Michael Beer

Cahners-Rabb Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

MICHAEL BEER

Mike Beer is Cahners-Rabb Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus at the Harvard Business School, co-founder and Chairman of TruePoint Partners, a management consultancy that works with senior executives to develop effective high performance and commitment organizations, and the Center for Higher Ambition Leadership, a not for profit organization dedicated to increasing the number of companies and leaders committed to creating economic and social value. Mike has researched and written widely about organization effectiveness, organizational change, high commitment, high performance organizations, leadership, as well as human resource management. Mike has had extensive teaching and consulting experience in those fields. 

Professor Beer has taught in HBS’ MBA program and executives in the Advanced Management Program, the International Senior Management Program and Managing Organizational Effectiveness and Change, which he founded and chaired.  Mike taught and led first year MBA courses in organizational behavior and human resource management; the latter developed under Mike’s leadership is the first required HRM course in business schools with a strategic general management perspective.

In addition to numerous book chapters and articles in academic and business journals, Mike is author or co-author of eleven books. Among them is the ground breaking Managing Human Assets and the award winning The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. His most recent books are High Commitment, High Performance in 2009, and Higher Ambition: How Great Leaders Create Economic and Social Value published in 2011.

Mike has consulted to senior management in several industries--manufacturing, services (hospitality, professional and financial), consumer packaging, high tech., pharmaceutical and medical technology.  Among others he has worked with Becton Dickinson, Hewlett Packard, Ernst & Young, Agilent Technologies, Merck and Whitbread PLC. Mike has served on several professional, not-for-profit and corporate boards.

The recipient of professional honors and awards, Mike is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and the recipient of its Distinguished Scholar-Practitioner Award, a Fellow of the Academy of Human Resource Management, a Fellow of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology and recipient of its Distinguished Professional Contributions Award, and recipient of the Harry and Miriam Levinson Award for outstanding contributions to organizational consulting psychology from the American Psychological Foundation.  He is the 2007 recipient of the Society for Human Resource Management’s prestigious Michael R. Losey Research Award and the 2013 recipient of the Herbert Heneman Jr. Career Achievement Award from the Human Resource Division of the Academy of Management. Mike and Russ Eisenstat received the 1998 Organizational Development Institute Award for the most outstanding contribution to the field for the development of the Strategic Fitness Process at Becton Dickinson and its application there and in numerous other corporations around the world..

Prior to joining the Faculty at Harvard in 1975, Mike served as Director of Organizational Research & Development at Corning Inc., a department he founded and led for eleven years.  The work of the department led to several innovations in organizing and managing the company’s businesses and people.  He holds a B.A. from Queens College, a BA from Harvard University (honorary), an M.S. from North Carolina State University, and a Ph.D. in organizational psychology and business from Ohio State University.

Books

  1. High Commitment, High Performance: How to Build a Resilient Organization for Sustained Advantage

    Michael Beer

    Integrating knowledge from strategic management, performance management, and organization design, strategic human resource expert and Harvard Business School Professor Michael Beer outlines what the high-commitment, high-performance organization looks like and provides practitioners with the transformation process to help them get there. Starting with leaders who have the right values, Beer shows how to weave together a complete system that includes top-to-bottom communication, organization design, HR policies, a leadership transformation process, and outlines what practitioners must do in HR, structure, systems, goals, culture, and strategy to create high-performance organizations.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Leadership; Management; Goals and Objectives; Organizational Culture; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Performance; Practice; Business Strategy; System;

Journal Articles

  1. The Strategic Fitness Process: A Collaborative Action Research Method for Developing Organizational Prototypes and Dynamic Capabilities

    Michael Beer

    Organizations underperform and sometimes fail because their leaders are unable to learn the unvarnished truth from relevant stakeholders about how the design and behavior of the organization is misaligned with its goals and strategy. The Strategic Fitness Process (SFP) was designed to enable leaders to overcome organizational silence about the misalignment with the environment and chosen strategy. By enabling an honest, organization-wide and public conversation, senior management teams, working collaboratively with scholar-consultants and organizational members, have access to valid data (the unvarnished truth), can conduct a valid diagnosis, and can develop a valid plan to change the structure, processes, and behavior of an organization while at the same time developing commitment that ensures execution. SFP is also a research method. By applying SFP iteratively to new and challenging situations, scholar-consultants can invent new organizational prototypes as well as learn if a standardized and institutionalized organizational learning process like SFP can enhance dynamic capabilities. The SFP model is illustrated with an application to Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division.

    Keywords: organization alignment; dynamic capabilities; organization design; organizational prototyping; organizational silence; organizational learning; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategic Planning; Organizational Design;

  2. Learning by Design: Developing an Engine for Transforming Your Company

    Michael Beer and Magnus Finnstrom

    Traditional leadership development programs often fail to achieve the desired results because they don't focus on learning linked to the company's business strategy and the real day-to-day challenges facing managers. The experience of Sweden-based industrial group Cardo, which built its executive management program from scratch, shows how organizations can unleash the leadership capabilities required to drive transformation and strengthen business results.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Programs; Learning; Failure; Business Strategy; Organizations; Transformation; Problems and Challenges; Design; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Magnus Finnstrom. "Learning by Design: Developing an Engine for Transforming Your Company." Leadership in Action (November–December 2009). View Details
  3. The New Governance Paradigm

    Nathaniel Foote and Michael Beer

    Boards members of failed banks in 2008 or of the many companies like Enron who were caught up in scandals are by and large honorable, well intentioned, and competent people. So what went wrong and what can be done about it. This article argues that the problem lies in boards' almost sole focus on business results and their fiduciary responsibilities. Boards and CEOs must create a common vision of the effective, values based, high commitment, high performance organization they intend to build together and institutionalize a process by which the CEO and board of directors can learn the truth about gaps between vision and reality. Without a commitment to a vision and an institutionalized learning and governance system, well intentioned boards will continue to be surprised ethical, human, and performance failures.

