Christopher A. Bartlett

Thomas D. Casserly, Jr. Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

Professor Christopher A. Bartlett received an economics degree from the University of Queensland, Australia (1964), and both the masters and doctorate degrees in business administration from Harvard University (1971 and 1979).
As a practicing manager prior to joining the faculty of Harvard Business School, he worked as a marketing manager with Alcoa in Australia, as a management consultant in McKinsey's London office, and as the country general manager of Baxter Laboratories' subsidiary company in France.

Professor Christopher A. Bartlett received an economics degree from the University of Queensland, Australia (1964), and both the masters and doctorate degrees in business administration from Harvard University (1971 and 1979). 

As a practicing manager prior to joining the faculty of Harvard Business School, he worked as a marketing manager with Alcoa in Australia, as a management consultant in McKinsey's London office, and as the country general manager of Baxter Laboratories' subsidiary company in France.

After joining the Harvard Business School faculty in 1979, his research interests focused on the strategic and organizational challenges confronting managers in large, complex corporations, and on the organizational and managerial impact of transformational change.

In addition to his teaching and research responsibilities at HBS, he assumed various leadership roles at the school. He headed the International Senior Management Program, chaired the School’s General Management Unit, led the Program for Global Leadership, and directed the Humanitarian Leadership Program.

He has published eight books, including (co-authored with the late Sumantra Ghoshal) Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution (named by the Financial Times as one of the 50 most influential business books of the century) and The Individualized Corporation (named one of the Best Business Books for the Millennium by Strategy + Business magazine). Both books have been translated into more than ten languages. 

He has authored or co-authored more than 50 articles which have appeared in journals such as Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and Journal of International Business Studies. His more than 100 case studies have sold more than 5 million copies worldwide, making him the best-selling case author in the history of Harvard Business School.

He has been elected as a Fellow of three professional organizations: the Academy of Management, the Academy of International Business, and the Strategic Management Society. In 2001, the Academy Management’s International Division honoured him with its first Distinguished Scholar Award.

 In addition to his academic responsibilities, he maintains ongoing research interests in the organization and management of multinational enterprise, the impact of radical corporate transformational change, and the management of human and intellectual capital for competitive advantage. He has consulted and served on the board of many large international companies, and currently is actively contributing to several nonprofits in the US, Asia, and Australia.

 


Books

  1. Transnational Management: Text Cases and Readings in Cross Border Management

    Transnational Management focuses on the management challenges associated with developing strategies and managing the operations of companies whose activities stretch across national boundaries. The purpose of this book is to provide a conceptual framework showing the interplay between the multinational corporation, the countries in which it does business, and the competitive environment in which it operates. Through text narrative, cases, and readings, the authors skillfully examine the development of strategy, organizational capabilities, and management challenges for operating in the global economy.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Economy; Framework; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Global Strategy; Management; Problems and Challenges; Situation or Environment; Strategy; Competition;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Paul W. Beamish. Transnational Management: Text Cases and Readings in Cross Border Management. 6th ed. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. View Details
  2. Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Multinational Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. 2nd ed. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. (Also published in translated editions in French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, and Korean. Paperback ed., HBS Press, 1991.) View Details
  3. The Individualized Corporation

    Citation:

    Ghoshal, Sumantra, and Christopher A. Bartlett. The Individualized Corporation. New York: HarperBusiness, 1997. (Winner of Igor Ansoff Award For management research in the study of strategic planning and management presented by Coopers & Lybrand. Also published in translated editions in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Dutch, Japanese, Chinese, and Korean. Paperback ed., Harper Business, 1999.) View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Rebuilding Behavioral Context: A Blueprint for Corporate Renewal

    Keywords: Behavior;

    Citation:

    Ghoshal, S., and C. A. Bartlett. "Rebuilding Behavioral Context: A Blueprint for Corporate Renewal." MIT Sloan Management Review 37, no. 2 (winter 1996): 11–23. (

    Winner of Richard Beckhard Award For the most outstanding MIT Sloan Management Review article on planned change and organizational development​

    .) View Details
  2. Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses

    Keywords: Management; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and S. Ghoshal. "Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses." MIT Sloan Management Review 29, no. 1 (fall 1987): 43–54. (Also in The History of Management Thought, edited by Peter J. Buckley, Ashgate Publishing, 2002; and in Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies, Creating Global Networks, edited by Anil K. Gupta and Eleanor Westney, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2003.) View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Foreword

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Foreword." Next Generation Business Handbook: New Strategies from Tomorrow's Business Leaders, edited by Subir Chowdhury. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. View Details
  2. Genzyme's Gaucher Initiative: Global Risk and Responsibility

    Keywords: Health Disorders; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Globalization; Risk and Uncertainty; Health Industry; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Andrew N. McLean. "Genzyme's Gaucher Initiative: Global Risk and Responsibility." Chap. 22 in Problems and Cases in Health Care Marketing, edited by John T. Gourville, John A. Quelch, and V. Kasturi Rangan, 411–434. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2004. View Details
  3. Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses." Chap. 7 in Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies, Creating Global Networks, edited by Anil K. Gupta and Eleanor D. Westney. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. View Details
  4. The Transnational and Beyond: Reflections and Perspectives at the Millennium

    Keywords: Globalization;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "The Transnational and Beyond: Reflections and Perspectives at the Millennium." Chap. 1 in Managing Transnational Firms: Resources, Market Entry and Strategic Alliances. Vol. 14, edited by Michael A. Hitt and Joseph L. C. Cheng, 3–35. Advances in International Management. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier Science, 2002. View Details
  5. Employment Security, Employability and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Keywords: Employment; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Ghoshal, Sumantra, Peter Moran, and Christopher A. Bartlett. "Employment Security, Employability and Sustainable Competitive Advantage." Chap. 4 in Strategy, Organization and the Changing Nature of Work, edited by Jordi Gual and Joan E. Ricart, 79–110. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2001. View Details
  6. Creating the Individualized Corporation: The Path to Self-Renewal at General Electric

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Creating the Individualized Corporation: The Path to Self-Renewal at General Electric." In The Leader's Change Handbook, edited by Jay A. Conger, Edward E. Lawler III, and Gretchen M. Spreitzer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999. View Details
  7. Changing the Role of Top Management: Beyond Strategy to Purpose

    Keywords: Management Teams; Strategy; Mission and Purpose;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Changing the Role of Top Management: Beyond Strategy to Purpose." In Delivering Results: A New Mandate for Human Resource Professionals. Edited by David Ulrich, 125–142. Harvard Business Review Book Series. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  8. Beyond the Russian Doll Management Model: New Personal Competencies for New Management Roles

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Management Skills; Management Style; Managerial Roles;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A., and S. Ghoshal. "Beyond the Russian Doll Management Model: New Personal Competencies for New Management Roles." In Navigating Change: How CEOs, Top Teams, and Boards Steer Transformation, edited by Donald Hambrick, David Nadler, and Michael Tushman, 70–97. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  9. Managing Innovation in the Transnational Corporation

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Multinational Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Managing Innovation in the Transnational Corporation." In Managing Strategic Innovation and Change, edited by P. Anderson and M. Tushman, 452–476. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. View Details
  10. Beyond Strategy, Structure, and Systems to Purpose, Process, and People: Reflections on a Voyage of Discovery

    Keywords: Strategy; Organizational Structure; System; Mission and Purpose; Human Needs;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A., and S. Ghoshal. "Beyond Strategy, Structure, and Systems to Purpose, Process, and People: Reflections on a Voyage of Discovery." In The Relevance of a Decade: Essays to Mark the First Ten Years of the Harvard Business School Press, edited by Paula B. Duffy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. View Details
  11. Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: The Transnational Solution

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Performance Effectiveness; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A., and S. Ghoshal. "Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: The Transnational Solution." In Global Marketing Management. 4th ed. by J. A. Quelch and C. A. Bartlett. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1999. View Details
  12. Commentary: Strategic Flexibility, Firm Organization, and Managerial Work in Dynamic Models

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business or Company Management; Management Practices and Processes;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A. "Commentary: Strategic Flexibility, Firm Organization, and Managerial Work in Dynamic Models." In Advances in Strategic Management, Volume 15, edited by J.A.C. Baum. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1998. View Details
  13. New Challenges for Japanese Multinationals: Is Organizational Adaptation Their Achilles Heel?

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Problems and Challenges; Japan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A., and H. Yoshihara. "New Challenges for Japanese Multinationals: Is Organizational Adaptation Their Achilles Heel?" In Global Organizational Theory Perspectives, edited by G. Eshghi and J. Sheth. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Company, 1990. View Details
  14. Multinational Structural Change: Evolution versus Reorganization

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, C. A. "Multinational Structural Change: Evolution versus Reorganization." In The Management of Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in Multinational Corporations, edited by Lars Otterbeck. London: Gower, 1981. (Also in The Internationalization of the Firm, edited by P. Buckley and P.G. Meer, Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1991; and in The History of Management Thought, edited by P. Buckley, Ashgate, 2002.) View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Unilever's Lifebuoy in India: Implementing the Sustainability Plan

    Unilever's new Global Brand VP must not only revitalize Lifebuoy soap's sagging market performance, but simultaneously impact the health of one billion people worldwide. The latter challenge comes from Unilever's new CEO who has introduced the Unilever Sustainable Living Program (USLP), a set of bold environmental and social objectives that he has integrated into the heart of the company's global strategy. In contrast to most corporate social responsibility programs, USLP's quantified objectives are clearly defined, tightly specified, and independently audited. And managers are held strictly accountable for their achievement.

