James E. Austin

Eliot I. Snider and Family Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus

Dr. Austin holds the Eliot I. Snider and Family Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus at the Harvard Business School. Previously he held the John G. McLean Professorship and the Richard Chapman Professorship. He has been a member of the Harvard University faculty since 1972. He was the Co-Founder and Chair of the HBS Social Enterprise Initiative.

Educational Background: Doctor of Business Administration and Master of Business Administration from Harvard University with Distinction; Bachelor of Business Administration from The University of Michigan with High Distinction, elected to Beta Gamma Sigma.

Research Publications: He has been the author or editor of 16 books, dozens of articles, and over a hundred case studies on business and nonprofit organizations. His most recent book is Social Partnering in Latin America published in 2004 (Harvard University Press), a collaborative research publication of the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network (SEKN). In 2000 he authored The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances (Jossey-Bass Publishers)which was selected to be part of the Drucker Foundation Leader Book series and received one of the Independent Sector's research publication awards. His current research deals with social enterprises with emphasis on the creation, management, and governance of nonprofit organizations, and on the role of business leaders and corporations in the social sector. His prior research focused primarily on management problems in developing countries, agribusiness, and nutrition policy. His previous books include Managing in Developing Countries (The Free Press), Strategic Management in Developing Countries (The Free Press), and Agroindustrial Project Analysis (World Bank/Johns Hopkins Press).

Teaching Experience: Prof. Austin has taught courses in the following areas: Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector, Governance of Nonprofit Organizations, Management in Developing Countries, Agribusiness, Business Ethics, International Business, Business-Government Relations, Marketing, Nutrition Policy, and Case Method Teaching. In addition to Harvard, Dr. Austin has given seminars to managers, government officials, and graduate students in various institutions throughout the world.

Advisory Services: Dr. Austin has provided advisory services to private companies, governments, international development agencies, educational institutions, and nongovernmental organizations. He served as a Special Advisor to the White House.

Books

  1. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector

    "Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector provides an excellent overview of the many tools available to the entrepreneur to advance his or her mission, and it discusses many of the problems that organizations and their managers encounter at different points of a growth process."
    -NONPROFIT AND VOLUNTARY SECTOR QUARTERLY

     Written for students and practitioners, this unique text, with Harvard cases, provides detailed analysis and frameworks for achieving maximum impact through social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector enables readers to attain an in depth understanding of the distinctive characteristics of the social enterprise context and organizations. The authors offer tools to develop the knowledge to pursue social entrepreneurship more strategically and achieve mission impact more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Society;

    Citation:

    Wei-Skillern, Jane, James Austin, Herman Leonard, and Howard Stevenson. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector. Sage Publications, 2007. View Details
  2. Effective Management of Social Enterprises: Lessons from Businesses and Civil Society Organizations in Iberoamerica

    Keywords: Management; Social Enterprise; Learning; Business Ventures; Organizations; Africa;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Roberto Gutierrez, Enrique Ogliastri, and Ezequiel Reficco. Effective Management of Social Enterprises: Lessons from Businesses and Civil Society Organizations in Iberoamerica. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006. (Social Enterprise Knowledge Network (SEKN), Editorial Committee.) View Details
  3. Social Partnering in Latin America

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Ezequiel Reficco, Gabriel Berger, Rosa Maria Fischer, Roberto Gutierrez, Mladen Koljatic, Gerardo Lozano, and Enrique Ogliastri. Social Partnering in Latin America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004. View Details
  4. Dos Casos Colombianos de Gerencia Social: La Corporacion de Accion Solidaria Corposol y La Compania de Financiamiento Comercial Finansol

    Keywords: Commercial Banking; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Austin, James, Enrique Ogliastri, and Roberto Gutierrez. Dos Casos Colombianos de Gerencia Social: La Corporacion de Accion Solidaria Corposol y La Compania de Financiamiento Comercial Finansol. Vol. 55, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Administración Monografías. Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), Facultad de Administración, 2001, Spanish ed. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?

    What happens when small iconic socially oriented businesses are acquired by large corporations? Such mergers create significant opportunities for creating both business value and substantially expanded social value, but they also pose unusually difficult challenges because the merging entities are often strikingly different in philosophy and operating styles as well as in scale. This article examines three examples—Ben and Jerry's acquisition by Unilever, Stonyfield Farm by Groupe Danone, and Tom's of Maine by Colgate—to ascertain what is distinctive about the merger process and to analyze the elements critical to success. The article offers suggestions on how other companies considering similar arrangements might best manage the process of courtship, developing agreements, and executing effectively within the newly merged entities.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Management Style; Agreements and Arrangements; Social Enterprise; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?" California Management Review 51, no. 1 (fall 2008): 77–102. View Details
  2. La Nueva Ruta: alianzas sociales estrategicas (The New Path: Strategic Social Alliances)

    Keywords: Strategy; Society; Alliances; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Gustavo Herrero, and Ezequiel Reficco. "La Nueva Ruta: alianzas sociales estrategicas (The New Path: Strategic Social Alliances)." Harvard Business Review América Latina (December 2004). View Details
  3. Business Leadership Coalitions and Public-Private Partnerships in American Cities: A Business Perspective on Regime Theory

    Keywords: Leadership; Partners and Partnerships; Theory; Perspective; City; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James, and Arthur McCaffrey. "Business Leadership Coalitions and Public-Private Partnerships in American Cities: A Business Perspective on Regime Theory." Journal of Urban Affairs 24, no. 1 (spring 2002): 35–54. View Details
  4. Book Review of No Free Lunch: Food and Revolution in Cuba Today, edited by Medea Benjamin, Joseph Collins, and Michael Scott in Calories Count in Cuba

