Max H. Bazerman

Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration

Max H. Bazerman is Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School and the Co-Director of the Center for Public Leadership at the Harvard Kennedy School. 

Max's research focuses on decision making, negotiation, and ethics. He is the author, co-author, or co-editor of twenty books (including The Power of Noticing, Simon and Schuster, 2014; and Blind Spots [with Ann Tenbrunsel], Princeton University Press, 2011) and over 200 research articles and chapters. He is a member of the editorial boards of the American Behavioral Scientist, Journal of Management and Governance, Mind and Society, Negotiations and Conflict Management Research, Psychological and Personality Science, and The Journal of Behavioral Finance. Also, he is a member of the international advisory board of the Negotiation Journal.

From 2002-2011, Max was consistently named one of the top 40 authors, speakers, and teachers of management by Executive Excellence. He was named "Teacher of the Year" by the Executive Masters Program of the Kellogg School. In 2003, Max received the Everett Mendelsohn Excellence in Mentoring Award from Harvard University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. In 2006, Max received an honorary doctorate from the University of London (London Business School), the Kulp-Wright Book Award from the American Risk and Insurance Association for Predictable Surprises (with Michael Watkins), and the Life Achievement Award from the Aspen Institute's Business and Society Program. In 2008, Max was named as Ethisphere's 100 Most Influential in Business Ethics, was named one of Daily Kos' Heroes from the Bush Era for going public about how the Bush Administration corrupted the RICO Tobacco trial, (with Deepak Malhotra) received the International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution (CPR) Outstanding Book Award for Negotiation Genius, and received the Distinguished Educator Award from the Academy of Management. In 2014, Max received the Academy of Management Career Award for Scholarly Contributions to Management.

Max was named the Harvard Kennedy School’s Advisory of the Year in 2014. In 2009, Max won both the Wyss Award for doctoral student mentoring and the Williams Award for teaching excellence at the Harvard Business School.  His former doctoral students have accepted positions at leading business schools throughout the United States, including the Kellogg School at Northwestern, the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, the Fuqua School at Duke, the Johnson School at Cornell, Carnegie-Mellon University, Stanford University, the University of Chicago, Notre Dame, Columbia, and the Harvard Business School.

His professional activities include projects with Abbott, Aetna, AIG, Alcar, Alcoa, Allstate, Ameritech, Amgen, Apax Partners, Asian Development Bank, AstraZeneca, AT&T, Aventis, BASF, Bayer, Becton Dickenson, Biogen, Boston Scientific, BP, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Business Week, Celtic Insurance, Chevron, Chicago Tribune, City of Chicago, and additional companies that start with letters between D and Z.  Max's consulting, teaching, and lecturing includes work in 30 countries.  Details are available at www.people.hbs.edu/mbazerman.

Books

  1. The Power of Noticing: What the Best Leaders See

    This book will examine the common failure to notice critical information due to bounded awareness. The book will document a decade of research showing that even successful people fail to notice the absence of critical and readily available information in their environment due to the human tendency to focus on a limited set of information. This work is still in its formative stages, and I welcome comments about how bounded awareness affects you and your organization and how you have created solutions to such problems.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Judgments; Negotiation; Negotiation Process; Relationships;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max. The Power of Noticing: What the Best Leaders See. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014. View Details
  2. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

    Is your judgment influenced by personal biases? In situations requiring careful judgment, we're all influenced by our own biases to some extent. But, with Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, you can learn how to overcome those biases to make better managerial decisions. The text examines judgment in a variety of organizational contexts and provides practical strategies for changing your decision-making processes and improving these processes so that they become part of your permanent behavior. Throughout, you'll find numerous hands-on decision exercises and examples from the authors' extensive executive training experience that will help you enhance the quality of your managerial judgment. Past editions have been used in top universities, in business schools, and in public policy, psychology, and economics classes. In addition, the text has been widely recognized by practitioners in the world of behavioral finance.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Judgments; Management Practices and Processes; Management Skills; Managerial Roles; Performance Improvement; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max, and D. Moore. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. View Details
  3. Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What's Right and What to Do about It

    When confronted with an ethical dilemma, most of us like to think we would stand up for our principles. But we are not as ethical as we think we are. In Blind Spots, leading business ethicists Max Bazerman and Ann Tenbrunsel examine the ways we overestimate our ability to do what is right and how we act unethically without meaning to. From the collapse of Enron and corruption in the tobacco industry, to sales of the defective Ford Pinto and the downfall of Bernard Madoff, the authors investigate the nature of ethical failures in the business world and beyond and illustrate how we can become more ethical, bridging the gap between who we are and who we want to be.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Moral Sensibility; Values and Beliefs; Failure; Performance Evaluation; Sales; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., and Ann E. Tenbrunsel. Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What's Right and What to Do about It. Princeton University Press, 2011. View Details
  4. Social Decision Making: Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments

    This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making, and ethics which was so important to Dave.

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Values and Beliefs; Social and Collaborative Networks; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Kramer, R. M., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman, eds. Social Decision Making: Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments. Routledge, 2009. View Details
  5. Predictable Surprises

    Most events that catch us by surprise are both predictable and preventable, but we consistently miss (or ignore) the warning signs. This book shows why such "predictable surprises" put us all at risk, and shows how we can understand, anticipate, and prevent them before disaster strikes. There is a universal fear factor surrounding this subject: that society and the workplace are filled with disasters in the making that we could prevent if we only knew what to look for. This book plays on that fear and offers a positive, proactive resolution to it. Two leading experts in managerial decision making show that many disasters in business are preceded by clear warning signals that leaders either miss or purposely ignore. Here they outline the six danger signals that suggest a predictable surprise may be imminent.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Forecasting and Prediction; Leadership; Risk and Uncertainty; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max, and Michael D. Watkins. Predictable Surprises. Paperback ed. Harvard Business School Press, 2008. View Details
  6. Negotiation Genius

    Whether you've “seen it all” or are just starting out, Negotiation Genius will dramatically improve your negotiating skills and confidence. Drawing on decades of behavioral research plus the experience of thousands of business clients, the authors take the mystery out of preparing for and executing negotiations—whether they involve multimillion-dollar deals or improving your next salary offer.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Negotiation Preparation; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Tactics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and M. H. Bazerman. Negotiation Genius. Bantam Books, 2007. (Winner of International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution. CPR Award for Outstanding Book presented by International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution. Published in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Italian.) View Details
  7. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

    Keywords: Judgments; Management; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 6 John Wiley & Sons, 2005. (Also published in Polish, Russian, and Japanese. Ch. 2 has been reprinted in Psychological Dimensions of Organizational Behavior and summarized in the Harvard Management Update. Ch. 7 has been reprinted in Power and Negotiation in Organizations.) View Details
  8. Smart Money Decisions

    Keywords: Money; Decisions;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H. Smart Money Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, 1999. (Recognized as one of the 10 Best Personal Finance and Investing Books of the Year by Amazon.com and as one of the 30 Best Business Books of the Year by Soundview Executive Book Summaries. Published in Spanish. Adaptations published in Soundview Executive Book Summaries, Personal Excellence, and Bottom Line.) View Details
  9. Environment, Ethics, and Behavior: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation

    Keywords: Ethics; Environmental Sustainability; Valuation;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and K. A. Wade-Benzoni, eds. Environment, Ethics, and Behavior: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation. San Francisco: New Lexington Press, 1997. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Becoming a First-Class Noticer: How to Spot and Prevent Ethical Failures in Your Organization

    We'd like to think that no smart, upstanding manager would ever overlook or turn a blind eye to threats or wrongdoing that ultimately imperil his or her business. Yet it happens all the time. We fall prey to obstacles that obscure or drown out important signals that things are amiss. Becoming a "first-class noticer," says Max Bazerman, requires conscious effort to fight ambiguity, motivated blindness, conflicts of interest, the slippery slope, and efforts of others to mislead us. As a manager, you can develop your noticing skills by acknowledging responsibility when things go wrong rather than blaming external forces beyond your control. Bazerman also advises taking an outsider's view to challenge the status quo. Given the string of ethical failures of corporations around the world in recent years—from BP to GM to JPMorgan Chase—it's clear that leaders not only need to act more responsibly themselves, but also must develop keen noticing skills in their employees and across their organizations.

    Keywords: accountability; Business ethics; Cognitive psychology; Human behavior; Personal ethics in business; Business or Company Management; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max. "Becoming a First-Class Noticer: How to Spot and Prevent Ethical Failures in Your Organization." Harvard Business Review 92, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2014): 116–119. View Details
  2. Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End

    Many written forms required by businesses and governments rely on honest reporting. Proof of honest intent is typically provided through signature at the end of the document, e.g., tax returns or insurance policy forms. Still, people sometimes cheat to advance their financial self-interests—at great costs to society. We test an easy-to-implement method to discourage dishonesty: signing at the beginning rather than at the end of a self-report, thereby reversing the order of the current practice. Using lab and field experiments, we find that signing before rather than after the opportunity to cheat makes ethics salient when it is needed most and significantly reduces dishonesty.