    After describing the background of the 100 year old Lifebuoy soap brand which is now sold primarily in developing country markets, the case outlines the steps taken by Samir Singh, Lifebuoy's newly appointed Global Brand VP as he tries to reverse its declining sales and profit performance. The case then focuses on Singh's relationship with Sudir Sitapiti, the category manager for Lifebuoy in India, the brand's largest market worldwide. Although Sitapiti has done a creditable job in turning around sales and profitability, he has fallen behind on his USLP challenge to bring handwashing behavior change to 450 million people in poor, remote Indian villages. The case concludes with some specific marketing investment decisions that Sitapati is considering and that Singh hopes to influence.

    Keywords: multinational management; global strategy; corporate social responsibility; strategy implementation; marketing strategy; mission and purpose; change management; international business; global; fast-moving consumer goods; soap; India;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Unilever's Lifebuoy in India: Implementing the Sustainability Plan." Harvard Business School Case 914-417, May 2014. View Details
  2. Genzyme's CSR Dilemma: How to Play its HAND

    Genzyme, a global biotechnology company, launches a program to develop therapies for neglected diseases (e.g., malaria, TB), giving away the intellectual property. This case focuses on the decision of which diseases, which partnerships, and which markets should management decide to fund. But the bigger issue is how this program, developed under the umbrella role Genzyme's corporate social responsibility, fits into its global competitive strategy.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Health Care and Treatment; Intellectual Property; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Partners and Partnerships; Research and Development; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Tarun Khanna, and Prithwiraj Choudhury. "Genzyme's CSR Dilemma: How to Play its HAND." Harvard Business School Case 910-407, August 2009. (Revised April 2012.) View Details
  3. Kent Chemical: Organizing for International Growth

    In July 2008, Luis Morales, president of Kent Chemical International, is proposing a third reorganization effort after two failed attempts to better align his business with its U.S.-based parent company. With a global expansion strategy placing increasing demands on his organization, a divide forming between Kent's core business and its growth markets, and a global recession looming, Morales knows this time his plan has no room for error.

    Keywords: international business; organizational structure; organizational design; corporate strategy; Organizational change; multinational corporations; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Design; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Organizational Culture; Global Strategy; Chemical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Laura Winig. "Kent Chemical: Organizing for International Growth." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-409, February 2012. View Details
  4. Kent Chemical: Organizing for International Growth (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note for Product #4409

    Keywords: international business; organizational structure; organizational design; corporate strategy; Organizational change; multinational corporations; Organizational Change and Adaptation; International Finance; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Laura Winig. "Kent Chemical: Organizing for International Growth (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 124-410, February 2012. View Details
  5. Levendary Cafe: The China Challenge

    Just weeks into her new job, Mia Foster, a first time CEO with no international management experience, is faced with a major challenge at Levendary Cafe, a $10 billion US-based fast food chain. Strategically, many of her corporate staff have become concerned that the company's major expansion into China is moving too far from Levendary's well-defined concepts of store design and menu. Organizationally, Foster has been frustrated by the apparent unwillingness of Louis Chen, president of Levendary China, to conform to the company's planning and reporting processes. Meanwhile, financial evidence shows that Chen's efforts have produced strong results and suggests that he knows China far better than U.S headquarters does. The entrepreneurial Chen has resisted attempts by Foster and others to discuss corporate plans for China. As Foster flies to China to meet with Chen she faces a decision that will determine the future of Levendary China and perhaps the entire globalization effort: can she manage Chen at all, and if so, how?

    Keywords: globalization; international management; foreign subsidiaries; entrepreneurship; strategic planning; General managers; strategy; Management Style; Strategic Planning; Business Subsidiaries; Multinational Firms and Management; Adaptation; Entrepreneurship; Relationships; Standards; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; China; United States;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Arar Han. "Levendary Cafe: The China Challenge." Harvard Business School Brief Case 114-357, October 2011. View Details
  6. United Cereal: Lora Brill's Eurobrand Challenge

    The case, set within the European organization of a giant multinational breakfast foods company, describes a launch decision for a new cereal product. As the case evolves, the decision has major strategic and organizational implications for Lora Brill, European VP. The case focuses especially on two important decisions facing Brill: Should Healthy Berry Crunch become the company's first Eurobrand and be introduced in a coordinated manner Europewide? And, from an organizational perspective, should she create Eurobrand Teams to implement her proposed Eurobrand concept?

    Keywords: subsidiaries; organizational structure; organizational design; marketing strategy; Market entry; multinational corporations; strategy; Business Subsidiaries; Managerial Roles; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Marketing Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Product Launch; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Carole Carlson. "United Cereal: Lora Brill's Eurobrand Challenge." Harvard Business School Brief Case 114-269, March 2011. View Details
  7. United Cereal: Lora Brill's Eurobrand Challenge (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note for 4269.

    Keywords: subsidiaries; organizational structure; organizational design; marketing strategy; Market entry; multinational corporations; strategy; Strategy; Business Subsidiaries; Marketing Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Design; Market Entry and Exit; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Carole Carlson. "United Cereal: Lora Brill's Eurobrand Challenge (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 114-270, March 2011. View Details
  8. Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy

    Clayton Industries, a sixty-year-old U.S.-based firm in the HVAC industry (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), with nearly $1 billion in revenues, has gradually built a presence in a number of countries, including several in Europe. Peter Arnell, previously Clayton's successful country manager for the U.K., has been asked to take over the Italian subsidiary, which has recently been struggling on several fronts. Arnell must juggle the strategic objectives of his manager (the head of Clayton Europe) and of the firm's Wisconsin-based CEO while overseeing the day-to-day activities of the business in this new setting. Many of Arnell's challenges derive from his dual responsibilities of handling manufacturing as well as sales of Clayton products in his new home country.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Conflict and Resolution; Sales; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Wisconsin; Italy; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Benjamin H. Barlow. "Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy." Harvard Business School Brief Case 104-199, May 2010. View Details
  9. Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note for 4199.

    Keywords: organizational behavior; international business; Subsidiaries, Leadership; project management; Labor unions; organizational culture; corporate strategy; multinational corporations; Implementing strategy; Management; International Finance; Leadership; Business Subsidiaries; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Labor Unions; Organizational Culture; Projects;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Benjamin H. Barlow. "Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 104-200, May 2010. View Details
  10. Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy, Spreadsheet for Instructors (Brief Case)

    Keywords: organizational behavior; international business; subsidiaries; leadership; project management; Labor unions; organizational culture; corporate strategy; multinational corporations; Implementing strategy; Leadership; Business Subsidiaries; Behavior; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Organizations; Labor Unions; Organizational Culture; Product Development;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Benjamin H. Barlow. "Clayton Industries, Inc.: Peter Arnell, Country Manager for Italy, Spreadsheet for Instructors (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 104-202, May 2010. View Details
  11. GE's Imagination Breakthrough: The EVO Project

    This video features interviews with case protagonists John Dineen, Brett Begole, and Pierre Compte expressing their views on the decision framed by the case. In a second part of the tape the protagonists describe what they decided to do. A third segment features John Dineen describing how he communicated his decision to key managers on different sides of the issue. And a final video segment describes the outcome of the decisions.

    Keywords: Communication Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Innovation and Management; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Outcome or Result; Green Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Brian J. Hall, and Nicole Bennett. "GE's Imagination Breakthrough: The EVO Project." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 909-801, September 2008. (Revised May 2010.) View Details
  12. Applied Research Technologies, Inc.: Global Innovation's Challenges

    Applied Research Technologies, Inc. (ART) is a diversified technology company which has used its entrepreneurial culture and encouragement of innovation as an ongoing competitive advantage. The case concentrates on the challenges faced by Peter Vyas, the Filtration Unit manager, who must decide whether to request $2 million in project funding from the divisional vice president, Cynthia Jackson. Similar Filtration projects have failed twice before, damaging the credibility of the Filtration Unit and Vyas personally. Jackson has recently been challenged to turn around or shut down the unit. Students must determine a strategy from the perspectives of both a unit manager and a division VP. This two-tier focus provides the opportunity to analyze the management decision process at different levels of the organization. Topics include empowerment, project management, and managing innovation.

    Keywords: Management Style; Managerial Roles; Management Practices and Processes; Reputation; Organizational Culture; Innovation and Management; Competitive Advantage; Entrepreneurship; Management Systems; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Heather Beckham. "Applied Research Technologies, Inc.: Global Innovation's Challenges." Harvard Business School Brief Case 104-168, February 2010. View Details
  13. P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project (TN)

    Traces changes in P&G's international strategy and structure, culminating in Organization 2005, a reorganization that places strategic emphasis on product innovation rather than geographic expansion and shifts power from local subsidiary to global business management. In the context of these changes introduced by Durk Jager, P&G's new CEO, Paolo de Cesare is transferred to Japan, where he takes over the recently turned-around beauty care business. Within the familiar Max Factor portfolio he inherits is SK-II, a fast-growing, highly profitable skin care product developed in Japan. Priced at over $100 a bottle, this is not a typical P&G product, but its successful introduction in Taiwan and Hong Kong has de Cesare thinking the brand has global potential. As the case closes, he is questioning whether he should take a proposal to the beauty care global business unit to expand into Mainland China and/or Europe.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Trade; Globalization; Global Strategy; Innovation Strategy; Business or Company Management; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Hong Kong; Japan; Taiwan; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 304-023, March 2004. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  14. Genzyme's CSR Dilemma: How to Play its HAND (TN)

    Teaching Note for [910407].

