first. Qin Yelong, Tunhe president, had ambitious goals for the company. he wanted Tunhe to be the world's largest supplier of tomato products (primarily paste) within three years. To do so, Tunhe needed to secure relationships with top-of-the-line international customers, such as H.J. Heinz and Unilever. These companies were interested in Tunhe as a supplier, but needed assurances that the company could provide a reliable supply of high quality, competitively priced, and safe tomato paste year in and year out before they would finalize long term contracts with Tunhe. Qin and his management team knew that to be number one, Tunhe would need to take a lead role in modernizing China's current "peasant mode of agriculture." Indeed, Tunhe's tomato supply came from 200,000 mainly uneducated farmers, working small parcels of land (less than 0.2 hectare on average) with little to no mechanization, scattered across the regions of Northwest China. The challenge: How to manage so many farmers (the number was expected to grow to 300,000 if Qin's revenue targets were achieved) so as to ensure consistent tomato quality and safety without dramatically increasing costs. Qin realized that Tunhe had an opportunity to create a new mode of agriculture, which could be the model for all agribusiness in China moving forward. On the other hand, a misstep could lead Heinz and other large international companies to look elsewhere for their supply requirements.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Customer Relationship Management; Rural Scope; Supply Chain Management; Performance Consistency; Safety; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Aldo Sesia. "COFCO Xinjiang Tunhe Co., Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 508-079, June 2008. (Revised July 2009.)
  53. COFCO Xinjiang Tunhe Co., Ltd. (TN)

    Teaching Note for [508079].

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Goals and Objectives; Quality; Price; Competitive Strategy; Contracts; Supply and Industry; Business or Company Management; Problems and Challenges; Safety; Cost Management; Food and Beverage Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Sarah Morton, and Mary Louise Shelman. "COFCO Xinjiang Tunhe Co., Ltd. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 509-045, June 2009.
  54. Nestle (TN)

    Teaching Note for [509001].

    Keywords: Food; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Nestle (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 509-057, June 2009. (Revised October 2012.)
  55. Olam International (TN)

    Teaching Note for [509002].

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary Louise Shelman. "Olam International (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 509-056, May 2009.
  56. A Differentiation Strategy at ASDA

    The Wal-Mart CEO has challenged his company to do more to help mankind. The British subsidiary, ASDA, is reviewing its activities in the environment/social arena.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Trends; Values and Beliefs; Leadership Style; Growth and Development Strategy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Nitin Sanghavi. "A Differentiation Strategy at ASDA." Harvard Business School Case 507-047, February 2007. (Revised February 2009.)
  57. Marks and Spencer: Plan A

    Marks & Spencer initiated a comprehensive approach to sustainability (reduction of waste, carbon emissions, fair trade) called Plan A. Does it offer a competitive advantage?

    Keywords: Marketing; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Strategic Planning; Environmental Sustainability; Competitive Advantage; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Nitin Sanghavi, and Laura Winig. "Marks and Spencer: Plan A." Harvard Business School Case 509-029, January 2009.
  58. Taylor Fresh Foods

    In 13 years, Bruce Taylor had built Taylor Fresh Foods into a $1 billion company and the top supplier of salads to the U.S. food service industry and to supermarket deli departments. In 2008, he was convinced that the time was right to make a big push in the fresh food area to satisfy consumers that were demanding more convenient, natural, good-tasting, and locally-grown foods. Taylor needed an action plan to make Taylor Fresh the industry leader before his competition woke up to the opportunity that lay before them all.

    Keywords: Food; Brands and Branding; Demand and Consumers; Supply Chain Management; Competition; Expansion; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Natalie Kindred, and Mary Louise Shelman. "Taylor Fresh Foods." Harvard Business School Case 509-008, December 2008.
  59. JBS Swift & Co.

    Brazilian meat packer JBS surprised many in the U.S. beef industry when it acquired Swift & Co.—a company more than five times its size—in 2007, then moved to acquire the U.S.'s fourth and fifth largest beef producers in 2008. The new JBS Swift slashed costs and restructured, turning around a quarterly loss of $99 million to a gain of $140 million within 6 months. JBS aimed to position itself to supply beef markets around the world, but it faced a perfect storm of rising feed and fuel prices, a global credit crisis, and industry analysts skeptical about the company's debt load.

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Mergers and Acquisitions; Restructuring; Financial Crisis; Borrowing and Debt; Global Strategy; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; United States; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Cathy Ross. "JBS Swift & Co." Harvard Business School Case 509-021, December 2008.
  60. Marketing as Competitive Advantage: Fundamentals

    Marketing as Competitive Advantage: Fundamentals will help today's business executives and tomorrow's business leaders understand the key elements of a successful marketing strategy. The multimedia resource includes video lectures by Harvard Business School faculty, who teach core principles of marketing, as well as animated frameworks, articles, and notes. Instructional workbook exercises will help you evaluate your own marketing efforts and create a marketing plan for your organization.

    Keywords: Customers; Framework; Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Planning; Competitive Advantage; Segmentation;

    Citation:

    Narayandas, Das, David E. Bell, Anita Elberse, John T. Gourville, David B. Godes, John A. Quelch, Gail J. McGovern, Luc R. Wathieu, and Marta Wosinska. "Marketing as Competitive Advantage: Fundamentals." Harvard Business School Class Lecture 509-719, October 2008.
  61. Disney Consumer Products: Marketing Nutrition to Children (TN)

    Teaching Note for [507-006].

    Keywords: Food; Partners and Partnerships; Nutrition; Age Characteristics; Health Pandemics; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Disney Consumer Products: Marketing Nutrition to Children (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 508-078, May 2008.
  62. Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony (TN)

    Teaching Note for [508-001].

    Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Customers; Production; Price; Ethics; Environmental Sustainability; Development Economics; Supply Chain; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Europe; United Kingdom; Kenya;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 508-106, May 2008.
  63. Viagen: Revolutioning the Livestock Industry (TN)

    Teaching Note for [507021].

    Keywords: Investment; Genetics; Production; Training; Customers; Supply Chain; Business Plan; Commercialization; Technology; Performance Efficiency; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Industry Structures; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Mary L. Shelman, and Eliot Sherman. "Viagen: Revolutioning the Livestock Industry (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 508-014, April 2008.
  64. Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative

    In rural India, farmers historically had limited access to quality input items for both their fields and homes. Indian conglomerate DSCL has undertaken a Rural Business Initiative to address this issue, establishing a chain of retail outlets throughout rural India geared toward farmers and their families. Through its growing network of stores, DSCL is able to establish relationships with farmers and provide them with a host of agricultural services, including improved crop inputs, agronomic support, fuel, banking, and consumer goods. The outlets also buy back some of the farmers' production at harvest time. In utilizing the products and services offered by the stores, farmers are able to improve the quality of their crops and access a network of helpful resources in an environment that was once considered completely tangential to the benefits of agricultural research and technology reaped in other parts of the world. DSCL strategizes about how the company can also benefit from these freshly forged connections with India's rural millions.