    Keywords: nudge; Morality; honesty; self-report; policy-making; Ethics; Corporate Disclosure; Reports; Policy;

    Citation:

    Shu, L., N. Mazar, F. Gino, D. Ariely, and M. Bazerman. "Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 38 (September 18, 2012): 15197–15200. View Details
  3. Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty

    Early research and teaching on ethics focused on either a moral development perspective or philosophical approaches, and used a normative approach by focusing on the question of how people should act when resolving ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we briefly describe the traditional approach to ethics and then present a (biased) review on the behavioral approach to ethics. We define behavioral ethics as the study of systematic and predictable ways in which individuals make ethical decisions and judge the ethical decisions of others that are at odds with intuition and the benefits of the broader society. By focusing on a descriptive rather than a normative approach to ethics, behavioral ethics is better suited than traditional approaches to address the increasing demand from society for a deeper understanding of what causes even good people to cross ethical boundaries.

    Keywords: ethical decision making; corruption; Unethical Behavior; behavioral decision research; Behavior; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max, and Francesca Gino. "Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty." Annual Review of Law and Social Science 8 (December 2012): 85–104. View Details
  4. Policy Bundling to Overcome Loss Aversion: A Method for Improving Legislative Outcomes

    Keywords: Policy; Government Legislation; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Mary Carol Mazza, Lisa L. Shu, Chia-Jung Tsay, and Max H. Bazerman. "Policy Bundling to Overcome Loss Aversion: A Method for Improving Legislative Outcomes." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 117 (2012): 158–167. View Details
  5. Is It Time for Auditor Independence Yet?

    Well before the collapse of Enron and Arthur Andersen, we argued that the auditing system had been corrupted by the incentives auditors face to please their clients. We stated that even honest auditors were incapable of independence within the current regulatory framework. We document the failure to make sufficient changes to our institutions, highlight the barriers to needed changes, and challenge society to act before the next disaster.

    Keywords: Accounting Audits; Change; Crime and Corruption; Customer Satisfaction; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Failure; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., and D. A. Moore. "Is It Time for Auditor Independence Yet?" Accounting, Organizations and Society (December 2011). View Details
  6. Ethical Breakdowns: Good People often Let Bad Things Happen. Why?

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them: (1) Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising them, (2) Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant is in our interest. Root out conflicts of interest, (3) Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work, (4) The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately, and (5) Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics.

    Keywords: Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Corporate Accountability; Corporate Governance; Leadership; Behavior; Conflict of Interests;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., and Ann E. Tenbrunsel. "Ethical Breakdowns: Good People often Let Bad Things Happen. Why?" Harvard Business Review 89, no. 4 (April 2011). View Details
  7. Bounded Ethicality in Negotiations

    Routine and persistent acts of dishonesty prevail in everyday life, yet most people resist shining a critical moral light on their own behavior, thereby maintaining and oftentimes inflating images of themselves as moral individuals. We overview the psychology that accounts for behaviors inconsistent with ethical beliefs and describe how people reconcile their immoral actions with their ethical goals through the process of moral disengagement. We then examine how the mind selectively forgets information that might threaten this moral self-image. We close with an attempt to identify strategies to close the gap between the unethical people we are and the ethical people that we strive to be.

    Keywords: Behavior; Values and Beliefs; Strategy; Goals and Objectives; Reputation; Negotiation; Moral Sensibility;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max. "Bounded Ethicality in Negotiations." Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 4, no. 1 (February 2011): 8–11. View Details
  8. In Favor of Clear Thinking: Incorporating Moral Rules into a Wise Cost-benefit Analysis

    Bennis, Medin, and Bartels (2009) have contributed an interesting paper on the comparative benefit of moral rules versus cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Many of their specific comments are accurate, useful, and insightful. At the same time, we believe they have misrepresented CBA and have reached a set of conclusions that are misguided and, if adopted wholesale, potentially dangerous. Overall, they offer wise suggestions for making CBA more effective, rather than eliminating CBA as a decision-making tool.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Moral Sensibility; Adoption; Performance Effectiveness; Decision Making; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max, and Joshua D. Greene. "In Favor of Clear Thinking: Incorporating Moral Rules into a Wise Cost-benefit Analysis." Perspectives on Psychological Science 5, no. 2 (March 2010): 209–212. View Details
  9. I'll Have the Ice Cream Soon and the Vegetables Later: A Study of Online Grocery Purchases and Order Lead Time

    How do decisions made for tomorrow or two days in the future differ from decisions made for several days in the future? We use data from an online grocer to address this question. In general, we find that as the delay between order completion and delivery increases, grocery customers spend less, order a higher percentage of "should" items (e.g., vegetables), and order a lower percentage of "want" items (e.g., ice cream), controlling for customer fixed effects. These findings are all consistent with theories suggesting that people's "should" selves exert more influence over their choices the further in the future outcomes will be experienced. However, orders placed for delivery tomorrow versus two days in the future do not show this want/should pattern, and we discuss a potential explanation.

    Keywords: Time Management; Service Delivery; Online Technology; Decisions; Customers; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Todd Rogers, and Max Bazerman. "I'll Have the Ice Cream Soon and the Vegetables Later: A Study of Online Grocery Purchases and Order Lead Time." Marketing Letters 21, no. 1 (March 2010): 17–35. View Details
  10. Nameless + Harmless = Blameless: When Seemingly Irrelevant Factors Influence Judgment of (Un)ethical Behavior

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Lisa L. Shu, and Max Bazerman. "Nameless + Harmless = Blameless: When Seemingly Irrelevant Factors Influence Judgment of (Un)ethical Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 111, no. 2 (March 2010): 93–101. View Details
  11. Conflict of Interest and the Intrusion of Bias

    This paper presents evidence of performance persistence in entrepreneurship. We show that entrepreneurs with a track record of success are much more likely to succeed than first-time entrepreneurs and those who have previously failed. In particular, they exhibit persistence in selecting the right industry and time to start new ventures. Entrepreneurs with demonstrated market-timing skill are also more likely to outperform industry peers in their subsequent ventures. This is consistent with the view that if suppliers and customers perceive the entrepreneur to have market-timing skill, and is therefore more likely to succeed, they will be more willing to commit resources to the firm. In this way, success breeds success and strengthens performance persistence.

    Keywords: Conflict of Interests; Prejudice and Bias; Performance; Entrepreneurship; Market Timing; Competency and Skills; Perception; Business Startups; Resource Allocation;

    Citation:

    Moore, Don A., Lloyd Tanlu, and Max Bazerman. "Conflict of Interest and the Intrusion of Bias." Judgment and Decision Making 5, no. 1 (February 2010): 37–53. View Details
  12. The Price of Equality: Suboptimal Resource Allocations across Social Categories

    This paper explores the influence of social categories on the perceived trade-off between relatively bad but equal distribution of resources between two parties and profit maximizing, yet asymmetric, payoffs. Studies 1 and 2 show that people prefer to maximize profits when interacting within their social category, but chose suboptimal individual and joint profits when interacting across social categories. Study 3 demonstrates that outside observers, who were not members of the focal social categories, also were less likely to maximize profits when resources were distributed across social category lines. Study 4 shows that the transaction utility of maximizing profits required greater compensation when resources were distributed across, in contrast to within, social categories. We discuss the ethical implications of these decision-making biases in the context of organizations.

    Keywords: Equality and Inequality; Resource Allocation; Societal Protocols; Profit; Decision Making; Prejudice and Bias; Market Transactions; Ethics; Power and Influence; Distribution; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Garcia, Stephen M., Max Bazerman, Shirli Kopelman, Avishalom Tor, and Dale T. Miller. "The Price of Equality: Suboptimal Resource Allocations across Social Categories." Special Issue on Behavioral Ethics: A New Empirical Perspective on Business Ethics Research. Business Ethics Quarterly 20, no. 1 (2010): 75–88. View Details
  13. A Decision-making Perspective to Negotiation: A Review of the Past and a Look into the Future

    Through the decision-analytic approach to negotiations, the past quarter century has seen the development of a better dialog between the descriptive and the prescriptive, as well as a burgeoning interest in the field for both academics and practitioners. Researchers have built upon the work in behavioral decision theory, examining the ways in which negotiators may deviate from rationality. The 1990s brought a renewed interest in social factors, as work on social relationships, egocentrism, attribution and construal processes, and motivated illusions was incorporated into our understanding of negotiations. Several promising areas of research have emerged in recent years, drawing from other disciplines and informing the field of negotiations, including work on the influence of ethics, emotions, intuition, and training.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Negotiation; Perspective; Ethics; Emotions; Perception; Relationships; Management Practices and Processes; Training; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Tsay, Chia-Jung, and Max Bazerman. "A Decision-making Perspective to Negotiation: A Review of the Past and a Look into the Future." Negotiation Journal 25, no. 4 (October 2009): 467–480. View Details
  14. U.S. Energy Policy: Overcoming Barriers to Acting

    Energy policy is on everyone's mind these days. The U.S. presidential campaign focused on energy independence and exploration (drill, baby, drill), climate change, alternative fuels, even nuclear energy. But there is a serious problem endemic to America's energy challenges. Policymakers tend to do just enough to satisfy political demands but not enough to solve the real problems, and they wait too long to act. The resulting policies are overly reactive, enacted once damage is already done, and they are too often incomplete, incoherent, and ineffectual. Given the gravity of current economic, geopolitical, and environmental concerns, this is more unacceptable than ever. This important volume details this problem, making clear the unfortunate results of such short-sighted thinking, and it proposes measures to overcome this counterproductive tendency. All of the contributors to Acting in Time on Energy Policy are affiliated with Harvard University and rank among America's pre-eminent energy policy analysts. They tackle important questions as they pertain to specific areas of energy policy: Why are these components of energy policy so important? How would acting in time, i.e., not waiting until politics demands action, make a difference? What should our policy actually be? We need to get energy policy right this time-Gallagher and her colleagues help lead the way.