    Keywords: Programs; Intellectual Property; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Partners and Partnerships; Multinational Firms and Management; Competitive Strategy; Markets; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Genzyme's CSR Dilemma: How to Play its HAND (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 910-414, January 2010. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  15. Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old (TN)

    Teaching Note for [910405].

    Keywords: Emerging Markets; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Segmentation; Competitive Advantage; Globalized Firms and Management; Consumer Behavior; Industry Structures; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 910-412, December 2009. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  16. Philips versus Matsushita: The Competitive Battle Continues

    Describes the development of the global strategies and organizations of two major competitors in the consumer electronics industry. Over four decades, both companies adapt their strategic intent and organizational capability to match and counter the competitive advantage of the other. The case shows how each is faced to restructure as its competitive advantage erodes.

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Organizational Culture; Multinational Firms and Management; Restructuring; Consumer Products Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Philips versus Matsushita: The Competitive Battle Continues." Harvard Business School Case 910-410, December 2009. View Details
  17. Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old

    The case contrasts the tradition-bound Old World wine industry with the market-oriented New World producers, the battle for the US market, the most desirable export target in 2009 due to its large, fast-growing, high priced market segments. The case allows analysis of the way in which newcomers can change the rules of competitive engagement in a global industry. It also poses the question of how incumbents can respond, especially when constrained by regulation, tradition, and different capabilities than those demanded by changing consumer tastes and market structures.

    Keywords: Trade; Global Strategy; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Consumer Behavior; Market Entry and Exit; Competition; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old." Harvard Business School Case 910-405, August 2009. View Details
  18. GE's Imagination Breakthroughs: The Evo Project (TN)

    Teaching Note for [907048].

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; Creativity; Consumer Products Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE's Imagination Breakthroughs: The Evo Project (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 908-413, March 2008. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  19. GE's Imagination Breakthroughs: The Evo Project

    In September 2003, Jeff Immelt challenged the business leaders at GE to come up with "Imagination Breakthroughs," innovative new projects that would serve as the centerpiece of GE's organic growth initiative. Follows the company as these changes are driven through the business units, focusing on GE Transportation as it launches a series of groundbreaking, green products -from the Evolution Locomotive to the Hybrid Locomotive. The growth process transforms the culture within GE Transportation, leading to a redefinition of the marketing role, the implementation of a "growth leader" profile and new decision-making processes to encourage innovation and risk. Finally, presents a critical decision point, as Transportation executives must decide whether or not to support the high-risk Hybrid Locomotive project.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Environmental Sustainability; Green Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Brian J. Hall, and Nicole Bennett. "GE's Imagination Breakthroughs: The Evo Project." Harvard Business School Case 907-048, June 2007. (Revised June 2008.) View Details
  20. GE's Jeff Immelt: The Voyage from MBA to CEO

    GE believes its ability to develop management talent is a core competency that represents a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Traces the development of a 25-year-old MBA named Jeff Immelt, who 18 years later is named as CEO of GE, arguably the biggest and most complex corporate leadership job in the world, and how he frames and implements his priorities for GE. Describes the processes that guided Immelt's own developments and the strategic changes Immelt adopts in his first year as CEO, when he pulls hard on the sophisticated human resource levers his predecessors left him. Immelt questions whether the changes in place will foster the development of the next generation of GE growth leaders.

    Keywords: Talent and Talent Management; Human Resources; Leadership Development; Leading Change; Business or Company Management; Energy Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Andrew N. McLean. "GE's Jeff Immelt: The Voyage from MBA to CEO." Harvard Business School Case 307-056, September 2006. (Revised May 2007.) View Details
  21. IKEA's Global Sourcing Challenge: Indian Rugs and Child Labor (A)

    Traces the history of IKEA's response to a TV report that its Indian carpet suppliers were using child labor. Describes IKEA's growth, including the importance of a sourcing strategy based on its close relationships with suppliers in developing countries. Details the development of IKEA's strong culture and values that include a commitment "to create a better everyday life for many people." Describes how, in response to regulatory and public pressure, IKEA developed a set of environmental policies that grew to encompass a relationship with Greenpeace and WWF on forest management and conservation. Then, in 1994, Marianne Barner, a newly appointed IKEA product manager, is surprised by a Swedish television documentary on the use of child labor by Indian carpet suppliers, including some that supply IKEA's rugs. She immediately implements a strict policy that provides for contract cancellation if any IKEA supplier uses child labor. Then Barner is confronted by a German TV producer who advises her that he is about to broadcast an investigative program documenting the use of child labor in one of the company's major suppliers. How should she react to the crisis? How should the company deal with the ongoing issue of child labor in the supply chain?

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Moral Sensibility; Policy; Employment; Contracts; Supply Chain Management; Organizational Culture; Natural Environment; Non-Governmental Organizations; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Vincent Marie Dessain, and Anders Sjoman. "IKEA's Global Sourcing Challenge: Indian Rugs and Child Labor (A)." Harvard Business School Case 906-414, May 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  22. IKEA's Global Sourcing Challenge: Indian Rugs and Child Labor (B)

    Keywords: Retail Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Vincent Marie Dessain, and Anders Sjoman. "IKEA's Global Sourcing Challenge: Indian Rugs and Child Labor (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 906-415, May 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  23. Silvio Napoli at Schindler India (A)

    A young Italian MBA working for a Swiss multinational is sent to India to establish a subsidiary and implement the strategy he prepared at headquarters as a strategic planner. This case focuses on three core strategic decisions he must make as his plan is challenged by his local Indian management team and Schindler's European plants supplying him. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Decisions; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Employees; Management Teams; Strategic Planning; India; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Michael Y. Yoshino, and Perry Fagan. "Silvio Napoli at Schindler India (A)." Harvard Business School Case 303-086, February 2003. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  24. GE's Talent Machine: The Making of a CEO

    GE believes its ability to develop management talent is a core competency that represents a source of sustainable competitive advantage. This case traces the development of GE's rich system of human resource policies and practices under five CEOs in the post-war era, showing how the development of talent is embedded into the company's ongoing management responsibilities. It describes the development of a 25-year-old MBA named Jeff Immelt, who 18 years later is named as CEO of GE, arguably the biggest and most complex corporate leadership job in the world and how he frames his priorities for GE and implements them, pulling hard on the sophisticated human resource levers his predecessors left him. Immelt questions whether he should adjust or even overhaul three elements of GE's finely tuned talent machine.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Capital; Selection and Staffing; Leadership Development; Management Succession; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Andrew N. McLean. "GE's Talent Machine: The Making of a CEO." Harvard Business School Case 304-049, October 2003. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  25. GE's Growth Strategy: The Immelt Initiative

    Follows the actions of GE CEO, Jeff Immelt, as he implements a growth strategy for the $150 billion company in a tough business environment. In four years, he reinvigorates GE's technology, expands its services, develops a commercial focus, pushes developing countries, and backs "unstoppable trends" to realign GE's business portfolio around growth platforms. At the same time, he reorganizes the company, promotes "growth leaders" into top roles, and reorients the culture around innovation and risk taking. Finally, in 2006, he sees signs of growth, but wonders whether it is sustainable.

    Keywords: Transformation; Judgments; Global Strategy; Leadership Style; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE's Growth Strategy: The Immelt Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 306-087, February 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  26. World Vision International's AIDS Initiative: Challenging a Global Partnership

    After 25 years of building a network of interdependent, national organizations delivering relief and development that are responsive to local needs, World Vision's International office is planning to implement a major global HIV/AIDS initiative that challenges the strategic direction, organizational capabilities, and even underlying values of its carefully constructed world partnership. Not only does the new AIDS initiative require much more central direction than is customary in this global partnership of World Vision organizations, each with its own independent board of directors, but it also is acknowledged to have little support among World Vision's donor base and even its internal organization. Involves a trigger decision about whether and how to proceed.

    Keywords: Change Management; Decision Choices and Conditions; Globalized Markets and Industries; Governing and Advisory Boards; Management Systems; Networks; Partners and Partnerships; Welfare or Wellbeing; Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Daniel F. Curran. "World Vision International's AIDS Initiative: Challenging a Global Partnership." Harvard Business School Case 304-105, June 2004. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  27. GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Jack Welch's Leadership

    GE is faced with Jack Welch's impending retirement and whether anyone can sustain the blistering pace of change and growth characteristic of the Welch era. After briefly describing GE's heritage and Welch's transformation of the company's business portfolio of the 1980s, the case chronicles Welch's revitalization initiatives through the late 1980s and 1990s. It focuses on six of Welch's major change programs: The "Software" Initiatives, Globalization, Redefining Leadership, Stretch Objectives, Service Business Development, and Six Sigma Quality.

