Lynda M. Applegate

Sarofim-Rock Professor of Business Administration

Lynda M. Applegate is the Sarofim-Rock Professor of Business Administration at HBS and serves as the Faculty Chair of the HBS Business Owner Portfolio of executive programs, which includes the Owner President Management and Key Executive programs and its newly-launched Global Immersions for Business Owners. Since joining the HBS faculty over 25 years ago, Lynda has held a variety of leadership positions, including serving as the head of the Entrepreneurial Management Unit, Cohort Chair of the MBA program, and head of Field Based Learning. Between 1995 and 2003, she served as Co-Chair of the Harvard Policy Group on Networked Government Services and she also served on the Harvard University Provost’s Technology Advisory Council. Prior to joining the HBS faculty, Lynda was on the faculty of the University of Michigan, University of Washington and University of Arizona. In addition to her academic positions, Lynda also launched a series of entrepreneurial ventures and held a variety of leadership positions in the health care industry during the 1970s.

 Lynda’s current research and recent publications focus on the challenges of building new ventures and leading radical business innovation in the face of significant industry, technological, capital market, and regulatory turbulence. A second stream of research examines emerging governance models to support inter-firm collaborative innovation. She is the Series Editor for the Core Readings in Entrepreneurship series, published by Harvard Business Publishing. In addition, she is the author of over 40 articles, books, and book chapters, and over 350 published case studies, online learning DVDs, and course materials.

 Lynda is the recipient of numerous HBS awards for her research, teaching, and service to the school. Most recently, she was awarded the Robert F. Greenhill award for her outstanding contributions to HBS. She has also received Harvard Business School’s Berol Award for Research Excellence and its Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching. In addition, she has also won numerous “Best Paper” awards for her academic research on 21st century business models and on executive team decision-making and collaboration when developing and launching strategic innovations.

 Lynda is an active international consultant and has served on the board of directors of both public and venture-backed companies. She is an advisor and advisory board member for entrepreneurs launching new ventures and for senior executives launching innovation in established companies. She has served on the Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Technology Leadership Council and as a member of the Industry Advisory Board for NASDAQ and the GAO’s Executive Council for Information Management and Technology. Lynda has also served as a policy advisor on a Blue-Ribbon Panel to define a National Research Agenda on the development of the Network Economy and as a member of a roundtable panel for President Clinton's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Books

  1. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases

    This new edition examines how information technology enables organizations to conduct business in radically different and more effective ways. The authors objective is to provide readers with a better understanding of the influence of twenty-first century technologies on business decisions. The 8th edition discusses today's challenges from the point of view of the executives who are grappling with them. This text is comprised of an extensive collection of Harvard Business cases devoted to Information Technology.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Information Management; Managerial Roles; Strategy; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and Deborah Soule. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases. 8th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill, 2009. View Details
  2. Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases

    The 8th edition of Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases is written for students and managers who desire an overview of contemporary information systems technology management. This new edition examines how information technology enables organizations to conduct business in radically different and more effective ways. The authors' objective is to provide readers with a better understanding of the influence of twenty-first century technologies on business decisions. The 8th edition discusses today's challenges from the point of view of the executives who are grappling with them. This text is comprised of an extensive collection of Harvard Business School cases devoted to Information Technology.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Management; Business Strategy; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Austin, Robert D., Lynda M. Applegate, and Deborah Soule. Corporate Information Strategy and Management: Text and Cases. 8th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2008. View Details
  3. Corporate Information Strategy and Management: The Challenge of Doing Business in a Network Economy

    Keywords: Information; Strategy; Management; Problems and Challenges; Economy; Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and F. Warren McFarlan. Corporate Information Strategy and Management: The Challenge of Doing Business in a Network Economy. 6 New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Beyond Knowledge Transfer: A Typology of Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Teams

    Keywords: Knowledge; Behavior; Groups and Teams; Knowledge Sharing;

    Citation:

    Soule, Deborah, and Lynda M. Applegate. "Beyond Knowledge Transfer: A Typology of Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Teams." Proceedings of the European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities (2005). View Details
  2. Electronic Commerce: Building Blocks of New Business Opportunity

    Keywords: Online Technology; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M., C.W. Holsapple, R. Kalakota, F.J. Radermacher, and A.B. Whinston. "Electronic Commerce: Building Blocks of New Business Opportunity." Journal of Organizational Computing 6, no. 1 (First Quarter 1996): 1–10. View Details
  3. Facilitating Group Creativity: Experience with a Group Decision Support System

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Creativity; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Nunamaker, J., L. M. Applegate, and B. Konsynski. "Facilitating Group Creativity: Experience with a Group Decision Support System." Journal of Management Information Systems 3, no. 4 (spring 1987): 5–19. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Building Inter-Firm Collaborative Community: Uniting Theory and Practice

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Organizational Structure; Organizational Design; Cooperation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M. "Building Inter-Firm Collaborative Community: Uniting Theory and Practice." In The Firm as a Collaborative Community Organization in the Knowledge-Based Economy, edited by Charles Heckscher and Paul Adler. Oxford University Press, 2005. View Details
  2. E-Business Models: Making Sense of the Internet Business Landscape

    Keywords: Business Model; Internet; Business Ventures; Web Sites;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M., ed., "E-Business Models: Making Sense of the Internet Business Landscape." In Information Technology and the New Enterprise: Future Models for Managers, edited by L. M. Applegate, Gary W. Dickson, and Gerardine DeSanctis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. View Details
  3. In Search of a New Organizational Model: Lessons from the Field

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M. "In Search of a New Organizational Model: Lessons from the Field." In Shaping Organizational Form: Communication, Connection, and Community, edited by Gerardine DeSanctis and Janet Fulk. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1999. View Details
  4. Managing in an Information Age: Transforming the Organization for the 1990s

    Keywords: Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. "Managing in an Information Age: Transforming the Organization for the 1990s." In Information Technology and New Emergent Forum of Organizations, edited by R. Baskerville, J. DeGross, O. Ngwenyama, and S. Smithson. North Holland: Elsevier Science, 1994. View Details
  5. Introduction

    Citation:

    Heckscher, C., and L. Applegate. "Introduction." Introduction to The Post-Bureaucratic Organization: New Perspectives on Organizational Change, edited by Anne Donnellon and Charles C Heckscher. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994. View Details
  6. A Case Study in the Assimilation of Technology Support for Teams

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Information Technology; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Technological Innovation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M. "A Case Study in the Assimilation of Technology Support for Teams." In Computer Augmented Teamwork: A Guided Tour, edited by Robert T. Bostrom, Susan T. Kinney, and Richard T. Watson. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. View Details
  7. Organizational Decision Support: An Interacting Team Perspective

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Decisions; Social and Collaborative Networks; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Applegate, L. M., and J. Henderson. "Organizational Decision Support: An Interacting Team Perspective." In Information Systems and Decision Processes, edited by Edward A. Stohr and Benn R Konsynski. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991, Farsi ed. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Don't Just Survive - Thrive: Leading Innovation in Good Times and Bad

    Battered by contracting markets and frozen credit, many businesses today are fighting for survival. Indeed, the current global financial crisis provides a mandate for restructuring. But survival is not the end goal. In fact, cost cutting and restructuring are simply the first steps in repositioning and leading a company and industry through the crisis and in defining how business will be conducted in the future. This paper describes how IBM managed to, not just survive the crisis it faced in the early 1990s, but to reposition the company to lead the industry. The powerful lesson from the IBM story is that innovation is not a side business to running the real business. Innovation is the business. Breakthrough innovations that change people's lives and the very structure and power dynamics of industries can't be managed as "silos," tucked away in corporate, university, or government research labs, in incubators, or within venture capital funded entrepreneurial start-ups. Access to the marketplace is needed to help speed commercialization and adoption. Emerging opportunities must be nurtured and the transition to high growth must be managed. Once breakthrough innovations catch hold, growth must be funded and managed to exploit the full value of the opportunity. And finally, incremental innovations must ensure that businesses that have passed through the high growth stage can continue to deliver the resources, capabilities, and platforms needed to fuel the emerging opportunities of the future. This business lifecycle view of innovation requires new leadership and organizational models and new approaches to managing risk and uncertainty.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Risk Management; Leading Change; Innovation and Management; Crisis Management; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and J. Bruce Harreld. "Don't Just Survive - Thrive: Leading Innovation in Good Times and Bad." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-127, April 2009. (Revised May 2009.) View Details
  2. Virtual Team Learning: Reflecting and Acting, Alone or With Others

    This paper examines virtual team learning in new product development situations. New product development activities manifest novelty, uncertainty and complexity, presenting an extreme need for learning in the course of the work. We present data from an exploratory study of learning processes in globally dispersed new product development teams. These qualitative data are used to investigate components of team learning previously highlighted in the team learning literature-namely reflection-oriented and action-oriented behaviors-and to examine the boundaries of these learning behaviors. We find that effective virtual teams, like co-located teams, engage in both reflective and action-oriented learning behaviors. However, the virtual context highlights distinct participation strategies in teams' learning patterns, which aim to leverage deep, specialist knowledge, on one hand, or seek to integrate diverse knowledge, on the other hand. Moreover, our findings suggest that, in the virtual setting, the boundary of team membership is not centrally associated with different learning behaviors and outcomes, as argued in other team learning research. Instead, virtual team learning behaviors are likely to be shaped by boundaries that delimit timely access to relevant knowledge and skill. In conclusion, we discuss implications for future virtual team learning research.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Learning; Knowledge Acquisition; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Product Development; Groups and Teams; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Soule, Deborah L., and Lynda M. Applegate. "Virtual Team Learning: Reflecting and Acting, Alone or With Others." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-084, January 2009. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. HGRM (B): Launching Hoxell, a New IT Venture

    Keywords: entrepreneurial management; strategy; growth strategy and execution; business models; Disruptive Technologies; customer relations; international business; Entrepreneurship; Management Systems; Operations; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Gabriele Piccoli, and Arnold Peinado. "HGRM (B): Launching Hoxell, a New IT Venture." Harvard Business School Supplement 815-057, September 2014. View Details
  2. adidas Group: IT Multi-Sourcing at Adidas

    This case describes the design and implementation of an IT-multi-sourcing strategy at a large global sportswear company, the adidas Group, which is headquartered in Germany. To help increase the benefits and reduce the risks of its sourcing arrangements, adidas carefully selected two tier-2 vendors to work with its primary tier-1 vendor, a large Indian outsourcing firm that it had worked with closely for over a decade. The management of the multi-sourcing arrangement is posing a number of challenges. The Chief Information Officer is considering a number of options to ensure the continued success of the multi-sourcing strategy, including restructuring the IT group, developing the skills of its staff, and starting a captive center.