    Keywords: Food; Government and Politics; Cuba;

Book Chapters

  1. Civil Society - Business Relations

    Keywords: Civil Society or Community; Business and Community Relations; Business Ventures; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Alnoor Ebrahim. "Civil Society - Business Relations." In International Encyclopedia of Civil Society, edited by Helmut K. Anheier and Stefan Toepler. New York: Springer, 2010. View Details
  2. Sustainability through Partnering: Conceptualizing Partnerships between Businesses and NGOs

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Business Ventures; Non-Governmental Organizations;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Sustainability through Partnering: Conceptualizing Partnerships between Businesses and NGOs." Chap. 3 in Partnerships, Governance and Sustainable Development: Reflections on Theory and Practice, edited by Pieter Glasbergen, Frank Biermann, and Arthur P.J. Mole. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008. View Details
  3. Social Entrepreneurship: It's for Corporations, Too

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Ezequiel Reficco, Jane Wei-Skillern, and James E. Austin. "Social Entrepreneurship: It's for Corporations, Too." Chap. 8 in Social Entrepreneurship, edited by Johanna Mair, Jeffrey Robinson, and Kai Hockerts. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. View Details
  4. Cross Sector Collaboration: Lessons from the International Trachoma Initiative

    Keywords: Health Disorders; Health Care and Treatment; Public Sector; Private Sector; Business and Government Relations; International Relations; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Barrett, Diana, James E. Austin, and Sheila McCarthy. "Cross Sector Collaboration: Lessons from the International Trachoma Initiative." In Public-Private Partnerships for Public Health, edited by Michael R. Reich.Harvard Series on Population and International Health. Harvard University Press, 2002. View Details
  5. To See Ourselves as Others See Us: The Rewards of Classroom Observation

    Keywords: Perception; Education;

    Citation:

    Austin, J. E., A. Sweet, and C. Overholt. "To See Ourselves as Others See Us: The Rewards of Classroom Observation." In Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership, edited by David A. Garvin, C. R. Christensen, and A. Sweet. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991. View Details
  6. State Trading and the Futures Market

    Keywords: Futures and Commodity Futures; Government and Politics; Financial Markets;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Kenneth L. Hoadley. "State Trading and the Futures Market." In U.S.-Mexico Relations: Agriculture and Rural Development, edited by Bruce F. Johnston, Cassio Luiselli, Roger Norton, and Celso Cartas Contreras. Stanford University Press, 1987. View Details
  7. Food Marketing Public Enterprises

    Keywords: Food; Marketing; Distribution; Public Sector; Government and Politics; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Michael J. Buckley. "Food Marketing Public Enterprises." In Marketing Perspectives of Public Enterprises in Developing Countries, edited by K.L.K. Rao.ICPE Monograph Series. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia: International Center for Public Enterprises in Developing Countries, 1986. View Details
  8. Women in Development: A Framework for Project Analysis

    Keywords: Development Economics; Gender Characteristics; Projects;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., C. Overholt, Mary B. Anderson, and Kathleen Cloud. "Women in Development: A Framework for Project Analysis." In Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book, edited by Catherine Overholt, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud, and James E. Austin., 1985. View Details
  9. Nutrition Intervention Programs: Scope and Limits

    Keywords: Nutrition; Health Care and Treatment; Programs;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Nutrition Intervention Programs: Scope and Limits." In Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development: Symposia from the XII International Congress of Nutrition, edited by A. E. Harper and G. K. Daves. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1982. View Details
  10. The Marketing Factor for Nonconventional-Protein Products

    Keywords: Food; Product Marketing; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., J. A. Quelch, Joe R. D'Cruz, and Edward T. Popper. "The Marketing Factor for Nonconventional-Protein Products." Chap. 9 in Protein Resources and Technology, edited by Max Milner, Nevin S. Scrimshaw, and Daniel I.C. Wang, 111–135. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Company, 1978. View Details
  11. Cereal Fortification: Barriers to Implementation

    Keywords: Food; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Donald S. Snodgrass. "Cereal Fortification: Barriers to Implementation." In Improving the Nutrient Quality of Cereals II: Report on Second Workshop on Breeding and Fortification, edited by Harold Ludwig Wilcke. Washington, D.C.: AID, 1976. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Corporate Social Entrepreneurship

    Corporate Social Entrepreneurship (CSE) is a process aimed at enabling business to develop more advanced and powerful forms of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Social Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Ezequiel Reficco. "Corporate Social Entrepreneurship." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-101, March 2009. View Details
  2. Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?

    What happens when small iconic socially-oriented businesses are acquired by large corporations? Such mergers create significant opportunities for creating both business value and substantially expanded social value, but also pose unusually difficult challenges because the merging entities are often strikingly different in philosophy and operating styles as well as in scale. We examine three examples -- Ben and Jerry's acquisition by Unilever, Stonyfield Farm by Groupe Danone, and Tom's of Maine by Colgate -- to ascertain what is distinctive about the merger process and to analyze the elements critical to success. We develop suggestions about how other companies considering similar arrangements might best manage the process of courtship, developing agreements, and executing effectively within the newly merged entities.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Management Style; Agreements and Arrangements; Social Enterprise; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Herman B. Leonard. "Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-047, September 2008. View Details
  3. Social Enterprise Series No. 28--Social Entrepreneurship and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?