    Keywords: Transformation; Global Strategy; Leadership Development; Goals and Objectives; Six Sigma; Management Succession; Service Operations; Quality; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Meg Wozny. "GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Jack Welch's Leadership." Harvard Business School Case 399-150, April 1999. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  28. GE's Digital Revolution: Redefining the E in GE

    This case details the implementation of the e-business initiative--the last of Jack Welch's four company-wide strategic thrusts. First, it summarizes the 20-year change process that Welch led, detailing the initiatives he put in place. It then traces how Gerry Podesta, the e-business head in GE Plastics, implemented the new initiative. In doing so, highlights how the "social architecture" (culture and values) and "operating systems" (systems and processes) help the company drive through changes that have it named Internet Week's top e-business of 2000. Ends with questions about the effectiveness of successive pushes on "e-sell," "e-buy," and "e-make" and whether the e-business teams should be broken up and rolled back into the company.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Decision Choices and Conditions; Leadership Style; Business or Company Management; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Performance Effectiveness; Corporate Strategy; Online Technology;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Meg Glinska. "GE's Digital Revolution: Redefining the E in GE." Harvard Business School Case 302-001, April 2002. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  29. World Vision International: The AIDS Initiative

    Management discusses the organizational and governance challenges of operating a global network of partner organizations. Then key managers reflect on the decision World Vision must make on the AIDS Hope Initiative--a new strategic direction that challenges many of the partnership's historic strategic objectives, organizational capabilities, and even core values.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Goals and Objectives; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Problems and Challenges; Core Relationships; Welfare or Wellbeing; Value; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "World Vision International: The AIDS Initiative." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 305-701, July 2004. View Details
  30. Entrepreneurship Goes Global: ResMed's Gamble

    On the basis of its innovative medical device for treating sleep apnea, CEO Peter Farrell has made Australian-born ResMed a successful global company. But the company is struggling to implement a strategy to expand the device from its focused core market to a much broader market for sufferers of stroke and congestive heart failure-an approach that involves an entirely different business model to sell modified products through new channels. This challenge is exacerbated by an organization in which the key R&D and manufacturing resources are located in Australia while the major markets are in the United States and Europe. At the conclusion of the case, Farrell must decide what action to take on several fronts. Strategically, he must decide whether to continue pursuing this five-year-old market expansion initiative; organizationally, he must decide whether the locus of initiative should be moved from Australia to Germany, the most promising market for the stroke and CHF application; and managerially, he must decide how to deal with the management team that has struggled with this new initiative for so long.

    Keywords: Business Model; Globalization; Innovation and Management; Management; Marketing Channels; Production; Expansion; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., Andrew N. McLean, and Meg Glinska. "Entrepreneurship Goes Global: ResMed's Gamble." Harvard Business School Case 304-051, April 2004. (Revised June 2004.) View Details
  31. GE's Digital Revolution

    Presents interviews with Gerry Podesta, VP of GE Plastics Component of General Electric Co., and Gary Reiner, senior VP and CIO of General Electric Co. A revised version of an earlier video.

    Keywords: Leadership; Corporate Strategy; Management Teams; Consumer Products Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE's Digital Revolution." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 303-801, July 2002. (Revised April 2004.) View Details
  32. Mercy Corps: Global Social Entrepreneurship (A)

    Neal Keny-Guyer, CEO of Mercy Corps International, built his organization by following the advice of Theodore Roosevelt: "Be smart enough to hire good people and have sense enough to get out of their way." For eight years, Keny-Guyer helped Mercy Corps grow in size and scope and by 2001, delivered $117 million in social programs to people in over 30 countries. Convinced that much of that success had come from empowering front-line managers to lead the agency by pursuing opportunities in the field, he wanted to continue the approach. But, recent experiences in Afghanistan had exposed some weaknesses in Mercy Corps' ability to maintain an entrepreneurial approach in an emergency situation. What had worked so well in an organization of 200 was encountering difficulties now that worldwide staff exceeded 2,000. At a global leadership conference in late October 2002, Keny-Guyer met with his senior leadership team. In addition to wrestling with the political complexities of working in Iraq, he wanted to get their input on how Mercy Corps should respond if they decided it was the right course of action.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Globalization; Government and Politics; Selection and Staffing; Leadership; Organizational Structure; Opportunities; Afghanistan; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Daniel F. Curran. "Mercy Corps: Global Social Entrepreneurship (A)." Harvard Business School Case 303-079, June 2003. (Revised April 2004.) View Details
  33. P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project

    Traces changes in P&G's international strategy and structure, culminating in Organization 2005, a reorganization that places strategic emphasis on product innovation rather than geographic expansion and shifts power from local subsidiary to global business management. In the context of these changes introduced by Durk Jager, P&G's new CEO, Paolo de Cesare is transferred to Japan, where he takes over the recently turned-around beauty care business. Within the familiar Max Factor portfolio he inherits is SK-II, a fast-growing, highly profitable skin care product developed in Japan. Priced at over $100 a bottle, this is not a typical P&G product, but its successful introduction in Taiwan and Hong Kong has de Cesare thinking the brand has global potential. As the case closes, he is questioning whether he should take a proposal to the beauty care global business unit to expand into Mainland China and/or Europe.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Trade; Globalization; Global Strategy; Innovation Strategy; Business or Company Management; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Hong Kong; Japan; Taiwan; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project." Harvard Business School Case 303-003, March 2003. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  34. GE's Talent Machine: The Making of a CEO

    CEO Jeff Immelt, ex-CEO Jack Welch, and HR Chief Bill Conaty discuss how GE has made talent development a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Immelt describes GE's deeply embedded philosophy around its people and how it has allowed the company to add value managing as a conglomerate. He elaborates on how the HR process works and describes how he manages it. Welch and Immelt discuss the performance-based Vitality Curve, one of the most controversial elements of the GE system. In addition, Welch, Immelt, and Conaty reflect on the philosophy, management, and effectiveness of GE's total HR system and its future. A revised version of an earlier video.

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; Talent and Talent Management; Human Resources; Business or Company Management; Performance Capacity; Performance Effectiveness; Competitive Advantage; System; Value;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE's Talent Machine: The Making of a CEO." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 304-804, November 2003. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  35. P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project

    Paolo de Cesare and A.G. Lafley review the strategic and organizational challenges they face in deciding whether to make the prestigious Japanese beauty product, SK-II, a global brand. In a three-part videotaped interview, they discuss the challenges, reveal the decision, and outline key lessons for Procter & Gamble.

    Keywords: Globalization; Brands and Branding; Organizational Structure; Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 304-803, November 2003. View Details
  36. BRL Hardy: Globalizing an Australian Wine Company

    Two new product launch decisions face Christopher Carson, managing director of BRL Hardy, Europe. Responsible for the European operations of a major Australian wine company, Carson has begun to globalize his strategy beyond selling the parent company's wines. After a difficult joint venture with a Chilean wine source, he is proposing to launch an Italian line of wines. His local team has also developed a new Australian brand that would compete directly with a parent company's global brand rollout.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Joint Ventures; Product Launch; Brands and Branding; Competitive Strategy; Business Subsidiaries; Negotiation Style; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "BRL Hardy: Globalizing an Australian Wine Company." Harvard Business School Case 300-018, December 1999. (Revised October 2003.) View Details
  37. Genzyme's Gaucher Initiative: Global Risk and Responsibility

    In Egypt, Genzyme's humanitarian commitment to treat all sufferers of the rare Gaucher disease worldwide first confronts its commercial imperative to recoup the huge investment required to bring the drug Cerezyme to market. Here Tomye Tierney must decide how to balance the demands of the sales organization that faces saturating developed markets, but major growth opportunities in developing economies. They believe that as long as the Gaucher Initiative-Genzyme's partnership with Project Hope-is providing free Cerezyme, they will be unable to convince the Egyptian government to authorize reimbursement, which can run from $200,000 to $300,000 per patient annually. CEO Henri Termeer believes Genzyme can hold firm to both the humanitarian commitment and its strong patient-focused commercial objectives. But it is Tierney who is on the front line and negotiates the delicate agreement between Genzyme sales, Project Hope, and Egyptian authorities.

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Investment; Emerging Markets; Negotiation; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Government Relations; Sales; Commercialization; Expansion; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Andrew N. McLean. "Genzyme's Gaucher Initiative: Global Risk and Responsibility." Harvard Business School Case 303-048, September 2002. (Revised August 2003.) View Details
  38. Conex do Brasil

    Describes interactions between Brazilian local, Latin American regional, and USA headquarters staff during the three years after establishing a manufacturing subsidiary in Sao Paulo. In a highly protected national environment, a market entry plan is developed to meet the company's global strategic objectives. The case traces the activities of local, regional, and corporate managers as they establish the operations and try to build a business. Tension emerges between headquarters and the Brazilian subsidiary as results fail to materialize, and the case trigger issue focuses on the changes necessary after the dismissal of the second country subsidiary manager in three years.

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Resignation and Termination; Goals and Objectives; Market Entry and Exit; Operations; Performance Expectations; Opportunities; Corporate Strategy; Latin America; United States; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and John Young. "Conex do Brasil." Harvard Business School Case 385-257, January 1985. (Revised March 2003.) View Details
  39. Silvio Napoli at Schindler India

    Presents an interview with Silvio Napoli on topics relating to his fit in the new job, his strategic plan for the new subsidiary, and the decision on sourcing and standardization.

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Strategic Planning; Business Subsidiaries; Supply Chain; Decisions; Personal Development and Career; India;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Silvio Napoli at Schindler India." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 303-805, February 2003. View Details
  40. Silvio Napoli Cross Cultural Management

    Presents an interview with Silvio Napoli regarding cultural aspects of an Italian manager in a Swiss company opening an Indian subsidiary. Issues range from personal and family adjustment to management style, corporate culture, and differences in national characteristics.

    Keywords: Management Style; Business Subsidiaries; Nationality Characteristics; Organizational Culture; Personal Characteristics; Business Startups; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Italy; Switzerland; India;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Silvio Napoli Cross Cultural Management." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 303-806, February 2003. View Details
  41. NIKE in Transition (B): Phil Knight Returns

    After returning to the CEO/COO job, Phil Knight makes changes to Nike's strategy, organization, and management between 1983 and 1987 aimed at making Nike more responsive to the market place. He takes cost-cutting measures, and experiments with several management and organizational changes. After much strife within the company, Knight ends up with a hybrid matrix, a new group of managers, and a new strategy. Has Knight made the right choices? Has he squashed Nike's entrepreneurial culture? Is Nike poised for recovery?