    Keywords: IT strategy; outsourcing; organizational structure; Organizational Structure; Information Technology; Sports Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Martin Wiener, Carol Saunders, and Grandon Gill. "adidas Group: IT Multi-Sourcing at Adidas." Harvard Business School Case 815-002, September 2014. View Details
  3. Administrative Data Project (A)

    Encourages analysis of the implementation of a large technical infrastructure and process transformation project within a university setting. Enables an instructor to teach change management, leadership, and technical project management skills.

    Keywords: Teaching; Change Management; Management Practices and Processes; Transformation; Learning; Competency and Skills; Leadership Development; Non-Governmental Organizations; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Donald E. Heller. "Administrative Data Project (A)." Harvard Business School Case 803-051, October 2002. (Revised February 2003.) View Details
  4. Advice to Section Presidents from Section Presidents

    Helps clarify the role of the section president in the HBS MBA program. Provides helpful advice for new section presidents.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Management;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Nitin Nohria, and Catherine Rucker. "Advice to Section Presidents from Section Presidents." Harvard Business School Background Note 803-197, June 2003. (Revised October 2003.) View Details
  5. Alacra, Inc.

    In 2009, the CEO of Alacra, a venture-backed information services firm that provides customized data primarily to financial services firms, must decide how to respond to the global economic crisis.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Entrepreneurship; Crisis Management; Information Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Aldo Sesia. "Alacra, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 810-012, July 2009. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  6. Amazon.com: 1994-2000

    Enables a thorough analysis of Amazon.com and the company's value proposition, in terms of its business concept, digital business capabilities, and community and shareholder value. Examines the company's complex set of business models and web of business relationships, as well as Amazon's plan to monetize (generate revenues and earnings through) its assets. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Asset Pricing; Capital; Financial Strategy; Technological Innovation; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Meredith Collura. "Amazon.com: 1994-2000." Harvard Business School Case 801-194, September 2000. (Revised November 2002.) View Details
  7. Amazon.com: Exploiting the Value of Digital Business Infrastructure

    Enables a thorough analysis of Amazon.com and the company's value proposition, in terms of its business concept, digital business capabilities, and community and shareholder value. Examines the company's complex set of business models and web of business relationships, as well as Amazon's plan to monetize (generate revenues and earnings through) its assets.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Asset Pricing; Capital; Financial Management; Technological Innovation; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Relationships; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Meredith Collura. "Amazon.com: Exploiting the Value of Digital Business Infrastructure." Harvard Business School Case 800-330, June 2000. (Revised September 2000.) View Details
  8. Amazon.com: The Brink of Bankruptcy

    Enables a thorough analysis of the Amazon.com business model and its evolution from 1994 to 2001. The case ends with the company poised on the brink of bankruptcy and enables discussion of how to turnaround the company and leverage proprietary assets.

    Keywords: Business Model; Restructuring; Entrepreneurship; Insolvency and Bankruptcy; Business History; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Amazon.com: The Brink of Bankruptcy." Harvard Business School Case 809-014, July 2008. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  9. American Express Interactive

    Follows the protagonist, Sonia Sharpe, as she and her American Express Interactive Team attempt to develop and market an interactive, on-line, corporate travel service in a highly competitive environment. Looks at the possible resources and partnerships a company needs to succeed in the fast-paced world of computer software and information technology. Ends with Sharpe questioning whether (and how) to pursue international expansion and the integration of the Interactive Travel Service with other American Express services (for example, their corporate credit card service). A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Partners and Partnerships; Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Product Positioning; Software; Technological Innovation; Global Strategy; Expansion; Information Technology; Vertical Integration; Financial Services Industry; Travel Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "American Express Interactive." Harvard Business School Case 802-022, July 2001. (Revised December 2001.) View Details
  10. Angel Investments in Europe and Recent Developments in Crowdfunding

    This technical note provides information on the evolution and current state of angel investing in Europe. The note first describes the role and types of angel investors, focusing on their investment preferences and practices. It then details the new trends in the market, including the development of policy tools and the proliferation of incubators/accelerators to support angel investors. Finally, the note explores salient issues in angel investing for the future and pays particular attention to the recent developments in crowdfunding.

    Keywords: angel investors; crowdfunding; Europe;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda, Vincent Marie Dessain, Emilie Billaud, and Daniela Beyersdorfer. "Angel Investments in Europe and Recent Developments in Crowdfunding." Harvard Business School Technical Note 814-047, March 2014. View Details
  11. Arizona Department of Public Health: The Challenges of Preparing for a Public Health Emergency

    In the post-9/11 era information technology enablement for emergency preparedness and response have taken on increased significance. Public health organizations like ADHS play a critical role in any statewide preparation for large scale emergencies. With issues like bio-terrorism surveillance being added to a list of critical responsibilities for public health there is an urgent need to leverage IT infrastructure to meet new challenges. Historically lean funding cycles for public health has not allowed for fundamental information technology-based reach extensions. An infusion of $9.3 million from CDC has allowed ADHS to broaden its coverage through the creative use of information technology. As an initial step, ADHS initiated the development and deployment of MEDSIS. This project is causing public health in Arizona to re-evaluate their workflow and business processes as they collaborate with various counties in delivering public health effectively.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Information Technology; Health Care and Treatment; Business Processes; Service Delivery; National Security; Health Industry; Public Administration Industry; Arizona;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ajay Vinze, T. S. Raghu, and Minu Ipe. "Arizona Department of Public Health: The Challenges of Preparing for a Public Health Emergency." Harvard Business School Case 807-016, September 2006. (Revised December 2006.) View Details
  12. AtHoc: Dealing With Disruption

    Follows the growth of an entrepreneur from his early startup activities. As the company evolves from 1998 to 2005, looks at key decisions and turning points as AtHoc's strategy adapts in response to changing market environments, business opportunities, and customer needs. At the close, the company has successfully navigated several rounds of VC financing and is weighing harvest strategies and next steps.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Disruptive Innovation; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business Strategy; Venture Capital;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Brian DeLacey. "AtHoc: Dealing With Disruption." Harvard Business School Case 806-073, June 2006. View Details
  13. Atlantis Paradise Island Resort & Casino: Improving Performance with a New Vision and Mission

    Atlantis Paradise Island adopted a new vision and mission to provide its guests and employees an enhanced brand experience. The dilemma Atlantis faced was how to integrate the new vision and mission into all the brand touch points in order to improve customer satisfaction and employee engagement.

    Keywords: Change Management; Customer Satisfaction; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Employee Relationship Management; Brands and Branding; Service Delivery; Mission and Purpose; Performance Improvement; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Gabriele Piccoli. "Atlantis Paradise Island Resort & Casino: Improving Performance with a New Vision and Mission." Harvard Business School Case 810-140, June 2010. (Revised September 2010.) View Details
  14. BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System

    Describes the events surrounding the construction of the BAE baggage-handling system at the Denver International Airport. It looks specifically at project management, including decisions regarding budget, scheduling, and the overall management structure. Also examines the airport's attempt to work with a great number of outside contractors, including BAE, and coordinate them into a productive whole, while under considerable political pressures. Approaches the project from the point of view of BAE's management, which struggles to fulfill its contract, work well with project management and other contractors, and deal with supply, scheduling, and engineering difficulties.

    Keywords: Management; Decisions; Contracts; Time Management; Problems and Challenges; Projects; Budgets and Budgeting; Construction Industry; Air Transportation Industry; Colorado;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ramiro Montealegre, Carin-Isabel Knoop, and H. James Nelson. "BAE Automated Systems (A): Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System." Harvard Business School Case 396-311, April 1996. (Revised November 1996.) View Details
  15. BAE Automated Systems (B): Implementing the Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System

    Describes the negotiations between the City of Denver officials, airlines, consulting companies, and BAE for the construction of a backup baggage system to enable the Denver International Airport (DIA) to open. When DIA finally opens in February 1995, 16 months behind schedule, it has three separate baggage-handling systems instead of a single state-of-the-art, integrated baggage-handling system.

    Keywords: Performance Effectiveness; Management Practices and Processes; Projects; Negotiation; Outcome or Result; Problems and Challenges; Air Transportation Industry; Construction Industry; Colorado;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., H. James Nelson, Ramiro Montealegre, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "BAE Automated Systems (B): Implementing the Denver International Airport Baggage-Handling System." Harvard Business School Case 396-312, May 1996. (Revised October 2001.) View Details
  16. Boeing's e-Enabled Advantage

    Examines Boeing's new strategy of offering services to regain market dominance and help its struggling airline customers improve efficiency and profitability.

    Keywords: Air Transportation; Business Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Service Operations; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Joseph S. Valacich, Mara Vatz, and Christoph Schneider. "Boeing's e-Enabled Advantage." Harvard Business School Case 807-011, July 2006. View Details
  17. Bolsa de Valores de Guayaquil (BVG): Reaching Worldwide Investors Through the Internet

    The Guayaquil Stock Exchange developed a Web site to provide information about the market in Ecuador. Though the system provided some dynamic information for potential investors and allowed for some transactions to occur via the Internet, it had not at the time of the case been able to support on-line trading. The case explores the usefulness of the site in the context of an emerging market.