    Citation:

    Austin, James, Howard H. Stevenson, and Jane Wei-Skillern. "Social Enterprise Series No. 28--Social Entrepreneurship and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 04-029, November 2003. View Details
  4. Social Enterprise Series No. 20: Business Leadership Coalitions and Public-Private Partnerships in American Cities: A Perspective on Regime Theory

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Arthur McCaffrey. "Social Enterprise Series No. 20: Business Leadership Coalitions and Public-Private Partnerships in American Cities: A Perspective on Regime Theory." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 01-080, May 2001. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Ben & Jerry's: Preserving Mission & Brand within Unilever

    In the months after Ben & Jerry's was acquired by Unilever, Ben & Jerry's head social mission faces challenges and opportunities unique in the company's history, including: how to manage employee morale; whether to include synthetic ingredients to meet consumer preferences; how to preserve the company's tradition of speaking out on public issues; and how to maintain the company's distinctive brand image. Also, depicts an innovative corporate governance model with an external board comprising former Ben & Jerry's executives to advise the new CEO on managing the company's distinctive brand and values.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Problems and Challenges; Mergers and Acquisitions; Mission and Purpose; Social Enterprise; Management Teams; Governing and Advisory Boards; Value Creation; Corporate Governance; Employee Relationship Management; Food and Beverage Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and James Quinn. "Ben & Jerry's: Preserving Mission & Brand within Unilever." Harvard Business School Case 306-037, December 2005. (Revised January 2007.) View Details
  2. Organics: Coming Center Stage?

    The organics movement has certainly come a long way. From hippie farming communes and a scattering of natural food stores in the 1960s, organics outgrew its origins as a counterculture curiosity of the 1970s to become the fastest growing segment of the food industry in the 21st century. But 2006 sent shock waves through the organics industry. In April, the world's largest retailer, Wal-Mart, announced that it would double the number of organic food items sold in its 3,800 stores and in the additional 1,400 it still planned to build in the Untied States. The retailer also pledged to become a center of affordable "organics for everyone" and started by doubling its organic offerings in 2006 at 374 of its stores. Wal-Mart had already introduced its own "Great Value" brand of organic milk in 1,200 of its "supercenter" and was selling it for 10% less than Horizon Organic, the organic milk brand Wal-Mart had carried for three years. Wal-Mart's senior management had already told Wall Street analysts that its organic food would cost just 10% more than traditional groceries. Was Wal-Mart's move a tipping point for the organics industry by kindling broad consumer interest in organics in America's heartland? What would be the impact on the other players in the organics system?

    Keywords: Food; Supply and Industry; Consumer Behavior; Competitive Advantage; Competitive Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Reed Martin. "Organics: Coming Center Stage?" Harvard Business School Case 907-405, November 2006. View Details
  3. Forest Stewardship Council

    In just a few years the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) made impressive progress toward its mission of promoting "environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of the world's forests." By 2001, 25.5 million hectares of forests in 66 countries had been certified as meeting FSC's standards for sustainable forestry. With members in 59 countries, the FSC had managed to bring forestry's mainstream close to its viewpoint, with 80% of the industry recognizing the need for third-party certification. However, by mid-2002, the formula that had brought success to the organization as a small start-up was proving inadequate to sustain the healthy growth of a global, mature, multistakeholder organization. Its management and staff were finding themselves lacking critical skills to take the organization to the next level. Some of its governing structures were paralyzing it. Serious imbalances between supply and demand of certified wood were threatening to break the organization. Moreover, competing certification schemes backed by powerful business groups were moving swiftly to capitalize on those imbalances and displace FSC as the global standard of choice for certification. Finally, the organization also suffered from a chronic financial weakness. In that context, Heiko Liedeker, FSC's executive director, is compelled to rethink the organization.

    Keywords: Finance; Corporate Governance; Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Ezequiel Reficco. "Forest Stewardship Council." Harvard Business School Case 303-047, November 2002. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  4. Timberland and Community Involvement (Abridged Version)

    When Jeffrey Swartz became the third generation in his family to lead the Timberland Co., he made community involvement an integral part of the company's strategy. Under Swartz's leadership, Timberland formed a close partnership with City Year, the national corps of young adults engaged in community service events, established a community enterprise division to schedule community service events, and gave each employee 32 hours of annual paid leave to participate in service work. As a result of these initiatives, Swartz believed the idea of community service at Timberland had gone beyond traditional notions of philanthropy or cause-related marketing to become a central feature of the company and brand's identity. However, in 1995, the spectacular sales growth Timberland enjoyed during the first years of Jeffrey Swartz's tenure as COO leveled off. The company reported its first loss and initiated significant restructuring. The tough times prompted some observers to question Timberland's continued commitment to community service. An abridged version of a case.

    Keywords: Giving and Philanthropy; Business and Community Relations; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Corporate Strategy; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and James Quinn. "Timberland and Community Involvement (Abridged Version)." Harvard Business School Case 304-086, January 2004. (Revised February 2005.) View Details
  5. Timberland: Commerce and Justice

    When Jeffrey Swartz became the third generation in his family to lead the Timberland Co., he pursued a strategy in which commerce and justice were "inextricably linked." Community involvement, environmental management, and global labor standards became not addenda to the commercial strategy, but integral parts of it. Spanning more than 10 years of Swartz's innovative leadership, this case presents a well-developed, value-centric business in which management faces two emerging challenges: how to measure the impact of its social justice activities and how to export its values-based strategy abroad. Focuses on strategic management of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program. The development of Timberland's innovative commerce and justice strategy sheds light on ways in which strategic alignment can provide energy, synergy, and resources critical to developing a successful CSR program within a for-profit company.