    Keywords: Business Model; Business Conglomerates; Agribusiness; Rural Scope; Customer Relationship Management; Business Strategy; Service Operations; Networks; Alliances; Retail Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Nitin Sanghavi, Virginia Fuller, and Mary L. Shelman. "Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 508-012, November 2007. (Revised April 2008.)
  65. Alltech...naturally

    Entrepreneur Pearse Lyons had built Alltech into the fastest growing company in the global animal health industry through innovative technology, creative marketing, and strong branding. Sel-Plex, a proprietary Alltech product, had shown important health benefits for animals and humans. Although numerous branded selenium-enriched products were being sold in supermarkets around the world, the company's current business model (selling Sel-Plex as an ingredient) did not allow it to participate in the value created. Lyons and Alltech's directors must choose between three different options for Sel-Plex, which include continuing with the current strategy, partnering with animal producers, or marketing Sel-Plex directly to consumers in tablet form.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Leadership Development; Customer Focus and Relationships; Expansion; Technological Innovation; Intellectual Property; Sales; Value Creation; Business Model; Growth and Development Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Alltech...naturally." Harvard Business School Case 508-033, December 2007. (Revised April 2008.)
  66. Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative (TN)

    Teaching Note for [508012].

    Keywords: Retail Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Nitin Sanghavi. "Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar: A Rural Business Initiative (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 508-086, March 2008.
  67. South Dakota Wheat Growers

    As a farmer-owned cooperative, South Dakota Wheat Growers (SDWG) serves the needs of its 3,600 active farmer-members by supplying farm inputs and organizing the marketing and transportation of grain produced in the co-op's service territory. For almost 80 years, the majority of grain was shipped out of the area by rail to markets in the East and the Pacific Northwest. However, the recent expansion in ethanol production is changing the pattern of grain flow along with stimulating the local farm economy. SDWG's management and producer board must decide how to continue to meet the needs of their producer-owners under the new conditions.

    Keywords: Cooperative Ownership; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Production; Rail Transportation; Marketing Strategy; Expansion; Economic Growth; Global Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; South Dakota;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "South Dakota Wheat Growers." Harvard Business School Case 508-034, January 2008. (Revised February 2008.)
  68. ViaGen: Revolutionizing the Livestock Industry

    ViaGen has invested heavily to develop cloning technology for the livestock industry. Cloning has the potential to significantly improve the genetics of livestock, leading to higher quality meat, healthier animals, and more efficient production. Since 2003, the firm has been waiting for the FDA to declare that meat and milk from cloned animals are no different from non-clones. During that period the company has worked to educate regulators, consumers, and members of the livestock chain about cloning. In late 2006, the FDA announcement appears imminent. ViaGen CEO Mark Walton needs to develop different business plans to commercialize cloning technology in pigs, cattle, and horses, all of which have a different industry structure. At the same time, he must consider what to do if the announcement is delayed yet again.

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Business Plan; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Marketing Communications; Industry Structures; Business and Government Relations; Genetics; Commercialization; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Reed Martin, and Mary L. Shelman. "ViaGen: Revolutionizing the Livestock Industry." Harvard Business School Case 507-021, December 2006. (Revised January 2008.)
  69. The Convention on Biological Diversity: Engaging the Private Sector

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was a U.N. treaty that by 2006 had been signed by virtually every country in the world except for the United States. The treaty established three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. Although the treaty had been in effect for almost 15 years, progress was slow. CBD Executive Secretary Ahmed Djoghlaf needed to increase the participation of the private sector in order to meet the treaty's "2010 Target," which called for a significant reduction in the loss of biodiversity at all levels (global, regional, and national). Provides background on the relationship between biodiversity and agriculture.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Private Sector; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Genetics; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "The Convention on Biological Diversity: Engaging the Private Sector." Harvard Business School Case 507-020, December 2006. (Revised December 2007.)
  70. Queensland Sugar Limited

    Until industry deregulation in 2006, Queensland Sugar ran Australia's single desk marketing system for raw sugar exports. Since deregulation, eight of the ten Queensland sugar millers have elected to continue collective marketing through QSL. However, several millers are threatening to leave the group and market on their own. Their primary objection is to QSL's board structure, which is currently divided equally between millers, growers, and independent directors. The case describes the evolution of Australia's sugar industry; the differing interests of growers, millers, and customers; and the impact of changes in global supply (e.g., the rise of Brazil as a major sugarcane and sugar producer) and demand (e.g., the increased use of sugarcane for ethanol production).

    Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Goods and Commodities; Trade; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Competition; Marketing Strategy; Supply Chain; Network Effects; Supply and Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Queensland Sugar Limited." Harvard Business School Case 508-038, December 2007. (Revised March 2013.)
  71. Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony

    Vegpro, a horticulture company, is Kenya's largest exporter of fresh vegetables and flowers to top supermarkets in the U.K. and Europe. In 2007, Vegpro's business is threatened by growing consumer concern about the environmental impact of food production and transport, including "food miles". The case describes the company's growth, which includes the use of owned land and outgrowers for production, the addition of value-added processing to obtain premium prices, and the introduction of global certification to ensure food safety and meet retailer and consumer requirements. The case also discusses the potential impact of increased consumer awareness of ethical sourcing and introduces the potential trade off between local production and economic development.

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Developing Countries and Economies; Ethics; Food; Growth and Development Strategy; Operations; Environmental Sustainability; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Kenya; Europe; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Brian Milder, and Mary L. Shelman. "Vegpro Group: Growing in Harmony." Harvard Business School Case 508-001, December 2007.
  72. Embrapa

    Brazil's national agricultural research corporation, Embrapa, has developed an integrated crop and livestock production system that will allow farmers and ranchers to intensify production and improve profitability. Broad adoption of the technology would provide the country with greater agricultural production, a major source of exports, without the need to convert additional areas of the Cerrado or Amazon to farmland. However, producers have been slow to adopt it due to the initial costs of the system and the fact that many of the benefits are beyond the farmgate. Embrapa's director of technology transfer must develop a plan to encourage adoption.

    Keywords: Agribusiness; Policy; Business and Government Relations; Environmental Sustainability; Technology Adoption; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Embrapa." Harvard Business School Case 507-019, December 2006. (Revised October 2007.)
  73. Monsanto: Realizing Biotech Value in Brazil

    In 2003, Monsanto's patented "Roundup Ready" technology was used illegally on 70-80% of the soybean area in southern Brazil. Under pressure from U.S. soybean growers, who were paying to license the technology, the firm implemented an innovative delivery-based collection system in Brazil. Growers paid a post-harvest "indemnity" fee for those soybeans grown with illegal seed. Although there were initial concerns by farmers and grain companies--who collected the fee on Monsanto's behalf--the system worked smoothly, with over 97% of the farmers "self-declaring" their Roundup soybeans the first year. Jerry Steiner, executive vice-president of commercial acceptance, must decide if the situation in Brazil is stable enough to support a significant increase in breeding and biotech spending to develop products specifically designed for the Brazilian market. In addition, outlines situations in Argentina and India, and asks if the world's leading biotechnology firm should develop similar delivery-based systems.

    Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Patents; Lawfulness; Emerging Markets; Product Development; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Monsanto: Realizing Biotech Value in Brazil." Harvard Business School Case 507-018, December 2006. (Revised October 2007.)
  74. Ponsse: From Finland to Global

    Finland-based Ponsse Oyj, with 2005 turnover of $250 million, is the only dedicated forest equipment company of size that remained in a consolidating industry. Competitors included global giants such as John Deere and Komatsu. Since his arrival at Ponsse in 2004, CEO Arto Tiitinen had focused the firm on delivering superior product quality and exceptional customer service. In 2006, the firm was limited by manufacturing capacity, but this constraint would be lifted when a new plant expansion came on-line in early 2007. Tiitinen was positioning the firm to increase sales in countries such as Russia, Brazil, and the United States. How could the CEO make sure that Ponsse maintained its important characteristics as it expanded its global sales and service network? Information on the global forest industry is included.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Globalized Markets and Industries; Growth and Development Strategy; Performance Capacity; Expansion; Forest Products Industry; Forestry Industry; Russia; Finland; United States; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Ponsse: From Finland to Global." Harvard Business School Case 507-002, December 2006. (Revised September 2007.)
  75. Beijing Hualian

    China's fifth largest domestic retailer faced intensifying competition from Wal-Mart and Carrefour with the opening of China's fast-growing retail market in January 2005. In response, Beijing Hualian developed a new "Family Store" format targeted at the nation's growing middle class, made up of younger consumers with more fashionable tastes. Like hypermarkets, Hualian Family Stores include both food and nonfood lines, but differ in design and in the product and brand mix that would be carried. Results from the pilot store (a remodeled hypermarket in Beijing) were encouraging, with revenues and profits up and customers spending more on each visit. The company must decide how quickly to roll out Family Stores in China. Strategic issues include preempting competition by moving quickly into new cities, balancing the buying power of multinational retailers who were also purchasing merchandise for export, leveraging Beijing Hualian's understanding of the rapidly changing domestic market, accessing capital for expansion, and training and retaining Chinese management talent.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Consumer Behavior; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Retail Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Beijing Hualian." Harvard Business School Case 906-403, November 2005. (Revised September 2007.)
  76. Academia Barilla Video

    Keywords: Media;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Academia Barilla Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 508-701, August 2007.
  77. Academia Barilla (TN)

    Teaching Note to (507-001).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Italy;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Academia Barilla (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 508-015, August 2007.
  78. Academia Barilla

    Barilla, the world's largest pasta company, has introduced a new high-quality, high-priced product line that features a range of authentic Italian food products sourced from artisan producers. Management believes the line will appeal to consumers seeking healthier foods and convenience, and will help extend Barilla's brand identification beyond pasta. However, the new line is a bold departure from Barilla's core competencies of high-volume production and sales of fast moving, low-priced goods. Provides an opportunity to discuss trends in consumer eating habits, supply chains for locally-produced goods, and changes in retail formats. In addition, provides an opportunity to discuss the difference in investment philosophy between a family-owned company and a publicly-traded company.

    Keywords: Supply Chain; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Brands and Branding; Decision Choices and Conditions; Family Ownership; Nutrition; Product Development; Investment; Food and Beverage Industry; Italy;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Academia Barilla." Harvard Business School Case 507-001, October 2006. (Revised May 2007.)
  79. Monsanto: Realizing Biotech Value in Brazil (TN)

    Keywords: Value; Food and Beverage Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Monsanto: Realizing Biotech Value in Brazil (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 507-059, March 2007.
  80. Bunge: Poised for Growth (TN)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Bunge: Poised for Growth (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 507-035, February 2007.
  81. Southwest Lumber Distributors

    Concerns a lumber wholesaler who has been asked to give a forward price commitment. The market price has been volatile and the type of wood is different from that traded on the futures market. The question is: What to do about customer's request?

    Keywords: Customers; Markets; Price; Forest Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Southwest Lumber Distributors." Harvard Business School Case 180-134, June 1980. (Revised November 2006.)
  82. Note on Futures Contracts

    Provides an introduction to futures contracts, what they are, what their use in hedging is, and their usefulness in providing forecasts. Also covers basic risk. Includes a list of commodities currently traded in futures markets and the necessary properties of a commodity that make it tradable in a futures market.

    Keywords: Futures and Commodity Futures;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Futures Contracts." Harvard Business School Background Note 183-126, December 1982. (Revised November 2006.)
  83. Tesco Plc.

    Tesco, a supermarket chain, has been transformed from a third-rate retailer to a global leader in the past ten years. This case describes how that was accomplished. Interviews with Tesco employees explain the company's approach to understanding customers, motivating employees, succeeding on the Internet, and creating an international strategy.

    Keywords: History; Motivation and Incentives; Leadership; Internet; Supply Chain Management; Global Strategy; Globalization; Customer Focus and Relationships; Business Strategy; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Tesco Plc." Harvard Business School Case 503-036, December 2002. (Revised October 2006.)
  84. Bunge: Poised for Growth

    As CEO of the world's largest oilseed processor, Alberto Weisser of Bunge must not only decide how quickly to expand in fast-growing markets of Eastern Europe and Asia, but also how best to leverage the firm's global footprint and leadership position. The firm is anticipating expanded demand for meat and oils in Asia, increased world trade in agricultural commodities and processed goods, increased volatility, and the possibility of new biotechnology-based products with special quality traits that will require segregated, identity-preserved supply chains from farm to food customer. Bunge is unique because of its focus, its integration from farm to consumer, its commitment to partnering, and its management style that emphasizes decentralization and local entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Trade; Global Strategy; Leadership; Growth Management; Management Style; Demand and Consumers; Supply Chain; Integration; Technology; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Asia; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Mary L. Shelman. "Bunge: Poised for Growth." Harvard Business School Case 506-036, December 2005. (Revised July 2006.)
  85. Eddie Bauer, Inc.

    Eddie Bauer has decided to coordinate its merchandising strategy (price, selection) across its stores and catalog. But with e-commerce, is this still sensible?

    Keywords: Management; Brands and Branding; Marketing Channels; Product Positioning; Business Strategy; Internet;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Eddie Bauer, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 500-034, October 1999. (Revised September 2005.)
  86. Chez Cora

    Chez Cora is a chain of breakfast restaurants that successfully expanded from Quebec to Ontario. Is it organized appropriately for more growth? Could the concept work in the United States? If so, how should a migration to the United States be structured? Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Food; Global Strategy; Innovation Strategy; Growth Management; Service Operations; Food and Beverage Industry; Service Industry; Canada; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Hal Hogan, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Chez Cora." Harvard Business School Case 505-054, December 2004. (Revised June 2005.)
  87. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has a long, successful history at inventing solutions that help developing countries improve their agriculture. Their research centers are spread across the globe. For many years, they were funded by sponsors who took a long-term view--commensurate with the necessary horizon for R&D. Increasingly though, donors want faster, evidence-based payoffs to their donations. How should CGIAR adapt?

    Keywords: History; Adaptation; Investment; Research and Development; Agribusiness; Developing Countries and Economies; Innovation and Invention; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Hal Hogan. "The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research." Harvard Business School Case 505-002, December 2004. (Revised May 2005.)
  88. Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd

    Bright Dairy has been growing rapidly since becoming a public company. The Chinese market for milk products is still wide open. What should it be doing to make sure it captures a significant share of the potential market?

    Keywords: Distribution; Marketing Strategy; Growth and Development; Public Ownership; Emerging Markets; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Hal Hogan. "Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 905-404, October 2004. (Revised March 2005.)
  89. 7-Eleven, Inc. (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-504-057).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "7-Eleven, Inc. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 505-067, March 2005.
  90. Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd. (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-905-404).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 505-066, March 2005.
  91. The Revolution in Retailing

    Keywords: Sales; Marketing; Change;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "The Revolution in Retailing." Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Class Lecture, 2005. Electronic. (Faculty Lecture: HBSP Product Number 1037C.)
  92. Colonial Homes

    Colonial Homes supplies a complete raw materials package to build entire homes. The price of the package is guaranteed at the signing of the sales contract, while delivery (and payment) are not effected for up to six months. In an effort to reduce its exposure to fluctuating lumber prices, Colonial sources the package (mostly lumber) through the only lumber yard that also offers a six-month price guarantee. The lumber yard recently raised its prices, prompting Colonial to look elsewhere (with no or lesser fixed price guarantees).