    Keywords: Policy; Weather and Climate Change; Energy Sources; Government and Politics; Cognition and Thinking; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Problems and Challenges; Non-Renewable Energy; Economics; Natural Environment; Energy Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max. "U.S. Energy Policy: Overcoming Barriers to Acting." Environment (September–October 2009). (This is a adaptation of a paper that originally appeared as "Barriers to Acting in Time on Energy, and Strategies for Overcoming Them" in K. Gallagher (Ed.), Acting in Time on Energy Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings, 2009.) View Details
  15. The Reality and Myth of Sacred Issues in Negotiations

    This paper investigates the role of sacred issues in a dyadic negotiation set in an environmental context. As predicted, when negotiators focus on sacred issues, this negatively impacts the negotiation, producing more impasses, lower joint outcomes, and more negative perceptions of one's opponent; however, this is only true when both parties perceive that they have a strong alternative to a negotiated agreement. When negotiation parties perceive that they have a weak alternative, sacred issues did not have any effect on negotiation outcomes or opponent perceptions. These results suggest that the negative effects of sacred issues is driven in part by whether negotiators have recourse, such that exercising one's principles and values may depend on whether people can afford to do so. We conclude by suggesting that the impact of certain sacred issues may be contextually dependent and that the term “pseudo sacred” may actually be a more accurate label.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Values and Beliefs; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Tactics; Conflict of Interests; Perception; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Tenbrunsel, A. E., K A. Wade-Benzoni, V. H. Medvec, L. Thompson, and M. H. Bazerman. "The Reality and Myth of Sacred Issues in Negotiations." Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 2, no. 3 (August 2009): 263–284. View Details
  16. On Good Scholarship, Goal Setting, and Scholars Gone Wild

    In this article, we define good scholarship, highlight our points of disagreement with Locke and Latham (2009), and call for further academic research to examine the full range of goal setting's effects. We reiterate our original claim that goal setting, like a potent medication, can produce both beneficial effects and systematic, negative outcomes (Ordóñez, Schweitzer, Galinsky, & Bazerman, 2009), and as a result, it should be carefully prescribed and closely monitored.

    Keywords: Mission and Purpose; Research;

    Citation:

    Ordonez, Lisa D., Maurice E. Schweitzer, Adam D. Galinsky, and Max H. Bazerman. "On Good Scholarship, Goal Setting, and Scholars Gone Wild." Academy of Management Perspectives 23, no. 3 (August 2009): 82–87. View Details
  17. How Can Decision Making Be Improved?

    The optimal moment to address the question of how to improve human decision making has arrived. Thanks to fifty years of research by judgment and decision making scholars, psychologists have developed a detailed picture of the ways in which human judgment is bounded. This paper argues that the time has come to focus attention on the search for strategies that will improve bounded judgment because decision making errors are costly and are growing more costly, decision makers are receptive, and academic insights are sure to follow from research on improvement. In addition to calling for research on improvement strategies, this paper organizes the existing literature pertaining to improvement strategies, highlighting promising directions for future research.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Performance Improvement; Research; Strategy; Judgments;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Dolly Chugh, and Max H. Bazerman. "How Can Decision Making Be Improved?" Perspectives on Psychological Science 4, no. 4 (July 2009): 379–383. View Details
  18. Dirty Work, Clean Hands: The Moral Psychology of Indirect Agency

    When powerful people cause harm, they often do so indirectly through other people. Are harmful actions carried out through others evaluated less negatively than harmful actions carried out directly? Four experiments examine the moral psychology of indirect agency. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 1C reveal effects of indirect agency under conditions favoring intuitive judgment, but not reflective judgment, using a joint/separate evaluation paradigm. Experiment 2A demonstrates that effects of indirect agency cannot be fully explained by perceived lack of foreknowledge or control on the part of the primary agent. Experiment 2B indicates that reflective moral judgment is sensitive to indirect agency, but only to the extent that indirectness signals reduced foreknowledge and/or control. Experiment 3 indicates that effects of indirect agency result from a failure to automatically consider the potentially dubious motives of agents who cause harm indirectly. Experiment 4 demonstrates an effect of indirect agency on purchase intentions.

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Paharia, Neeru, Karim Kassam, Joshua Greene, and Max Bazerman. "Dirty Work, Clean Hands: The Moral Psychology of Indirect Agency." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109, no. 2 (July 2009): 134–141. View Details
  19. When Misconduct Goes Unnoticed: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior

    Four laboratory studies show that people are more likely to accept others' unethical behavior when ethical degradation occurs slowly rather than in one abrupt shift. Participants served in the role of watchdogs charged with catching instances of cheating. The watchdogs in our studies were less likely to criticize the actions of others when their behavior eroded gradually, over time, rather than in one abrupt shift. We refer to this phenomenon as the slippery-slope effect. Our studies also demonstrate that at least part of this effect can be attributed to implicit biases that result in a failure to notice ethical erosion when it occurs slowly. Broadly, our studies provide evidence as to when and why people accept cheating by others and examine the conditions under which the slippery-slope effect occurs.

    Keywords: Ethics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Max Bazerman. "When Misconduct Goes Unnoticed: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45, no. 4 (July 2009): 708–719. View Details
  20. Highbrow Films Gather Dust: Time-inconsistent Preferences and Online DVD Rentals

    We report on a field study demonstrating systematic differences between the preferences people anticipate they will have over a series of options in the future and their subsequent revealed preferences over those options. Using a novel panel data set, we analyze the film rental and return patterns of a sample of online DVD rental customers over a period of four months. We predict and find that should DVDs (e.g., documentaries) are held significantly longer than want DVDs (e.g., action films) within-customer. Similarly, we also predict and find that people are more likely to rent DVDs in one order and return them in the reverse order when should DVDs are rented before want DVDs. Specifically, a 1.3% increase in the probability of a reversal in preferences (from a baseline rate of 12%) ensues if the first of two sequentially rented movies has more should and fewer want characteristics than the second film. Finally, we find that as the same customers gain more experience with online DVD rentals, the extent to which they hold should films longer than want films decreases. Our results suggest that present bias has a meaningful impact on choice in the field and that people may learn about their present bias with experience, and, as a result, gain the capacity to curb its influence.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Forecasting and Prediction; Film Entertainment; Demand and Consumers; Renting or Rental; Power and Influence; Prejudice and Bias; Online Technology; Motion Pictures and Video Industry;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Todd Rogers, and Max H. Bazerman. "Highbrow Films Gather Dust: Time-inconsistent Preferences and Online DVD Rentals." Management Science 55, no. 6 (June 2009): 1047–1059. View Details
  21. Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Over-Prescribing Goal Setting

    Goal setting is one of the most replicated and influential paradigms in the management literature. Hundreds of studies conducted in numerous countries and contexts have consistently demonstrated that setting specific, challenging goals can powerfully drive behavior and boost performance. Advocates of goal setting have had a substantial impact on research, management education, and management practice. In this article, we argue that the beneficial effects of goal setting have been overstated and that systematic harm caused by goal setting has been largely ignored. We identify specific side effects associated with goal setting, including a narrow focus that neglects nongoal areas, distorted risk preferences, a rise in unethical behavior, inhibited learning, corrosion of organizational culture, and reduced intrinsic motivation. Rather than dispensing goal setting as a benign, over-the-counter treatment for motivation, managers and scholars need to conceptualize goal setting as a prescription-strength medication that requires careful dosing, consideration of harmful side effects, and close supervision. We offer a warning label to accompany the practice of setting goals.

    Keywords: Goals and Objectives; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Culture; Performance Improvement; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Ordonez, Lisa D., Maurice E. Schweitzer, Adam D. Galinsky, and Max H. Bazerman. "Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Over-Prescribing Goal Setting." Academy of Management Perspectives 23, no. 1 (February 2009). View Details
  22. Modeling Expert Opinions on Food Healthfulness: A Nutrition Metric

    Research over the last several decades indicates the failure of existing nutritional labels to substantially improve the healthiness of consumers' food and beverage choices. The difficulty for policy-makers is to encapsulate a wide body of scientific knowledge in a labeling scheme that is comprehensible to the average shopper. Here, we describe our method of developing a nutrition metric to fill this void.

    Methods

    We asked leading nutrition experts to rate the healthiness of 205 sample foods and beverages, and after verifying the similarity of their responses, we generated a model that calculates the expected average healthiness rating that experts would give to any other product based on its nutrient content.