    Keywords: Stocks; Foreign Direct Investment; Emerging Markets; Internet; Technology Industry; Ecuador;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ramiro Montealegre, Dusya Vera, and Karen Barone. "Bolsa de Valores de Guayaquil (BVG): Reaching Worldwide Investors Through the Internet." Harvard Business School Case 399-070, November 1998. (Revised February 1999.) View Details
  18. Bonnier: Digitalizing the Media Business

    The case follows leading Scandinavian media company Bonnier as it establishes a designated R&D division for the first time. The case, in particular, focuses on its first flagship project, called Mag+, in which it creates a digital platform for publishing digital magazines on the iPad. The case is intended, in part, as an introduction to the challenges media companies face due to the disruptive effects of digitalization, where traditional products and services are challenged by new digital category breakers such as the iPhone, Hulu, or Netflix. To this end, it offers a short tour of the changing print media landscape and reviews major upheavals in its business models. The Bonnier case illustrates how to engage in and manage a radical digital innovation process. In particular, it discusses the challenges associated with responding to the disruptive effects of digitalizing printed magazines. It illustrates concrete challenges that Bonnier R&D manager, Sara Öhrvall, needs to tackle as she starts as the first R&D manager at Bonnier.

    Keywords: media and publishing; Media; Publishing Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda, Daniel Nylen, Jonny Holmstrom, and Kalle Lyytinen. "Bonnier: Digitalizing the Media Business." Harvard Business School Case 813-073, November 2012. View Details
  19. Bonnier: Digitalizing the Media Business (TN)

    Keywords: media and publishing; Media; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda, Daniel Nylen, Jonny Holmstrom, and Kalle Lyytinen. "Bonnier: Digitalizing the Media Business (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 813-076, November 2012. (Revised February 2013.) View Details
  20. Campbell Soup Company: Transforming for the 21st Century

    In July 2001, Campbell Soup's newly appointed CEO, Douglas R. Conant, addressed a group of Wall Street analysts and unveiled his plan to kick-start growth. His plan called for organizational renewal and revitalization, redesign of core customer-facing processes including supply chain, order fulfillment, and customer service of Campbell's U.S. soup business. Condensed soup sales, which represented nearly 50% of the company's total operating profit, had been in decline for several years and the company was slowly losing market share in this core product group as competition intensified. Pressure had mounted from major competitor General Mills, which had recently acquired Pillsbury Co., maker of Campbell's rival soup brand Progresso. .

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Product Marketing; Industry Structures; Production; Supply Chain Management; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Jamie Ladge. "Campbell Soup Company: Transforming for the 21st Century." Harvard Business School Case 803-119, March 2003. (Revised October 2003.) View Details
  21. Canyon Ranch

    How should Canyon Ranch leverage its uniqueness in the face of increasing competition and an entrenched customer definition of the firm? The firm is attempting to create demand for return visits and foster the customization and personalization of the Canyon Ranch experience.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Information Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Experience and Expertise; Data and Data Sets; Customization and Personalization;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Gabriele Piccoli. "Canyon Ranch." Harvard Business School Case 805-027, August 2004. (Revised September 2005.) View Details
  22. Carnival Cruise Lines

    Highlights the potential value of customer data and the choices and challenges the firm faces when attempting to capture this value. Carnival collects a significant amount of individual-level behavioral and demographic customer data. Senior management must now decide how to leverage such a wealth of data to improve firm performance through customer targeting and acquisition, customer retention, and customer profitability strategies.

    Keywords: Consumer Behavior; Demographics; Customer Relationship Management; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Performance Improvement; Business Strategy; Travel Industry; Tourism Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert Kwortnik, and Gabriele Piccoli. "Carnival Cruise Lines." Harvard Business School Case 806-015, July 2005. (Revised April 2006.) View Details
  23. Charles Schwab in 2002

    Details the evolution of the Charles Schwab business model, from its founding in 1975 to October 2002. The protagonist, David Pottruck, is faced with re-inventing the firm as a full-service brokerage at a time of tremendous industry instability as the industry reels from the effects of deregulation, consolidation, global economic downturn, and investor lack of confidence.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Business Model; Business or Company Management; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., F. Warren McFarlan, and Jamie Ladge. "Charles Schwab in 2002." Harvard Business School Case 803-070, November 2002. (Revised May 2007.) View Details
  24. Chemical Bank: Technology Support for Cooperative Work

    Describes the organization and IT environment that Bruce Hasenyager found when he arrived at Chemical Bank. Goes on to explain his decision for implementing Lotus Notes as an "indispensable" management tool. Software is available: Order No. 9-196-701 (Windows version) or 9-196-702 (Macintosh version), $20.00 (educ. $10).

    Keywords: Organizations; Decision Making; Decisions; Management Style; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Software; Information Technology; Information; Information Management; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Donna B. Stoddard. "Chemical Bank: Technology Support for Cooperative Work." Harvard Business School Case 193-131, March 1993. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  25. Citigroup 2003: Testing the Limits of Convergence (A)

    Examines Citigroup's strategic transition and highlights issues that its newly announced CEO Charles Prince will face as he assumes leadership of this global financial corporation upon the retirement of its charismatic CEO, Sandy Weill.

    Keywords: Business Model; Globalized Firms and Management; Management Succession; Transformation; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Citigroup 2003: Testing the Limits of Convergence (A)." Harvard Business School Case 804-041, January 2004. (Revised June 2004.) View Details
  26. Colliers International Property Consultants, Inc.: Managing a Virtual Organization

    In less than 20 years, the real estate firm Colliers International expanded into a federation of 180 offices with close to 4,500 professionals in over 30 countries. Because Colliers expanded by signing up existing firms strong in their local markets, its leaders had to manage a portfolio of firms with revenues ranging from $500,000 to over $80 million. Some were over 150 years old; others less than one. Firms provided services ranging from commission-based brokerage services to advisory services more akin to consulting services involving retainer fees. Colliers leaders are considering how their organization should respond to the changing needs of real estate clients. Colliers managers need to decide what organizational structure, management practices, and IT strategy their organization requires to enter the next century.

    Keywords: Demand and Consumers; Globalized Firms and Management; Management Practices and Processes; Service Operations; Information Technology; Organizational Structure; Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Strategy; Budgets and Budgeting; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Colliers International Property Consultants, Inc.: Managing a Virtual Organization." Harvard Business School Case 396-080, May 1996. (Revised May 1997.) View Details
  27. CommonAngels (A)

    Describes the motivations behind the founding of CommonAngels—a group of successful business owners who provide capital, connections, and expertise to entrepreneurs who are building new ventures. In 2005, the group is considering increasing its investment focus to include a broader range of technologies, including emerging technologies (for example, Mobile and RFID technologies) and non-information technologies.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Venture Capital; Financing and Loans; Investment; Motivation and Incentives; Social and Collaborative Networks; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kaitlyn Simpson. "CommonAngels (A)." Harvard Business School Case 810-082, February 2010. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  28. CommonAngels (B)

    This case discusses changes in CommonAngels' investment model and organization between 2005 and 2009.

    Keywords: Business Model; Entrepreneurship; Venture Capital; Investment; Organizational Structure; Social and Collaborative Networks; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kaitlyn Simpson. "CommonAngels (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 810-011, February 2010. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  29. Connor Formed Metal Products

    Connor Formed Metal Products was a small, privately owned manufacturer of custom metal springs and stampings. Since becoming president in 1984, Bob Sloss had implemented many changes to the company's organizational structure, management control systems, and information systems. In particular, he introduced a computer system in one plant to track product jobs through the manufacturing process. Employees at every function and level of the company could access information about a particular customer or job. In 1990, Sloss wondered whether to roll out this system in the company's four other plants.

    Keywords: Private Ownership; Organizational Structure; Production; Change; Governance Controls; Information Technology; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Donna B. Stoddard, and Melinda Conrad. "Connor Formed Metal Products." Harvard Business School Case 193-003, May 1993. (Revised October 1995.) View Details
  30. County Department of Public Health: Organizing for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    The anthrax attacks of 2001 exposed serious inadequacies in the response of the U.S. public health system to meet such grave threats. The public health infrastructure required rebuilding to respond to any type of large-scale health emergency. The Public Health Department at Penville County had been charged with implementing an emergency preparedness and response system for the county. Federal funds were provided to the county to develop an emergency preparedness infrastructure that met the requirements specified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. County public officials had to coordinate their efforts to ensure seamless communication, coordination, and information exchange between various divisions within the public health department, external entities, and the state public health agency. Focuses on the director of Public Health Department and the challenges he faced. Explores issues related to structure, organization, culture, and technology infrastructure.

    Keywords: Technology; Change Management; Crisis Management; Health Care and Treatment; Infrastructure; Public Administration Industry; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ajay Vinze, and Minu Ipe. "County Department of Public Health: Organizing for Emergency Preparedness and Response." Harvard Business School Case 806-089, November 2005. (Revised December 2005.) View Details
  31. Covisint (A): The Evolution of a B2B Marketplace

    Ford Motor Co., General Motors, and DaimlerChrysler--the three original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that dominated the automotive industry throughout the 20th century--launched Covisint in February 2000 as an industry supply chain exchange that would drive out cost and help manage the complex communications within the rigidly hierarchical industry. The Big 3 sourced entire components of cars from large Tier 1 suppliers. By limiting the number of partners and using online technologies to support collaboration and performance tracking, as well as drive out costs from the supply chain, the OEMs hoped that cycle times could be shortened and they could finally achieve a build-to-order car. A successful exchange that united the industry was vital to this vision. Covisint was founded with "borrowed" Bid 3 employees and over $250 million in funding from the OEMs. Its business model morphed several times as it raced to bring products to market and to meet the demands of its founders. The start-up burned through six CEOs in three years and now Bob Paul is considering whether to take on the CEO hot seat.

    Keywords: Business Model; Supply Chain Management; Business Startups; Management Teams; Manufacturing Industry; Auto Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "Covisint (A): The Evolution of a B2B Marketplace." Harvard Business School Case 805-110, June 2005. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  32. Crafting Business Models

    This courseware provides tutorials and tools for conducting a strategy and capability audit of a business model. It then defines how to identify revenue, cost and asset efficiency drivers. A case study on evolution of the amazon.com's business model is provided that demonstrates how to use the core concepts. Tools are also available to enable you to put the ideas to work.