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Contracts; Price; Price Bubble; Fluctuation; Monopoly; Problems and Challenges; Sales; Accommodations Industry; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Colonial Homes." Harvard Business School Case 190-008, July 1989. (Revised May 2004.)
  93. How Government Shaped the American Diet

    American eating habits have changed over time. Reviews those changes, the role of government policy in affecting those changes, and the health consequences of obesity.

    Keywords: Nutrition; Business and Government Relations; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Stacey J. Bell, and George L. Blackburn. "How Government Shaped the American Diet." Harvard Business School Background Note 504-064, November 2003. (Revised March 2004.)
  94. ABS Global (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-504-053).

    Keywords: Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "ABS Global (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 504-076, February 2004.
  95. 7-Eleven, Inc.

    Can 7-Eleven United States replicate the successful experience of 7-Eleven Japan in selling fresh foods through convenience stores? Describes the Japanese system and shows the steps the company is taking to try to achieve the same success in the United States.

    Keywords: Distribution; Adoption; Success; Sales; Food; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Hal Hogan. "7-Eleven, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 504-057, December 2003. (Revised January 2004.)
  96. Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets

    Wal-Mart has been growing at 15% per year for the last 10 years. Can it keep growing at that rate for the next 10 years? CEO Lee Scott reflects on his strategy for achieving such growth, relying on a combination of supercenters, neighborhood markets, and international interest.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing; Strategy; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Jeffrey M. Feiner, and Iris T. Li. "Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets." Harvard Business School Case 503-034, October 2002. (Revised November 2003.)
  97. ABS Global

    ABS Global is considering an acquisition in Australia. Efficient production and distribution is becoming more difficult as it becomes global. Yet trade restrictions and local preferences for its product, bull semen, dictate that ABS come up with a new way to conceptualize its go-to-market strategy.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Production; Global Strategy; Distribution; Adaptation; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Hal Hogan, and Jose M. M. Porraz. "ABS Global." Harvard Business School Case 504-053, October 2003.
  98. Sa Sa Cosmetics

    Sa Sa Cosmetics has had spectacular success as a low-price retailer of branded cosmetics. But recently, growth has slackened. What are the causes? This case describes recent strategic initiatives and provides market research data to aid the students in diagnosis.

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Distribution; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Fashion Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Iris T. Li. "Sa Sa Cosmetics." Harvard Business School Case 502-085, May 2002. (Revised May 2003.)
  99. Brioni

    Should Brioni, an internationally known, exclusive men's suit manufacturer and retailer extend its line to include women's apparel? The opportunity is to enter a much larger and profitable market. The dangers are: 1) compromising the existing image, and 2) failing to recognize the quite different organizational demands of the women's fashion business. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Segmentation; Expansion; Profit; Risk Management; Demand and Consumers; Fashion Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Brioni." Harvard Business School Case 503-057, February 2003. (Revised April 2003.)
  100. Brioni (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-503-057).

    Keywords: Fashion Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Brioni (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 503-089, March 2003.
  101. Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-503-034).

    Keywords: Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 503-056, January 2003. (Revised March 2003.)
  102. Tesco Plc. (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-503-036).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Tesco Plc. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 503-079, March 2003.
  103. Sa Sa Cosmetics, TN

    Teaching Note for (9-502-085).

    Keywords: Fashion Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Sa Sa Cosmetics, TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 503-027, August 2002.
  104. United Way of Massachusetts Bay

    The United Way of Massachusetts Bay held the monopoly on workplace giving for 50 years. In the 1990s it has experienced a dramatic change in the workplace itself and in donor attitudes toward giving and toward the United Way organization. This case investigates the implications of these changes on the United Way and explores the tools and messages it can use to market itself, in particular, how to use direct mail and the Internet to create one-to-one relationships with donors.

    Keywords: Change; Marketing Channels; Marketing Strategy; Monopoly; Relationships; Attitudes; Internet; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "United Way of Massachusetts Bay." Harvard Business School Case 599-042, October 1998. (Revised April 2001.)
  105. Loblaw Companies Ltd.: The Road Ahead

    After 24 years at the helm of Loblaw Companies, Canada's largest food retailer, Richard Currie is trying to decide on a strategy for the company's future. The firm's current emphasis on one-stop shopping for everyday household needs has been phenomenally successful. Its portfolio of stores to match local demographics, along with strong private label programs, has made the company one of the top mass retailers worldwide, but what can Currie do for an encore?

    Keywords: Business Strategy; Distribution; Food; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Goldberg, Ray A., David E. Bell, and Ann Leamon. "Loblaw Companies Ltd.: The Road Ahead." Harvard Business School Case 901-015, December 2000. (Revised December 2000.)
  106. Dean Foods

    After 50 years of successful growth, mostly by acquisition, Dean Foods, the nation's second-largest dairy processor, has established a division to develop and market branded products nationally. Can a $4 billion company rely on a $300 million growth vehicle? Is this the best way to respond to the prevailing trends in the food retailing industry? Can Dean, known as a private label producer of fluid milk, make the transition from commodity to branded, value-added products?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Divisions; Transition; Food; Goods and Commodities; Brands and Branding; Product Launch; Product Positioning; Product Development; Value Creation; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Goldberg, Ray A., David E. Bell, Ann Leamon, and Kim Slack. "Dean Foods." Harvard Business School Case 901-007, November 2000.
  107. Compaq Computer: Focus Groups

    Gives the final report, both results and methodology, of the focus group on Compaq Computer's new consumer notebook. Describes the groups, selection method, and methodology in detail. Should Compaq base its product design on the opinions of 64 people? Must be used with the video.

    Keywords: Selection and Staffing; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Product Design; Outcome or Result; Corporate Strategy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Compaq Computer: Focus Groups." Harvard Business School Case 599-092, April 1999. (Revised August 2000.)
  108. Compaq Computer: Intel Inside?

    Presents the results of quantitative and qualitative market research on the possible acceptance of a non-Intel processor in Compaq Computer's consumer notebook line. If the low-priced, non-Intel notebook is a success, the company will maintain or increase its 45% share of the market. If not, it could cease to be a player in the market it has created and filled. Students must evaluate the reliability of the research and decide which of three products to produce.

    Keywords: Distribution; Production; Success; Performance Evaluation; Mathematical Methods; Competition; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Compaq Computer: Intel Inside?" Harvard Business School Case 599-061, April 1999. (Revised May 2000.)
  109. Eddie Bauer, Inc. TN

    Teaching Note for (9-500-034).

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Eddie Bauer, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 500-077, January 2000.
  110. Bronner Slosberg Humphrey

    Bronner Slosberg Humphrey has succeeded by providing integrated direct marketing solutions for major service companies such as AT&T, American Express, and FedEx. A new CEO takes over from the company's founder and is wondering how to grow the company. Options include selling individual services (teleservices, database, web), and/or opening global offices.

    Keywords: Marketing; Growth and Development Strategy; Leading Change; Global Strategy; Service Operations; Competitive Strategy; Technology; Salesforce Management; Marketing Communications; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Donald M Leavitt. "Bronner Slosberg Humphrey." Harvard Business School Case 598-136, March 1998. (Revised December 1999.)
  111. Lees Supermarkets: Customer Loyalty Programs

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Marketing Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Rajiv Lal, and Ann Leamon. "Lees Supermarkets: Customer Loyalty Programs." Harvard Business School Case 500-038, December 1999.
  112. Victory Supermarkets: Investment Strategy

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Victory Supermarkets: Investment Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 500-023, August 1999. (Revised November 1999.)
  113. Compaq Computer: Consumer Notebook Group

    Presents the background for a video of a focus group on Compaq Computer's new consumer notebook. Engineers, manufacturers, and retailers had collaborated on the product design, which has been approved by the executive committee. A launch is scheduled for nine months later. Does the focus group support the decision? Is it reliable? Any changes mean going against conventional wisdom and possible failure in a new market. Must be used with the video.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Product Launch; Product Design; Outcome or Result; Social and Collaborative Networks; Corporate Strategy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Compaq Computer: Consumer Notebook Group." Harvard Business School Case 599-053, April 1999. (Revised September 1999.)
  114. Victory Supermarkets: Expansion Strategy?