    Results

    The form of the model is a linear regression that places weights on 12 nutritional components (total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron) to predict the average healthiness rating that experts would give to any food or beverage. We provide sample predictions for other items in our database.

    Conclusions

    Major benefits of the model include its basis in expert judgment, its straightforward application, the flexibility of transforming its output ratings to any linear scale, and its ease of interpretation. This metric serves the purpose of distilling expert knowledge into a form usable by consumers so that they are empowered to make healthier decisions.

    Keywords: Judgments; Food; Nutrition; Labels; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Demand and Consumers; Measurement and Metrics; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Martin, Jolie M., John Beshears, Katherine L. Milkman, Max H. Bazerman, and Lisa Sutherland. "Modeling Expert Opinions on Food Healthfulness: A Nutrition Metric." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109, no. 6 (June 2009): 1088–1091. View Details
  23. Harnessing Our Inner Angels and Demons: What We Have Learned About Want/Should Conflicts and How That Knowledge Can Help Us Reduce Short-Sighted Decision Making

    Although observers of human behavior have long been aware that people regularly struggle with internal conflict when deciding whether to behave responsibly or indulge in impulsivity, psychologists and economists did not begin to empirically investigate this type of want/should conflict until recently. In this paper, we review and synthesize the latest research on want/should conflict, focusing our attention on the findings from an empirical literature on the topic that has blossomed over the last 15 years. We then turn to a discussion of how individuals and policy makers can use what has been learned about want/should conflict to help decision makers select far-sighted options.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Ethics; Policy; Behavior; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Todd Rogers, and Max Bazerman. "Harnessing Our Inner Angels and Demons: What We Have Learned About Want/Should Conflicts and How That Knowledge Can Help Us Reduce Short-Sighted Decision Making." Perspectives on Psychological Science 3, no. 4 (July 2008). View Details
  24. Psychological Influence in Negotiation: An Introduction Long Overdue

    This paper discusses the causes and consequences of the (surprisingly) limited extent to which social influence research has penetrated the field of negotiation and then presents a framework for bridging the gap between these two literatures. The paper notes that one of the reasons for its limited impact on negotiation research is that extant research on social influence focuses almost exclusively on economic or structural levers of influence. With this in mind, the paper seeks to achieve five objectives: (1) Define the domain of psychological influence as consisting of those tactics which do not require the influencer to change the economic or structural aspects of the bargaining situation in order to persuade the target; (2) Review prior research on behavioral decision making to identify ideas that may be relevant to the domain of psychological influence; (3) Provide a series of examples of how behavioral decision research can be leveraged to create psychological influence tactics for use in negotiation; (4) Consider the other side of influence, i.e., how targets of influence might defend against the tactics herein considered; and (5) Consider some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of psychological influence in negotiation.

    Keywords: Social Issues; Research; Framework; Negotiation Tactics; Decisions; Power and Influence; Behavior; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and Max H. Bazerman. "Psychological Influence in Negotiation: An Introduction Long Overdue." Journal of Management 34, no. 3 (June 2008): 509–531. View Details
  25. Future Lock-in: Future Implementation Increases Selection of 'Should' Choices

    People often experience tension over certain choices (e.g., they should reduce their gas consumption or increase their savings, but they do not want to). Some posit that this tension arises from the competing interests of a deliberative “should” self and an affective “want” self. We show that people are more likely to select choices that serve the should self (should-choices) when the choices will be implemented in the distant rather than the near previous future. This “future lock-in” is demonstrated in four experiments for should-choices involving donation, public policy, and self-improvement. Additionally, we show that previous future lock term-in can arise without changing the structure of a should-choice, but by just changing people's temporal focus. Finally, we provide evidence that they should self operates at a higher construal level (abstract, superordinate) than the want self, and that this difference in construal partly underlies previous future lock-in.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Research; Behavior; Conflict of Interests;

    Citation:

    Rogers, Todd, and Max Bazerman. "Future Lock-in: Future Implementation Increases Selection of 'Should' Choices." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 106, no. 1 (May 2008): 1–20. View Details
  26. Stretching the Effectiveness of Analogical Training in Negotiations: Teaching Diverse Principles for Creating Value

    Keywords: Negotiation; Value;

    Citation:

    Moran, Simone, Yoella Bereby-Meyer, and Max Bazerman. "Stretching the Effectiveness of Analogical Training in Negotiations: Teaching Diverse Principles for Creating Value." Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 1, no. 2 (2008): 99–134. View Details
  27. The Malleability of Environmentalism

    In this paper, we predict and find that self-perceptions of environmentalism are changed by subtle manipulations of context and, in turn, affect environmental behavior. In Study 1, we found that people exhibit greater positive assessments of their environmental behaviors (1) in the context of denying harm to the environment than in the context of claiming to help the environment, and (2) in situations where behaviors are evaluated subjectively than in situations where behaviors are evaluated more objectively. In Study 2, we explored the relationship between self-perceptions of environmentalism and environmental behaviors. Our data suggest that environmentally friendly behaviors may be promoted by leading people to perceive themselves as good environmentalists.

    Keywords: Research; Environmental Sustainability; Behavior; Cognition and Thinking; Identity; Perception; Personal Characteristics;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, Kimberly A., Min Li, Leigh L. Thompson, and Max Bazerman. "The Malleability of Environmentalism." Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 7, no. 1 (December 2007). View Details
  28. Investigative Negotiation

    This article includes a one-page preview that quickly summarizes the key ideas and provides an overview of how the concepts work in practice along with suggestions for further reading. Negotiators often fail to achieve results because they channel too much effort into selling their own position and too little into understanding the other party's perspective. To get the best deal--or, sometimes, any deal at all--negotiators need to think like detectives, digging for information about why the other side wants what it does. This investigative approach entails a mind-set and a methodology, say Harvard Business School professors Malhotra and Bazerman. Inaccurate assumptions about the other side's motivations can lead negotiators to propose solutions to the wrong problems, needlessly give away value, or derail deals altogether. Consider, for example, the pharmaceutical company that deadlocked with a supplier over the issue of exclusivity in an ingredient purchase. Believing it was a ploy to raise the price, the drug maker upped its offer--unsuccessfully. In fact, the supplier was balking because a relative's company needed a small amount of the ingredient to make a local product. Once the real motivation surfaced, a compromise quickly followed. Understanding the other side's motives and goals is the first principle of investigative negotiation. The second is to figure out what constraints the other party faces. Often when your counterpart's behavior appears unreasonable, his hands are tied somehow, and you can reach agreement by helping overcome those limitations. The third is to view onerous demands as a window into what the other party prizes most--and use that information to create opportunities. The fourth is to look for common ground; even fierce competitors may have complementary interests that lead to creative agreements. Finally, if a deal appears lost, stay at the table and keep trying to learn more. Even if you don't win, you can gain insights into a customer's future needs, the interests of similar customers, or the strategies of competitors.

    Keywords: Knowledge Acquisition; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Tactics; Motivation and Incentives; Perspective; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and Max H. Bazerman. "Investigative Negotiation." Harvard Business Review 85, no. 9 (September 2007). View Details
  29. Pitch Your Offer—and Close the Deal

    The article offers several strategies on how to be a good negotiator and decision maker for business developments. The strategies that are presented were an extract from the book Negotiation Genius: How to Overcome Obstacles and Achieve Brilliant Results at the Bargaining Table and Beyond. The primary tip "unbundle gains, bundle losses," refers to gaining money in installments but losing money in one lump sum. This is followed by "leverage the power of justification," which focuses on negotiators' failure in providing a justification for their offers and proposals. And lastly, the strategy called "issue token or gifts," which is familiarly known as giving away gifts to counterparts. It was noted that a negotiator should see to it that his counterpart would not feel insulted by the offered gifts.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Negotiation; Negotiation Offer; Negotiation Tactics; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and Max H. Bazerman. "Pitch Your Offer—and Close the Deal." Negotiation 10, no. 8 (August 2007). View Details
  30. Enlarging the Societal Pie Through Wise Legislation: A Psychological Perspective

    Keywords: Society; Government Legislation; Growth and Development; Health; Perspective;

    Citation:

    Baron, Jonathon, Max Bazerman, and Katherine Shonk. "Enlarging the Societal Pie Through Wise Legislation: A Psychological Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science 1, no. 2 (June 2006). View Details
  31. Conflicts of Interest and the Case of Auditor Independence: Moral Seduction and Strategic Issue Cycling.