    Keywords: Business Model; For-Profit Firms; Innovation and Invention; Leadership Development; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Programs; Opportunities; Alignment; Business Strategy; Value;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Herman B. Leonard, and James Quinn. "Timberland: Commerce and Justice." Harvard Business School Case 305-002, July 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  6. Peninsula Community Foundation

    After leading the Peninsula Community Foundation (PCF) through a period of tremendous growth, its president, Sterling Speirn, is facing the prospect of a decline in the foundation's asset base for the first time in the foundation's history. In addition, the fact that financial service companies had made recent inroads in the market for administering donor-advised funds in recent years, an area that had been a key source for growth for community foundations for the last few decades, compelled Speirn to evaluate PCF's positioning in the market and to consider potential collaboration opportunities with these companies.

    Keywords: Giving and Philanthropy; Product Positioning; Planning; Alliances; Opportunities; Nonprofit Organizations; Valuation; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Jane Wei-Skillern, and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld. "Peninsula Community Foundation." Harvard Business School Case 304-015, August 2003. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  7. Starbucks and Conservation International

    Starbucks, the world's leading specialty coffee company, developed a strategic alliance with Conservation International, a major international environmental nonprofit organization. The purpose of the alliance was to promote coffee-growing practices of small farms that would protect endangered habitats. The collaboration emerged from the company's corporate social responsibility policies and its coffee procurement strategy. The initial project was in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas and resulted in the incorporation of shade-grown coffee into the Starbucks product line, providing an attractive alternative market for the farmer cooperatives at a time when coffee producers were in economic crisis due to plummeting world prices. Simultaneously, the company had to deal with growing pressures from nonprofit organizations in the Fair Trade movement, demanding higher prices for farmers. Starbucks was reviewing the future of its alliance with Conservation International and its new coffee procurement guidelines aimed at promoting environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable coffee production. The nature of the industry puts the case in the global context from both the supply and demand sides.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Growth and Development Strategy; Markets; Demand and Consumers; Production; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Cooperative Ownership; Performance Efficiency; Alliances; Nonprofit Organizations; Food and Beverage Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Cate Reavis. "Starbucks and Conservation International." Harvard Business School Case 303-055, October 2002. (Revised May 2004.) View Details
  8. FIRA: Confronting the Mexican Agricultural Crisis

    In fall 2003, Mexico's agriculture sector was facing a crisis brought on largely by a surge in cheap U.S. imports resulting from NAFTA and inaccessible and/or expensive terms of credit for Mexican agricultural producers. It was getting harder for Mexican producers to compete, and many were leaving farming for the city. Francisco Mere, director of FIRA, a second-tier development bank, was in the process of developing and implementing a new strategy that would more effectively and efficiently reinvigorate the Mexican agricultural system.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Public Sector; Trade; Financial Instruments; Crisis Management; Markets; Strategic Planning; Partners and Partnerships; Competitive Strategy; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Michael Chu, and Cate Reavis. "FIRA: Confronting the Mexican Agricultural Crisis." Harvard Business School Case 304-032, December 2003. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  9. Harvard Business School Social Enterprise Initiative at the Ten-Year Mark, The

    In mid-2003, as the 10-year anniversary of Harvard Business School's Social Enterprise Initiative approached, the group's faculty and staff decided to analyze its past performance and to formulate its future strategy.

    Keywords: Decisions; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Performance Evaluation; Strategic Planning; Social Enterprise;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Stacey M. Childress, and Cate Reavis. "Harvard Business School Social Enterprise Initiative at the Ten-Year Mark, The." Harvard Business School Case 304-042, August 2003. (Revised October 2003.) View Details
  10. International Trachoma Initiative

    In an effort to combat trachoma, a major eye disease, the Clark Foundation entered into a partnership with Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. After a successful pilot project, a joint initiative was established (the Trachoma initiative) that has as its goal to eradicate the disease by working with other partners in a range of countries.

    Keywords: For-Profit Firms; Joint Ventures; Globalization; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Culture; Alliances; Partners and Partnerships; Non-Governmental Organizations; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Barrett, Diana, James E. Austin, and Sheila McCarthy. "International Trachoma Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 302-009, August 2001. (Revised April 2003.) View Details
  11. Harbus Foundation, The

    Describes the challenges faced by a group of HBS students as they create a foundation. Given surplus funds generated by the student-run newspaper, The Harbus leadership decides to find a meaningful use for the excess cash. Profiles both the entrepreneurial process used to establish the foundation and the challenges involved in deciding to whom to award grants. The group of protagonists face several decisions: 1) a controversial funding decision, 2) review and assessment of the foundation's strategy and process for grant solicitation and evaluation, and 3) the role of a student investment club in managing the foundation's portfolio.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Decision Choices and Conditions; Asset Management; Financial Institutions; Investment Portfolio; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Problems and Challenges; Social Enterprise; Valuation; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Linda Carrigan. "Harbus Foundation, The." Harvard Business School Case 399-031, August 1998. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  12. KaBOOM!

    KaBOOM! is a nonprofit organization developing playgrounds in partnership with corporations and communities. It has grown since 1995 to a national organization that has built 338 playgrounds in partnerships with over 40 companies. This case deals with the nature of strategic alliances with corporations and poses choices for shifting strategies. These include emphasizing advocacy and public education and enabling communities to build playgrounds themselves. Further complicating the strategy was growing competition from nonprofits and for-profits engaged in playground development.

    Keywords: Nonprofit Organizations; Alliances; Business Ventures; Strategy; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Jose Miguel Porraz. "KaBOOM!" Harvard Business School Case 303-025, September 2002. View Details
  13. Monsanto: Technology Cooperation and Small Holder Farmer Projects

    As the leading plant technology company in the global food system, how can Monsanto share this technology with small-sale producers and not-for-profit researchers and institutions?