    Keywords: Business Model; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Performance Efficiency; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. Crafting Business Models. Harvard Business School Tutorial 808-705, May 2008. View Details
  33. Designing and Managing the Information Age IT Architecture

    The co-evolution of technology, work, and the workforce over the past 30 years has dramatically influenced our concept of organizations and the industries within which they compete. No longer simply a tool to support "back-office" transactions, IT has become a strategic part of most businesses, enabling the redefinition of markets and industries and the strategies and designs of firms competing within them. But to achieve these information age benefits, companies must adopt information age technology architectures. Organizations must radically transform outdated IT architectures and the IT organizations required to support them. This technological transformation is every bit as daunting as the organizational transformation. This note describes general frameworks and concepts that managers can use to analyze their existing IT architecture and to define and manage the IT architecture required to support the information processing requirements of the Information Age organization.

    Keywords: Design; Management; Organizations; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Designing and Managing the Information Age IT Architecture." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-005, August 1995. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  34. Designing and Managing the Information Age Organization

    Managers and management theorists spent the majority of this century building and perfecting the hierarchy; however, if we believe the press, they now appear to be engaged in destroying it. While many proclaim the dawning of the "Information Age" organization and the fading of the hierarchical organization as a trend of the 1990s, the roots of these changes can be traced to the 1950s. This note provides organization design frameworks and concepts for the design of the Information Age organization.

    Keywords: Design; Management; Organizations; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Designing and Managing the Information Age Organization." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-003, August 1995. (Revised November 2000.) View Details
  35. Digital Equipment Corp.: The Kodak Outsourcing Agreement (A)

    Describes grassroots effort which culminated in Digital's winning a competitive bid for the outsourcing of Kodak's internal telecommunications business. Describes the "Telstar" project, from the initial identification of the business opportunity to the process of crafting a partnership contract. Discussion topics include obtaining managerial and peer support, mobilizing informal networks, building an ad hoc team, managing relationships across organizational boundaries, and planning the transition from project team to ongoing operations. As the case ends, a key player must be replaced and a decision must be made concerning which Digital group will manage the new business. Russ Gullotti, the Digital executive who has overseen this effort considers how to help the team achieve a successful contract negotiation and subsequent transition to operations. Should also prompt discussion about leadership under ambiguity and management of innovation.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Partners and Partnerships; Leading Change; Agreements and Arrangements; Business or Company Management; Bids and Bidding; Decision Making; Management Teams; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Herminia M. Ibarra. "Digital Equipment Corp.: The Kodak Outsourcing Agreement (A)." Harvard Business School Case 191-039, November 1990. (Revised March 1994.) View Details
  36. Digital Equipment Corp.: The Kodak Outsourcing Agreement (B)

    Describes "Frantic Friday," the day the Digital-Kodak contract was scheduled to be signed. Designed to be handed out in class.

    Keywords: Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Technology; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Herminia M. Ibarra. "Digital Equipment Corp.: The Kodak Outsourcing Agreement (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 191-040, November 1990. (Revised March 1994.) View Details
  37. Doing Business in a Distributed World: Clients, Servers, and the Stuff in Between

    Examines business computing as it is evolving in the 1990s. Compares the highly centralized and tightly controlled systems of the past with today's flexible, networked, client/server technology. Serves as an introduction to client/server terminology and technology.

    Keywords: Technology Networks; Information Technology; Performance Improvement; Transformation; Technological Innovation; Business Strategy; Adoption; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Geoffrey Bock. "Doing Business in a Distributed World: Clients, Servers, and the Stuff in Between." Harvard Business School Case 195-211, February 1995. (Revised October 1995.) View Details
  38. Eastman Kodak Co.: Managing Information Systems Through Strategic Alliances

    In January 1988, Colby Chandler, Kodak CEO, created the Corporate Information Systems (CIS) and appointed Katherine Hudson head. She at once became the first head of IT and first woman corporate vice president in the company. Throughout 1989, Hudson inaugurated a series of organizational initiatives that not only would dramatically change the IT function within Kodak, but would rock the industry. She outsourced data center operations, telecommunications services, and personal computer support to IBM, DEC, and Business Land, respectively. Case presents the complexities in managing information systems through partnerships.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Information Technology; Partners and Partnerships; Organizational Structure; Success; Trends; Information Management; Service Operations; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Eastman Kodak Co.: Managing Information Systems Through Strategic Alliances." Harvard Business School Case 192-030, July 1991. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  39. Eastman Kodak Co.: Managing Information Systems Through Strategic Alliances TN

    Teaching Note for (9-192-030).

    Keywords: Management; Information Technology; Strategy; Alliances; Manufacturing Industry; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Eastman Kodak Co.: Managing Information Systems Through Strategic Alliances TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 193-037, September 1992. (Revised October 1995.) View Details
  40. E-Commerce in Latin America

    Examines the vast potential offered by e-commerce in Latin America. Addresses both B2B and B2C e-commerce, as well as the specific economic, cultural, and technological barriers for doing business online in the region.

    Keywords: Trade; Entrepreneurship; Market Transactions; Service Delivery; Online Technology; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Luiz Felipe Monteiro, and Meredith Collura. "E-Commerce in Latin America." Harvard Business School Background Note 801-388, March 2001. (Revised June 2002.) View Details
  41. EFJ, Inc.

    Michael Jalbert plans to transform EFJI, a land mobile radio manufacturer, into a leading radio systems and solutions provider. Taking advantage of new industry standards and the country's increased focus on public safety agencies and homeland security, Jalbert says the company can triple its revenues in three years and eventually compete head-to-head with industry giant Motorola. The growth strategy includes expanding into systems and solutions, taking advantage of overall industry growth, positioning its products to compete with the leading providers during the industry-wide transition from analog to digital technology, and entering the data applications market through an acquisition.

    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Product Positioning; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Competitive Strategy; Expansion;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ajay Vinze, and Mara Vatz. "EFJ, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 807-062, November 2006. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  42. eLance.com: Building a Professional Services Marketplace

    Launched as an eBay for services, eLance promises to leverage the capabilities of the Internet to not only change the way services are bought and sold, but change the fundamental dynamics of the global economy. Building on theories posited in the HBR article by Tim Malone and Robert Laubaucher, eLance enables individuals and companies to buy and sell services using an RFP-based pricing model. Will eLance be the next eBay? The case explores the challenges facing eLance as the team attempts to both create a new means of exchanging professional services in the marketplace and develop an online services model that can succeed in the increasingly competitive and profit-conscious Internet economy.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Technological Innovation; Job Search; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Web Sites; Information Technology Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kristin Kohler. "eLance.com: Building a Professional Services Marketplace." Harvard Business School Case 801-224, October 2000. (Revised March 2001.) View Details
  43. Electronic Commerce: Trends and Opportunities

    In a 1966 Harvard Business Review article, Felix Kaufman implored general managers to think beyond their own organizational boundaries to the possibilities of interorganizational systems (IOS)--networked computers that enable companies to share information and information processing across organizational boundaries. His was a visionary argument that was already becoming a reality; from entrepreneurial actions at American Hospital Supply Corp. and American Airlines grew two legendary strategic IT applications that changed the face of their respective industries. In doing so, they helped change the role of IT so that it became a tool to support commerce--the organizational strategies, structures, and systems through which an organization conducts business with buyers, sellers, and other industry participants. Today, many of the most dramatic and potentially powerful uses of IT involve networks that transcend company boundaries. These IOS enable firms to incorporate buyers, suppliers, and partners in the redesign of their key business processes, thereby enhancing productivity, quality, speed, and flexibility.

    Keywords: Online Technology; Trends; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Janis Lee Gogan. "Electronic Commerce: Trends and Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-006, July 1995. (Revised October 1995.) View Details
  44. Emerging Networked Business Models: Lessons from the Field

    Provides an overview of the networked models that are revolutionizing market industries and the organizations that compete and do business within them. Teaching Purpose: To introduce students and executives to emerging networked models and to provide a foundation for strategic decision making.

    Keywords: Business Model; Decision Making; Networks; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Meredith Collura. "Emerging Networked Business Models: Lessons from the Field ." Harvard Business School Background Note 801-172, August 2000. (Revised December 2001.) View Details
  45. Empemex

    Studies an entrepreneurial venture in Mexico City. The protagonists, two MBAs from HBS, started a pawn shop chain funded from their private equity office after finishing business school. This is timed at a point where the protagonists have to decide how to grow the pawn shop chain in order to compete with other Mexican and U.S. pawn shop chains that are growing aggressively in the country. Central is the decision of how to finance growth. Different growth alternatives are explored, each entailing different funding needs and exit strategies. The setting in Mexico illustrates the differences in entrepreneurship in Latin America or other developing regions compared to the United States. The difference lies in the difficulty of finding institutional funding. As a result, most of the funding has to come from "angel investors".

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Entrepreneurship; Venture Capital; Investment; Growth and Development Strategy; Mexico City; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Regina Garcia-Cuellar. "Empemex." Harvard Business School Case 807-031, September 2006. (Revised February 2011.) View Details
  46. Experience! The Finger Lakes: The Groupon Partnership Decision

    In 2010, Experience! The Finger Lakes (ExperienceFLX), a tour operator offering guided tours and concierge services in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, was at a crossroads. The business was poised for growth, and its owners, Laura and Alan Falk, were considering signing a deal with Groupon, the online coupon firm, to see if a Groupon deal would help the ExperienceFLX bring in new customers. While the prospect of marketing ExperienceFLX's business to a new customer base through Groupon was very appealing, the Falks found that designing a deal that met Groupon's requirements while still allowing ExperienceFLX to make money and without endangering their relationships with area winery partners was a real challenge. The Falks had to decide whether a Groupon deal worked well for them, and if so, how to manage Groupon redemptions by their customers in a way that made financial sense.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy; Social Marketing; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Chekitan S. Dev, Gabriele Piccoli, and Arnold B. Peinado. "Experience! The Finger Lakes: The Groupon Partnership Decision." Harvard Business School Case 814-010, July 2013. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  47. FairMarket, Inc.: Where Buyers and Sellers Connect