    Keywords: Corporate Governance; Competency and Skills; Banks and Banking; Failure; Goals and Objectives; Leadership; Management Practices and Processes; Ethics; Performance; Governing and Advisory Boards; Crime and Corruption;

    Citation:

    Foote, Nathaniel, and Michael Beer. "The New Governance Paradigm." Directorship (September 8, 2009). View Details
  4. Strategic Management as Organizational Learning: Developing Fit and Alignment through a Disciplined Process

    Michael Beer, Sven C. Voelpel, Marius Leibold and Eden B. Tekie

    Keywords: Strategy; Management; Learning; Education;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, Sven C. Voelpel, Marius Leibold, and Eden B. Tekie. "Strategic Management as Organizational Learning: Developing Fit and Alignment through a Disciplined Process." Long Range Planning 38, no. 5 (October 2005). View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Making a Difference and Contributing Useful Knowledge: Principles Derived from Life As a Scholar Practitioner

    Michael Beer

    Keywords: Teaching; Knowledge Acquisition; Knowledge Dissemination;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Making a Difference and Contributing Useful Knowledge: Principles Derived from Life As a Scholar Practitioner ." In Useful Research: Advancing Theory and Practice, edited by Susan Albers Mohrman and Edward E. Lawler III. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2011. View Details
  2. Developing an Effective Organization: Intervention Method, Empirical Evidence, and Theory

    Michael Beer

    The field of organization development is fragmented and lacks a coherent and integrated theory and method for developing an effective organization. A 20-year action research program led to the development and evaluation of the Strategic Fitness Process (SFP)-a platform by which senior leaders, with the help of consultants, can have an honest, collective, and public conversation about their organization's alignment with espoused strategy and values. The research has identified a syndrome of six silent barriers to effectiveness and a dynamic theory of organizational effectiveness. Empirical evidence from the 20-year study demonstrates that SFP always enables truth to speak to power safely, and in a majority of cases enables senior teams to transform silent barriers into strengths, realign their organization's design and strategic management process with strategy and values, and in a few cases employ SFP as an ongoing learning and governance process. Implications for organization and leadership development and corporate governance are discussed.

    Keywords: Learning; Corporate Governance; Leadership Development; Growth and Development Strategy; Management Teams; Organizational Design; Performance Effectiveness; Research; Alignment; Theory; Value;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Developing an Effective Organization: Intervention Method, Empirical Evidence, and Theory ." In Research in Organizational Change and Development. Vol. 19, edited by Richard Woodman, William Pasmore, and Abraham B. (Rami) Shani, 1–54. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. View Details
  3. Collaborative R&D in Management: The Practical Experience of Fenix and TruePoint in Bridging the Divide Between Scientific and Managerial Goals

    Michael Beer and Niclas Adler

    The gap between theory and practice has been of concern to both practitioners and academics, yet other than pleas to close the gap with more accessible writing by academics and more interest in research by practitioners few systematic efforts have been made to close the gap. The chapter begins with a discussion of the value of R&D—arguably the single most important way a company can improve its management and organizational effectiveness. We argue that management research must occur in the same context in which findings are to be applied and that it must be collaborative if understanding of new practices and commitment to change are to be achieved. But, collaborations are not easy given differences goals of managers and academics—knowledge production by academics and improvements in effectiveness by managers. This calls for research methods that are also most effective intervention methods. We review and evaluate the efforts of Fenix, an academically based applied research institute, and TruePoint, a U.S. research based consultancy, in the context of the duality of goals and the requirement for a method that will simultaneously produce knowledge and improve management effectiveness.

    Keywords: Transformation; Knowledge Management; Management; Goals and Objectives; Performance Effectiveness; Performance Improvement; Practice; Research and Development; Social and Collaborative Networks; Theory; Value; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Niclas Adler. "Collaborative R&D in Management: The Practical Experience of Fenix and TruePoint in Bridging the Divide Between Scientific and Managerial Goals." In Handbook of Collaborative Management Research, edited by A. B. Shani, N. Adler, N. Mohrman, W. A. Pasmore, and B. Stymne. Sage Publications, 2007. View Details
  4. Developing an Organization Capable of Strategy Implementationand Reformulation: A Preliminary Test

    Russell Eisenstat and M. Beer

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Eisenstat, Russell, and M. Beer. "Developing an Organization Capable of Strategy Implementationand Reformulation: A Preliminary Test." In Organizational Learning and Competitive Advantage, by B. Moingeon and A. Edmondson. London: Sage Publications, 1996. View Details
  5. The Organization Change Imperative: A Personal Journey

    M. Beer

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Beer, M. "The Organization Change Imperative: A Personal Journey." In The Relevance of a Decade: Essays to Mark the First Ten Years of the Harvard Business School Press, edited by Paula B. Duffy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Higher-Ambition CEOs Need Higher-Ambition Boards

    Edward Ludwig, Elise Walton and Michael Beer

    Over the past years, forward-looking CEOs have adopted a higher-ambition approach to strategy and leadership. These “higher-ambition CEOs” are driven by a sense of purpose that goes beyond achieving financial success. They aspire to build organizations that succeed in the marketplace by earning the respect, trust, and, commitment of their people, customers, communities, and investors. Higher-ambition leaders commit to simultaneously meeting financial targets and fulfilling broader needs in society. They are also realistic about the challenges.

    Citation:

    Ludwig, Edward, Elise Walton, and Michael Beer. "Higher-Ambition CEOs Need Higher-Ambition Boards." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-052, December 2014. View Details
  2. Embracing Commitment and Performance: CEOs and Practices Used to Manage Paradox

    Tobias Fredberg, Michael Beer, Russell Eisenstat, Nathaniel Foote and Flemming Norrgren

    We tend to assume that great leaders must make difficult choices between two or more conflicting outcomes. In an interview study with 26 CEOs of top American and European companies (incl. IKEA, Campbell Soups, Nokia, H&M), we find that instead of choosing between conflicting outcomes such as long-term strategy or short-term performance drivers, top tier managers argue that their role is to embrace such paradoxes to make both things happen simultaneously. The study identifies five groups of practices that make this possible. Together, they reveal a systematic approach to managerial work at the top, which is seldom found in the literature. By building on the engagement of many in the development of the organization, the practices are important for our understanding of how a CEO facilitates the partaking of many in strategy making. The paper contributes to theory by relating the current findings to the literature on the connection between commitment and performance and on the strategic management literature that focuses on the proliferation of strategy and strategy as practice.

    Keywords: Leadership; Managerial Roles; Performance; Strategy; Management Practices and Processes; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Fredberg, Tobias, Michael Beer, Russell Eisenstat, Nathaniel Foote, and Flemming Norrgren. "Embracing Commitment and Performance: CEOs and Practices Used to Manage Paradox." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-052, January 2008. View Details
  3. Strategic Management As Organizational Learning: Developing Fit and Alignment Through a Disciplined Process

    Michael Beer, Sven C. Voelpel, Marius Leibold and Eden B. Tekie

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, Sven C. Voelpel, Marius Leibold, and Eden B. Tekie. "Strategic Management As Organizational Learning: Developing Fit and Alignment Through a Disciplined Process." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-062, April 2005. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Southfield Packaging

    Michael Beer and Alisa Zalosh

    Southfield Packaging provides packaging materials and services to medical device manufacturers. The case examines the relationship between a corporate vice president, Mark Sanders, and one of his direct reports, Regional Manager Frank Belby. Sanders' preparation for Belby's annual performance review provides a foundation for discussing the common challenges and difficulties associated with performance reviews. Specific issues include the need to clearly define criteria for evaluation and the question of whether Belby's physical health should play a role in his performance review. Overall, is Southfield's appraisal process a fair and effective way of evaluating employee potential?