    Keywords: Conflict of Interests; Accounting Audits; Moral Sensibility; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Moore, Don A., Philip E. Tetlock, Lloyd Tanlu, and Max H. Bazerman. "Conflicts of Interest and the Case of Auditor Independence: Moral Seduction and Strategic Issue Cycling." Academy of Management Review 31, no. 1 (January 2006). View Details
  32. Reports of Solving the Conflicts of Interest in Auditing Are Highly Exaggerated

    Keywords: Conflict of Interests; Information; Accounting Audits;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., Don A. Moore, Philip E. Tetlock, and Lloyd Tanlu. "Reports of Solving the Conflicts of Interest in Auditing Are Highly Exaggerated." Academy of Management Review 31, no. 1 (January 2006). View Details
  33. Profit Maximization versus Disadvantageous Inequality in Choice Behavior: The Impact of Self-Categorization

    Keywords: Profit; Decision Choices and Conditions; Behavior; Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Garcia, S. M., A. Tor, M. Bazerman, and D. T. Miller. "Profit Maximization versus Disadvantageous Inequality in Choice Behavior: The Impact of Self-Categorization." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 18, no. 3 (July 2005): 187–198. View Details
  34. Overcoming Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments

    Keywords: Failure; Competition;

    Citation:

    Idson, Lorraine Chen, Dolly Chugh, Yoella Bereby-Meyer, Simone Moran, Brit Grosskopf, and Max H. Bazerman. "Overcoming Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 17, no. 3 (July 2004): 159–172. View Details
  35. Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments: Explaining Decision Errors in the Monty Hall Game, the Acquiring a Company Problem, and Multiparty Ultimatums

    Keywords: Failure; Competition; Decision Making; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Tor, Avishalom, and Max H. Bazerman. "Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments: Explaining Decision Errors in the Monty Hall Game, the Acquiring a Company Problem, and Multiparty Ultimatums." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 16, no. 5 (December 2003): 353–374. View Details
  36. A Social Science Perspective to Understanding Ethics in Organizations: A Review of Social Influences on Ethical Behavior in Organizations

    Keywords: Perspective; Society; Science; Ethics; Organizations; Behavior; Power and Influence;

  37. Cognitions and Behavior in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas: A Comparision of Two Cultures

    Keywords: Cognition and Thinking; Behavior; Problems and Challenges; Society;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, Kimberly, Tetsushi Okmura, Jeanne M Brett, Don A Moore, Ann Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Cognitions and Behavior in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas: A Comparision of Two Cultures." Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 1 (February 2002): 87–95. View Details
  38. Cognitive and Institutional Barriers to New Forms of Cooperation on Environmental Protection

    Keywords: Cognition and Thinking; Cooperation; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Hoffman, A. J., H. Riley, J. G. Troast, and M. H. Bazerman. "Cognitive and Institutional Barriers to New Forms of Cooperation on Environmental Protection." American Behavioral Scientist 45, no. 5 (January 2002). View Details
  39. How Communication Improves Efficiency in Bargaining Games

    Keywords: Communication; Negotiation;

    Citation:

    Valley, Kathleen L., Leigh Thompson, Robert Gibbons, and Max H. Bazerman. "How Communication Improves Efficiency in Bargaining Games." Games and Economic Behavior 38, no. 1 (January 2002): 127–155. (Reprinted in M.H. Bazerman, ed., Negotiation, Decision Making and Conflict Management, Volume 3, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.) View Details
  40. Barriers to Resolution in Ideologically Based Negotiations: The Role of Values and Institutions

    Keywords: Negotiation; Value;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, K. A., A. J. Hoffman, L. L. Thompson, D. Moore, J. Gillespie, and Max Bazerman. "Barriers to Resolution in Ideologically Based Negotiations: The Role of Values and Institutions." Academy of Management Review 27, no. 1 (January 2002): 41–57. View Details
  41. The Negotiation Matching Process: Relationships and Partner Selection

    Keywords: Negotiation; Relationships; Partners and Partnerships;

    Citation:

    Tenbrunsel, A. E., K. A. Wade-Benzoni, K. A. Moag, and M. H. Bazerman. "The Negotiation Matching Process: Relationships and Partner Selection." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 80, no. 3 (December 1999). View Details
  42. Positive Illusions and Biases of Prediction in Mutual Fund Investment Decisions

    Keywords: Investment; Decision Making; Forecasting and Prediction;

    Citation:

    Moore, D. A., T. R. Kurtzberg, C. R. Fox, and M. H. Bazerman. "Positive Illusions and Biases of Prediction in Mutual Fund Investment Decisions." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 79, no. 2 (August 1999): 95–114. View Details
  43. A Mixed-Motive Perspective on the Economics versus Environment Debate

    Keywords: Perspective; Economics; Natural Environment;

    Citation:

    Hoffman, A., J. Gillespie, D. Moore, K. A. Wade-Benzoni, L. L. Thompson, and M. H. Bazerman. "A Mixed-Motive Perspective on the Economics versus Environment Debate." American Behavioral Scientist 42, no. 8 (May 1999): 1254–1276. View Details
  44. Explaining How Preferences Change across Joint Versus Separate Evaluations

    Keywords: Change; Information;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., D. Moore, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and K. A. Wade-Benzoni. "Explaining How Preferences Change across Joint Versus Separate Evaluations." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 39, no. 1 (May 1999): 41–58. View Details
  45. The Role of Social Context on Decisions: Integrating Social Cognition and Behavioral Decision Research

    Keywords: Decision Making; Integration; Cognition and Thinking; Behavior; Research;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., and A. E. Tenbrunsel. "The Role of Social Context on Decisions: Integrating Social Cognition and Behavioral Decision Research." Basic and Applied Social Psychology 20, no. 1 (March 1998): 87–91. View Details
  46. 'A Matter of Trust': Effects of Communication on the Efficiency and Distribution of Outcomes

    Keywords: Trust; Communication; Outcome or Result; Distribution;

    Citation:

    Valley, K. L., J. Moag, and M. H. Bazerman. "'A Matter of Trust': Effects of Communication on the Efficiency and Distribution of Outcomes." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 34, no. 2 (February 1998): 211–238. View Details
  47. Negotiating with Yourself and Losing: Understanding and Managing Conflicting Internal Preferences

    Keywords: Negotiation; Conflict and Resolution; Management; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and K. A. Wade-Benzoni. "Negotiating with Yourself and Losing: Understanding and Managing Conflicting Internal Preferences." Academy of Management Review 23 (1998): 225–241. View Details
  48. Self-Interest and Fairness in Problems of Resource Allocation

    Keywords: Resource Allocation; Problems and Challenges; Fairness;

    Citation:

    Diekmann, K. A., S. M. Samuels, L. Ross, and M. H. Bazerman. "Self-Interest and Fairness in Problems of Resource Allocation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72, no. 5 (May 1997): 1061–1074. View Details
  49. Ultimatum Bargaining with a Committee: Underestimating the Importance of Decision Rule

    Keywords: Negotiation; Groups and Teams; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Messick, D. M., D. A. Moore, and M. H. Bazerman. "Ultimatum Bargaining with a Committee: Underestimating the Importance of Decision Rule." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 69, no. 2 (February 1997): 87–101. View Details
  50. Egocentric Interpretations of Fairness in Asymmetric, Environmental Social Dilemmas: Explaining Harvesting Behavior and the Role of Communication

    Keywords: Behavior; Communication;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Egocentric Interpretations of Fairness in Asymmetric, Environmental Social Dilemmas: Explaining Harvesting Behavior and the Role of Communication." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 67, no. 2 (August 1996): 111–126. View Details
  51. The Descriptive and Prescriptive Use of Previous Purchase Price in Negotiation

    Keywords: Negotiation; Price;

    Citation:

    Diekmann, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, P. P. Shah, H. A. Schroth, and M. H. Bazerman. "The Descriptive and Prescriptive Use of Previous Purchase Price in Negotiation." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 66 (May 1996): 179–191. View Details
  52. Perceptions of Fairness in Interpersonal and Individual Choice Situations

    Keywords: Perception; Fairness; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., S. B. White, and G. F. Loewenstein. "Perceptions of Fairness in Interpersonal and Individual Choice Situations." Current Directions in Psychological Science 4, no. 2 (April 1995): 39–43. View Details
  53. The Inconsistent Role of Comparison Others and Procedural Justice to Hypothetical Job Descriptions: Implications for Job Acceptance Decisions

    Keywords: Human Resources; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., H. A. Schroth, P. P. Shah, K. A. Diekmann, and A. E. Tenbrunsel. "The Inconsistent Role of Comparison Others and Procedural Justice to Hypothetical Job Descriptions: Implications for Job Acceptance Decisions." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 60, no. 3 (December 1994): 326–352. View Details
  54. Alternative Models of Price Behavior in Dyadic Negotiations: Market Prices, Reservation Prices and Negotiator Aspirations

    Keywords: Price; Behavior; Negotiation; Markets;

    Citation:

    White, S. B., K. L. Valley, M. H. Bazerman, and M. A. Neale. "Alternative Models of Price Behavior in Dyadic Negotiations: Market Prices, Reservation Prices and Negotiator Aspirations." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 57, no. 3 (March 1994): 430–447. View Details
  55. The Effect of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Outcomes

    Keywords: Negotiation; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., M. A. Neale, K. L. Valley, E. J. Zajac, and Y. M. Kim. "The Effect of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Outcomes." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 53, no. 1 (October 1992): 55–73. View Details
  56. Reversals of Preference in Allocation Decisions: Judging an Alternative Versus Choosing Among Alternatives

    Keywords: Decision Making; Decision Choices and Conditions; Judgments;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., G. F. Loewenstein, and S. B. White. "Reversals of Preference in Allocation Decisions: Judging an Alternative Versus Choosing Among Alternatives." Administrative Science Quarterly 37, no. 2 (June 1992): 220–240. View Details
  57. Negotiator Cognition and Rationality: A Behavioral Decision Theory Perspective