    On February 20, 1997, FairMarket, an Internet-based business-to-business auction site, was launched. CEO, founder Scott Randall, drew on his experience building Internet businesses at NECX Direct, Yahoo, and Internet Shopping Network to build his business. This case, set in June 1998, describes the challenges he faced in launching the company and enables students to debate the best approach to penetrating the market and growing the organization.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Debates; Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development; Growth Management; Management Style; Product Launch; Multi-Sided Platforms; Problems and Challenges; Information Technology; Information Technology Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Jack Wieland, and Chad M. M Raube. "FairMarket, Inc.: Where Buyers and Sellers Connect." Harvard Business School Case 399-006, August 1998. (Revised June 2000.) View Details
  48. Ford Argentina: Transforming a Global Industry in a Local Market

    The president of Ford Argentina has to decide on the e-business approach at this subsidiary of Ford Motor Co. The approach must take into consideration the ambitious global e-business transformation proposed by the parent company within the context of a major economic crisis suffered in Argentina.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Financial Crisis; Global Strategy; Technological Innovation; Problems and Challenges; Internet;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ramiro Montealegre, Laureano Berasategui, and Paula Rodriguez Etchard. "Ford Argentina: Transforming a Global Industry in a Local Market." Harvard Business School Case 803-093, June 2003. View Details
  49. Foxwoods: Turning Data into Insights in the Hospitality Industry

    This case describes how an IT director identified an opportunity and implemented an innovative business solution designed to enable line managers and executives to convert data to information to insights. The case also details how the company partnered with an emerging technology start-up, Netezza.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Technological Innovation; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Partners and Partnerships; Information Technology; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Connecticut;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Deborah L. Soule. "Foxwoods: Turning Data into Insights in the Hospitality Industry." Harvard Business School Case 810-083, February 2010. View Details
  50. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition 1980-1986

    Describes the environmental, organizational, and information technology context in the late 1970s that led to the development of the initial vision for change and the actions taken to implement that vision. The case ends with the abrupt departure of the CEO as profits plunge. Students have an opportunity to explore what went wrong and to define an action plan that addresses both the short-term and long-term challenges faced by the incoming CEO.

    Keywords: Transition; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Information Technology; Management Succession; Management Teams; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition 1980-1986." Harvard Business School Case 194-107, April 1994. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  51. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (1987-1989)

    Describes the actions taken by the new CEO to return the company to profitability, to clarify the vision, and then to build the infrastructure (human, capital, and information) needed to support the long-term change in strategy and organization. Ends with senior management poised to institute a second round of organizational change initiatives--this time more radical in nature. Provides a rich description of the evolutionary nature of the vision for change and the development of the organizational and information infrastructure needed to support it. Students have an opportunity to define a detailed change agenda (e.g., specific changes in organization structure, management systems, people, processes, and information) and the actions needed to implement it.

    Keywords: Transition; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Information Technology; Management Teams; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (1987-1989)." Harvard Business School Case 194-108, April 1994. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  52. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (1990-1992)

    Describes the changes in structure, management systems, people, and processes instituted by the company. Provides students with an opportunity to explore the nature of "IT-enabled" organizational change and the process through which it is implemented. Also enables a more general discussion of the challenges that companies face in organizing and managing in the 1990s and the actions that they are taking to meet those challenges. Affords an opportunity to confront the rhetoric of the emergence of a "new organization paradigm" with the reality.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Information Technology; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (1990-1992)." Harvard Business School Case 194-109, April 1994. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  53. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (A) (Updated)

    The setting is a food manufacturing company that has stumbled in terms of its historic growth and profit achievements. In trying to recapture momentum, the president has used information technology as one element in his program of transition. The case focuses on the strategic problem and setting, the use of information technology for organizational change, and the associated implementation problems.

    Keywords: Business History; Information Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Transition; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (A) (Updated)." Harvard Business School Case 193-129, February 1993. (Revised March 1993.) View Details
  54. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (C)

    In 1989, Frito-Lay designed an information technology infrastructure to support time-based competition and organizational restructuring. The company planned to provide timely flexible information to all major decision makers at all levels. This case describes the information support architecture and its anticipated effects.

    Keywords: Design; Information Technology; Infrastructure; Competitive Strategy; Time Management; Organizational Structure; Information Management; Strategic Planning; Performance Effectiveness; Decision Choices and Conditions; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (C)." Harvard Business School Case 190-071, December 1989. (Revised February 1993.) View Details
  55. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (Consolidated)

    The setting is a food manufacturing company that has stumbled in terms of its historic growth and profit achievements. In trying to recapture its momentum, the president has used information technology as one element in his program of transition. The case focuses on the strategic problem and setting, the use of information technology for organizational change, and the associated implementation problems.

    Keywords: Business History; Information Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Transition; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (Consolidated)." Harvard Business School Case 193-040, January 1993. (Revised July 1993.) View Details
  56. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (D)

    Provides a thorough overview of the company's 1990 and 1991 reorganizations and the resulting demand for information technology in lower levels of the organization. Closes with a discussion of Frito-Lay's most recent information technology projects, Explorer and Navigator.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Negotiation Deal; Problems and Challenges; Organizational Design; Projects; Manufacturing Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Melinda Conrad, and Charles S. Osborn. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition (D)." Harvard Business School Case 193-004, September 1992. (Revised July 1993.) View Details
  57. Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition, 1987-1992 (Abridged)

    A new CEO must take action to return the company to profitability, to clarify the vision, and then to build the infrastructure (human, capital, and information) needed to support the long-term change in strategy and organization. The case provides a rich description of the evolutionary nature of the vision for change and the development of the organizational and information infrastructure needed to support it. The company institutes changes in structure, management systems, people, and processes in a second round of organizational change initiatives--this time more radical in nature.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Leading Change; Information Technology; Adaptation; Technology Adoption; Manufacturing Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: A Strategic Transition, 1987-1992 (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 195-238, April 1995. (Revised September 1997.) View Details
  58. Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Navigator Project (A)

    Provides an overview of the company's recent organizational changes followed by a discussion of the company's new sales promotion software, "Promotion Planner." The president of Frito-Lay's central division must decide how he should proceed with the rollout of this new technology.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Technology Adoption; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Trends; Innovation Strategy; Marketing Communications; Decision Choices and Conditions; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Richard O. Mason, and Melinda Conrad. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Navigator Project (A)." Harvard Business School Case 193-025, June 1993. (Revised December 1995.) View Details
  59. F-Secure Corporation: Software as a Service (SaaS) in the Security Solutions Market

    Describes the development of a business model based on "software as a service" (SaaS) for security solution distributed through Internet Service Providers (ISPs). F-Secure disruptively entered a mature business with dominant players by executing an innovative new service model. The case describes the challenges involved in developing and executing the new service model and offers students opportunities to discuss the evolving challenges the company faces looking forward.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Business Model; Disruptive Innovation; Service Delivery; Internet; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, Kalle Lyytinen, Esko Penttinen, and Timo Saarinen. "F-Secure Corporation: Software as a Service (SaaS) in the Security Solutions Market." Harvard Business School Case 809-099, January 2009. (Revised February 2009.) View Details
  60. F-Secure Corporation: Software as a Service (SaaS) in the Security Solutions Market (TN)

    Teaching Note for [809099].

    Keywords: Business Model; Software; Innovation and Invention; Opportunities; Business Growth and Maturation; Service Operations; Problems and Challenges; Web Services Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, Kalle Lyytinen, Esko Penttinen, and Timo Saarinen. "F-Secure Corporation: Software as a Service (SaaS) in the Security Solutions Market (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 809-151, May 2009. View Details
  61. Furqan Nazeeri and the IMTrader Spin-Out

    Furqan Nazeeri is looking to spin out a promising set of products and technologies from an established financial services firm. Designed as an exercise in negotiation. Includes material from the original business plan, and it is possible to simulate a negotiation around key issues involved in the spin-out: timing and financing, equity distribution, asset transfer, personnel transitions and roles of key players, customer retention, CEO selection, and new board formation.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Business or Company Management; Negotiation Process; Product Development; Technology Adoption;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Brian DeLacey. "Furqan Nazeeri and the IMTrader Spin-Out." Harvard Business School Case 805-147, June 2005. View Details
  62. General Electric Canada: Designing a New Organization

    General Electric Canada used sociotechnical design techniques to restructure its financial, administrative, facilities, and information technology service from a decentralized, hierarchical organization to a centralized organization composed of self-managing, multi-skilled work teams. The case explores the role of information technology in supporting and enabling the intensive information sharing and communication required by the new organization design.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Information Technology; Groups and Teams; Change; Communication; Information; Industrial Products Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and James I. Cash Jr. "General Electric Canada: Designing a New Organization." Harvard Business School Case 189-138, January 1989. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  63. Global Healthcare Exchange

    Founded in March 2000 at the height of the dot-com bubble, Global Healthcare Exchange (GHX) was one of 90 online marketplaces in the health care industry. The company's founders were among the largest suppliers in the industry, including Johnson & Johnson, GE Medical, Abbot, Baxter, and Medtronic. Becton-Dickinson, Braun, Guidant, Tyco, Siemens, C.R. Bard, and other key suppliers joined shortly after the company was founded. At the time of the case (spring 2003), GHX was the largest of the three remaining online health care marketplaces and ownership had expanded to include the leading players across all parts of the value chain, including health care providers and managed care organizations. Group purchasing organizations, distributors, and company executives must address key strategic issues, including integrating its latest merger, achieving profitability, defining a fair pricing strategy, and determining the pace of global expansion.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Entrepreneurship; Price; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Supply and Industry; Organizational Design; Expansion; Online Technology; Valuation; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Jamie Ladge. "Global Healthcare Exchange." Harvard Business School Case 804-002, July 2003. (Revised August 2003.) View Details
  64. Go Beyond Investing

    In 2013, Brigitte Baumann, founder of the Pan-European angel investing provider Go Beyond Investing, reflected on the evolution of her venture and the way forward. Her company, which offered deal flow and training to novice and experienced angel investors and ran investor groups in several European countries, had reached a critical size, and Baumann needed to make a strategic decision to ensure its future growth in an industry that was undergoing rapid competitive and regulatory change. Her options required a decision on whether to keep her venture independent, and use a financing round to grow and scale it to a European leader in early stage investing, or whether to cash out and/or have it evolve more quickly through a partnership or sale. Possibilities included a future sale to a private bank that was looking for ways to expand their investment offerings for high net worth individuals, or joining forces with one of the emerging crowdfunding networks that targeted small investors. All of these options would require adjustments to Go Beyond Investing's strategy, capabilities, financing, and organizational structure.