    Keywords: Rank and Position; Performance Evaluation; Problems and Challenges; Management Teams; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; Distribution Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Alisa Zalosh. "Southfield Packaging." Harvard Business School Brief Case 913-562, April 2013. View Details
  2. ARISE: A Destination-for-a-Day Spa

    Michael Beer and Lynda St. Clair

    A new Dallas-based health and beauty spa aims to use a highly distinctive human resource system as the foundation of its competitive strategy. By encouraging employees to act as "personal wellness coaches" (PWCs) with high commitment and broad responsibilities, the leadership intended to provide a level of client service that would justify premium rates. However, the system is not working. Issues include: tips are lower than expected, reducing expected compensation; scheduling issues create bottlenecks; and the level of commitment varies among PWCs. The result is a high employee turnover rate, and departing employees take an average of 35% of their client base with them when they go. Now, with financials for the spa's second year completed, the VP of spa operations, the VP of business operations, and the CEO must evaluate what is and what isn't working.

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Motivation and Incentives; Organizational Design; Organizational Culture; Service Delivery; Competitive Strategy; Innovation Strategy; Health Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Service Industry; Texas;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Lynda St. Clair. "ARISE: A Destination-for-a-Day Spa." Harvard Business School Brief Case 913-521, August 2012. View Details
  3. Performance Management at Vitality Health Enterprises, Inc.

    John Bingham and Michael Beer

    Vitality Health Enterprises, a medium-sized firm that manufactures health and personal care products, has experienced six straight quarters of strong revenue growth. James Hoffman, the new Senior Vice President of Human Resources, fears that the chain of success is shifting the company's focus away from effective performance management. Recently, Vitality has been faced with increasing turnover among the company's talented research scientists that may be due to a performance management system that leaves top performing employees slighted by the practice of uniform ratings. In an effort to retain top employees, the company institutes a forced distribution model of performance rankings, moving from an absolute ranking system to a relative one. Hoffman and his performance management evaluation team must assess the practical and strategic effectiveness of the new system and present their findings and recommendations to the Board.

    Keywords: Performance Evaluation; Motivation and Incentives; Compensation and Benefits; Talent and Talent Management; Health Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bingham, John, and Michael Beer. "Performance Management at Vitality Health Enterprises, Inc." Harvard Business School Brief Case 913-501, July 2012. View Details
  4. BoldFlash: Cross-Functional Challenges in the Mobile Division

    Michael Beer and Rachel Shelton

    Roger Cahill has spent less than a year as head of the Mobile Division of BoldFlash, a flash memory component maker. On the corporate level, BoldFlash has adapted to an evolving and difficult marketplace, but the Mobile Division is struggling. The four groups within the unit refuse to work together, and the unit recently failed to capitalize on an important new product opportunity. To address the problems, Cahill has made a number of organizational and personnel changes since taking the helm. Facing low morale and eroding margins, Cahill is under pressure to meet his next challenge—reforming the product development process in an effort to save the Division.

    Keywords: United States; Massachusetts; organizational design; business processes; change management; morale; leadership; human resource management; product development; technology; Leadership; Opportunities; Organizational Design; Conflict and Resolution; Product Development; Change Management; Hardware; Business Processes; Manufacturing Industry; Electronics Industry; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Rachel Shelton. "BoldFlash: Cross-Functional Challenges in the Mobile Division." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-438, May 2012. View Details
  5. SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A)

    Michael Beer and Michael Tushman

    The Micro-Electronic Products Division of SMA has financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by change in organization and management. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Conflict and Resolution; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael Tushman. "SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 400-084, May 2000. (Revised June 2013.) View Details
  6. SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B)

    Michael Beer and Michael L. Tushman

    Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy suggested by the organizational development group for the division's problems. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Culture; Conflict Management; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael L. Tushman. "SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 400-085, May 2000. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  7. Becton Dickinson: Opportunities and Challenges on the Road to the 'Envisioned Future'

    Michael Beer and Russell A. Eisenstat

    The case depicts a mission and values driven firm, how it was turned around, and its unique strategy of enabling others to succeed.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Russell A. Eisenstat. "Becton Dickinson: Opportunities and Challenges on the Road to the 'Envisioned Future'." Harvard Business School Case 912-408, October 2011. (Revised June 2013.) View Details
  8. Celeritas, Inc.: Leadership Challenges in a Fast-Growth Industry

    Michael Beer and Ingrid Vargas

    In 2011, Celeritas is a leading data communications company in the crowded, highly competitive, and ever-evolving enterprise-network optimization market. Having experienced rapid growth since its founding in 2003, Celeritas has recently seen sales decline and has begun to lose market share along with its status as the top player. The CEO, concerned about several problems that may have contributed to this decline, engages an organizational development consultant who leads the firm's senior vice presidents through a two-day offsite exercise in team building. A followup meeting with a lower level of management raises questions about the effectiveness of those efforts.

    Keywords: communication; leadership; technology; morale; conflict; Organizational change; Team building; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Technology; Leadership; Communication; Groups and Teams; Attitudes; Conflict and Resolution; Information Technology Industry; Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Ingrid Vargas. "Celeritas, Inc.: Leadership Challenges in a Fast-Growth Industry." Harvard Business School Brief Case 114-360, November 2011. View Details
  9. Celeritas, Inc.: Leadership Challenges in a Fast-Growth Industry (Brief Case)

    Michael Beer and Ingrid Vargas

    Teaching Note for 4360.