    Keywords: Negotiation; Cognition and Thinking; Behavior; Decision Making; Perspective; Theory;

    Citation:

    Neale, M. A., and M. H. Bazerman. "Negotiator Cognition and Rationality: A Behavioral Decision Theory Perspective." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 51, no. 2 (March 1992): 157–175. View Details
  58. Agents As Information Brokers: The Effects of Information Disclosure on Negotiated Outcomes

    Keywords: Information; Negotiation; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Valley, K. L., S. B. White, M. A. Neale, and M. H. Bazerman. "Agents As Information Brokers: The Effects of Information Disclosure on Negotiated Outcomes." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 51, no. 2 (March 1992): 220–236. View Details
  59. Blind Spots in Strategic Decision Making: The Case of Competitor Analysis

    Keywords: Strategy; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Zajac, E. J., and M. H. Bazerman. "Blind Spots in Strategic Decision Making: The Case of Competitor Analysis." Academy of Management Review 16 (1991): 37–56. (To be reprinted in C.A. Maritan and M.A. Peteraf, Competitive Strategy, Edward Elgar Publishing Strategic Management series.) View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Intermediation and Diffusion of Responsibility in Negotiation: A Case of Bounded Ethicality

    This article compares direct deception with deception via an intermediary in the bargaining context. It describes a growing experimental literature that suggests how perceived ethics surrounding transactions with multiple partners can encourage misbehavior. It is noted that causing harm indirectly through another can protect harm doers. Harm doers are apparently protected from punishment as well. The hypothesis that intermediation reduces punishment runs counter to predictions coming from a model in which solely unfair actions are punished. Experiments are also presented that show a phenomenon about the attribution of responsibility and subsequent blame (and praise) in negotiation and conflict resolution settings. It is believed that by making people more aware of their failure to notice and punish indirect unethical behavior, others can create a world where the use of intermediation will no longer provide harm doers an easy escape from public awareness.

    Keywords: Negotiation Process; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Paharia, Neeru, Lucas Clayton Coffman, and Max Bazerman. "Intermediation and Diffusion of Responsibility in Negotiation: A Case of Bounded Ethicality." In Oxford Handbook of Economic Conflict Resolution, edited by Gary E. Bolton and Rachel T.A. Croson, 37–46. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012. View Details
  2. Cognitive Barriers to Environmental Action: Problems and Solutions

    Keywords: Cognition and Thinking; Prejudice and Bias; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Shu, Lisa L., and Max Bazerman. "Cognitive Barriers to Environmental Action: Problems and Solutions." In The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment, edited by Pratima Bansal and Andrew J. Hoffman. Oxford University Press, 2011. View Details
  3. Ethical Discrepancy: Changing Our Attitudes to Resolve Moral Dissonance

    Keywords: Ethics; Attitudes; Change;

    Citation:

    Shu, L. L., F. Gino, and M. H. Bazerman. "Ethical Discrepancy: Changing Our Attitudes to Resolve Moral Dissonance." In Behavioral Business Ethics: Shaping an Emerging Field, edited by D. De Cremer and A.E. Tenbrunsel. Organization and Management Series. Routledge, 2011. View Details
  4. Cognitive, Affective, and Special-interest Barriers to Policy Making

    Keywords: Policy; Cognition and Thinking; Emotions; Conflict of Interests;

    Citation:

    Shu, Lisa L., Chia-Jung Tsay, and Max Bazerman. "Cognitive, Affective, and Special-interest Barriers to Policy Making." In Social Judgment and Decision Making, edited by Joachim Krueger.Frontiers of Social Psychology. Psychology Press, 2011. View Details
  5. The Ethical Mirage: A Temporal Explanation as to Why We Are Not as Ethical as We Think We Are

    This paper explores the biased perceptions that people hold of their own ethicality. We argue that the temporal trichotomy of prediction, action and recollection is central to these misperceptions: People predict that they will behave more ethically than they actually do, and when evaluating past (un)ethical behavior, they believe they behaved more ethically than they actually did. We use the "want/should" theoretical framework to explain the bounded ethicality that arises from these temporal inconsistencies, positing that the "should" self dominates during the prediction and recollection phases but that the "want" self is dominant during the critical action phase. We draw on the research on behavioral forecasting, ethical fading, and cognitive distortions to gain insight into the forces driving these faulty perceptions and, noting how these misperceptions can lead to continued unethical behavior, we provide recommendations for how to reduce them. We also include a call for future research to better understand this phenomenon.

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Values and Beliefs; Framework; Research; Behavior; Cognition and Thinking; Perception; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Tenbrunsel, A. E., K. Diekmann, K A. Wade-Benzoni, and Max Bazerman. "The Ethical Mirage: A Temporal Explanation as to Why We Are Not as Ethical as We Think We Are." Research in Organizational Behavior 30 (2010): 153–173. View Details
  6. Leading and Creating Collaboration in Decentralized Organizations

    Keywords: Leadership; Social and Collaborative Networks; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Caruso, Heather M., Todd Rogers, and Max Bazerman. "Leading and Creating Collaboration in Decentralized Organizations." In Crossing the Divide: Intergroup Leadership in a World of Difference, edited by T. Pittinsky. Harvard Business Press, 2009. View Details
  7. Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments: Touchpoints and Touchdowns in a Distinguished Scholarly Career

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Values and Beliefs; Social Issues; Civil Society or Community;

    Citation:

    Kramer, R. M., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments: Touchpoints and Touchdowns in a Distinguished Scholarly Career." Introduction to Chap. 1 Social Decision Making: Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments, edited by R. M. Kramer, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman, 1–9. Routledge, 2009. View Details
  8. See No Evil: Why We Fail to Notice Unethical Behavior

    It is common for people to be more critical of others' ethical choices than of their own. This chapter explores those remarkable circumstances in which people see no evil in others' unethical behavior. Specifically, we explore 1) the motivated tendency to overlook the unethical behavior of others when we recognize the unethical behavior would harm us; 2) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior unless it is clear, immediate, and direct; 3) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior when ethicality erodes slowly over time; and 4) the tendency to assess unethical behaviors only after the unethical behavior has resulted in a bad outcome, but not during the decision process.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Don A. Moore, and M. H. Bazerman. "See No Evil: Why We Fail to Notice Unethical Behavior." Chap. 10 in Social Decision Making: Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments, edited by R. M. Kramer, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman, 241–263. Routledge, 2009. View Details
  9. Changing Practices on Sustainability: Understanding and Overcoming the Organizational and Psychological Barriers to Action

    Keywords: Organizations; Attitudes; Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Hoffman, A., and M. H. Bazerman. "Changing Practices on Sustainability: Understanding and Overcoming the Organizational and Psychological Barriers to Action." In Organizations and the Sustainability Mosaic. Edited by S. Sharma, M. Starik, and B. Husted. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007. View Details
  10. A Decision Perspective on Organizations: Social Cognition, Behavioral Decision Theory and the Psychological Links to Micro and Macro Organizational Behaviour

    Keywords: Decision Making; Perspective; Behavior; Cognition and Thinking; Organizations; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Neale, M. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, T. Galvin, and M. H. Bazerman. "A Decision Perspective on Organizations: Social Cognition, Behavioral Decision Theory and the Psychological Links to Micro and Macro Organizational Behaviour." In The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies. 2nd ed. Edited by Stewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, Thomas Lawrence, and Walter Nord. Sage Publications, 2006. View Details
  11. Economics Wins, Psychology Loses, and Society Pays

    Keywords: Economics; Social Psychology; Society; Cost vs Benefits;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., and Deepak Malhotra. "Economics Wins, Psychology Loses, and Society Pays." In Social Psychology and Economics, edited by David de Cremer, J. Keith Murnighan, and Marcel Zeelenberg, 263–280. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006. View Details
  12. Escalation

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H. "Escalation." In Blackwell Encyclopedia of Organizational Behavior. Edited by N. Nicholson, P. Audia, and M. Pillutla. Blackwell Publishing, 2005. View Details
  13. Bounded Ethicality as a Psychological Barrier to Recognizing Conflicts of Interest

    Keywords: Ethics; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Chugh, Dolly, Max H. Bazerman, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. "Bounded Ethicality as a Psychological Barrier to Recognizing Conflicts of Interest." In Conflicts of Interest, edited by D. Moore, G. Loewenstein, D. Cain, and M. H. Bazerman. Cambridge University Press, 2005. View Details
  14. Institutions as Barriers and Enablers to Negotiated Agreements: Institutional Entrepreneurship and the Plum Creek Habitat Conservation Plan

    Keywords: Agreements and Arrangements; Social Entrepreneurship; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Troast, John G., Andrew Hoffman, Hannah Riley, and Max Bazerman. "Institutions as Barriers and Enablers to Negotiated Agreements: Institutional Entrepreneurship and the Plum Creek Habitat Conservation Plan." Chap. 10 in Organizations, Policy and the Natural Environment: Institutional and Strategic Perspectives, edited by A Hoffman and M Ventresca. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002. View Details
  15. The Death and Rebirth of the Social Psychology of Negotiations