    Keywords: Food; Globalized Markets and Industries; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Nonprofit Organizations; Society; Technology; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Diana Barrett, and Stephanie Oestreich. "Monsanto: Technology Cooperation and Small Holder Farmer Projects." Harvard Business School Case 302-068, December 2001. (Revised June 2002.) View Details
  14. AOL, Cisco, Yahoo!: Building the Internet Commons

    Since the spring of 2001, AOL, Cisco, and Yahoo! had collaborated on ways to improve the effectiveness of using the Internet to benefit society. Each company considered itself strongly committed to philanthropy, making significant charitable donations, and fostering a variety of active community outreach programs. Yet, executives at the three firms recognized the potentially larger impact that a joint effort could have on the greater public good. Overcoming a multitude of barriers to such intercompany cooperation, the firms decided to create Network for Good, a charity portal that individuals and nonprofit agencies in the e-philanthropy space could use to facilitate donations, volunteering, and citizen advocacy.

    Keywords: Internet; Web Sites; Giving and Philanthropy; Business and Community Relations; Information Technology Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "AOL, Cisco, Yahoo!: Building the Internet Commons." Harvard Business School Case 302-088, March 2002. View Details
  15. SchoolSuccess.net

    The mission of the nonprofit Jumpstart for Young Children was to address the problem of school readiness of low-income family preschoolers. It had been growing significantly, and to achieve its projected expansion would require major increases in funding. After considerable debate, it decided to create a for-profit subsidiary: a Web-based company disseminating the educational materials used in the Jumpstart program. The effort entailed raising private venture capital and recruiting a new management team. After a year, management was assessing the start-up experience and deliberating on its future strategy.

    Keywords: Nonprofit Organizations; Early Childhood Education; Venture Capital; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Startups; Management Teams;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Arthur McCaffrey. "SchoolSuccess.net." Harvard Business School Case 302-008, October 2001. View Details
  16. Charitableway

    In early 2001, Charitableway, an ePhilanthropy application service provider that enabled the collection of charitable donations online; faced major strategic decisions relating to its alliance with United Way of America to foster workplace giving online. One of the best capitalized dot-coms operating in the new ePhilanthropy sector and a pioneer in the workplace giving segment, it nonetheless, faced a series of challenges that threatened its success and even survival.

    Keywords: Online Technology; Giving and Philanthropy;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Elizabeth Kind. "Charitableway." Harvard Business School Case 302-003, September 2001. View Details
  17. Timberland and Community Involvement

    The Timberland Co., a manufacturer and retailer of footwear, outdoor apparel, and accessories, committed itself to instituting and communicating a core set of values to its employees, stockholders, and consumers. The system of beliefs emphasized community service. Central to this commitment was an alliance with the national youth community service organization City Year. Over the years, Timberland and City Year developed a close alliance that both sides contended constituted "a new paradigm" for the interaction between a for-profit business and a nonprofit organization. This case discusses Timberland's commitments to beliefs and service in light of disappointing financial results for the company and subsequent layoffs during the 1995 fiscal year. Introduces the idea of a corporate strategy for community involvement, allowing the instructor to raise questions about the choice of activities and partners, the breadth of projects and the source of motivation for such a strategy. Also allows discussion of the role of beliefs and of community service in the context of a company that has pioneered a distinct approach to these concepts.

    Keywords: Ethics; Values and Beliefs; Business and Community Relations; Social Enterprise; Corporate Strategy; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Jaan Elias. "Timberland and Community Involvement." Harvard Business School Case 796-156, May 1996. (Revised August 2001.) View Details
  18. Local Initiatives Support Corporation

    Local Initiatives Support Corp. (LISC) is a $74 million nonprofit social enterprise that combats poverty by helping community development organizations build affordable housing and create economic development opportunities through public-private partnerships. Poses a dilemma for the CEO: whether to grow geographically or programmatically. Presents the history of the organization and the many challenges facing urban and rural community groups, such as how to improve educational opportunities for their citizens. Also describes how LISC funds its operations, including the syndication of low-income housing tax credits, foundations, and private partnerships.

    Keywords: Business Model; Development Economics; Education; Capital; Investment Funds; Taxation; Growth and Development; Partners and Partnerships; Nonprofit Organizations; Segmentation; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Kim Slack. "Local Initiatives Support Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 301-124, January 2001. (Revised June 2001.) View Details
  19. Cantuga Farmworkers Clinic (A)

    The board of directors of a rural health clinic fires its executive director. The case elaborates the evolution and progress of the clinic under this director during a period of growth and a changing health care environment. Factors contributing to and questioning the firing decision are described.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Resignation and Termination; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Performance Evaluation; Problems and Challenges; Rank and Position; Social Enterprise; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Catherine Overholt. "Cantuga Farmworkers Clinic (A)." Harvard Business School Case 797-041, October 1996. (Revised May 2001.) View Details
  20. Corposol (Abridged Version)

    The social enterprise Corposol has become the largest lender to microentrepreneurs in Colombia. Its rapid growth and diversification into other services and geographical areas has created organizational and resource strains.

    Keywords: Social Enterprise; Growth Management; Diversification; Microfinance; Financial Services Industry; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Corposol (Abridged Version)." Harvard Business School Case 398-123, March 1998. (Revised April 2001.) View Details
  21. Merck Global Health Initiatives (A)

    The case series focuses on Merck's drug donation program and then raises new issues facing management about what to do about HIV/AIDS in Africa given the company's development of a new therapy. Describes collaboration among many parties including the Gates Foundation, other pharmaceutical companies, and the government of Botswana.