    Jay DiGeronimo, president of a 16-store supermarket chain, is trying to decide the timing and method for expanding his chain. The family-owned company could continue in a maintenance mode, with each family member running one store. It could expand slowly using a new Market Square concept. Or it could try to double its size in the next ten years. What are the costs and benefits of each approach? Should the company continue opening Market Squares, even though that format has higher opening and operating expenses than more conventional operations?

    Keywords: Budgets and Budgeting; Cost vs Benefits; Trade; Investment; Market Entry and Exit; Supply Chain Management; Private Ownership; Competition; Expansion; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Victory Supermarkets: Expansion Strategy?" Harvard Business School Case 599-054, May 1999. (Revised August 1999.)
  115. Costco Companies, Inc.

    Costco Companies, one of the major players in the wholesale club industry, has developed a new class of membership that offers discounted services--auto, health, and home insurance, business credit card processing, real estate services--in exchange for a higher annual fee ($100 vs. $40). The case poses two questions: 1) how should the new membership be marketed, to whom, and how much should be spent on the effort? and 2) what are the potential risks and benefits for Costco, which generated $22 billion in 1997 selling products in bulk, in offering services? Which question is emphasized depends on whether the case is taught in a marketing or a retailing course.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Cost Management; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Supply and Industry; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Risk and Uncertainty; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Costco Companies, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 599-041, September 1998. (Revised July 1999.)
  116. Compaq Computer: Focus Groups 1 & 2, Video Transcript

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Compaq Computer: Focus Groups 1 & 2, Video Transcript." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 599-122, June 1999.
  117. Compaq Computer: Focus Groups 1 and 2 Video

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Compaq Computer: Focus Groups 1 and 2 Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 599-503, June 1999.
  118. Wegman's Food Markets: Lehigh Valley Grand Opening (Video)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Wegman's Food Markets: Lehigh Valley Grand Opening (Video)." Harvard Business School Video Case 599-501, June 1999.
  119. United Way of Massachusetts Bay and Valley of the Sun

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "United Way of Massachusetts Bay and Valley of the Sun." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 599-502, June 1999.
  120. United Way of Massachusetts Bay TN

    Teaching Note for (9-599-042).

    Keywords: Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "United Way of Massachusetts Bay TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 599-095, February 1999.
  121. Wegmans Food Markets: Diabetes Counseling TN

    Teaching Note for (9-599-057).

    Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Wegmans Food Markets: Diabetes Counseling TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 599-100, February 1999.
  122. Costco Companies, Inc. TN

    Teaching Note for (9-599-041).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Costco Companies, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 599-088, January 1999.
  123. Note on the Drugstore Industry

    In response to the twin pressures of cross-channel competition and the prevalence of third-party drug plans, drugstores have changed both how they go to market and what they offer once they get there. This note reviews the history of drugstores, presents the current situation, and explores possible future directions for the industry.

    Keywords: History; Industry Growth; Retail Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Note on the Drugstore Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 599-079, January 1999.
  124. Wegmans Food Markets: Diabetes Counseling

    Danny Wegman, president of Wegmans Food Markets, is trying to decide how to evaluate the success of a nutrition-counseling program for diabetics, and whether and how to expand the program beyond the two stores currently involved. Wegmans, with 57 stores and $2.3 billion in revenues, implemented the program in conjunction with a local hospital and a disease-management company. Initially intended to stem the erosion of pharmacy margins due to managed care plans, the program filled a genuine social need--diabetes can be inexpensively controlled through diet if caught early. In addition to discussing how the program has been established, the case presents financials for the supermarket industry and Wegmans' competitors. The new role of supermarkets in addressing disease, health, and preventive medical needs is also presented.

    Keywords: Performance Evaluation; Expansion; Programs; Human Needs; Financial Management; Health Care and Treatment; Nutrition; Consumer Behavior; Pharmaceutical Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Goldberg, Ray A., David E. Bell, and Ann Leamon. "Wegmans Food Markets: Diabetes Counseling." Harvard Business School Case 599-057, November 1998.
  125. The King-Size Company

    King-Size is a mail-order company specializing in apparel for big and tall men. The case describes their operations in some detail. Issues include appropriate marketing decisions and expansion strategy.

    Keywords: Decisions; Marketing Strategy; Operations; Perception; Expansion; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Dinny Starr Gordon. "The King-Size Company." Harvard Business School Case 595-013, July 1994. (Revised August 1998.)
  126. The King-Size Company TN

    Teaching Note for (9-595-013).

    Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "The King-Size Company TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-053, November 1994. (Revised August 1998.)
  127. Filene's Basement TN

    Teaching Note for (9-594-018).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Filene's Basement TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 594-061, November 1993. (Revised June 1998.)
  128. Note on the Retailing Industry

    Presents a survey discussion of retailing and current issues. Examines the impact of changing consumer attitudes on the industry and outlines the industry's response: consolidation, adoption of technology, use of brands and private labels, and changing relationships with vendors.

    Keywords: Transformation; Debates; Customers; Surveys; Partners and Partnerships; Attitudes; Adoption; Consolidation; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Ann Leamon. "Note on the Retailing Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 598-148, May 1998.
  129. Bronner Slosberg Humphrey TN

    Teaching Note for (9-598-136).

    Keywords: Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Bronner Slosberg Humphrey TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 598-141, April 1998.
  130. Filene's Basement

    Filene's Basement is in the process of deciding where, and if, to locate two new stores in its new Chicago area of operations. The existing Chicago area stores have been performing well, however, management is concerned with over saturation of the market. At the time of the case, Filene's Basement has 49 stores in operation.

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Growth Management; Marketing Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Business Processes;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Dinny Starr. "Filene's Basement." Harvard Business School Case 594-018, August 1993. (Revised April 1998.)
  131. American Cyanamid Co.

    Keywords: Chemical Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "American Cyanamid Co." Harvard Business School Case 181-131, June 1981. (Revised January 1997.)
  132. Note on Resource Pricing

    Keywords: Finance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Resource Pricing." Harvard Business School Background Note 189-041, August 1988. (Revised July 1996.)
  133. John Brown (A)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "John Brown (A)." Harvard Business School Case 182-127, October 1981. (Revised April 1996.)
  134. John Brown (B)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "John Brown (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 182-129, October 1981. (Revised April 1996.)
  135. Staples, Inc. TN

    Teaching Note for (9-593-034).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Staples, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 593-093, April 1993. (Revised June 1995.)
  136. Wholesale Club Industry TN

    Teaching Note for (9-594-035).

    Keywords: Distribution Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Wholesale Club Industry TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 594-043, October 1993. (Revised June 1995.)
  137. Note on Retail Economics

    Reviews some elementary statistics on financial ratios that are commonly used to evaluate retailing companies.

    Keywords: Economics; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Retail Economics." Harvard Business School Background Note 595-006, July 1994. (Revised May 1995.)
  138. Retail Promotional Pricing: When Is a Sale Really a Sale? (A) & (B) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-591-111) and (9-591-112).