    Keywords: Change; Entrepreneurship; Cost Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Brands and Branding; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "NIKE in Transition (B): Phil Knight Returns." Harvard Business School Case 392-106, May 1992. (Revised May 2002.) View Details
  42. Jollibee Foods Corporation (A): International Expansion

    Noli Tingzon, newly-appointed international division VP at Jollibee, the Philippines-based hamburger chain, is faced with the challenge of expanding fast food operations in Asia in the face of stiff competition. The case describes Jollibee's six-year international expansion history and the lessons the company has learned. Against this background, Noli must decide among expansion opportunities in New Guinea, Hong Kong, and California.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Motivation and Incentives; Expansion; Global Range; Global Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Philippines;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Jamie O'Connell. "Jollibee Foods Corporation (A): International Expansion." Harvard Business School Case 399-007, July 1998. (Revised December 2001.) View Details
  43. EMI and the CT Scanner (A)

    Describes the development of the first CT Scanner by EMI, a company new to the medical industry, and EMI's entry into the U.S. market. The company's early success is threatened by the entry of a dozen competitors (some very large and experienced), by government regulation, and by internal organizational problems.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Technological Innovation; Market Entry and Exit; Industry Structures; Product Development; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "EMI and the CT Scanner (A)." Harvard Business School Case 383-194, June 1983. (Revised November 2001.) View Details
  44. Microsoft: Competing on Talent (A)

    Describes the evolution of Microsoft's human-resource philosophies, policies, and practices and how they used as a core of the company's competitive advantage. In particular, the focus is on how Microsoft tried to retain its ability to recruit, develop, motivate, and retain first-class talent as it grew from a start-up to a global behemoth. Triggered by high-profile, senior-level departures in 1999, the company must decide if it is time to change its "hard core" culture came to be.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Retention; Recruitment; Competitive Advantage; Motivation and Incentives; Business Startups; Talent and Talent Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Meg Wozny. "Microsoft: Competing on Talent (A)." Harvard Business School Case 300-001, March 2000. (Revised July 2001.) View Details
  45. Acer America: Development of the Aspire

    Follows the development, national launch, and global rollout of the Aspire, Acer's first new product developed outside of Taiwan. Implementing a very promising new PC concept proves challenging to Mike Culver and his U.S. team, who are plagued by coordination problems with experts and resource managers in Taiwan. Leading the global rollout proves equally difficult, with local managers wanting to make local adaptations. After 2.5 years of missed forecasts and unexpected losses, CEO Stan Shih must decide whether to abandon the Aspire. More profoundly, what changes does this failure suggest for his radical "fast food" business concept and his "client server" organization model?

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Organizational Design; Supply Chain; Problems and Challenges; Relationships; Business Subsidiaries; Product Launch; Computer Industry; United States; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Anthony St. George. "Acer America: Development of the Aspire." Harvard Business School Case 399-011, January 1998. (Revised April 2001.) View Details
  46. Acer America: Development of the Aspire

    Consists of five segments. Segment 1 shows Culver and Pai discussing the tensions between Taiwan and the United States and the resulting performance problems with Aspire; Segment 2 features Culver and Shih describing the changes Acer made as a result of the problems and losses; Segment 3 is Culver's description of his subsequent actions and outcomes; Segment 4 has Shih describing his future plans for Acer's strategy and organization; and Segment 5 is an optional segment on Acer's Internet marketing strategy.

    Keywords: Online Advertising; Transformation; Forecasting and Prediction; Marketing Strategy; Outcome or Result; Problems and Challenges; Hardware; Internet; Computer Industry; Taiwan; United States;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Acer America: Development of the Aspire." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 301-805, April 2001. View Details
  47. Microsoft's Vega Project: Developing People and Products

    With a focus on Matt MacLellan and his careful development as a project manager under his boss and mentor, Jim Kaplan, the case describes the evolution of Microsoft's human-resource philosophies and policies and illustrates how they work in practice to provide the company with a major source of competitive advantage. It looks at employee development, motivation, and retention efforts in one of Microsoft's product groups. Dissatisfied with his project management role, MacLellan decides to become a developer despite the fact that he has never written code professionally. Kaplan is faced with the decision of whether to support his protege's radical career shift, and if so, how to do it not only to MacLellan's satisfaction but also in the organization's best interest.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Competitive Advantage; Retention; Personal Development and Career; Organizational Design; Information Technology; Motivation and Incentives; Leadership Development;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Meg Wozny. "Microsoft's Vega Project: Developing People and Products." Harvard Business School Case 300-004, March 2000. (Revised January 2001.) View Details
  48. Acer, Inc.: Taiwan's Rampaging Dragon

    Describes the strategic, organizational, and management changes that led Acer from its 1976 startup to become the world's second-largest computer manufacturer. Outlines the birth of the company, the painful "professionalization" of its management, the plunge into losses, and the transformation under founder Stan Shih's radical "fast food" business concept and his "client server" organization model, which are put to the test when a young product manager in Acer America develops a radically new multimedia home PC with global potential. Shih must decide whether to give an inexperienced manager in a loss-generating subsidiary the green light.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leadership; Competitive Advantage; Global Strategy; Transformation; Computer Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Anthony St. George. "Acer, Inc.: Taiwan's Rampaging Dragon." Harvard Business School Case 399-010, December 1998. (Revised January 2001.) View Details
  49. GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Jack Welch's Leadership Multimedia Case

    General Electric is faced with Welch's impending retirement, and the question on many minds is whether anyone can sustain the blistering pace of change and growth characteristic of the Welch era. After briefly describing GE's heritage and Welch's transformation of the company's business portfolio in the 1980s, the case chronicles Welch's revitalization initiatives through the late 1980s and 1990s. It focuses on six of Welch's major change programs: The "Software" Initiatives, Globalization, Redefining Leadership, Stretch Objectives, Service Business Development, and Six Sigma Quality.

    Keywords: Leadership; Transformation; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Meg Wozny. "GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Jack Welch's Leadership Multimedia Case." Harvard Business School Video Case 301-040, October 2000. View Details
  50. GE Compilation: Jack Welch 1981-1999

    Excerpts of videotaped presentations and interviews with Jack Welch in five different time periods from 1981 to 1999. Welch comments on progress on GE's strategic, organizational, and managerial transformation, and his own role in leading that change.

    Keywords: Transformation; Leading Change; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE Compilation: Jack Welch 1981-1999." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 300-511, May 2000. View Details
  51. BRL Hardy: Globalizing an Australian Wine Company

    Interviews alternating the country subsidiary and corporate headquarters views of Christopher Carson, marketing director of BRL Hardy Europe and Steve Millar, marketing director and CEO of BRL Hardy Ltd. In four segments focusing on the source of headquarters/subsidiary tensions, background for the decision on d'Instinto launch, the Banrock Station versus Kelly's Revenge decision, and the company's actual actions/decision and the reasons for them.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Business Headquarters; Management Teams; Conflict and Resolution; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "BRL Hardy: Globalizing an Australian Wine Company." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 300-506, April 2000. View Details
  52. GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Interview with Jack Welch, November 1999 (Video)

    An interview with Jack Welch on his views of the current status of GE's two-decade transformation and his changing role in leading it. Among topics discussed include his views of GE as a learning organization, the process of change that allowed GE's transformation to succeed, his own evolution as a CEO, the legacy he is leaving, and the challenges his successor faces.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Transformation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Problems and Challenges; Change Management; Management Succession; Managerial Roles;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "GE's Two-Decade Transformation: Interview with Jack Welch, November 1999 (Video)." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 300-508, April 2000. View Details
  53. Asea Brown Boveri

    In 1987, two European rivals--Asea AB of Sweden and BBC Brown Boveri Ltd. of Switzerland--merged to form Asea Brown Boveri. The new company employed 150,000 employees in 850 legal entities operating in 140 countries. The case describes the challenges facing Percy Barnevik--the organization's leader--and how he resolved those challenges through staffing, communicating priorities, new structural alignments, and information and reporting systems.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Globalization; Problems and Challenges; Leadership Style; Selection and Staffing; Organizational Structure; Reports;

    Citation:

    Simons, Robert L., and Christopher A. Bartlett. "Asea Brown Boveri." Harvard Business School Case 192-139, May 1992. (Revised January 2000.) View Details
  54. McKinsey & Co.: Managing Knowledge and Learning

    Describes the development of McKinsey & Co. as a worldwide management consulting firm from 1926 to 1996. In particular, it focuses on the way in which McKinsey has developed structures, systems, processes, and practices to help it develop, transfer, and disseminate knowledge among its 3,800 consultants in 69 offices worldwide. Concludes by focusing on three young consultants operating in each dimension of the firm's organization--the local office, the industry practice, and the firm's competence center. Managing director, Rajat Gupta, wonders if the changes he has made are sufficient to maintain the firm's vital knowledge development process.

    Keywords: Management; Managerial Roles; Management Practices and Processes; Competitive Advantage; Global Range; Knowledge Dissemination; Business Processes; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "McKinsey & Co.: Managing Knowledge and Learning." Harvard Business School Case 396-357, June 1996. (Revised January 2000.) View Details
  55. Jollibee Foods Corporation: International Expansion

    Presents interviews with CEO Tony Tan Caktiong and international division VP, Noli Tingzon, elaborating on issues and raising new issues on Jollibee's global strategy and organization.

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Globalized Firms and Management; Global Strategy; Organizational Design; Expansion; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Jollibee Foods Corporation: International Expansion." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 300-501, September 1999. View Details
  56. Jan Eriksson of Novartis Indonesia

    A follow-up interview, in Summer 1998, with the protagonist of the Novartis Indonesia case series. He describes ongoing strategy and activities.