    Keywords: Equity; Investment; Business or Company Management; Growth Management; Leadership; Financial Services Industry; Europe; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda, Vincent Dessain, Emilie Billaud, and Daniela Beyersdorfer. "Go Beyond Investing." Harvard Business School Case 814-046, February 2014. View Details
  65. HGRM: Bringing Back High Touch Hospitality

    The case centers on the dilemma faced by Carlo Fontana, the owner-operator of a small chain of two four-star urban hotels located in Lugano, Switzerland, and the other in Milan, Italy. Having developed an extensive customer service and operations information system, called Happy Guests Relationship Management, Fontana is entertaining the possibility of commercializing his innovation. Doing so may provide a welcome new source of income during the greatest economic slowdown in recent history, and it would help in keeping the HGRM design and development team motivated to refine and improve the solution. However, commercializing the innovation may also stretch his organization too thin and bring his team into a business, the software industry, completely foreign to them.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Customer Relationship Management;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Gabriele Piccoli. "HGRM: Bringing Back High Touch Hospitality." Harvard Business School Case 813-019, July 2012. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  66. Hilton Hotels: Brand Differentiation through Customer Relationship Management

    This case analyzes the Hilton Hotels Corporation's CRM strategy at a key juncture in its history, immediately after the firm has been taken private by Blackstone. The case provides students with a comprehensive history of the evolution and IT enablers of Hilton's CRM Initiative, as well as the proprietary OnQ enterprise system. The case thus offers a rare opportunity to engage in a longitudinal evaluation of the firm's CRM initiative and to enable students to propose the future evolution of the initiative based on their analysis.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Marketing Strategy; Privatization; Performance Evaluation; Information Technology; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Gabriele Piccoli, and Chekitan Dev. "Hilton Hotels: Brand Differentiation through Customer Relationship Management." Harvard Business School Case 809-029, July 2008. View Details
  67. Hilton Hotels: Brand Differentiation through Customer Relationship Management (TN)

    Teaching Note for [809029].

    Keywords: History; Strategy; Customer Relationship Management; Information Technology; System; Privatization; Brands and Branding; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Gabriele Piccoli, and Chekitan Dev. "Hilton Hotels: Brand Differentiation through Customer Relationship Management (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 809-030, July 2008. View Details
  68. The HLB Turnaround

    Ford Pearson has recently taken over as CEO of HLB, a Chicago-based product design and development firm (and once one of the largest in the business), to help turn it around after a series of crises that had seriously threatened its survival. Pearson has personally invested in the firm, re-organized many aspects of its operations and has hired a younger executive and turnaround expert, Andrew Macey, as COO to help him in the effort. Pearson and Macey have several options to consider: Should HLB raise $1 million in debt financing and focus on a turnaround or should it approach a private equity investor and raise an additional $4 million and pursue a more aggressive productivity improvement plus growth strategy? While they consider these options in September 2008, the credit markets are about to clamp shut as a global financial crisis is around the corner.

    Keywords: Business Organization; Business or Company Management; Private Equity; Restructuring; Product Design; Corporate Finance;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Bhaskar Chakravorti, and Laura Winig. "The HLB Turnaround." Harvard Business School Case 810-023, November 2009. View Details
  69. Home Essentials: Building a Global Service Business with Local Operations

    Chris Exline founded Home Essentials, a furniture rental business targeted toward expatriates, in Singapore but rapidly moved the base of operations to Hong Kong. The company was highly successful in Singapore and Hong Kong and then pursued rapid global expansion. Lacking frameworks for deciding upon countries to enter and services to deliver in each country, Exline used gut instinct. Lacking control systems and information, he failed to identify problems early and had trouble understanding the root cause of failures. The global financial crisis intensified the problems. The case ends by describing how Exline was able to turn around the troubled company and develop necessary governance systems. The question of whether to once more attempt to grow beyond Hong Kong and, if so, the approach to take in selecting countries, is a central issue Exline faced at the time of the case.

    Keywords: Growth Management; Renting or Rental; Corporate Governance; Global Strategy; Failure; Singapore; Hong Kong;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, and David Lane. "Home Essentials: Building a Global Service Business with Local Operations." Harvard Business School Case 811-078, June 2011. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  70. IBM's Decade of Transformation: Turnaround to Growth

    Describes IBM's decade of transformation. Provides background on the company's history and the factors that led to its near death in the early 1990s and to its remarkable turnaround during Gerstner's reign as CEO. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leading Change; Transformation; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Robert D. Austin, and Elizabeth Collins. "IBM's Decade of Transformation: Turnaround to Growth." Harvard Business School Case 805-130, April 2005. (Revised July 2009.) View Details
  71. IBM's Decade of Transformation: Uniting Vision and Values

    Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Elizabeth Collins, Charles Heckscher, and Boniface Michael. "IBM's Decade of Transformation: Uniting Vision and Values." Harvard Business School Supplement 807-030, September 2006. (Revised April 2008.) View Details
  72. Innovating at AT&T: Partnering to Lead the Broadband Revolution

    In 2010, the U.S. retail market value for next-generation non-handset wirelessly-enabled devices was just over $1 billion. By 2011 it had grown 1,141% to $13.2 billion and was forecast to reach $24.7 billion in 2015. At the same time, user demand for data was surging with the popularity of mobile Internet, e-mail, and messaging, which left carriers scrambling to increase network capacity. To capture more revenue in the data market, AT&T formed the Emerging Devices Organization (EDO) in 2008 as a distinct internal initiative to identify and partner with manufacturers developing the next generation of mobile broadband devices—from eReaders to tablets, to implanted medical devices, to supply-chain tracking devices, to dog collars and many more. AT&T executives believed that these partnerships would position the company for its next "winning play," following the path it blazed in 2007 with Apple for the iPhone. The EDO was run by Glenn Lurie, who had led the team that partnered with Apple. He knew from experience that to capture the market with the next game-changing device, his team would need to develop a new partnership model, both inside AT&T and with the ecosystem of partners who were poised to lead the global mobile broadband revolution. Doing so within a company the size of AT&T would be tough, but Lurie believed his group was up to the task.

    Keywords: innovation & entrepreneurship; team leadership; emerging technologies; business models; business to business; corporate vision; growth strategy; corporate culture; Innovation and Invention; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Partners and Partnerships; Leadership; Mobile Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Business Model; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Phillip Andrews, and Kerry Herman. "Innovating at AT&T: Partnering to Lead the Broadband Revolution." Harvard Business School Case 812-124, June 2012. View Details
  73. INRIX

    Since its founding in 2004, INRIX, a leading global provider of traffic information and driver services, had received four rounds of financing from leading venture capital (VC) firms and by 2012 had been cash flow positive for the past six quarters. Its founder, Bryan Mistele, was looking to pivot into high growth and faced several intriguing options. However, competition in the sector was rapidly shifting, and Mistele also knew that while INRIX's industry-leading technology platform and customized services had set the firm apart, large location-based services companies could more easily enter the sector, posing a significant threat. In recent years, due to the proliferation of smartphones, large firms such as Google and Apple had increased access to location data, potentially threatening to enter the real-time traffic information (RTTI) space. Current competitors Navteq and Tele Atlas were also looking to grow through global expansion. Mistele also knew that the VC firms that held controlling stakes in his company were looking to cash out soon, either with a sale or by taking the company public through an IPO. He pondered both options and surveyed the challenges that each presented. If Mistele and INRIX decided to go public, Mistele would need to be confident that INRIX's strategic position and capabilities differentiated the company from other competitors and potential entrants. INRIX's "exit" options—sale or IPO—also implied different organizational decisions across the firm; Mistele wondered how best to organize INRIX to defend its current position and achieve growth as it continued to operate in a larger and more complex environment.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Business Growth and Maturation; Business Exit or Shutdown; Business Startups; Organizational Structure; Mobile Technology; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology Industry; Service Industry; Washington (state, US);

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Ryan Johnson. "INRIX." Harvard Business School Case 812-112, March 2012. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  74. InSite Marketing Technology (A)

    Introduces students to products and services that improve customers' online shopping experience. Also discusses the challenges of marketing new product concepts and finding funding for start-up ventures.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Financing and Loans; Technological Innovation; Business or Company Management; Marketing Strategy; Product Launch; Service Delivery; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Service Industry; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Genevieve J.S. Feraud, and Sheila L Marcelo. "InSite Marketing Technology (A)." Harvard Business School Case 800-279, February 2000. (Revised April 2003.) View Details
  75. InSite Marketing Technology (B)

    Provides students an example of partnerships/acquisitions that allow delivery of packaged solutions to customers in the electronic commerce space.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Customer Satisfaction; Entrepreneurship; Partners and Partnerships; Strategy; Business Strategy; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Genevieve J.S. Feraud. "InSite Marketing Technology (B)." Harvard Business School Case 800-280, February 2000. (Revised April 2003.) View Details
  76. Intellectual Asset Valuation

    Discusses the shortcomings of the current "rules of thumb" for intellectual asset valuation in the context of intellectual property licensing transactions. As an alternative to the present scheme, this note proposes quantitative methods for such valuations in order to better inform the parties negotiating the elements of an IP transaction.