    Keywords: Negotiation; Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., J. Curhan, and D. Moore. "The Death and Rebirth of the Social Psychology of Negotiations." In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Interpersonal Processes, edited by G. Fletcher and M. Clark. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. View Details
  16. Agents in Negotiation: Toward Testable Propositions

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Agency Theory;

    Citation:

    Kurtzberg, T., D. Moore, K. L. Valley, and M. H. Bazerman. "Agents in Negotiation: Toward Testable Propositions." In Negotiating on Behalf of Others, edited by Robert Mnookin and Lawrence Susskind. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1999. View Details
  17. Environmental Destruction: Individual, Organizational, and Institutional Explanations

    Keywords: Situation or Environment; Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., and A. J. Hoffman. "Environmental Destruction: Individual, Organizational, and Institutional Explanations." In Research in Organizational Behavior. Vol. 22, edited by B. Staw and R. Sutton. Elsevier Science, 2000. View Details
  18. Escalation and Negotiation: Two Central Themes in the Work of Jeffrey Z. Rubin

    Keywords: Negotiation;

    Citation:

    Diekmann, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Escalation and Negotiation: Two Central Themes in the Work of Jeffrey Z. Rubin." In Negotiation Eclectics: Essays in Memory of Jeffrey Z. Rubin, edited by D. Kolb. Cambridge, MA: Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, 1999. View Details
  19. The Effects of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Behavior

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Style; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., M. A. Neale, K. L. Valley, Y. M. Kim, and E. J. Zajac. "The Effects of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Behavior." In Judgment and Decision Making: An Interdisciplinary Reader. 2nd ed. Edited by T. Connolly, H. Arkes, and K. Hammond. Cambridge University Press, 1996. View Details
  20. Can Negotiators Outperform Game Theory?

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Game Theory; Performance;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., R. Gibbons, L. Thompson, and K. L. Valley. "Can Negotiators Outperform Game Theory?" Chap. 4 in Debating Rationality: Nonrational Aspects of Organizational Decision Making, edited by J. Halpern and R. N. Stern, 78–98. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1998. View Details
  21. Fairness, Justification, and Dispute Resolution

    Keywords: Fairness; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Diekmann, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Fairness, Justification, and Dispute Resolution." In Workplace Dispute Resolution: Directions for the 21st Century, edited by S. Gleason. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1997. View Details
  22. Egocentric Interpretations of Fairness as an Obstacle to Just Resolution of Conflict

    Keywords: Fairness; Conflict and Resolution; Perspective; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Egocentric Interpretations of Fairness as an Obstacle to Just Resolution of Conflict." In Research on Negotiation in Organizations, edited by R. J. Bies, R. Lewicki, and B. Sheppard. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1995. View Details
  23. The Dysfunctional Aspects of Environmental Standards

    Keywords: Standards; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Tenbrunsel, A. E., K. A. Wade-Benzoni, D. M. Messick, and M. H. Bazerman. "The Dysfunctional Aspects of Environmental Standards." In Environment, Ethics, and Behavior: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation, edited by M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and K. A. Wade-Benzoni. San Francisco: New Lexington Press, 1997. View Details
  24. Introduction

    Citation:

    Tenbrunsel, A. E., K A. Wade-Benzoni, D. M. Messick, and M. H. Bazerman. "Introduction." Introduction to Environment, Ethics, and Behavior: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation, edited by M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and K. A. Wade-Benzoni. San Francisco: New Lexington Press, 1997. View Details
  25. Shark Harvesting and Resource Conservation

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Environmental Sustainability; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Wade-Benzoni, K. A., A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman. "Shark Harvesting and Resource Conservation." In Stakeholder Negotiations: Exercises in Sustainable Development, edited by A. R. Beckenstein, F. J. Long, M. B. Arnold, and T. N. Gladwin. Chicago: Irwin, 1996. View Details
  26. The Effects of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Behavior

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Negotiation Process;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., M. A. Neale, K. L. Valley, Y. M. Kim, and E. J. Zajac. "The Effects of Agents and Mediators on Negotiation Behavior." In Judgment and Decision Making: An Interdisciplinary Reader. 2nd ed. Edited by T. Connolly, H. Arkes, and K. Hammond. Cambridge University Press, 1996. View Details
  27. Environmental Degradation: Exploring the Rift Between Environmentally Benign Attitudes and Environmentally Destructive Behaviors

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Attitudes; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., K. A. Wade-Benzoni, and F. Benzoni. "Environmental Degradation: Exploring the Rift Between Environmentally Benign Attitudes and Environmentally Destructive Behaviors." In Codes of Conduct: Behavioral Research into Business Ethics, edited by D. M. Messick and A. E. Tenbrunsel. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996. View Details
  28. Alternative Models of Negotiated Outcomes and the Nontraditional Utility Concerns That Limit Their Predictability

    Keywords: Negotiation; Outcome or Result; Forecasting and Prediction;

    Citation:

    White, S. B., M. H. Bazerman, and M. A. Neale. "Alternative Models of Negotiated Outcomes and the Nontraditional Utility Concerns That Limit Their Predictability." In Research on Negotiation in Organizations, edited by R. J. Bies, R. Lewicki, and B. Sheppard. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1995. View Details
  29. The Role of Fairness Considerations and Relationships in a Judgment Perspective of Negotiation

    Keywords: Fairness; Relationships; Negotiation; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., and M. A. Neale. "The Role of Fairness Considerations and Relationships in a Judgment Perspective of Negotiation." In Barriers to Conflict Resolution, edited by Kenneth Arrow, Robert H. Mnookin, Lee Ross, Amos Tversky, and Robert Wilson. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1995. View Details
  30. Regression to the Mean, Expectation Inflation, and the Winner's Curse in Organizational Contexts

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Conflict and Resolution; Competition; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Harrison, J. R., and M. H. Bazerman. "Regression to the Mean, Expectation Inflation, and the Winner's Curse in Organizational Contexts." In The Social Context of Negotiation. edited by R. Kramer and D. M. Messick. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995. View Details
  31. Negotiating Rationally: The Power and Impact of the Negotiator's Frame

    Keywords: Negotiation Style; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Neale, M. A., and M. H. Bazerman. "Negotiating Rationally: The Power and Impact of the Negotiator's Frame." In Power and Negotiation in Organizations, edited by S. C. Currall, D. Geddes, S. M. Schmidt, and A. Hichner. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1995. View Details
  32. Biases and Rationality in the Mediation Process

    Keywords: Negotiation Process; Negotiation Style; Prejudice and Bias; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Gibson, K., L. L. Thompson, and M. H. Bazerman. "Biases and Rationality in the Mediation Process." In Applications of Heuristics and Biases to Social Issues. Vol. 3, edited by L. Heath, F. Bryant, J. Edwards, E. Henderson, J. Myers, E. Posavac, Y. Suarez-Balcazar, and R. S. Tindale. Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues. New York: Plenum Press, 1994. View Details
  33. Negotiator Rationality and Negotiator Cognition: The Interactive Roles of Prescriptive and Descriptive Research

    Keywords: Negotiation Style; Cognition and Thinking; Research;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, M. H., and M. A. Neale. "Negotiator Rationality and Negotiator Cognition: The Interactive Roles of Prescriptive and Descriptive Research." In Negotiation Analysis, edited by H. Peyton Young. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1992. View Details

Working Papers

  1. ~Modeling Expert Opinions on Food Healthiness: A Nutrition Metric

    Background Research over the last several decades indicates the failure of existing nutritional labels to substantially improve the healthiness of consumers' food and beverage choices. The difficulty for policy-makers is to encapsulate a wide body of scientific knowledge in a labeling scheme that is comprehensible to the average shopper. Here, we describe our method of developing a nutrition metric to fill this void.

    We asked leading nutrition experts to rate the healthiness of 205 sample foods and beverages, and after verifying the similarity of their responses, we generated a model that calculates the expected average healthiness rating that experts would give to any other product based on its nutrient content.

    The form of the model is a linear regression that places weights on 12 nutritional components (total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron) to predict the average healthiness rating that experts would give to any food or beverage. We provide sample predictions for other items in our database.

    Major benefits of the model include its basis in expert judgment, its straightforward application, the flexibility of transforming its output ratings to any linear scale, and its ease of interpretation. This metric serves the purpose of distilling expert knowledge into a form usable by consumers so that they are empowered to make healthier decisions.

    Keywords: Judgments; Food; Nutrition; Labels; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Demand and Consumers; Measurement and Metrics; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Martin, Jolie Mae, John Leonard Beshears, Katherine Lyford Milkman, Max Bazerman, and Lisa Sutherland. "~Modeling Expert Opinions on Food Healthiness: A Nutrition Metric." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-082, March 2008. (Revised March 2008.) View Details
  2. Morality Rebooted: Exploring Simple Fixes to Our Moral Bugs

    Ethics research developed partly in response to calls from organizations to understand and solve unethical behavior. We examine two approaches to mitigating unethical behavior: (1) values-oriented approaches that broadly appeal to individuals’ preferences to be more moral, and (2) structure-oriented approaches that redesign specific incentives, tasks, and decisions to reduce temptations to cheat in the environment. This paper explores how these approaches can change behavior. We argue that integrating both approaches while avoiding incompatible strategies can reduce the risk of adverse effects that arise from taking a single approach and leverage the strengths of both approaches.