    Keywords: Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry; Indonesia;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Jan Eriksson of Novartis Indonesia." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 899-509, July 1999. View Details
  57. 3M Optical Systems: Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship

    A middle-level division manager must decide whether he should support an investment request for a third attempt at launching a new product developed by a struggling business unit. Describes the long, difficult process by which the unit has developed the product--a computer privacy screen--after years of problems and continuing losses, and its absolute faith in the project. Also presents the division manager's concerns about the need for discipline and control, setting up a tension that is focused on the launch decision.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Management; Managerial Roles; Product Launch; Decision Choices and Conditions; Product Development; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Afroze A Mohammed. "3M Optical Systems: Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship." Harvard Business School Case 395-017, December 1994. (Revised May 1999.) View Details
  58. ABB's Relays Business: Building and Managing a Global Matrix

    Describes the development and management of the relays business area (BA) in ABB's global matrix organization. Focuses on three levels of management--corporate, BA, and operating company. Highlights the roles and responsibilities of individuals at each level as ABB creates a unique, highly successful organization structure and management process that enables it to integrate its disparate worldwide operations while maintaining a highly entrepreneurial front-line environment.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Business or Company Management; Business Strategy; Organizational Structure; Managerial Roles; Management Practices and Processes; Employees; Organizational Culture; Success; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "ABB's Relays Business: Building and Managing a Global Matrix." Harvard Business School Case 394-016, July 1993. (Revised April 1999.) View Details
  59. Corning Glass Works International (C2)

    Follows the impact of a change in global strategy on a diversified company's global organization structure. Reviews the company's subsequent performance internationally. Also presents reflections by top management on future possible change in the organization structure.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Change; Performance; Globalized Firms and Management; Management Teams; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Michael Y. Yoshino. "Corning Glass Works International (C2)." Harvard Business School Supplement 381-164, March 1981. (Revised November 1998.) View Details
  60. Corning Glass Works International (A)

    Follows the impact of a change in global strategy on a diversified company's global organization structure. Traces two failed attempts at bringing a business perspective to a geographic organization, and poses the problem of what the international division president can do.

    Keywords: Disruption; Framework; Global Strategy; Organizational Structure; Perspective; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Michael Y. Yoshino. "Corning Glass Works International (A)." Harvard Business School Case 381-160, March 1981. (Revised October 1998.) View Details
  61. Lincoln Electric: Venturing Abroad

    Lincoln Electric, a 100-year-old manufacturer of welding equipment and consumables based in Cleveland, Ohio, motivates its U.S. employees through a culture of cooperation between management and labor and an unusual compensation system based on piecework and a large bonus based on individual contribution to the company's performance. Despite opening a few international sales and production ventures in Canada, Australia, and France, Lincoln remained focused on manufacturing in the United States until 1988. At that time, the company's new CEO expanded manufacturing through acquisitions and greenfields in 11 new countries, attempting to transfer its unique management philosophy to each. However, Lincoln was unable to replicate its highly productive system abroad. Operational problems led to a major restructuring in the early 1990s, supervised by Anthony Massaro, a newcomer to the company. In 1996, Massaro was named CEO and set about expanding the company's manufacturing base through a new strategy. The case concludes in Asia, where Lincoln's regional president is trying to decide whether and how to establish a manufacturing presence in Indonesia, and in particular whether to try to transfer Lincoln's unique incentive-driven management system.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Restructuring; Transformation; Construction; Compensation and Benefits; Management; Market Entry and Exit; Labor and Management Relations; Competitive Advantage; Expansion; Manufacturing Industry; Ohio;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Jamie O'Connell. "Lincoln Electric: Venturing Abroad." Harvard Business School Case 398-095, January 1998. (Revised April 1998.) View Details
  62. Skandia AFS: Developing Intellectual Capital Globally

    Focuses on the measurement and management of organizational knowledge as a strategic asset, and on the deployment of information technology, organizational structure, and processes in leveraging that asset.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Knowledge Sharing; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Alliances; Competitive Advantage; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Takia Mahmood. "Skandia AFS: Developing Intellectual Capital Globally." Harvard Business School Case 396-412, June 1996. (Revised March 1998.) View Details
  63. Komatsu Ltd.: Project G's Globalization

    This case describes the major strategic and organizational transformation at Komatsu aimed at changing it from a Japan-based producer of construction equipment to a truly global company with the ability to leverage its groupwide portfolio of resources and capabilities into a new, more diverse business base. Details efforts to build and acquire foreign operations, to specialize and integrate overseas units, to expand responsibilities of offshore operations, and to localize management.

    Keywords: Change Management; Construction; Asset Pricing; Investment Portfolio; Global Strategy; Leadership; Resource Allocation; Risk Management; Expansion; Manufacturing Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Komatsu Ltd.: Project G's Globalization." Harvard Business School Case 398-016, October 1997. (Revised March 1998.) View Details
  64. NIKE in Transition (C): A Second COO

    After two years of stunning financial results, Knight again appoints a new COO, Dick Donahue. Are Knight and Nike ready for a new COO? How does Donahue differ from Woodell? Will his personality, style, and agenda fit with the new Nike Knight has created? Also describes how the matrix organization has changed over two years.

    Keywords: Policy; Growth and Development; Leadership Style; Management Succession; Managerial Roles; Organizational Structure; Strategy; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "NIKE in Transition (C): A Second COO." Harvard Business School Supplement 392-107, May 1992. (Revised August 1996.) View Details
  65. NIKE in Transition (A): The Ascendancy of Bob Woodell

    Explores Bob Woodell's tenure as Nike's first COO. Describes development of Woodell's management style, his attempts to develop the organization, and his responses to unforeseen business problems. Changing market forces, new competitors, a build-up of low-end inventory, and the absence of Phil Knight, the company's founder, in daily operations, make this a difficult time for Nike. Against the backdrop of disappointing financial results and an upcoming shareholders' meeting, students are asked to assess Woodell's performance, whether management is truly in control of the organization and the company's business, and what role Knight should be playing in the organization.

    Keywords: Conferences; Crisis Management; Management Style; Marketing Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Performance Evaluation; Competition;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "NIKE in Transition (A): The Ascendancy of Bob Woodell." Harvard Business School Case 392-105, May 1992. (Revised August 1996.) View Details
  66. The GM's Leadership Challenge: Building a Self-Renewing Institution

    Highlights the general manager's role in building a self-renewing organization.

    Keywords: Management Skills; Leadership Development; Managerial Roles; Management Teams; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "The GM's Leadership Challenge: Building a Self-Renewing Institution." Harvard Business School Background Note 397-023, July 1996. View Details
  67. Ingvar Kamprad and IKEA

    Traces the development of a Swedish furniture retailer under the leadership of an innovative and unconventional entrepreneur whose approaches redefine the nature and structure of the industry. Traces IKEA's growth from a tiny mail order business to the world's largest furniture dealership. Describes the innovative strategic and organizational changes Kamprad made to achieve success. In particular, focuses on his unique vision and values and the way they have become institutionalized as IKEA's binding corporate culture. The trigger issue revolves around whether this vital "corporate glue" can survive massive expansion into the United States and the Eastern Bloc and Kamprad's replacement as CEO by a "professional manager."

    Keywords: Restructuring; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development; Innovation Strategy; Leadership; Management Succession; Distribution; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Expansion; Value; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "Ingvar Kamprad and IKEA." Harvard Business School Case 390-132, May 1990. (Revised July 1996.) View Details
  68. Trans National Group

    Starting as a classic entrepreneur,Steve Belkin, CEO of Trans National (TN), drives the company through two businesses--one in group travel and another in financial services--before deciding to step back and act as a general manager whose focus and attention is on institutionalizing entrepreneurship within his organization. At the end of the case, he is questioning whether to step back further and act more as a venture capitalist and how such a move would affect TN as an organization.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Management; Growth Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Takia Mahmood. "Trans National Group." Harvard Business School Case 397-015, July 1996. View Details
  69. The GM's Organizational Challenge: Embedding and Leveraging Capability

    Describes how general managers can build organizational capability in their firms.

    Keywords: Management Skills; Managerial Roles; Management Teams; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "The GM's Organizational Challenge: Embedding and Leveraging Capability." Harvard Business School Background Note 397-011, July 1996. View Details
  70. The GM's Operational Challenge: Managing Through People

    Highlights and explores how a general manager adds value to the firm at the operational level by managing through people. Discusses how assumptions about human motivation influence the employment contract that the general manager implicitly enters into with the workers and ends with speculation on how the employment contract is fundamentally changing.

    Keywords: Employee Relationship Management; Selection and Staffing; Contracts; Managerial Roles; Operations; Problems and Challenges; Labor and Management Relations; Motivation and Incentives; Value;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "The GM's Operational Challenge: Managing Through People." Harvard Business School Background Note 396-400, May 1996. View Details
  71. General Management: A Conceptual Introduction

    Addresses the following issues at a conceptual level: 1) Who is a general manager? 2) To whom is the general manager responsible? and 3) How do general managers add value?