    Keywords: communication; leadership; technology; morale; conflict; Organizational change; Team building; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Technology; Leadership; Communication; Groups and Teams; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Ingrid Vargas. "Celeritas, Inc.: Leadership Challenges in a Fast-Growth Industry (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 114-361, November 2011. View Details
  10. Developing an Effective Living Group

    Michael Beer, John J. Gabarro and Michael L. Tushman

    Discusses the importance of living room groups (eight participants who share a living room) in Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program developing into effective learning groups. The diversity of the groups is a strength, but only a conscious and concerted effort of group development can harness that strength. Outlines five steps in group development each team must take. Suggests that action learning, the skill the learning group must master to become effective, is also essential in their back-home organizations, given global competition and efficient markets. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Executive Education; Groups and Teams; Competency and Skills; Learning; Diversity Characteristics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, John J. Gabarro, and Michael L. Tushman. "Developing an Effective Living Group." Harvard Business School Background Note 406-051, September 2005. (Revised March 2009.) View Details
  11. Comcast New England: A Journey of Organizational Transformation

    Michael Beer and Anita Arun

    This case describes how Kevin Casey, Comcast's New England Region general manager, transformed a low commitment and performance organization. When he took charge of this Comcast region he inherited an organization that was bureaucratic, had low customer satisfaction, and was performing poorly. The case describes the transformation journey from 2003 to 2006. The case describes the changes in the senior team, structure and processes of the organization. It follows two illustrations of a powerful employee engagement process for honest conversations between the senior team and the organization which Casey and his top team believe was an essential ingredient in the success of the transformation. The case ends with a review of changes in financial performance, employee attitudes and customer satisfaction. The case describes the important role that the human resources function played in facilitating the change process, and it describes the transformation of its role from transactional to strategic.

    Keywords: Transformation; Interpersonal Communication; Customer Satisfaction; Employee Relationship Management; Management Teams; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Performance Improvement; Telecommunications Industry; New England;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Anita Arun. "Comcast New England: A Journey of Organizational Transformation." Harvard Business School Case 908-405, January 2008. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  12. Engstrom Auto Mirror Plant: Motivating in Good Times and Bad

    Michael Beer and Elizabeth Collins

    In May 2007, the Engstrom Auto Mirrors plant, a relatively small supplier based in Indiana, faces a crisis. The business was in the second year of a downturn. Sales had started to decline in 2005; a year later, plant manager Ron Bent had been forced to lay off more than 20 percent of the work force. Plant productivity was dropping, employee morale was low, and product-quality issues had begun to surface. Relationships with key customers were at risk. Downturns were not new at Engstrom. When the plant had reached a similar crisis point years earlier, the institution of a Scanlon Plan, a company-wide employee incentive program, had proven critical in building morale, increasing productivity and product quality, and leading Engstrom into a turnaround. For several subsequent years, Engstrom workers had received regular Scanlon pay bonuses. But the bonuses had stopped in 2006, and now Ron Bent must determine how to get the plant back on track. Should he revise the Scanlon setup? Remove Scanlon and try another plan? Identify and change other organizational factors that may be sabotaging Scanlon?

    Keywords: organizational behavior; leadership; change management; human resource management; incentives; motivation; manufacturing; Leadership; Change Management; Employees; Motivation and Incentives; Goals and Objectives; Manufacturing Industry; Indiana;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Elizabeth Collins. "Engstrom Auto Mirror Plant: Motivating in Good Times and Bad." Harvard Business School Brief Case 082-175, April 2008. View Details
  13. TerraCog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial

    Michael Beer and Sunru Yong

    TerraCog, a successful privately held high-tech firm that develops GPS (global positioning system) and similar products for consumer markets, has recently been caught off-guard by a competitor's new product that makes novel use of satellite imagery. When TerraCog pursues development of a directly competing product, dubbed Aerial, the projected costs threaten to scuttle the project. The key unit managers gather in a pair of contentious meetings that feature anger, blame, and bewilderment, but produce no effective conclusion. At the end of the case it falls to Emma Richardson, a newly-promoted executive vice-president, to push the group toward a go/no-go decision.

    Keywords: communication; organizational behavior; Meetings; decision making; leadership; group dynamics; human resource management; conflict; Technology; Leadership; Conflict Management; Competition; Groups and Teams; Organizational Culture; Human Resources; Communication; Decision Choices and Conditions; Crisis Management; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Sunru Yong. "TerraCog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial." Harvard Business School Brief Case 082-184, April 2008. View Details
  14. Engstrom Auto Mirror Plant: Motivating in Good Times and Bad (Brief Case)

    Michael Beer and Elizabeth Collins

    Teaching note for case # 2175

    Keywords: organizational behavior; leadership; change management; human resource management; incentives; motivation; manufacturing; Motivation and Incentives; Leadership; Change Management; Production; Organizations; Human Resources; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Elizabeth Collins. "Engstrom Auto Mirror Plant: Motivating in Good Times and Bad (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 082-176, April 2008. View Details
  15. TerraCog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial (Brief Case)

    Michael Beer and Sunru Yong

    Teaching note to case #2184

    Keywords: communication; organizational behavior; Meetings; decision making; leadership; group dynamics; human resource management; conflict; Leadership; Communication; Groups and Teams; Organizations; Decision Making; Human Resources; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Sunru Yong. "TerraCog Global Positioning Systems: Conflict and Communication on Project Aerial (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 082-185, April 2008. View Details
  16. Asda (A)

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    In the mid-1980s, Asda was one of the most successful retail companies in the United Kingdom. By 1991, the chain of 200 grocery stores had a lack of direction, a demoralized workforce, declining profits, rising debt, collapsing stock price, and was facing bankruptcy. This case describes the company's downfall and introduces Archie Norman, a young, highly talented chief executive, hired to restore the company.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Insolvency and Bankruptcy; Crisis Management; Management Teams; Business Strategy; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Asda (A)." Harvard Business School Case 498-005, October 1997. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  17. Developing an Effective Living Group in the General Management Program

    Michael Beer and John J. Gabarro

    Discusses the importance of living room groups (eight participants who share a living room) at Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program developing into effective learning groups. The diversity of the groups is a strength, but only a conscious and concerted effort of group development can harness that strength. Outlines five steps in group development each team must take. Suggests that action learning, the skill the learning group must master to become effective, is also essential in their back-home organizations, given global competition and efficient markets.

    Keywords: Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and John J. Gabarro. "Developing an Effective Living Group in the General Management Program." Harvard Business School Background Note 407-022, August 2006. (Revised March 2007.) View Details
  18. Leading Change

    Michael Beer

    Presents a conceptual framework for understanding the process of leading organizational change. Change leaders must create dissatisfaction with the status quo, develop a vision of the future state, and manage a process that sequences and orchestrates events and changes in such a way that internal commitment is developed and resistance reduced. Practical suggestions for developing these conditions for change are provided.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Leading Change;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Leading Change." Harvard Business School Background Note 488-037, January 1988. (Revised January 2007.) View Details
  19. Whitbread PLC (A)