    Keywords: Programs; Giving and Philanthropy; Health Disorders; Health Care and Treatment; Private Sector; Public Sector; Alliances; Problems and Challenges; Pharmaceutical Industry; Botswana;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Diana Barrett, and James Weber. "Merck Global Health Initiatives (A)." Harvard Business School Case 301-088, January 2001. View Details
  22. Merck Global Health Initiatives (B): Botswana

    The case series focuses on Merck's drug donation program and then raises new issues facing management about what to do about HIV/AIDS in Africa given the company's development of a new therapy. Describes collaboration among many parties including the Gates Foundation, other pharmaceutical companies, and the government of Botswana.

    Keywords: Health Disorders; Health Care and Treatment; Private Sector; Public Sector; Alliances; Problems and Challenges; Africa; Botswana;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Diana Barrett, and James Weber. "Merck Global Health Initiatives (B): Botswana." Harvard Business School Case 301-089, January 2001. View Details
  23. Women's World Banking: Catalytic Change Through Networks

    Describes the evolution of Women's World Banking, an international microfinance nonprofit promoting financial access for poor women. Explores the organization's development of different types of networks to achieve its mission.

    Keywords: Mission and Purpose; History; Networks; Microfinance; Nonprofit Organizations; Gender Characteristics; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Susan Hamerling. "Women's World Banking: Catalytic Change Through Networks." Harvard Business School Case 300-050, October 1999. (Revised October 2000.) View Details
  24. Mexican Foundation for Rural Development

    The Mexican Foundation for Rural Development (MFRD) is a nonprofit network of 32 rural development centers servicing low-income farm families. Management plans to expand its operation dramatically, forming 10,000 rural cooperatives in ten years. It faces major issues related to implementing this strategy.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Operations; Cooperative Ownership; Nonprofit Organizations; Society; Strategy; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Gerardo Lozano. "Mexican Foundation for Rural Development." Harvard Business School Case 300-082, November 1999. (Revised January 2000.) View Details
  25. Explore, Inc.

    Documents the creation of a national before and after-school day care program aimed at bridging the gap between school and parents' work schedules. This high-growth, for-profit social enterprise organization operated in what was historically the domain of nonprofit or government sectors. Tensions emerge 1) pressure to grow and the need to maintain quality, 2) pursuit of a noble mission and a desire to create personal wealth, 3) creation of a national organization and a local program delivery capability, and 4) meeting investor expectations while maintaining the purity of the programs.

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Growth and Development; Order Taking and Fulfillment; Mission and Purpose; Performance Expectations; Quality; Social Enterprise; Travel Industry;

    Citation:

    Grossman, Allen S., James E. Austin, Myra M. Hart, and Sharon Peyus. "Explore, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 300-011, September 1999. (Revised November 1999.) View Details
  26. GLSTN 1996

    The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Teachers Network (GLSTN), which aims to create respect for all within schools regardless of sexual orientation, faces significant challenges stemming from its rapid growth into a 30-chapter national organization. Issues include headquarters-chapter relations, financial sustainability, leadership, and governance.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Problems and Challenges; Leadership; Networks; Policy; Change Management; Nonprofit Organizations; Leadership Development; Growth Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Willis M. Emmons III, and David Maue. "GLSTN 1996." Harvard Business School Case 797-038, September 1996. (Revised November 1999.) View Details
  27. IPODERAC

    This 32-year-old nonprofit organization has dedicated itself to the care and social development of abandoned street children in Mexico. Examines the organization's efforts to achieve financial sustainability, particularly through earned income activities on its farm. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Finance; Management; Organizations; Problems and Challenges; Nonprofit Organizations; Balance and Stability; Service Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Wendy Bermudez, and Gustavo Escobar. "IPODERAC." Harvard Business School Case 399-016, July 1998. (Revised October 1999.) View Details
  28. Newman's Own, Inc.

    Describes the creation and evolution of this food marketing corporation. All its after-tax profits are donated to charity by Paul Newman, the distinguished actor and social entrepreneur. The company has grown into a $100 million enterprise and donated cumulatively $89 million to charities. It faces major competitive and organizational challenges. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Food; Organizations; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Problems and Challenges; Competitive Advantage; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Newman's Own, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 399-052, October 1998. (Revised November 1998.) View Details
  29. Community Wealth Ventures, Inc.

    Share Our Strength, a successful anti-hunger nonprofit organization, created a for-profit subsidiary--Community Wealth Ventures (CWV)--to provide advisory services to companies and nonprofits on collaboration. Management is reviewing CWV's start-up experience.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; For-Profit Firms; Governing and Advisory Boards; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Partners and Partnerships; Nonprofit Organizations; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Meredith D. Pearson. "Community Wealth Ventures, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 399-023, July 1998. (Revised August 1998.) View Details
  30. Cleveland Tomorrow, Video

    As part of Cleveland's turnaround, Cleveland Tomorrow creates new investment funds to stimulate new business development. This development is designed to earn a profit and bring new benefits to the community. Part of the HBS Social Enterprise Video Series on Business Leadership in the Social Sector (BLSS).