    Keywords: Leadership; Management; Management Skills; Managerial Roles;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "General Management: A Conceptual Introduction." Harvard Business School Background Note 396-161, May 1996. View Details
  72. Body Shop International

    Describes the start-up and rapid growth of a company whose founder holds strong, non-traditional beliefs about the role of the corporation and its responsibility to society. After profiling Anita Roddick as a person, the case describes the anti-mainstream approach she took to building her highly successful business (no advertising, simple packaging, non-traditional R&D). After elaborating on the strong values she has imposed on the business, concludes by highlighting questions of the business' transferability to the United States and its survivability as Anita steps back.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Business Growth and Maturation; Leadership Style; Management Succession; Management Teams; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Values and Beliefs; Global Strategy; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Body Shop International." Harvard Business School Case 392-032, November 1991. (Revised July 1995.) View Details
  73. 3M: Profile of an Innovating Company

    Traces the birth and development of 3M Corp., focusing in particular on the origins of its entrepreneurially-based ability to innovate. In particular, it highlights the role of CEO William L. McKnight in creating a unique set of values, policies, and structures to nurture and develop continuous renewal. With the changing environment of the 1980s, however, a new generation of CEOs begin to adopt new policies and change the cultural norms that helped 3M grow. The trigger issue focuses on what other changes are required.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Competitive Advantage; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Afroze A Mohammed. "3M: Profile of an Innovating Company." Harvard Business School Case 395-016, January 1995. View Details
  74. Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team

    Describes Becton Dickinson's evolving attempt to develop products and strategies to meet worldwide competitive and market needs. Traces the evolution of a classic parent company-led product-market strategy to truly transnational product and strategy development. Explores the use of an integrative team as the organizational means of achieving global integration while preserving local flexibility.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Product Development; Innovation and Management; Competitive Advantage; Multinational Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Kathleen Scharf. "Becton Dickinson: Worldwide Blood Collection Team." Harvard Business School Case 394-072, October 1993. (Revised September 1994.) View Details
  75. Intel Corp.: Leveraging Capabilities for Strategic Renewal

    Traces the history of Intel from its earliest days as a technology-driven memory company to its emergence as an increasingly market-focused microprocessor company with emerging systems capabilities. The focus is on the strategic, organizational, and management adaptation that was required to ensure the company's survival in a highly volatile industry. Under the leadership of Andy Grove and Gordon Moore, Intel is able to overlay its R&D base with manufacturing and marketing capabilities that allow it to continually adapt to changes and renew itself.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Adaptation; Management Skills; Management Practices and Processes; Strategy; Organizations; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "Intel Corp.: Leveraging Capabilities for Strategic Renewal." Harvard Business School Case 394-141, March 1994. View Details
  76. ABB Deutschland (Abridged)

    Focuses in detail on implementing a corporate restructuring program in ABB's German subsidiary. Special attention is given to Germany's unique form of industrial governance. Two major problem areas--power plants and power transformers--are described in detail. ABB's new policies, in terms of strategy, organization, behavior, and financial targets, are portrayed. How should the head of ABB Germany proceed? Will the new ABB policies clash with Germany's national and BBC's corporate culture? Why are power plants and power transformers in deep trouble and what action can be taken? Does decentralization of the salesforce make sense? What are the challenges, opportunities, and risks facing ABB's Germany country head? Will the new international matrix be a help or a hindrance?

    Keywords: Restructuring; Energy Generation; Corporate Governance; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Salesforce Management; Policy; Organizational Culture; Energy Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "ABB Deutschland (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 394-019, July 1993. View Details
  77. Hennessy and Harvey-Jones: Two Responses to the Crisis in Chemicals

    Responding to the crisis in chemicals in the early 1980's, Allied Chemical (U.S.) and ICI (U.K.) appoint new chairmen to revitalize each company's strategy, culture, and organization. Hennessy, an outsider with a background in managing conglomerates, has strong ideas about Allied's proper strategy. He buys and sells businesses at a terrific clip and shakes up Allied's management, culture, and organization. More of a consensus builder than Hennessy and with a less abrasive management style, Harvey-Jones instigates large organizational and strategic changes at ICI. Allows students to compare the effectiveness of different management styles and leadership and to consider the different roles of a general manager.

    Keywords: Transition; Leading Change; Crisis Management; Management Style; Managerial Roles; Organizational Culture; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Hennessy and Harvey-Jones: Two Responses to the Crisis in Chemicals." Harvard Business School Case 392-157, June 1992. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  78. Jan Carlzon: CEO at SAS (A)

    Describes Jan Carlzon's actions on assuming the CEO's responsibility at SAS in a time of financial and organizational difficulty. After tracing Carlzon's development as a manager, it focuses on the way in which he developed, then communicated a clear and motivating strategic mission to become "the world's best businessman's airline." After a spectacular turnaround, organizational problems re-emerge, and the case concludes with Carlzon wondering if his "second wave" can provide the same impetus that he gained on his first wave. Highlights the power of a clear and well-communicated strategic mission (strategic intent), but also explores problems and limits that can arise. Specifically, focuses on the common problem of motivating middle managers who often feel disenfranchised by front line empowerment.

    Keywords: Communication; Financial Crisis; Employee Relationship Management; Knowledge; Leadership Development; Crisis Management; Motivation and Incentives; Business Strategy; Aerospace Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Jan Carlzon: CEO at SAS (A)." Harvard Business School Case 392-149, May 1992. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  79. Jan Carlzon: CEO at SAS (B)

    Summarizes Carlzon's new focus externally on building alliances and acquiring travel service companies. Describes the financial problems resulting from the recession and the Gulf War crisis. Designed as an in-class handout to highlight the long-term management commitment required to realign and inspire an organization to a new strategic mission. Allows a more balanced appraisal of Carlzon's leadership abilities and limitations.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Financial Crisis; Problems and Challenges; Planning; Leadership; Alliances; Strategy; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Jan Carlzon: CEO at SAS (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 392-150, May 1992. (Revised May 1993.) View Details
  80. General Electric: Jack Welch's Second Wave (A)

    By the mid 1980's Jack Welch had completely transformed General Electric with more than 300 divestitures and acquisitions since the beginning of the decade. Welch insisted that his business units be number one or number two in their markets, and have the strength of large companies and the leanness and agility of small ones. Yet, although Welch had succeeded restructuring GE the way he wanted, employee morale was low. The case focuses on Welch raising employee productivity by continuing to remove layers of management and by allowing employees to have a greater voice in their own affairs.

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; Transformation; Employee Relationship Management; Planning; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "General Electric: Jack Welch's Second Wave (A)." Harvard Business School Case 391-248, June 1991. (Revised April 1993.) View Details
  81. Kentucky Fried Chicken (Japan) Ltd.

    Describes the internationalization of the Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) fast food chain, focusing on KFC's entry into Japan. An entrepreneurial country general manager, Lou Weston, battles numerous problems to establish the business and is eventually highly successful. In doing so, Weston ignores or circumvents policies and control from KFC's headquarters and becomes very upset when more sophisticated planning, coordination, and control systems begin to constrain his freedom. The case presents both the headquarters and subsidiary perspectives and allows discussion of the conflicts between strategic planning and control and entrepreneurial independence in a multinational company.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Economies and Regions; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Market Entry and Exit; Strategic Planning; Agency Theory; Perspective; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Kentucky Fried Chicken (Japan) Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 387-043, November 1986. (Revised December 1992.) View Details
  82. Corning, Inc.: A Network of Alliances

    Describes James Houghton's actions in assuming the role of CEO at Corning in the midst of a recession. Not only must he turn around operating performance, he must also revitalize a demoralized organization and set a new, clear strategic direction. In doing so, the case focuses on the changing role of alliances and partnerships in Corning operations. Increasingly, they are moving from a peripheral role in providing market access interchange for technology, to a more central role at the core of Corning's business. The strategic and organizational challenges this presents are highlighted through some specific decision issues facing Houghton.

    Keywords: Business Cycles; Policy; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Performance Expectations; Partners and Partnerships; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Ashish Nanda. "Corning, Inc.: A Network of Alliances." Harvard Business School Case 391-102, November 1990. (Revised August 1992.) View Details
  83. General Electric: Jack Welch's Second Wave (B)

    In the annual report, Welch indicates a new priority for the company--developing a cadre of managers who can lead GE in implementing its strategy in a new organizational context. The question facing Welch is whether his bold new human resource vision is realistic and achievable.

    Keywords: Human Resources; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Design; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "General Electric: Jack Welch's Second Wave (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 392-113, June 1992. View Details
  84. General Electric: Reg Jones and Jack Welch

    When GE's retiring Reginald Jones turned the job of CEO over to Jack Welch on April 1, 1981, the Wall Street Journal reported that GE had "decided to replace a legend with a live wire." Some wondered if the young dynamo could fill the elder statesman's very large shoes. But Welch had a very powerful and well-articulated vision of where he wanted his company to go. By 1984, he had regrouped GE's sectors, redefined its core businesses, made massive investment and disinvestment decisions, changed the company's approach to planning, and drastically cut personnel. Despite a major recession in the world economy and flat sales, profits rose from $1.5 billion in 1980 to $2.3 billion in 1984. This case chronicles the evolution of GE through the 1970s and early 1980s, focusing particularly on the changes wrought by Reg Jones and the way in which Jack Welch took that heritage and reshaped it to fit the demands of a new decade.