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Describes the change process Whitbread employed in transforming its organization and culture from a single underperforming business operating in a relatively stable environment to a multibusiness, high-commitment, and high-performance corporation operating in more competitive markets. Describes how CEO David Thomas employed the Strategic Fitness Process (SFP), a strategic leadership process for organizational and cultural change, to create commitment to change within his leadership team and among 100 key executives in all parts of the company. Allowing a senior team to reinvent the corporation, SFP guides the senior team in developing a statement of strategic and organizational direction. SFP then guides the senior team through a systematic diagnosis as well as through change development and execution.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Growth Management; Business Growth and Maturation; Business or Company Management; Leadership; Diversification;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Whitbread PLC (A)." Harvard Business School Case 406-007, September 2005. View Details
  20. Hewlett-Packard: Culture in Changing Times

    Michael Beer, Rakesh Khurana and James Weber

    HP had been a highly successful and respected company for decades. It was well known for its company culture and management practices--the HP way--which emphasized both profits and people. Changing markets, strong competitors, and the growth of its computer business, however, battered the company in the mid-1990s. To turn things around, HP hired Carly Fiorina, the first outsider to lead the company. Describes Fiorina's strategy and the impact of decisions she made with respect to the acquisition of Compaq and HR policies on HP's venerable culture and performance.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Decision Choices and Conditions; Human Resources; Leading Change; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Performance Effectiveness; Adoption; Competition;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, Rakesh Khurana, and James Weber. "Hewlett-Packard: Culture in Changing Times." Harvard Business School Case 404-087, February 2004. (Revised January 2005.) View Details
  21. Organizational Alignment Exercise

    Michael Beer and John J. Gabarro

    Presents an overview of a method for diagnosing and developing an organization's capability to achieve its goals and implement its strategy, with exercises for application. A rewritten version of an earlier exercise.

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Alignment;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and John J. Gabarro. "Organizational Alignment Exercise." Harvard Business School Exercise 403-075, March 2003. (Revised December 2003.) View Details
  22. Whitbread Hotel Company (A)

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Alan Parker has developed an effective organization using organizational fitness profiling and other change methodologies. Parker knows that as Whitbread continues to grow, both internally and through acquisitions, the company will have to change its organization structure and management practices. The case describes how Parker managed the change process and involved a large number of employees in discovering the barriers holding the company back from achieving its strategic vision and in devising ways to overcome them. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Growth Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Integration;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Whitbread Hotel Company (A)." Harvard Business School Case 403-102, February 2003. View Details
  23. Merck Latin America (A)

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Introduces Grey Warner, the vice president of Merck's Latin America region, and his efforts to improve the organizational effectiveness of the region and to introduce a more global business culture and values. Discusses Merck's ethics and values, its Latin American organization, the change methodologies used, and the political and economic conditions in the region. The change methodologies included Myers Briggs personality type assessment, 360 degree feedback management evaluations, a new strategic planning process, and especially, organizational fitness profiling to discover and overcome barriers to achieving the strategic vision. Teaching Purpose: Allows students to examine the management of foreign operations--especially the management of change and the cultural implications thereof.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Ethics; Business Processes; Strategic Planning; Change Management; Values and Beliefs; Globalized Firms and Management; Employee Relationship Management; Business Strategy; Government and Politics; Economy; Pharmaceutical Industry; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Merck Latin America (A)." Harvard Business School Case 401-029, March 2001. (Revised September 2002.) View Details
  24. Merck Latin America (C): Brazil

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Examines Merck's change effort in Brazil from the perspective of the local employees.

    Keywords: Change Management; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Multinational Firms and Management; Employees; Operations; Perspective; Pharmaceutical Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Merck Latin America (C): Brazil." Harvard Business School Case 401-031, March 2001. (Revised September 2002.) View Details
  25. Merck Latin America (D): Mexico

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Examines Merck's change effort in Mexico from the perspective of the local employees.

    Keywords: Change Management; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Multinational Firms and Management; Employees; Operations; Perspective; Pharmaceutical Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Merck Latin America (D): Mexico." Harvard Business School Case 401-032, March 2001. (Revised September 2002.) View Details
  26. Grey Warner, Merck Latin America

    Michael Beer

    Grey Warner, the vice president of Merck's Latin America region, discusses the challenges raised in the case and the lessons learned.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Values and Beliefs; Change Management; Problems and Challenges; Management Teams; Pharmaceutical Industry; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Grey Warner, Merck Latin America." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 402-801, April 2002. View Details
  27. Strategic Human Resource Management Applications Exercise

    Michael Beer

    Overview of a method for diagnosing and developing an organization's capability to achieve its goals and implement its strategy, with exercises for application. A rewritten version of an earlier exercise.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Goals and Objectives; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Design; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Strategic Human Resource Management Applications Exercise." Harvard Business School Exercise 401-044, June 2001. View Details
  28. Manila Water Company (A)

    Michael Beer and Elizabeth Weldon

    On February 3, 1997, the east zone of the Manila Metropolitan Water and Sewerage System (MWSS) was taken over by the Manila Water Co. (MWC), a newly created joint venture between the Ayala Corp., a large Filipino conglomerate; Bechtel Enterprises, Inc., an American engineering and construction firm; and United Utilities, a British utilities firm. At the time of privatization, MWSS was an inefficient, ineffective, and corrupt government agency. MWC must develop the employees and the assets acquired from MWSS to build a profitable firm. This case describes MWSS, the three partners in MWC,and also introduces Filemon Berba, the new CEO and president of MWC.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Horizontal Integration; Privatization; Problems and Challenges; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Elizabeth Weldon. "Manila Water Company (A)." Harvard Business School Case 401-014, August 2000. View Details
  29. Manila Water Company (B)

    Michael Beer and Elizabeth Weldon

    On August 1, 1997 the Manila Water Co. took control of the east zone of the newly privatized Manila Metropolitan Water and Sewerage System (MWSS). At the time of privatization, MWSS was an inefficient, ineffective, and corrupt government agency. MWC must develop the employees and the assets acquired from MWSS to build a profitable firm. This case describes the changes made to the organization.