    Keywords: Investment Funds; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Business and Community Relations; Social Enterprise;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Rosabeth M. Kanter. "Cleveland Tomorrow, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 399-507, August 1998. View Details
  31. Cleveland Turnaround (B), The: Building on Progress (1989-1996)

    Traces the Cleveland community's efforts to move the city from economic, social, and political crisis in the late 1970s into revitalization and progress in the 1980s and 1990s. Special attention is given to the role of business leaders and the public-private partnership. This case covers the 1989-96 period and initiatives in housing, education, and physical development.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Economic Growth; Business and Community Relations; Financial Crisis; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Andrea L Strimling. "Cleveland Turnaround (B), The: Building on Progress (1989-1996)." Harvard Business School Case 796-152, April 1996. (Revised April 1998.) View Details
  32. Finansol

    Finansol, created to provide loans to micro-entrepreneurs, encountered considerable difficulties after rapidly growing to become the biggest micro-enterprise lender in Colombia. Major restructuring was required to rescue it.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Microfinance; Crisis Management; Problems and Challenges; Social Enterprise; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Roberto Gutierrez, Marc Labie, and Enrique Ogliastri. "Finansol." Harvard Business School Case 398-071, November 1997. (Revised February 1998.) View Details
  33. Finansol: Financiera para Microempresas (Spanish Version)

    Keywords: Financing and Loans; Microfinance;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Roberto Gutierrez, Marc Labie, and Enrique Ogliastri. "Finansol: Financiera para Microempresas (Spanish Version)." Harvard Business School Case 398-073, November 1997. (Revised February 1998.) View Details
  34. Oxfam America

    Oxfam America, a nongovernmental organization providing grant assistance to organizations fighting hunger, poverty, and their causes, was engaged in a new strategy formulation process, led by its new president.

    Keywords: Change; Situation or Environment; Non-Governmental Organizations; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and James Kondo. "Oxfam America." Harvard Business School Case 798-036, October 1997. (Revised January 1998.) View Details
  35. Cleveland Turnaround, The: Case and Video TN

    Teaching Note for (9-796-151), (9-796-152), (9-796-153), (9-796-154), and (9-797-501).

    Keywords: Social Enterprise; Government Administration; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Crisis Management; Corporate Accountability; Economic Sectors; Problems and Challenges; Opportunities; Development Economics; Leadership; Partners and Partnerships;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Cleveland Turnaround, The: Case and Video TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 798-029, September 1997. (Revised November 1997.) View Details
  36. NAACP, The

    In February 1995, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the largest civil rights organization in the United States, was in the midst of a crisis. The executive director had been fired due to financial improprieties amid charges of sexual harassment. Immediately thereafter the board chairman came under fire as well. In a very close vote, Myrlie Evers-Williams, a long-standing board member, was elected the new board chair. She found herself leading an organization with severely diminished credibility and support, precarious finances, and a fractured board of directors. The case raises issues regarding board oversight, governance structure, and crisis leadership in a nonprofit setting.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Capital; Governance Controls; Resignation and Termination; Selection and Staffing; Rights; Leadership; Management; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Paul Barese, Stephanie L. Woerner, and Elaine V. Backman. "NAACP, The ." Harvard Business School Case 398-039, October 1997. (Revised November 1997.) View Details
  37. Cleveland Turnaround: Leadership in Action

    Consists of three separate parts. Part 1, The Cleveland Turnaround, describes Cleveland's decline until its bankruptcy in 1978. This is followed by the remedial actions taken by community leaders, starting with the election of a new mayor, the formation of new community organizations such as Cleveland Tomorrow, a grouping of CEOs focusing on the economic revitalization of the community, and the Cleveland Roundtable, a grouping aimed at achieving greater racial harmony. The community's actions in the areas of economic development, downtown development, and inner-city housing and commercial development are described. Leaders talk about the central role played in the turnaround by their "public-private partnership." Part 2, Challenges for the Future, provides short comments by a cross-section of leaders about what they perceive to be significant challenges still facing the city as it moves into the 21st century. Part 3, Lessons on Leadership and Community Building, consists of a collection of remarks by a variety of public and private leaders about the lessons of the Cleveland turnaround.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Business Cycles; Development Economics; Urban Development; Social Issues; Business and Community Relations; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Jaan Elias, and Andrea L Strimling. "Cleveland Turnaround: Leadership in Action." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 797-501, December 1996. View Details
  38. Cleveland Turnaround (A, The: Responding to the Crisis (1978-1988)

    Traces the Cleveland community's efforts to move the city from economic, social, and political crisis in the late 1970s into revitalization and progress in the 1980s and 1990s. Special attention is given to the role of business leaders and the public-private partnership. This case covers the 1978-88 period of responding to the crisis and focuses particularly on the formation of Cleveland Tomorrow, a CEO-only group focused on community development.

    Keywords: Transition; Business Cycles; Business and Community Relations; Financial Crisis; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Andrea L Strimling. "Cleveland Turnaround (A, The: Responding to the Crisis (1978-1988)." Harvard Business School Case 796-151, April 1996. (Revised November 1996.) View Details
  39. Supermarkets in Inner Cities

    Excerpts from five articles that present the challenges and opportunities inherent in opening and operating supermarkets in inner-city neighborhoods.