    Keywords: Price; Marketing; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Retail Promotional Pricing: When Is a Sale Really a Sale? (A) & (B) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-119, May 1995.
  139. Direct Product Profitability at Hannaford Bros. Co. TN

    Teaching Note for (9-591-002).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Direct Product Profitability at Hannaford Bros. Co. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-120, May 1995.
  140. Exercises on the Value of Information (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-893-006).

    Keywords: Decisions; Information; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exercises on the Value of Information (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-064, April 1995. (Revised May 1995.)
  141. CGE vs. Dowpont TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "CGE vs. Dowpont TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-076, May 1995.
  142. Bidding Exercise (TN)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Bidding Exercise (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-066, April 1995. (Revised May 1995.)
  143. RCA Transponder Auction (A) TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "RCA Transponder Auction (A) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-073, May 1995.
  144. C.K. Coolidge, Inc. (A) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-894-017).

    Keywords: Patents; Decisions; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Competition; Chemical Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "C.K. Coolidge, Inc. (A) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-074, May 1995.
  145. Brockway and Coates TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Brockway and Coates TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-075, May 1995.
  146. Portsmouth Paper Company TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Portsmouth Paper Company TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-071, April 1995.
  147. S.S. Kuniang, The TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "S.S. Kuniang, The TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-072, April 1995.
  148. Exercises on the Value of Imperfect Information TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exercises on the Value of Imperfect Information TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-065, April 1995.
  149. Zeckendorf Company TN, The

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Zeckendorf Company TN, The." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-061, April 1995.
  150. Great Western Steel Corporation TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Great Western Steel Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-060, April 1995.
  151. DMA, Inc. TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "DMA, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-058, April 1995.
  152. Hannaford Brothers - Warehouse Inventory TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Hannaford Brothers - Warehouse Inventory TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-059, April 1995.
  153. Freemark Abbey Winery TN

    Teaching Note for (9-181-027).

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Consumer Behavior; Value; Risk and Uncertainty; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Freemark Abbey Winery TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-053, April 1995.
  154. Ligature, Inc. TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Ligature, Inc. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-054, April 1995.
  155. Union Carbide Transport TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Union Carbide Transport TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-055, April 1995.
  156. Auto Mag TN

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Auto Mag TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-056, April 1995.
  157. Sant-Iago TN, The

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Arthur Schleifer Jr. "Sant-Iago TN, The." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-051, April 1995.
  158. Note on the Mail Order Industry

    Keywords: Distribution Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Dinny Starr Gordon. "Note on the Mail Order Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 595-014, July 1994. (Revised March 1995.)
  159. CUC International: Shoppers Advantage TN

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "CUC International: Shoppers Advantage TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 594-044, October 1993. (Revised March 1995.)
  160. Confederated Pulp and Paper TN

    Teaching Note for (9-191-065).

    Keywords: Pulp and Paper Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Confederated Pulp and Paper TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 895-052, March 1995.
  161. Toupargel TN

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; France;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Toupargel TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-069, January 1995. (Revised March 1995.)
  162. Vanity Fair Mills: Market Response System TN

    Teaching Note for (9-593-111).

    Keywords: Production; Performance Efficiency; Investment; Agreements and Arrangements; Supply Chain; Partners and Partnerships; Distribution Channels; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Vanity Fair Mills: Market Response System TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-095, February 1995.
  163. Catalina Marketing Corporation TN

    Teaching Note for (9-594-026).

    Keywords: Advertising Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Catalina Marketing Corporation TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-093, February 1995.
  164. Randall's Department Stores TN

    Teaching Note for (9-593-032).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Randall's Department Stores TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 593-092, April 1993. (Revised February 1995.)
  165. Northridge and Southridge Malls TN

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Northridge and Southridge Malls TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 595-094, February 1995.
  166. RCI, Inc. (D2)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "RCI, Inc. (D2)." Harvard Business School Case 894-035, November 1993. (Revised December 1994.)
  167. Southeastern Electric Co. (D2)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Southeastern Electric Co. (D2)." Harvard Business School Supplement 894-036, November 1993. (Revised December 1994.)
  168. Critical-Fractile Method for Inventory Planning

    Explains a method for deciding upon inventory levels when demand is uncertain.

    Keywords: Planning; Assets;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Critical-Fractile Method for Inventory Planning." Harvard Business School Background Note 191-132, January 1991. (Revised November 1994.)
  169. Joan Mitchell Stores, Inc.

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Joan Mitchell Stores, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 190-098, January 1990. (Revised October 1994.)
  170. Brown & Kenney Developers, Inc.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Brown & Kenney Developers, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 190-099, January 1990. (Revised October 1994.)
  171. Exercises on the Value of Imperfect Information

    Keywords: Information;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exercises on the Value of Imperfect Information." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-048, August 1988. (Revised October 1994.)
  172. Bidding Exercises

    Illustrates different issues in the analysis of a bidding situation, including the celebrated problem of the winner's curse.

    Keywords: Bids and Bidding;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Bidding Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 191-133, January 1991. (Revised October 1994.)
  173. Catalina Marketing Corp.

    Catalina Marketing is a very successful marketing service firm. Their current customers include major supermarket retailers and consumer products manufacturers nation-wide. Catalina provides a unique way for these clients to distribute coupons for their products via point-of-sale technology at the supermarket register. Catalina is currently trying to decide where and how to expand its operations.

    Keywords: Advertising; Information Management; Expansion; Product; Salesforce Management; Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Customer Value and Value Chain; Advertising Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Walter J. Salmon, and Dinny Starr. "Catalina Marketing Corp." Harvard Business School Case 594-026, October 1993. (Revised September 1994.)
  174. Toupargel

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Toupargel." Harvard Business School Case 594-003, August 1993. (Revised September 1994.)
  175. Linear Programming Exercises

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Linear Programming Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-002, July 1988. (Revised September 1994.)
  176. Food Distribution in Russia: The Harris Group and the LUX Store

    Discusses the challenges facing businesses entering the Russian business environment, especially focusing on food retailing and distribution in that country. Highlights one small, entrepreneurial company, The Harris Group, which, with the help of both Russian partners and the SuperValu Corp., has entered the Russian food retailing industry.

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Marketing Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Distribution; Partners and Partnerships; Expansion; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry; Russia;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., Walter J. Salmon, and Dinny Starr. "Food Distribution in Russia: The Harris Group and the LUX Store." Harvard Business School Case 594-059, November 1993. (Revised September 1994.)
  177. Note on Simulation

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Simulation." Harvard Business School Background Note 895-002, August 1994.
  178. S.S. Kuniang

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "S.S. Kuniang." Harvard Business School Case 190-014, July 1989. (Revised August 1994.)
  179. Note on Retail Organizations

    Describes a typical organizational structure for retailers and discusses duties of various individuals such as buyer, category manager, etc.

    Keywords: Customers; Managerial Roles; Organizational Structure; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Retail Organizations." Harvard Business School Background Note 595-009, July 1994.
  180. Retail Expansion Strategies

    Describes issues that should be considered by a retailer who is thinking of expanding the number of stores from one or two to many.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Cognition and Thinking; Expansion; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Retail Expansion Strategies." Harvard Business School Background Note 595-005, July 1994.
  181. Confederated Pulp & Paper

    A rewritten version of an old case that updates the dates and prices and simplifies the economics. The issue is still one of determining a suitable inventory of wood for the mill to last through the winter.