    Keywords: Management Teams; Business or Company Management; Change Management; Leading Change; Restructuring; Investment; Strategic Planning; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Management Succession;

    Citation:

    Aguilar, Francis, and Christopher A. Bartlett. "General Electric: Reg Jones and Jack Welch." Harvard Business School Case 391-144, June 1991. (Revised October 1991.) View Details
  85. Caterpillar, Inc.: George Schaefer Takes Charge

    For over half a century, Caterpillar, Inc. (CAT) had been a world leader in the manufacture of earthmoving and construction machinery. In 1982, just months after it recorded the highest sales and profits in its history, CAT experienced its greatest crisis. Demand fell away, its UAW workers went on strike, and Komatsu began challenging CAT's market position. The company lost almost $1 billion over the next three years. The case focuses on George Schaefer as a general manager and the series of actions he initiated on becoming CEO to restore CAT's position. Details a series of strategic and organizational initiatives that are transforming the company, but also raises some risks and questions Schaefer and the company must face. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Machinery and Machining; Crisis Management; Labor Unions; Demand and Consumers; Management Teams; Problems and Challenges; Competitive Strategy; Business Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Manufacturing Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Industrial Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Caterpillar, Inc.: George Schaefer Takes Charge." Harvard Business School Case 390-036, September 1989. (Revised July 1991.) View Details
  86. Komatsu: Ryoichi Kawai's Leadership

    Highlights the role played by Ryoichi Kawai in building a company that was able to challenge industry leader Caterpillar. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Leadership; Management; Growth Management; Competition; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Komatsu: Ryoichi Kawai's Leadership." Harvard Business School Case 390-037, September 1989. (Revised July 1991.) View Details
  87. Dominion Engineering Works

    Dominion Engineering Works faces important strategic decisions about whether to continue its focused strategy of selling newsprint machines to the Canadian paper industry or whether recent changes in industry conditions and the emergence of three global competitors will force it to diversify its product line and/or its geographic markets. Allows analysis of global competitive strategy versus a national champion strategy in an evolving industry. Can be used with Note on the Paper Machine Industry.

    Keywords: Machinery and Machining; Globalized Markets and Industries; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Partners and Partnerships; Competitive Strategy; Customization and Personalization; Diversification;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Dominion Engineering Works." Harvard Business School Case 383-184, June 1983. (Revised April 1991.) View Details
  88. Caterpillar-Komatsu in 1986

    Provides an update to the global competitive interaction between Caterpillar and Komatsu described in companion cases Caterpillar Tractor and Komatsu Ltd. Caterpillar's response to Komatsu's growing market share is outlined, then the impact of rapidly changing dollar/yen exchange rates provides Caterpillar with an interesting pricing decision.

    Keywords: Competition; Currency Exchange Rate; Price; Global Strategy; Policy; Market Participation; Strategy; Manufacturing Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Industrial Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Caterpillar-Komatsu in 1986." Harvard Business School Supplement 387-095, December 1986. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  89. Komatsu in 1986

    Describes the impact of a rising Yen on Komatsu's pricing strategy. Komatsu management seems to be signalling the need for price increases. Asks what Cat's new CEO, George Schaefer, should do in response.

    Keywords: Currency Exchange Rate; Price; Leadership; Management; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Komatsu in 1986." Harvard Business School Supplement 390-179, June 1990. View Details
  90. Matsushita Electric Industrial (MEI) in 1987

    Describes the development of Matsushita's international operations and the building of its dominant competitive position in the consumer electronics industry. Picks up the major challenges facing the company in 1987 as both its product focus and geographic posture are brought into question. The president is implementing two projects, Action 86 to shift the business focus from consumer to industrial electronics and Operation Localization to shift more of the value added offshore.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Goods and Commodities; Product Positioning; Problems and Challenges; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Value; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Matsushita Electric Industrial (MEI) in 1987." Harvard Business School Case 388-144, May 1988. (Revised March 1990.) View Details
  91. Procter & Gamble Europe: Vizir Launch

    Describes P&G's expansion in Europe, including the development of a strong country subsidiary management, responsive to local market differences. The launch of a new product presents strategic and organizational challenges as P&G considers making this their first Eurobrand, and managing it in a coordinated Europewide fashion.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Trade; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Product Launch; Emerging Markets; Organizational Design; Problems and Challenges; Expansion; Europe;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Procter & Gamble Europe: Vizir Launch." Harvard Business School Case 384-139, November 1983. (Revised October 1989.) View Details
  92. Caterpillar Tractor Co.

    Describes the structure and evolution of the earth moving equipment industry worldwide in the post war era, particularly focusing on developments in the 1960s and 1970s. Describes Caterpillar's strategy in becoming the dominant worldwide competitor (industry market share exceeding 50%). Includes details on CAT's manufacturing, marketing research and development, and organizational policies. Concludes with a description of some environmental changes occurring in the early 1980s, and raises the question of how these might effect Caterpillar Tractor Co.'s record 1981 performance and require changes in its highly successful strategy.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Business Strategy; Manufacturing Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Caterpillar Tractor Co." Harvard Business School Case 385-276, February 1985. (Revised September 1988.) View Details
  93. Komatsu Ltd.

    Reviews and updates the structure and characteristics of the earth-moving equipment industry presented in the companion case, Caterpillar Tractor Co. After revealing that CAT has suffered major financial losses during the period from 1981 through 1984, the case describes how Komatsu grew from a $170 million local manufacturer in 1963 to become CAT's major challenge in the emerging global competitive battle. The case traces the strategy followed by Komatsu in developing its product technology, manufacturing capability, and marketing skills worldwide. The supplement, Caterpillar-Komatsu in 1986, provides an update to the global competitive interaction between Caterpillar and Komatsu. Caterpillar's response to Komatsu's growing market share is outlined, then the impact of rapidly changing dollar/yen exchange rates provides Caterpillar with an interesting pricing decision.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Machinery and Machining; Price; Growth and Development; Brands and Branding; Product Development; Production; Competitive Strategy; Global Strategy; Manufacturing Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Industrial Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Komatsu Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 385-277, February 1985. (Revised September 1988.) View Details
  94. Ideal Standard France: Pat Paterson

    A newly appointed country subsidiary manager must decide on action for an operation losing $1 million per month. He is constrained by price controls on one hand and sensitive union relations on the other. Furthermore a major loss-contributing plant has recently been converted as a Europe-wide source.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Transition; Cost Management; Management; Crisis Management; Labor and Management Relations;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Ideal Standard France: Pat Paterson." Harvard Business School Case 382-139, April 1982. (Revised September 1986.) View Details
  95. Roles and Responsibilities of the Country Manager: MNC Operations from the National Organization's Perspective

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Multinational Firms and Management;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Roles and Responsibilities of the Country Manager: MNC Operations from the National Organization's Perspective." Harvard Business School Background Note 385-326, April 1985. View Details
  96. EMI and the CT Scanner (B)

    Describes the development of the first CT Scanner by EMI, a company new to the medical industry, and EMI's entry into the U.S. market. The company's early success is threatened by the entry of a dozen competitors (some very large and experienced), by government regulation, and by internal organizational problems.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Technological Innovation; Market Entry and Exit; Industry Structures; Product Development; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "EMI and the CT Scanner (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 383-195, June 1983. (Revised March 1985.) View Details
  97. Merloni Group

    The general manager of the recently-established French subsidiary of an Italian appliance company is in conflict with headquarters about unexpectedly poor financial performance. Headquarters management believes it should be able to exert more control over the subsidiary's strategic decision. The subsidiary general manager feels the Italians are already intervening too much. A change in organization structure is being debated.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Trade; Organizational Structure; Performance Evaluation; Power and Influence; France; Italy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Merloni Group." Harvard Business School Case 383-152, March 1983. (Revised January 1984.) View Details
  98. Note on the Paper Machinery Industry

    Describes the major structural changes taking place in the paper industry in the 1970s: major oil and pulp price increases, pollution legislation, a shift in industry development from OECD countries to LDCs and NICs and the technological revolution in paper making. These factors have led to important changes in the competitive environment, and specifically to the emergence of three companies pursuing "global strategies." Can be used with Dominion Engineering Works.

    Keywords: Engineering; Price; Global Strategy; Growth and Development; Industry Structures; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Pollution and Pollutants; Competition; Pulp and Paper Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Note on the Paper Machinery Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 383-185, June 1983. View Details
  99. Ideal Standard France: Pat Paterson, Video

    A two-part taped interview with Pat Paterson. Paterson describes the action he took in dealing with his company's profit problems, then talks about the outcome. His decision to dismiss 1,500 workers may have accelerated the company's bankruptcy.

    Keywords: Decisions; Insolvency and Bankruptcy; Profit; Resignation and Termination; Outcome or Result; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Ideal Standard France: Pat Paterson, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 883-512, October 1982. View Details
  100. Corning Glass Works International, Part I, Interviews with Division Managers, Video

    Presents tapes of interviews with Forrest Behm (previously president of Corning International), Bill Hudson (ex-country manager, international business manager, world board chairman, and current product division manager), and Van Campbell (corporate treasurer). Reflections and lessons on the changes in Corning's international strategy and organization 1975-80.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Global Strategy; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Michael Y. Yoshino. "Corning Glass Works International, Part I, Interviews with Division Managers, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 882-512, November 1981. View Details
  101. Corning Glass Works International, Part II, Interviews with Top Management, Video

    Presents tapes of interviews with Tom MacAvoy (Corning Glass president) and James Houghton (Corning Glass vice-chairman).

    Keywords: Management Teams; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A., and Michael Y. Yoshino. "Corning Glass Works International, Part II, Interviews with Top Management, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 882-513, November 1981. View Details
  102. Questionable Payments Abroad: Gulf in Italy

    Gulf Oil in Italy was confronted by the need to increase the authorized capacity at a refinery in the face of substantial opposition. Raises the issue of their use of "facilitating gratuities" to minor officials, payments to influence news reports, and the employment of a consultant to assist in government relations to gain passage of the permit.

    Keywords: Ethics; Energy Industry; Mining Industry; Italy;

    Citation:

    Bartlett, Christopher A. "Questionable Payments Abroad: Gulf in Italy." Harvard Business School Case 382-080, November 1981. View Details