    Keywords: Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Horizontal Integration; Privatization; Problems and Challenges; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Elizabeth Weldon. "Manila Water Company (B)." Harvard Business School Case 401-015, August 2000. View Details
  30. Champion International

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Richard Olson, a long-tenured employee, was named CEO of Champion in 1996. Champion had been conducting an organizational transformation since the early 1980s that could be considered successful on most operational and social measures. However, due to industry dynamics, success on the financial side has been harder to achieve. The change effort has focused on the creation of a high-performance organization through the use of self-managing teams at all levels of the organization.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Champion International." Harvard Business School Case 499-019, July 1998. (Revised March 2000.) View Details
  31. Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A1): The Profiling Process and Creation of the Future Model

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A1): The Profiling Process and Creation of the Future Model." Harvard Business School Case 498-012, August 1997. (Revised July 1999.) View Details
  32. Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A): The Trials and Tribulations of a Legacy

    Michael Beer

    Describes the process of transforming a recently formed division of Hewlett-Packard.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Transformation; Courts and Trials; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A): The Trials and Tribulations of a Legacy." Harvard Business School Case 498-011, August 1997. (Revised July 1999.) View Details
  33. Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (B): The Second Profiling Iteration

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Describes the process of transforming a recently formed division of Hewlett-Packard.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Transformation; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (B): The Second Profiling Iteration." Harvard Business School Case 498-016, August 1997. (Revised July 1999.) View Details
  34. Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A2): Response to the Employee Task Force

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (A2): Response to the Employee Task Force." Harvard Business School Case 498-013, August 1997. (Revised July 1999.) View Details
  35. Becton Dickinson (E): An Assessment of Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling

    Michael Beer and Pamela J. Maus

    This case presents an assessment of the strategic human resource management (SHRM) profiling process implemented at Becton Dickinson. It explores the questions the assessment raised about the viability of the process and what aspects might be changed if the process is to be continued.

    Keywords: Change Management; Human Resources; Management Practices and Processes; Strategic Planning; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Pamela J. Maus. "Becton Dickinson (E): An Assessment of Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling." Harvard Business School Case 496-007, July 1995. (Revised April 1999.) View Details
  36. Merck & Co., Inc.: Corporate Strategy, Organization and Culture (A)

    Michael Beer and Perry Fagan

    In the early 1990s, Merck faced a series of challenges because of significant changes in its competitive and regulatory environment (e.g., growth in power of pharmaceutical buyers like managed care organizations led to price pressures and President Clinton's review of the entire U.S. health-care industry). The case describes the company under its previous CEO, and primarily under Ray Gilmartin, the new CEO. Discusses the strategic, organizational, cultural, and management challenges that Merck faced, as well as Gilmartin's change program from 1994 to 1998, which was aimed at helping Merck address these issues.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business or Company Management; Organizational Culture; Problems and Challenges; Management Practices and Processes; Competitive Strategy; Management Teams; Health Care and Treatment; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Situation or Environment; Alignment; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Perry Fagan. "Merck & Co., Inc.: Corporate Strategy, Organization and Culture (A)." Harvard Business School Case 499-054, March 1999. View Details
  37. Asda (B)

    Michael Beer and James Weber

    Describes Archie Norman's efforts over a five-year period to turn around the company by regaining financial control, delivering management, creating experimental projects where individuals felt free to innovate, instituting a back-to-roots strategy that put customers first, and creating a culture characterized by high involvement of employees and fast innovation and implementation of new ideas.

    Keywords: Change Management; Customer Relationship Management; Governance Controls; Innovation and Invention; Management; Service Delivery; Organizational Culture; Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James Weber. "Asda (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 498-007, October 1997. (Revised May 1998.) View Details
  38. Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (A)

    Michael Beer

    A division of Allentown Materials Corp. has financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction, and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by changes in organization and management. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Employees; Working Conditions; Business or Company Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 498-023, July 1997. (Revised December 1997.) View Details
  39. Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (B3): Assessing Organizational Fitness Profiling

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Supplements the (B) case.

    Keywords: Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Hewlett-Packard's Santa Rosa Systems Division (B3): Assessing Organizational Fitness Profiling." Harvard Business School Case 498-019, August 1997. (Revised September 1997.) View Details
  40. Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (B)

    Michael Beer

    Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy made by the organizational development group to address the division's problems. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Change Management; Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Electronics Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (B)." Harvard Business School Case 498-024, July 1997. View Details
  41. Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (C)

    Michael Beer

    Supplements the (A) and (B) cases. Designed as an in-class handout. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement.

    Keywords: Change Management; Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Electronics Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Allentown Materials Corporation: The Electronic Products Division (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 498-025, July 1997. View Details
  42. Apple Computer (A)(Abridged): Corporate Strategy and Culture

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Provides an overview of the company's history, industry, competitive position, strategy, and organization. Analyzes the culture and morale at Apple. Written at a time when the company faces a very compelling threat to their business, and when morale within the company is very low. The purpose is to identify the key organizational issues that the company must address.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Organizational Culture; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Apple Computer (A)(Abridged): Corporate Strategy and Culture." Harvard Business School Case 495-044, March 1995. (Revised February 1997.) View Details
  43. Conducting a Performance Appraisal Interview

    Michael Beer

    Discusses typical problems experienced by managers in conducting performance appraisal interviews. The underlying causes of these problems are analyzed and ideas are presented that might help managers overcome these problems. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Managerial Roles; Performance Evaluation; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Conducting a Performance Appraisal Interview." Harvard Business School Background Note 497-058, January 1997. View Details
  44. Cambridge Technology Partners (A)

    Teresa M. Amabile, George P. Baker III and Michael Beer

    Cambridge Technology Partners uses a highly innovative product strategy, supported by a human resources strategy, that has been very successful. However, high growth rates jeopardize product quality while tension about relative compensation levels between sales and operations threatens the firm's culture.

    Keywords: Growth Management; Compensation and Benefits; Organizational Culture; Quality; Human Resources; Relationships; Innovation and Invention; Consulting Industry; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Amabile, Teresa M., George P. Baker III, and Michael Beer. "Cambridge Technology Partners (A)." Harvard Business School Case 496-005, July 1995. (Revised April 1996.) View Details
  45. TRW's Information Services Division: Strategic Human Resource Management

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Looks at a change effort initiated by a human resources manager within a division of TRW. The effort utilizes a change process to try to deal with some of the division's issues around organizational effectiveness, especially that of a long-term strategy. In so doing, the situation portrays some of the fundamental hurdles in creating change.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Managerial Roles; Strategy; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "TRW's Information Services Division: Strategic Human Resource Management." Harvard Business School Case 496-003, February 1996. View Details
  46. Human Resources at Hewlett-Packard (A)

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Provides an overview of the human resource policies and practices applied by Hewlett-Packard (HP). Discusses HP's reactions as an organization to changes in its business environment. As such, it is an opportunity to analyze HP's practices, and how they have been affected through the years in all four policy areas: stakeholder influence, flows, rewards, and work systems.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Policy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Human Resources at Hewlett-Packard (A)." Harvard Business School Case 495-051, April 1995. (Revised November 1995.) View Details
  47. Datavision (C)

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Describes the events to follow Datavision (A) and (B). Covers the aftermath of two previous team-building meetings and leaves off with the protagonist struggling with how to proceed.