    Keywords: History; Supply Chain Management; Spending; Forecasting and Prediction; Economic Growth; Information Management; Pulp and Paper Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Confederated Pulp & Paper." Harvard Business School Case 191-065, October 1990. (Revised May 1994.)
  182. Sears, Roebuck and Co.: The Merchandise Group--1993

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Dinny Starr. "Sears, Roebuck and Co.: The Merchandise Group--1993." Harvard Business School Case 594-058, October 1993. (Revised May 1994.)
  183. Positioning

    Describes the importance of positioning for retail outlets. Sections of the note deal with aspects of the retailing mix.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Distribution; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Positioning." Harvard Business School Background Note 593-105, April 1993. (Revised May 1994.)
  184. CUC International: Shoppers Advantage

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "CUC International: Shoppers Advantage." Harvard Business School Case 594-027, September 1993. (Revised May 1994.)
  185. Breakfast Foods Corp. (A)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Breakfast Foods Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 182-202, February 1982. (Revised April 1994.)
  186. American Cyanamid Co., Teaching Note

    Keywords: Teaching; Information;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "American Cyanamid Co., Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-135, February 1984. (Revised April 1994.)
  187. Value of Information

    Gives some simple examples to illustrate the concept of the value of information in decision making. Both perfect and imperfect information are considered.

    Keywords: Knowledge; Value; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Value of Information." Harvard Business School Background Note 191-138, February 1991. (Revised April 1994.)
  188. Note on Negotiation

    Keywords: Negotiation;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Negotiation." Harvard Business School Background Note 191-154, February 1991. (Revised April 1994.)
  189. CGE vs. Dowpont

    Keywords: Lawsuits and Litigation;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "CGE vs. Dowpont." Harvard Business School Case 191-089, October 1990. (Revised April 1994.)
  190. Zeckendorf Co.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Zeckendorf Co." Harvard Business School Case 186-135, October 1985. (Revised March 1994.)
  191. The Toro Company S'no Risk Program

    Toro introduced a promotion in which purchasers of their snowthrower would receive a refund if the next winter brought only modest snowfall. The principal focus of the class is to understand what the risk implications are for the customer and for the company. May be used to discuss insurance and inventory issues.

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Customers; Insurance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "The Toro Company S'no Risk Program." Harvard Business School Case 185-017, August 1984. (Revised March 1994.)
  192. Exposure and Hedging

    Describes the concept of exposure; the dependence of a goal on an uncertain external event. Describes in detail how hedges may be constructed to eliminate exposure, including the algebra of cross-hedging and hedge ratios. The relevance of regression analysis is discussed. A running example clarifies the text.

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Finance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exposure and Hedging." Harvard Business School Background Note 186-036, July 1985. (Revised March 1994.)
  193. Dade County Resource Recovery Project

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Energy; Government and Politics; Miami;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Dade County Resource Recovery Project." Harvard Business School Case 182-167, December 1981. (Revised February 1994.)
  194. Dade County Resource Recovery Project, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Programs; Environmental Sustainability; Miami;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Dade County Resource Recovery Project, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-159, February 1984. (Revised February 1994.)
  195. Life Insurance

    Keywords: Insurance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Life Insurance." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-139, November 1981. (Revised February 1994.)
  196. RCI, Inc. (A)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "RCI, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 182-277, June 1982. (Revised February 1994.)
  197. RCI, Inc. (B)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "RCI, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 182-278, June 1982. (Revised February 1994.)
  198. Southeastern Electric Co. (A)

    Keywords: Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Southeastern Electric Co. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 182-280, June 1982. (Revised February 1994.)
  199. Southeastern Electric Co. (B)

    Keywords: Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Southeastern Electric Co. (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 182-281, June 1982. (Revised February 1994.)
  200. Note on Options

    Keywords: Stock Options;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Options." Harvard Business School Background Note 184-141, February 1984. (Revised February 1994.)
  201. RCI, Inc. (A) & (B) and Southeastern Electric Co. (A) & (B), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "RCI, Inc. (A) & (B) and Southeastern Electric Co. (A) & (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-161, February 1984. (Revised February 1994.)
  202. Options Exercises and Note on Options, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Stock Options;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Options Exercises and Note on Options, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-140, February 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  203. Breakfast Foods Corp. (B), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Breakfast Foods Corp. (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-156, February 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  204. Options Exercises

    Keywords: Stock Options;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Options Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 184-137, February 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  205. Breakfast Foods Corp. (B)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Breakfast Foods Corp. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 183-135, December 1982. (Revised January 1994.)
  206. Futures Exercises, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Financial Instruments;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Futures Exercises, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-112, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  207. Futures Exercises

    Designed to provide introductory practice in the use of futures contracts.

    Keywords: Futures and Commodity Futures;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Futures Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 184-113, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  208. Breakfast Foods Corp. (A), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Breakfast Foods Corp. (A), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-121, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  209. Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (B), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-123, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  210. Hedging Exercises, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Investment Funds;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Hedging Exercises, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-154, February 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  211. Hedging Exercises

    Keywords: Financial Strategy; Investment Funds;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Hedging Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 179-211, May 1979. (Revised January 1994.)
  212. Golden Gate Bank Retirement Fund

    Keywords: Retirement; Investment Funds; Financial Services Industry; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Golden Gate Bank Retirement Fund." Harvard Business School Case 182-086, October 1981. (Revised January 1994.)
  213. International Foodstuffs

    Describes three fairly routine instances in which considerations of risk exposure in foreign exchange are necessary. The three are a delayed payment for a grain shipment, a foreign subsidiary facing devaluation of its domestic currency, and a foreign acquisition. The purpose is to provide practice in thinking through the alternatives and the consequences.

    Keywords: Currency Exchange Rate; Risk and Uncertainty; International Relations; Mergers and Acquisitions; Money; International Finance; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "International Foodstuffs." Harvard Business School Case 181-049, December 1980. (Revised January 1994.)
  214. International Foodstuffs, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "International Foodstuffs, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-122, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  215. Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (A)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 182-014, July 1981. (Revised January 1994.)
  216. Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (A), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Madison Wire and Cable Corp. (A), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-124, January 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  217. Note on Diversification

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Diversification." Harvard Business School Background Note 183-047, June 1983. (Revised January 1994.)
  218. Golden Gate Bank Retirement Fund, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Investment Funds;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Golden Gate Bank Retirement Fund, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-136, February 1984. (Revised January 1994.)
  219. Nordstrom TN

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Nordstrom TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 594-052, October 1993.
  220. Duncan's Department Stores TN

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Duncan's Department Stores TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 594-041, September 1993.
  221. Nopane Advertising Strategy

    Nopane is a proprietary drug that sells in much of the United States. It faces substantial competition. The brand manager is undertaking an experiment to determine whether ad copy should be emotional-based or rational-based. The data and associated regression results are included. Useful for an introductory course on statistics, market research, or regression analysis.

    Keywords: Competition; Intellectual Property; Advertising; Health Care and Treatment; Brands and Branding; Product Marketing; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Nopane Advertising Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 893-005, October 1992. (Revised September 1993.)
  222. Glossary of Retail Terms

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Dinny Starr. "Glossary of Retail Terms." Harvard Business School Background Note 594-014, August 1993.
  223. Staples, Inc.

    Staples is dissatisfied with the merchandising of its office furniture. The case reviews the situation, allowing students to consider whether the category should be dropped or changed. Permits consideration of the portfolio of products a positioning implies, and encourages a discussion on merchandising this particular category.

    Keywords: Change; Product Positioning; Supply Chain; Salesforce Management; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Staples, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 593-034, September 1992. (Revised July 1993.)
  224. Regression Analysis

    Provides a relatively simple introduction to multivariate regression analysis.