    Keywords: corruption; dishonesty; Unethical Behavior; interventions; structure; values; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Zhang, Ting, Francesca Gino, and Max H. Bazerman. "Morality Rebooted: Exploring Simple Fixes to Our Moral Bugs." Working Paper. View Details
  3. When Performance Trumps Gender Bias: Joint versus Separate Evaluation

    We examine a new intervention to overcome gender biases in hiring, promotion, and job assignments: an "evaluation nudge," in which people are evaluated jointly rather than separately regarding their future performance. Evaluators are more likely to focus on individual performance in joint than in separate evaluation and on group stereotypes in separate than in joint evaluation, making joint evaluation the money-maximizing evaluation procedure. Our findings are compatible with a behavioral model of information processing and with the System 1/System 2 distinction in behavioral decision research where people have two distinct modes of thinking that are activated under certain conditions.

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Selection and Staffing; Behavior; Groups and Teams; Decision Making; Performance Evaluation; Gender Characteristics;

    Citation:

    Bohnet, Iris, Alexandra van Geen, and Max H. Bazerman. "When Performance Trumps Gender Bias: Joint versus Separate Evaluation." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 12-083, March 2012. View Details
  4. Cognitive Barriers to Environmental Action: Problems and Solutions

    We explore interventions at the individual level and focus on recognized cognitive barriers from behavioral decision-making literature. In particular, we highlight three cognitive barriers that impede sound individual decision making that have particular relevance to behaviors impacting the environment. First, despite claiming that they want to leave the world in good condition for future generations, people intuitively discount the future to a greater degree than can be rationally defended. Second, positive illusions lead us to conclude that energy problems do not exist or are not severe enough to merit action. Third, we interpret events in a self-serving manner, a tendency that causes us to expect others to do more than we do to solve energy problems. We then propose ways in which these biases could actually be used to our advantage in steering ourselves toward better judgment. Finally, we outline the key questions on the research frontier from the behavioral decision-making perspective and debunk the myth that behavioral and neoclassical economic perspectives need be in conflict.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Judgments; Consumer Behavior; Environmental Sustainability; Cognition and Thinking; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Shu, Lisa L., and Max Bazerman. "Cognitive Barriers to Environmental Action: Problems and Solutions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-046, November 2010. View Details
  5. How Can Decision Making Be Improved?

    The optimal moment to address the question of how to improve human decision making has arrived. Thanks to fifty years of research by judgment and decision making scholars, psychologists have developed a detailed picture of the ways in which human judgment is bounded. This paper argues that the time has come to focus attention on the search for strategies that will improve bounded judgment because decision making errors are costly and are growing more costly, decision makers are receptive, and academic insights are sure to follow from research on improvement. In addition to calling for research on improvement strategies, this paper organizes the existing literature pertaining to improvement strategies, highlighting promising directions for future research.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Judgments; Performance Improvement; Research; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Milkman, Katherine L., Dolly Chugh, and Max H. Bazerman. "How Can Decision Making Be Improved?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-102, June 2008. (Revised July 2008.) View Details
  6. No harm, No Foul: The Outcome Bias in Ethical Judgments

    We present six studies demonstrating that outcome information biases ethical judgments of others' ethically-questionable behaviors. In particular, we show that the same behaviors produce more ethical condemnation when they happen to produce bad rather than good outcomes, even if the outcomes are determined by chance. Our studies show that individuals judge behaviors as less ethical, more blameworthy, and punish them more harshly, when such behaviors led to undesirable consequences, even if they saw those behaviors as acceptable before they knew its consequences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a rational, analytic mindset can override the effects of one's intuitions in ethical judgments. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Outcome or Result; Behavior; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Don A. Moore, and Max H. Bazerman. "No harm, No Foul: The Outcome Bias in Ethical Judgments." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-080, February 2008. (Revised July 2008, April 2009.) View Details
  7. See No Evil: When We Overlook Other People's Unethical Behavior

    It is common for people to be more critical of others' ethical choices than of their own. This chapter explores those remarkable circumstances in which people see no evil in others' unethical behavior. Specifically, we explore 1) the motivated tendency to overlook the unethical behavior of others when we recognize the unethical behavior would harm us, 2) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior unless it is clear, immediate, and direct, 3) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior when ethicality erodes slowly over time, and 4) the tendency to assess unethical behaviors only after the unethical behavior has resulted in a bad outcome, but not during the decision process.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Don A. Moore, and Max H. Bazerman. "See No Evil: When We Overlook Other People's Unethical Behavior." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-045, January 2008. View Details
  8. Letting Misconduct Slide: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior

    Four laboratory studies show that people are more likely to overlook others' unethical behavior when ethical degradation occurs slowly rather than in one abrupt shift. Participants served in the role of watchdogs charged with catching instances of cheating. The watchdogs in our studies were less likely to criticize the actions of others when their behavior eroded gradually, over time, rather than in one abrupt shift. We refer to this phenomenon as the slippery slope effect. Our studies also demonstrate that at least part of this effect can be attributed to implicit biases that result in a failure to notice ethical erosion when it occurs slowly. Broadly, our studies provide evidence as to when and why people overlook cheating by others and examine the conditions under which the slippery slope effect occurs.

    Keywords: Ethics; Behavior; Crime and Corruption; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Max H. Bazerman. "Letting Misconduct Slide: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 06-007, August 2005. (Revised September 2006, February 2007, January 2009. Previously titled "Slippery Slopes and Misconduct: The Effect of Gradual Degradation on the Failure to Notice Others' Unethical Behavior.") View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Bringing AMP Home: Personal Memos to Improve Your Organization

    This exercise helps AMP participants connect the concepts in AMP to specific issues that are current in their organizations. This exercise is done for each participant and each phase is shared with living group colleagues

    Keywords: Organizations; Performance Improvement;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H. "Bringing AMP Home: Personal Memos to Improve Your Organization." Harvard Business School Exercise 910-003, July 2009. View Details
  2. The Book Deal: Confidential Instructions for the PUBLISHER

    A two-party negotiation between an Agent representing a new author and an Editor at a large Publishing Firm. The exercise involves a one-issue, zero-sum negotiation concerning the advance on royalties that the publisher will pay to the author.

    Keywords: Ethics; Agreements and Arrangements; Negotiation Preparation; Negotiation Tactics; Negotiation Types; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and Max H. Bazerman. "The Book Deal: Confidential Instructions for the PUBLISHER." Harvard Business School Exercise 908-050, March 2008. View Details
  3. The Book Deal: Confidential Instructions for the AGENT

    A two-party negotiation between an Agent representing a new author and an Editor at a large Publishing Firm. The exercise involves a one-issue, zero-sum negotiation concerning the advance on royalties that the publisher will pay to the author.

    Keywords: Ethics; Agreements and Arrangements; Negotiation Preparation; Negotiation Tactics; Negotiation Types; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, Deepak, and Max H. Bazerman. "The Book Deal: Confidential Instructions for the AGENT." Harvard Business School Exercise 908-051, March 2008. View Details
  4. Plum Creek Timber (B)

    Plum Creek Timber Co. decides to go ahead with negotiations for a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) on its Pacific Northwest properties. HCP represents a new form of public-private-sector collaboration and innovation to improve upon command-and-control environmental policy solution. Throughout the negotiation process, the company must manage several factors: identifying which native fish species to include beyond the bull trout, matching "best science" standards with cost-efficient conservation commitments, minimizing the regulatory burden while enhancing species protection, and fostering support and avoiding conflict with a range of interested stakeholders, from environmental activists to forest products executives.

    Keywords: Conflict of Interests; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Participants; Environmental Sustainability; Business and Government Relations; Forest Products Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., Jack Troast, Hannah Bowles, and Nicole Nasser. "Plum Creek Timber (B)." Harvard Business School Case 801-399, June 2001. (Revised November 2001.) View Details
  5. Plum Creek Timber (A)

    Plum Creek Timber Co., the nation's sixth largest private timberland owner and forest products company, must decide whether to enter negotiations with the U.S. government to establish a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) on its Pacific Northwest properties for a threatened fish species, the bull trout. Under the Endangered Species Act, Plum Creek could voluntarily create an HCP in exchange for long-term regulatory assurances from the U.S. government. The company has to weigh several factors in its decision to proceed with the negotiations: whether it can replicate the success of a recent HCP for spotted owls, the likelihood of government or third-party lawsuits against the company, the costs of coordinating with multiple state and federal environmental agencies, and the value of regulatory predictability.

    Keywords: Conflict of Interests; Negotiation Process; Negotiation Participants; Environmental Sustainability; Business and Government Relations; Forest Products Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max H., Hannah Bowles, Dov Brachfeld, and Jack Troast. "Plum Creek Timber (A)." Harvard Business School Case 801-131, August 2000. (Revised February 2001.) View Details

Presentations