    Keywords: Employees; Problems and Challenges; Groups and Teams; Social and Collaborative Networks; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Datavision (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 495-048, March 1995. (Revised August 1995.) View Details
  48. Apple Computer (B)(Abridged) : Building a Worldwide Strategy

    Michael Beer and Gregory C. Rogers

    Describes the building of Apple's new strategy. Explores how the human resource function at Apple Computer can best support that strategy.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Adaptation; Corporate Strategy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Gregory C. Rogers. "Apple Computer (B)(Abridged) : Building a Worldwide Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 495-045, March 1995. (Revised July 1995.) View Details
  49. Becton Dickinson (A): Corporate Strategy

    Michael Beer

    This case series introduces the strategic human resource management (SHRM) process. SHRM is an action research program designed to align the organization and management of human resources with strategy. This case describes the health care industry, Becton Dickinson's (BD) corporate history, and the way the company is organized and managed. Does BD's corporate strategy make sense? Analyzes the fit between strategy and HRM.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Corporate Strategy; Alignment; Human Resources; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Becton Dickinson (A): Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 491-151, June 1991. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  50. Becton Dickinson (C): Human Resource Function

    Michael Beer

    The new vice president of Human Resources (HR) for Becton Dickinson must develop a strategy to reconceptualize the HR function as mandated by the CEO who has introduced formal strategic planning procedures in the organization. The teaching objective is to understand the role of the HR function in a large organization in the context of the development of corporate strategy.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Strategic Planning; Corporate Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Becton Dickinson (C): Human Resource Function." Harvard Business School Case 491-154, June 1991. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  51. Becton Dickinson (D): Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling

    Michael Beer

    Describes a strategic human resource management process applied at the business unit and corporate level. The purpose of the process is to provide a means for aligning human resource management policies and practices with strategy and to hold managers accountable for managing change and improvement.

    Keywords: Change Management; Human Resources; Business or Company Management; Strategic Planning; Corporate Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Becton Dickinson (D): Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling." Harvard Business School Case 491-155, June 1991. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  52. Note on Organizational Effectiveness

    Michael Beer

    Discusses what is meant by organizational effectiveness. First, the concept of organizations as social systems is introduced. Second, a model of organization effectiveness is introduced and discussed.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Performance Efficiency;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Note on Organizational Effectiveness." Harvard Business School Background Note 493-044, December 1992. (Revised September 1994.) View Details
  53. People Express Airlines: Rise and Decline

    Michael Beer

    Describes the innovative approach to organizing and managing employees by People Express and describes the company's eventual demise. This material can be used to inform about leading edge human resource management practices and to raise questions about what went wrong. Why did People Express succeed in its early years and why did it ultimately fail?

    Keywords: Employee Relationship Management; Human Resources; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "People Express Airlines: Rise and Decline." Harvard Business School Case 490-012, March 1990. (Revised September 1993.) View Details
  54. Otis South Africa (A)

    Michael Beer

    Otis Worldwide CEO, George David, was frustrated with the slow pace of nonwhite advancement within Otis South Africa. After a few years of trying to elicit action from South African management, he decided to send a 28-year old U.S. employee to take over as the human resource manager. Between them, they were charged with boosting nonwhite advancement drastically and with improving the company's operational performance, which had slipped in the early 1980s.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Multinational Firms and Management; Race Characteristics; Operations; Business Headquarters; Performance Improvement; Human Resources; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Industrial Products Industry; South Africa; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Otis South Africa (A)." Harvard Business School Case 492-049, April 1992. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  55. Challenge of Commitment,The

    Michael Beer and Michael J. Gibbs

    Defines commitment, describes the psychological and organizational factors that underly it, and provides a comprehensive discussion of the policies and practices managers can employ to enhance commitment. Identifies control and commitment as two critical strategies managers must learn to manage and mix.

    Keywords: Ethics; Governance Controls; Policy; Management Practices and Processes; Managerial Roles; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael J. Gibbs. "Challenge of Commitment,The." Harvard Business School Background Note 493-046, January 1993. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  56. Note on Why Employees Join Unions

    Michael Beer

    Provides some answers to the question of why employees join unions. Summarizes recent data on workers' perceptions of unions: their power and instrumentality. Also explores the special situation of white collar workers.

    Keywords: Labor Unions; Employees; Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Note on Why Employees Join Unions." Harvard Business School Background Note 481-121, January 1981. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  57. Becton Dickinson (D1): Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling, Update

    Michael Beer

    Describes reactions to the strategic human resource management process and allows an evaluation of prospects for the future.

    Keywords: Human Resources;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Becton Dickinson (D1): Strategic Human Resource Management Profiling, Update." Harvard Business School Supplement 491-156, June 1991. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  58. Becton Dickinson (B): Global Management

    Michael Beer

    The president of Becton Dickinson (BD) and his top management team struggle with issues of: 1) how to manage the top of the organization, focusing on leadership style, the committee structure, and the role of sector presidents, and 2) how to manage a multinational business. BD implements transnational organization and worldwide product teams. The teaching objectives are to: 1) understand the relationship between corporate strategy and the organization and management of a global organization, and 2) understand the implications of global management for the human resource function.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Multinational Firms and Management; Human Resources; Leadership Style; Management Teams; Corporate Strategy; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Becton Dickinson (B): Global Management." Harvard Business School Case 491-152, June 1991. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  59. Sedalia Engine Plant (A)

    Michael Beer

    The new plant manager must deal with the problems and potentials contained in this highly participatory management style plant.

    Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Employee Relationship Management; Management Style; Problems and Challenges; Labor and Management Relations; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Sedalia Engine Plant (A)." Harvard Business School Case 481-148, March 1981. (Revised April 1993.) View Details
  60. John A. Clendenin and Managing Xerox's Multinational Development Center TN

    Michael Beer and Russell A. Eisenstat

    Teaching Note for John A. Clendenin (9-490-028) and Managing Xerox's Multinational Development Center (9-490-029).

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Russell A. Eisenstat. "John A. Clendenin and Managing Xerox's Multinational Development Center TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 493-058, March 1993. View Details
  61. HRM Course Overview Note

    Michael Beer

    Provides an overview of the first-year required course in Human Resource Management. It argues that commitment, coordination, and competence are critical organizational outcomes and that skills in organizational diagnosis, design, and change are central to obtaining these outcomes.

    Keywords: Change; Competency and Skills; Human Resources; Organizations; Organizational Design; Outcome or Result; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "HRM Course Overview Note." Harvard Business School Background Note 493-062, February 1993. View Details
  62. Otis South Africa (B)

    Michael Beer

    Covers a June 1990 Social Responsibility Conference held by George David to evaluate the progress of his new management team in increasing the pace of nonwhite advancement. The U.S. CEO and the managing director of Otis South Africa disagree over the suitability of quotas or firm targets to achieve their goal of increased nonwhite management.