    Keywords: Urban Scope; Market Entry and Exit; Alliances; Business and Government Relations; Problems and Challenges; Development Economics; Business and Community Relations; Business Ventures; Strategic Planning; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Jaan Elias. "Supermarkets in Inner Cities." Harvard Business School Case 796-145, March 1996. (Revised November 1996.) View Details
  40. Cleveland Turnaround (C), The: Facts and Figures

    Traces the Cleveland community's efforts to move the city from economic, social, and political crisis in the late 1970s into revitalization and progress in the 1980s and 1990s. Special attention is given to the role of business leaders and the public-private partnership. This note provides faces and figures for the 1970-95 period to supplement the analysis.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Data and Data Sets; Economic Growth; Business and Community Relations; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Jaan Elias. "Cleveland Turnaround (C), The: Facts and Figures." Harvard Business School Background Note 796-153, April 1996. (Revised June 1996.) View Details
  41. Cleveland Turnaround (D), The: Challenges for the Future

    Traces the Cleveland community's efforts to move the city from economic, social, and political crisis in the late 1970s into revitalization and progress in the 1980s and 1990s. Special attention is given to the role of business leaders and the public-private partnership. This case delineates challenges facing the community as it moves into the 21st Century.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Economic Growth; Business and Community Relations; Planning; Cleveland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Jaan Elias. "Cleveland Turnaround (D), The: Challenges for the Future." Harvard Business School Case 796-154, April 1996. (Revised June 1996.) View Details
  42. Grappling with Garbage: The Bandung Municipal Cleansing Enterprise, P.D. Kerbersihan

    Keywords: Wastes and Waste Processing; Business and Government Relations; Developing Countries and Economies; Environmental Sustainability; Indonesia;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Grappling with Garbage: The Bandung Municipal Cleansing Enterprise, P.D. Kerbersihan." Harvard Business School Case 392-124, April 1992. (Revised June 1994.) View Details
  43. NIKE in China (Abridged)

    Nike is reviewing its strategy for producing shoes in China for the U.S. market. Compares the experience in China with that in other countries.

    Keywords: Strategy; Production; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry; China; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "NIKE in China (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 390-092, April 1990. (Revised August 1993.) View Details
  44. Lada do Brasil

    In an effort to capitalize on the entrepreneurial opportunity presented by the Brazilian government's trade liberalization, a Panamanian automobile trading company launched a business of importing the Russian made Lada cars into Brazil. The company confronts a complex political and economic environment and strong competition from the existing automobile producers. Presents the business challenges and opportunities accompanying trade liberalization. Reveals the competitive dynamics in environments undergoing economic transformation.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Transformation; Economics; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Capital; Policy; Competition; Auto Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Helen Shapiro. "Lada do Brasil." Harvard Business School Case 392-122, March 1992. (Revised June 1993.) View Details
  45. Teaching Notes: Communicating the Teacher's Wisdom

    Provides guidance for the preparation of teaching notes. Sets forth the rationale for teaching notes, what they should contain and why, and how they can be prepared. Based on the experiences of Harvard Business School faculty.

    Keywords: Business Education; Teaching;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Teaching Notes: Communicating the Teacher's Wisdom." Harvard Business School Background Note 793-105, February 1993. View Details
  46. Cut Flower Industry in Colombia (Abridged)

    The Colombian Cut Flower Exporting Association faces several problems concerning local government regulations and import restrictions from the U.S. government. The Colombian Export Promotion Agency also faces decisions as to its policy stance toward the industry.

    Keywords: Trade; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Business or Company Management; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Cut Flower Industry in Colombia (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 390-109, April 1990. (Revised December 1992.) View Details
  47. Population Services International: The Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh (Abridged)

    Population Services International (PSI) was a not-for-profit agency founded to disseminate family planning information and to market birth control products, primarily in less developed countries seeking to curb their population explosions. In 1976, PSI concluded an agreement with the government of Bangladesh to conduct a social marketing program, with the objective of using modern marketing techniques to sell subsidized contraceptives through commercial outlets. Seven years later, three PSI managers were meeting at PSI's Washington, D.C. headquarters to discuss 1984-86 marketing strategy for two products: Raja condoms and Maya birth control pills. Of particular concern was the fact that the marketing approach that had proven extremely successful for Raja was yielding poor sales results for Maya. The PSI managers needed to devise an action plan for improving Maya sales.

    Keywords: Conferences; Developing Countries and Economies; Information Publishing; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Social Marketing; Agreements and Arrangements; Product; Nonprofit Organizations; Pharmaceutical Industry; Bangladesh; Washington (state, US);

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Population Services International: The Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 590-061, April 1990. (Revised November 1992.) View Details
  48. Nestle Alimentana S.A. -- Infant Formula (Abridged)

    The new vice president of infant and dietetic products of Nestle Alimentana S.A. has to make recommendations on the company's marketing programs for its infant formulas in developing countries. The U.S. subsidiary is currently the target of a consumer boycott because of the company's current and historical marketing programs. Introduces the question of using Western marketing techniques in the Third World, the problems of distributor control, and potential product misuse because of consumer poverty and ignorance. Provides a summary of the industry's evolution and a chronology of the controversy. Recommended: "Family Planning, Infant Mortality and Malnutrition," by E. Haubold, Swiss Review of World Affairs, March 1979.

    Keywords: Product Marketing; Emerging Markets; Developing Countries and Economies; Distribution Channels; Marketing Strategy; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Food; Business Subsidiaries; Food and Beverage Industry; United States; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "Nestle Alimentana S.A. -- Infant Formula (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 590-070, April 1990. View Details
  49. NIKE in China

    Nike is reviewing its strategy for producing shoes in China for the U.S. market. Compares the experience in China with that in other countries.

    Keywords: Strategy; Production; Manufacturing Industry; China; United States;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Francis Aguilar. "NIKE in China." Harvard Business School Case 386-065, September 1985. (Revised October 1988.) View Details

Presentations

  1. La Modernizacion de la Produccion y los Ajustes en el Sistema de Mercadea: El Caso de la Industria Arrocera Nicaraguense

    Keywords: Production; Marketing; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Nicaragua;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E. "La Modernizacion de la Produccion y los Ajustes en el Sistema de Mercadea: El Caso de la Industria Arrocera Nicaraguense." Paper presented at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture Seminar on Latin American Rice Policies, October 01, 1971. View Details

Other Publications and Materials