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Regression Analysis." Harvard Business School Background Note 191-117, February 1991. (Revised February 1993.)
  225. Sellars' Market

    A shop owner has limited shelf space for display of impulse purchase products near the cash register. He must select only nine to display. Exercise shows the relevance of opportunity cost or resource pricing. By setting an appropriate charge for the shelf space the products self-select for the appropriate shelves.

    Keywords: Marketing;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Sellars' Market." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-001, July 1988. (Revised October 1992.)
  226. Omega Oil Co.

    Keywords: Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Omega Oil Co." Harvard Business School Case 190-004, July 1989. (Revised March 1992.)
  227. Brockway and Coates

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Brockway and Coates." Harvard Business School Case 892-002, October 1991.
  228. Auto Mag

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Auto Mag." Harvard Business School Case 189-034, July 1988. (Revised May 1991.)
  229. Note on Sealed Bid Auctions

    Describes a simple approach to determining an appropriate bid for a sealed bid auction.

    Keywords: History; Management Style; Financial Management; Consumer Behavior; Accounting; Bids and Bidding; Decisions; Market Transactions; Decision Choices and Conditions; Competitive Strategy; Negotiation Style; Auctions;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Sealed Bid Auctions." Harvard Business School Background Note 191-140, February 1991.
  230. Laisne Service Supply Co. (A)

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Laisne Service Supply Co. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 191-104, December 1990. (Revised January 1991.)
  231. Reebok Brands

    Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Christian Schaack. "Reebok Brands." Harvard Business School Case 190-032, August 1989. (Revised October 1990.)
  232. Outdoors, Inc.

    Keywords: Retail Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Outdoors, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 191-055, September 1990.
  233. J.P. Molasses, Inc.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "J.P. Molasses, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 189-040, August 1988. (Revised April 1990.)
  234. Risk Adjusted Discount Rates

    Keywords: Asset Pricing; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Risk Adjusted Discount Rates." Harvard Business School Background Note 184-151, February 1984. (Revised March 1990.)
  235. Golden Gate Bank Pension Fund

    Keywords: Investment Funds; Financial Services Industry; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Golden Gate Bank Pension Fund." Harvard Business School Case 189-039, August 1988. (Revised December 1989.)
  236. Sampling Exercises

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Sampling Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-037, August 1988. (Revised November 1989.)
  237. At RISK Exercises

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "At RISK Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 190-063, October 1989.
  238. Highland Park Wood Co.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Highland Park Wood Co." Harvard Business School Case 190-013, July 1989.
  239. Modeling Exercises

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Modeling Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-003, July 1988. (Revised July 1989.)
  240. Hygiene Industries

    Keywords: Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Hygiene Industries." Harvard Business School Case 189-035, July 1988. (Revised July 1989.)
  241. F & W Forestry Services, Inc.

    Keywords: Forestry Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "F & W Forestry Services, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 190-006, July 1989.
  242. Ligature, Inc.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Ligature, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 188-141, May 1988. (Revised June 1989.)
  243. Introduction to Regression Analysis with Lotus 1-2-3 and Regress

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Introduction to Regression Analysis with Lotus 1-2-3 and Regress." Harvard Business School Case 189-110, November 1988. (Revised June 1989.)
  244. On the Economics of a Parking Garage

    Introduces notions of cash flow, net present value, and internal rate of return by estimating the profitability of a parking garage.

    Keywords: Business Earnings; Corporate Finance; Auto Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "On the Economics of a Parking Garage." Harvard Business School Background Note 189-004, July 1988. (Revised May 1989.)
  245. Marine Corp.

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Marine Corp." Harvard Business School Case 189-045, August 1988.
  246. Cenex

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Cenex." Harvard Business School Case 189-038, August 1988.
  247. Bass Model

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Bass Model." Harvard Business School Background Note 189-033, July 1988.
  248. Capital Budgeting Exercises

    Keywords: Capital Budgeting;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Capital Budgeting Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 189-021, July 1988.
  249. Hannaford Brothers: Warehouse Inventory

    Keywords: Logistics; Management; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Hannaford Brothers: Warehouse Inventory." Harvard Business School Case 187-041, August 1986.
  250. Diversification Exercises

    Keywords: Diversification;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Diversification Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 184-115, February 1984. (Revised October 1985.)
  251. Note on Preference Analysis

    Keywords: Voting;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on Preference Analysis." Harvard Business School Background Note 184-133, February 1984. (Revised August 1985.)
  252. Risk Planning Group, Inc.

    Keywords: Risk Management;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Risk Planning Group, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 183-194, March 1983. (Revised June 1985.)
  253. Risk Analytics Associates

    Keywords: Risk Management;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Risk Analytics Associates." Harvard Business School Case 181-032, September 1980. (Revised February 1985.)
  254. Kenneth Brady

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Kenneth Brady." Harvard Business School Case 184-024, August 1983. (Revised February 1985.)
  255. Worked Examples in Dynamic Programming

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Worked Examples in Dynamic Programming." Harvard Business School Background Note 183-028, July 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  256. Environmental Protection Agency: Emergency Pesticide Exemptions, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Law; Pollution and Pollutants;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Environmental Protection Agency: Emergency Pesticide Exemptions, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-134, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  257. AT&T: 8.70 Bonds, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Bonds; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "AT&T: 8.70 Bonds, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-148, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  258. Exercises on Capital Budgeting Under Uncertainty, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Capital Budgeting; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exercises on Capital Budgeting Under Uncertainty, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-153, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  259. John Brown (A) and (B), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Teaching; Information;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "John Brown (A) and (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-160, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  260. Exercises on Capital Budgeting Under Uncertainty

    Keywords: Capital Budgeting; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Exercises on Capital Budgeting Under Uncertainty." Harvard Business School Exercise 184-152, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  261. Spruce Budworm

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Spruce Budworm." Harvard Business School Case 183-134, December 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  262. Dynamic Programming Exercises

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Dynamic Programming Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 184-132, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  263. Southwest Lumber Distributors, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Distribution Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Southwest Lumber Distributors, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-155, February 1984. (Revised March 1984.)
  264. AT&T: 8.70 Bonds

    Keywords: Bonds; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "AT&T: 8.70 Bonds." Harvard Business School Case 183-083, September 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  265. Environmental Protection Agency: Emergency Pesticide Exemptions

    Keywords: Pollution and Pollutants; Chemicals; United States;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Environmental Protection Agency: Emergency Pesticide Exemptions." Harvard Business School Case 180-018, August 1979. (Revised March 1984.)
  266. Why Preference Curves are Useful for Risky Decisions

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Why Preference Curves are Useful for Risky Decisions." Harvard Business School Background Note 183-030, July 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  267. Travelers Investment Management Co., Teaching Note

    Keywords: Financial Management; Investment;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Travelers Investment Management Co., Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 184-144, February 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  268. Travelers Investment Management Co.

    Keywords: Investment Portfolio; Management; Risk Management; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Travelers Investment Management Co." Harvard Business School Case 182-210, February 1982. (Revised March 1984.)
  269. Note on the Property-Casualty Business

    Keywords: Insurance;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Note on the Property-Casualty Business." Harvard Business School Background Note 182-143, November 1981. (Revised January 1984.)
  270. Reliance Electric

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E. "Reliance Electric." Harvard Business School Case 181-130, June 1981. (Revised December 1983.)
  271. Risk Management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions

    Keywords: Risk Management; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Bell, David E., and Kuljot Singh. "Risk Management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions." Harvard Business School Case 182-170, January 1982.