    Keywords: Conflict Management; Race Characteristics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Management Teams; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Otis South Africa (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 492-050, April 1992. (Revised February 1993.) View Details
  63. Otis South Africa (C)

    Michael Beer

    Relates Otis South Africa's management actions in their efforts to transform the company. Students will be asked to judge the effectiveness of the corporate change programs instituted by management.

    Keywords: Transformation; Judgments; Business or Company Management; Performance Effectiveness; Industrial Products Industry; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Otis South Africa (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 493-063, February 1993. View Details
  64. Apple Computer (D): Epilogue

    Michael Beer and Michael J. Gibbs

    Brings students up to date on events at Apple Computer as of August 1991. Outlines resolutions of, or attempts to deal with, problems outlined. Illustrates what Apple had done to address problems, shows progress to date, and alludes to further issues to be addressed. Can also be used mid-class to develop discussion of what to do next in the evolution of Apple's implementation of its new strategy.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Problems and Challenges; Corporate Strategy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Michael J. Gibbs. "Apple Computer (D): Epilogue." Harvard Business School Case 492-013, September 1991. (Revised December 1991.) View Details
  65. People Express Philosophy: Interview with Don Burr, Video

    Michael Beer

    Presents an interview with Don Burr as he reviews the philosophy of management and managements approach of People Express.

    Keywords: Management Style; Management Teams; Strategy; Goals and Objectives; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "People Express Philosophy: Interview with Don Burr, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 890-507, December 1989. View Details
  66. People Express Decline: Interview with Don Burr, Video

    Michael Beer

    Presents an interview with Don Burr, CEO, as he reviews his account of how and why People Express failed as a corporation and was ultimately sold to Continental Airlines.

    Keywords: Management Teams; Failure; Business Exit or Shutdown; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "People Express Decline: Interview with Don Burr, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 890-508, December 1989. View Details
  67. Tiberg Co.

    Michael Beer and Daniel J. Isenberg

    Describes the efforts of a vice president of purchasing to coordinate and centralize purchasing procedures in a multinational company. He encounters a lack of active cooperation. A rewritten version of an earlier case by G. Lombard.

    Keywords: Cost Management; Multinational Firms and Management; Governance Controls; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Daniel J. Isenberg. "Tiberg Co." Harvard Business School Case 487-079, April 1987. (Revised April 1987.) View Details
  68. Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note

    Michael Beer

    Teaching Note for (9-477-024), (9-477-073), and (9-477-074).

    Keywords: Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 481-088, January 1981. (Revised February 1986.) View Details
  69. Human Resources at Hewlett-Packard

    Michael Beer and Richard O. von Werssowetz

    Provides an overview of all the human resource policies and practices applied by Hewlett-Packard. As such, it is an opportunity to analyze Hewlett-Packard's practices in all four policy areas; stakeholder influence, flows, rewards, and work systems.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Management Practices and Processes; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Working Conditions; Policy;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and Richard O. von Werssowetz. "Human Resources at Hewlett-Packard." Harvard Business School Case 482-125, May 1982. (Revised May 1985.) View Details
  70. Colonial Food Services Co.

    Michael Beer and James G. Clawson

    The first case in a four-part case series which outlines the events leading up to a performance appraisal interview. Describes the background of the company.

    Keywords: Performance Evaluation; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James G. Clawson. "Colonial Food Services Co." Harvard Business School Case 478-005, October 1977. (Revised September 1983.) View Details
  71. Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (B)

    Michael Beer

    Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy made by the organizational development group for the electronic product division's problems.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Problems and Challenges; Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (B)." Harvard Business School Case 477-073, January 1977. (Revised April 1983.) View Details
  72. Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (A)

    Michael Beer

    Describes a division of Corning Glass Works that finds itself with deep financial and organizational problems. Severe conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. Provides sufficient data to determine that the cause of these problems is a change in business environment that had been followed by change in organization and management. Can be used for analysis of organization-environment relationships and action planning for change and environment.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Change Management; Transformation; Employees; Working Conditions; Business or Company Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (A)." Harvard Business School Case 477-024, July 1976. (Revised April 1983.) View Details
  73. James Cranston

    Michael Beer and James G. Clawson

    Describes the attitudes, feelings, and perceptions of the manager who will conduct the performance appraisal interview.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Performance Evaluation; Attitudes; Emotions; Perception;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James G. Clawson. "James Cranston." Harvard Business School Case 478-006, October 1977. (Revised April 1983.) View Details
  74. Eugene Kirby (A)

    Michael Beer and James G. Clawson

    Describes the events leading up to an actual performance appraisal interview--the views, opinions, and attitudes of the subordinates who are to be interviewed.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Performance Evaluation; Attitudes; Perspective;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael, and James G. Clawson. "Eugene Kirby (A)." Harvard Business School Case 478-007, September 1977. (Revised April 1983.) View Details
  75. Sedalia Engine Plant (B)

    Michael Beer

    After one year as new plant manager at a highly participatory management style plant, Denny Goble assesses his handling of various problems.

    Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Employee Relationship Management; Management Style; Problems and Challenges; Labor and Management Relations; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Sedalia Engine Plant (B)." Harvard Business School Case 481-149, March 1981. (Revised April 1983.) View Details
  76. Air Traffic Controllers

    Michael Beer

    On August 3, 1981 President Ronald Reagan terminated 12,000 air traffic controllers, members of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization, for violating their no-strike oath. Provides background on the human resources policies and practices of the Federal Aviation System and information concerning the negotiations and impact of the terminations.

    Keywords: Resignation and Termination; Labor and Management Relations; Government and Politics; Labor Unions; Negotiation; Employees; Air Transportation Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Air Traffic Controllers." Harvard Business School Case 482-056, May 1982. (Revised June 1982.) View Details
  77. Assessing Managerial Talent at AT&T (A)

    Michael Beer

    Provides background on the assessment center used by AT&T to assess managerial potential for upper middle management. Contains assessment reports for two candidates. Raises questions about manpower training and development. Students may be asked which of the candidates has managerial potential and why, and what specific development plans can be suggested.

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Performance Evaluation; Management Teams; Executive Education; Management Skills;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Assessing Managerial Talent at AT&T (A)." Harvard Business School Case 482-035, November 1981. View Details
  78. Note on Rewards Systems

    Michael Beer

    Looks at rewards in general, and pay in particular, and studies the conditions that may enhance or detract from employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness.

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Wages; Organizations; Performance Effectiveness; Motivation and Incentives; Satisfaction;

    Citation:

    Beer, Michael. "Note on Rewards Systems." Harvard Business School Background Note 482-017, October 1981. View Details