    Keywords: Valuation; Intellectual Property;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Gavin Clarkson. "Intellectual Asset Valuation." Harvard Business School Background Note 801-192, December 2000. View Details
  77. Intellectual Property Exchange (A), The

    As the marketplace for intellectual assets explodes, the mechanisms for liquidity and exchange have not kept pace. Bryan Benoit, partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), believes that he has a solution. Working initially with a shoestring development budget, he has created an e-business within PwC called The Intellectual Property Exchange, which he believes will both increase the liquidity for intellectual assets, increase the number of transactions that take place worldwide, as well as increase the visibility of PwC's Intellectual Asset Management Practice. This case explores the challenges and obstacles that Benoit faces.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Intellectual Property; Knowledge Management; Brands and Branding; Problems and Challenges; Networks; Internet;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Gavin Clarkson. "Intellectual Property Exchange (A), The." Harvard Business School Case 801-176, September 2000. View Details
  78. Interactive Insurance Services: Redefining Insurance Distribution

    Founded in July 1995, Interactive Insurance Services provided personal lines of insurance over the World Wide Web. In June 1996, the company was acquired by Intuit for $7.5 million. The case details the competitive and organizational issues faced by this rapidly growing Internet business.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Restructuring; Growth and Development; Distribution; Business Processes; Competitive Strategy; Web; Insurance Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Marla Malcom-Nagler. "Interactive Insurance Services: Redefining Insurance Distribution." Harvard Business School Case 399-017, September 1998. (Revised February 1999.) View Details
  79. Internet Securities, Inc.: Path to Sustainability

    Founded in 1994 when the Internet was still a "toy for techies," the case is set in 1998 when Internet IPOs were red-hot. Internet Securities provides hard-to-find financial, business, economic, and political information on emerging markets. Information from over 600 information suppliers in more than 25 emerging markets (e.g., China, Russia, Poland, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Turkey) is provided to over 650 institutional clients, including J.P. Morgan, Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, KPMG, and ING Barings. After ruling out seeking another round of VC financing, the cash-strapped founder of this Internet information service provider must decide whether to IPO or accept an offer to be acquired by Euromoney, a global publishing and information content provider that is eager to launch an Internet information service. The case contains a term sheet that can be reviewed to support analysis and decision making.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Business Model; Business Startups; Decision Choices and Conditions; Venture Capital; Cash Flow; Initial Public Offering; Data and Data Sets; Growth and Development Strategy; Valuation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, and Ryan Johnson. "Internet Securities, Inc.: Path to Sustainability." Harvard Business School Case 811-098, April 2011. (Revised June 2011.) View Details
  80. Jack Strang at SequenceLabs

    How can entrepreneur manage his firm if things go wrong despite having a great idea, a solid team, and financial backing? Jack Strang founded a biotech firm with his friend Peter Evans, to develop molecular pathway-based "cures" for metabolic disorders. The idea was revolutionary and had both scientific validity and commercial applicability. No wonder, then, he was the darling of the venture capital industry when he approached them for funding, and he easily got first round financing. He and Evans had also assembled a strong team with impeccable credentials. Nothing, it seemed, could go wrong. Yet, close to second-round financing, nothing seemed to be right, and Strang could not help but worry. The product development was behind schedule, and his team was demoralized and tired. The future seemed uncertain. What had gone wrong? Was there anything that could be done?

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Venture Capital; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Business Growth and Maturation; Failure; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Khaire, Mukti, John J. Gabarro, and Lynda M. Applegate. "Jack Strang at SequenceLabs." Harvard Business School Case 806-088, January 2006. View Details
  81. Kaiser Permanente: Innovating to Transform Healthcare

    This case enables discussion of organizational and industry transformation.

    Keywords: entrepreneurial management; strategy; organ; Entrepreneurship; Management; Competitive Strategy; Behavior; Leadership; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda. "Kaiser Permanente: Innovating to Transform Healthcare." Harvard Business School Case 813-184, May 2013. View Details
  82. Last Mile of Broadband Access, The: Technical Note

    Provides an overview of broadband access technology. Includes technical overviews of cable, DSL, fixed wireless, and satellite systems, and suggests the technical suitability of each to accommodate broadband applications.

    Keywords: Business Model; Infrastructure; Internet; Wireless Technology;

    Citation:

    Light, Jay O., Lynda M. Applegate, and Daniel J. Green. "Last Mile of Broadband Access, The: Technical Note." Harvard Business School Technical Note 800-076, September 1999. (Revised January 2000.) View Details
  83. LeapFrog Enterprises

    Explores the success factors leading to the company's rise to the number three ranking in the aggressively competitive toy industry. LeapFrog has made the strategic decision to expand beyond the toy industry and enter the educational technology and services industry. While leveraging core capabilities and product platforms, this new industry requires that executives define a new business model. Senior executives face a number of challenges in implementing the new business and in sustaining the company's growth.

    Keywords: Business Model; Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Expansion; Consumer Products Industry; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "LeapFrog Enterprises." Harvard Business School Case 808-109, February 2008. (Revised September 2010.) View Details
  84. Learning from LeapFrog: Creating Educational and Business Value

    Explores the success factors leading to one's company's rise to the number three ranking in the aggressively competitive toy industry. LeapFrog has made the strategic decision to exploit its educational model in two industry sectors: consumer toys and educational supplemental materials. Senior executives face a number of challenges in sustaining the company's growth. Critical to its success is LeapFrog's ability to leverage its core assets, while simultaneously closely managing its relationships with customers, distributors, suppliers, and partners across these two very different industry sectors.

    Keywords: Transformation; Decisions; Education; Entrepreneurship; Innovation and Invention; Growth Management; Media; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Research; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Christopher Dede, and Susan Saltrick. "Learning from LeapFrog: Creating Educational and Business Value." Harvard Business School Case 804-062, September 2003. (Revised June 2005.) View Details
  85. Making Sense of the Internet Business Landscape

    Discusses the shift from the industrial to the information economy from a technological, business, and societal perspective. Compares the changes we are experiencing today with the changes experienced during the shift from the agrarian to the industrial age at the turn of the century.

    Keywords: Transition; Economy; Information; Perspective; Society; Internet;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Making Sense of the Internet Business Landscape." Harvard Business School Background Note 801-407, March 2001. (Revised July 2001.) View Details
  86. Managing in an Information Age: IT Challenges and Opportunities

    The co-evolution of technology, work, and the workforce over the past 30 years has dramatically influenced our concept of organizations and the industries within which they compete. No longer simply a tool to support "back-office" transactions, IT has become a strategic part of most businesses, enabling the redefinition of markets and industries and the strategies and designs of firms competing within them. But to achieve these information age benefits, companies must adopt information age technology architectures. Organizations must radically transform outdated IT architectures and the IT organizations required to support them. The technological transformation is every bit as daunting as the organizational transformation. This note, along with Designing and Managing the Information Age IT Architecture, describes general frameworks and concepts that managers can use to analyze their existing IT architecture and to define and manage the IT architecture required to support the information processing requirements of the Information Age organization.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Information Management; Restructuring; Technological Innovation; Corporate Strategy; Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Managing in an Information Age: IT Challenges and Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-004, August 1995. View Details
  87. Managing in an Information Age: Organizational Challenges and Opportunities

    Managers and management theorists spent the majority of this century building and perfecting the hierarchy; however, if we believe the press, they now appear to be engaged in destroying it. While many proclaim the dawning of the "Information Age" organization and the fading of the hierarchical organization as a trend of the 1990s, the roots of these changes can be traced to the 1950s. This note provides an overview of the organizational design challenges that firms face in the 1990s, their historical roots, and the characteristics of the emerging Information Age organization model.

    Keywords: Management; Information Technology; Problems and Challenges; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Managing in an Information Age: Organizational Challenges and Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-002, August 1995. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  88. Managing Information Technology in the 1990s: Information Management

    Provides an overview of information management technology, including hierarchical, relational, and object-oriented databases, document management systems, and hypertext.

    Keywords: Management; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Geoffrey Bock. "Managing Information Technology in the 1990s: Information Management." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-036, August 1995. (Revised August 1995.) View Details
  89. Managing Information Technology in the 1990s: Technology Overview

    Provides students with a basic understanding of the technology and technical terminology for computer hardware and software.

    Keywords: Management; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Geoffrey Bock. "Managing Information Technology in the 1990s: Technology Overview." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-007, July 1995. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  90. Managing IT in the 1990s: Communications Technology

    Provides an overview of the basic technologies that comprise the communications infrastructure of a firm. Network architecture, wide area networks, local area networks, communication media, network protocols, and basic principles of data transmission over networks are covered.

    Keywords: Management; Information Technology; Communication Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Geoffrey Bock. "Managing IT in the 1990s: Communications Technology." Harvard Business School Background Note 195-270, June 1995. (Revised August 1995.) View Details
  91. Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (A)

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Information Technology; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Donna B. Stoddard. "Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (A)." Harvard Business School Case 188-037, December 1987. (Revised March 1990.) View Details
  92. Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note

    Keywords: Information Technology; Organizations; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 189-060, August 1988. (Revised March 1990.) View Details
  93. Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (B)

    Keywords: Information Technology; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Donna B. Stoddard. "Manufacturers Hanover Corp.: The New Information Technology Organization (B)." Harvard Business School Case 188-038, December 1987. (Revised March 1990.) View Details
  94. Medtronic Vision 2010

    Describes the company's year-long efforts to transition from a medical device company selling products to physicians for use with patients suffering chronic end-stage disease, to a medical technology company providing life-long solutions for people with chronic diseases. With the new vision setting direction, the CEO calls for business plans to implement that vision. Enables readers to analyze the business plan and make recommendations for funding.

    Keywords: Business Plan; Transition; Decision Choices and Conditions; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Financial Management; Financing and Loans; Health Care and Treatment; Innovation and Invention; Strategic Planning; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Medtronic Vision 2010." Harvard Business School Case 807-051, September 2006. (Revised April 2007.) View Details
  95. Medtronic Vision 2010 (CW)

    Keywords: Business Plan; Decision Choices and Conditions; Forecasting and Prediction; Cash Flow; Opportunities; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and James Zeitler. "Medtronic Vision 2010 (CW)." Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 808-703, March 2008. (Revised August 2008.) View Details
  96. Metromove.com Business Plan

    Enables analysis of a business plan in a volatile market. Also enables analysis of the decisions entrepreneurs must make as they start a new business, develop the concept, choose partners, and find funding.

    Keywords: Business Plan; Decisions; Entrepreneurship; Venture Capital; Business or Company Management; Partners and Partnerships;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Sheila Marcelo. "Metromove.com Business Plan." Harvard Business School Case 802-117, January 2002. View Details
  97. Metso Paper: Globalization of Finnish Metal Workshops

    Metso Paper, the world's largest producer of paper machines, aims to transform itself into a knowledge- and information-based service and solution provider for the paper industry by aggressively exploiting information technologies. In the fall of 2002, Jorma Hujala, a vice-president of the Development, References, and Projects Department of Metso Paper's largest business unit, Rautpohja, attended a corporate-wide brainstorming meeting to decide how to improve the paper machine production and delivery process. Due to low growth in its traditional markets, the company needs to consider extending its strategy and business model to become not just a machine producer but also a supplier of services related to the value chain of paper production. In executing the new strategy, the company considers its world-class knowledge and capabilities to be its key competitive asset. Over the past decade, the department had improved project delivery performance through aggressive use of IT. Hujala and his team had to think carefully about how to enable and support the new corporate strategy and how to continue to develop their IT services and competencies accordingly.

    Keywords: Production; Customer Value and Value Chain; Information Technology; Corporate Strategy; Knowledge Management; Machinery and Machining; Expansion; Service Delivery; Manufacturing Industry; Pulp and Paper Industry; Finland;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Marikka Heikkila, and Kalle Lyytinen. "Metso Paper: Globalization of Finnish Metal Workshops." Harvard Business School Case 805-057, September 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  98. MicroAge, Inc.: Orchestrating the Information Technology Value Chain

    MicroAge, Inc. started as a storefront in Tempe, AZ in 1976 selling personal computer kits to hobbyists. During their first year of operation, founders Jeff McKeever and Alan Hald sold $1.5 million worth of computer kits, priced at under $1,000 each. Twenty years later, revenues exceeded $3.5 billion dollars, while the business evolved from a computer store to a master reseller and full-line integrator of information technology products. MicroAge continually reinvented itself and its business with an entrepreneurial spirit most companies of its size cannot enjoy. MicroAge thrives on the theory that many of its fiercest competitors can also be its best clients. This case provides an excellent vehicle for helping students understand the opportunities and risks related to electronic commerce and the Internet.

    Keywords: Transformation; Growth Management; Risk Management; Product; Opportunities; Horizontal Integration; Hardware; Information Technology; Internet; Technology Industry; Arizona;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kirk A. Goldman. "MicroAge, Inc.: Orchestrating the Information Technology Value Chain." Harvard Business School Case 398-068, November 1997. (Revised May 2002.) View Details
  99. Mobile Broadband and the Telecommunications Industry in 2011

    Mobile broadband carriers provide network access to the Internet for a range of devices (typically portable or mobile), including consumer devices such as smartphones, tablets and E-Readers, but also a host of new emerging devices. Mobile broadband networks enable data to travel in packets over telecommunication (telecom) companies' wireless (or cellular) networks. The number of worldwide mobile cellular subscriptions reached 6 billion in 2011, reflecting a penetration rate of 87%. This note provides some industry context for the advent and opportunities associated with mobile broadband.

    Keywords: telecommunications; Mobile Technology; Software; Technology Networks; Technology Platform; Wireless Technology; Telecommunications Industry; Information Technology Industry; Technology Industry; Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Kerry Herman, and Christine Snively. "Mobile Broadband and the Telecommunications Industry in 2011." Harvard Business School Technical Note 814-009, February 2014. View Details
  100. Mrs. Fields, Inc. (1977 - 1987)

    Describes a small company selling freshly baked goods through privately owned specialty stores (each store sells only Mrs. Fields products). The company has about 8,000 employees worldwide and less than 150 information systems people for a unique leverage of MIS resources. The company uses information systems extensively in its processing, communications, and other management functions, including operations of the stores and hiring sales employees. Teaching objectives include discussion of information technology architecture, organizations, management control, and strategy. A condensed version of Mrs. Fields Cookies.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Organizations; Management Systems; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Keri O. Pearlson. "Mrs. Fields, Inc. (1977 - 1987)." Harvard Business School Case 194-064, April 1994. (Revised October 2001.) View Details
  101. Mrs. Fields, Inc. (1988-1992)

    Continues the story of Mrs. Fields Cookies. Explores the new challenges the company faced managing its geographic growth and its expansion of products and markets through combination stores. Details the decision of Debbi and Randy Fields to delegate management responsibility.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Expansion; Growth Management; Organizational Structure; Globalization; Information Management; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Keri O. Pearlson, and Randi Wade Purchia. "Mrs. Fields, Inc. (1988-1992)." Harvard Business School Case 194-065, June 1994. (Revised October 2001.) View Details
  102. Mrs. Fields, Inc. 1993

    A compilation of press remarks that detail the changes in control and management initiated by the company.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Management Systems; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Keri O. Pearlson. "Mrs. Fields, Inc. 1993." Harvard Business School Supplement 194-066, June 1994. (Revised October 2001.) View Details
  103. M-TRONICS (A)

    The new CEO of a small manufacturing firm pursues growth through the launch of Entrepreneurial Subsidiaries. While the firm grows revenues from $600 million to over $2 billion in 10 years, problems surface as the subsidiaries are integrated into the established business.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Business Model; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Integration;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., and Lynda M. Applegate. "M-TRONICS (A)." Harvard Business School Case 807-156, April 2007. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  104. M-TRONICS (TN) (A) and (B)

    Teaching Note for 807156 and 807157.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business Subsidiaries; Problems and Challenges; Integration; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., and Lynda M. Applegate. "M-TRONICS (TN) (A) and (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 398-171, June 1998. (Revised November 2010.) View Details
  105. Nasdaq Japan: E-Merging Markets

    Describes the design and launch of Nasdaq Japan. Addresses issues concerning the design of electronic markets, the impact of information technology on market structures and relationships, the launch of new ventures by established firms, and the cultural issues that arise when starting new ventures in global markets.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Financial Markets; Technological Innovation; Management; Industry Structures; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology; Web Sites; Financial Services Industry; Information Technology Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kristin M. Kohler. "Nasdaq Japan: E-Merging Markets." Harvard Business School Case 802-056, October 2001. (Revised February 2002.) View Details
  106. National Instruments

    This case explores the use of social media to support product design, customer support, marketing and HR activities at National Instruments (NI). Based in Austin, Texas, with over $1 billion in 2011 sales, NI designs, produces, and sells software and hardware platforms that simplify development of its customers' measurement and control systems. Its customers, ranging from individuals (professors and their students) to large corporations, consist primarily of scientists and engineers—a pedigree shared by most NI employees. Since dedicating a full-time position to formalizing the use of social media tools in 2006, NI has infused social capabilities into its internal and customer-facing business processes, strengthening relationships and value delivered.

    NI's story deepens our understanding of how to build a social business strategy, create game changing innovation processes, and measure the value of its social technology investments—a key challenge facing the company. By touching on NI's history and culture, the case also allows students to consider what elements of this company's organization and culture have allowed it to build a robust social business model.

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Software; Organizational Culture; Technological Innovation; Technology Platform; Innovation and Management; Media; Management Systems; Social and Collaborative Networks; Information Technology Industry; Service Industry; Texas;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Keri Pearlson, and Natalie Kindred. "National Instruments." Harvard Business School Case 813-001, April 2013. (Revised October 2013.) View Details
  107. National Logistics Management

    National Logistics Management (NLM), a third-party logistics company, is a successful, profitable business that provides a more cost-effective and efficient means to expedite premium freight. With the logistics landscape changing, NLM's market niche is threatened. Can NLM survive in the newer, faster e-business logistics world? What are NLM's options for growth?

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Business or Company Management; Logistics; Industry Structures; Planning; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Mary Rotelli, and Kristin Kohler. "National Logistics Management." Harvard Business School Case 801-110, September 2000. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  108. National Logistics Management: Founder Decisions

    Scott Taylor, CEO & founder of NLM, is a serial entrepreneur faced with an important decision. As his industry consolidates, he knows that his company must grow quickly, yet he believes he has reached the limit of what organic growth can achieve. Should he accept the offer provided by a private equity firm that is buying up other small competitors in his industry?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Startups; Decision Choices and Conditions; Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Supply and Industry; Supply Chain;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "National Logistics Management: Founder Decisions." Harvard Business School Case 807-125, January 2007. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  109. Note on Chemical Bank Lotus Notes Demonstration Software: Windows & Macintosh Versions

    Keywords: Software; Technology; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Donna B. Stoddard. "Note on Chemical Bank Lotus Notes Demonstration Software: Windows & Macintosh Versions." Harvard Business School Background Note 192-112, March 1992. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  110. Oklahoma VISION Project

    Describes the two-year-old pilot phase of a public/private initiative in Oklahoma called the Virtual Internet School in Oklahoma Network (VISION) project. VISION was a first-of-its-kind, standards-based, vendor-neutral technology infrastructure developed to enable seamless end-to-end integration of the administrative and academic functions within a public school system. VISION promised Oklahoma's state education system greater access to information about the performance of schools, students, and teachers and a platform for improving that performance. Illustrates how the VISION partnership was built and how the VISION pilot was rolled out in nine public schools in Oklahoma.

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Internet; Performance Evaluation; Technological Innovation; Partners and Partnerships; Service Delivery; Innovation and Management; Entrepreneurship; Education; Information Technology Industry; Education Industry; Oklahoma; Western United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Susan Saltrick. "Oklahoma VISION Project." Harvard Business School Case 803-015, September 2002. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  111. Online Research Guide

    This note provides students with an approach to using online databases to analyze companies, industries, markets, including country markets.

    Keywords: Business Model; Decisions; Data and Data Sets; Markets; Supply and Industry; Planning; Research; Online Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, Ann Cullen, and Alexis Brownell. "Online Research Guide." Harvard Business School Background Note 811-095, April 2011. View Details
  112. Online Securities Trading in Japan

    Provides an overview of the Japanese securities industry and discusses how the online trading/brokerage industry grew as a result of deregulation of financial markets and penetration of the Internet in Japan. Describes major players in the online industry--Matsui Securities, E*Trade Securities, DLJdirect SFG, and Monex--highlighting each company's strategy and competitive positioning.

    Keywords: Online Technology; Competitive Strategy; Emerging Markets; Financial Markets; Business Strategy; Financial Instruments; Globalized Markets and Industries; Internet; Japan;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Jamie Ladge, Haruki Umezawa, and Masako Egawa. "Online Securities Trading in Japan." Harvard Business School Background Note 804-054, October 2003. (Revised January 2004.) View Details
  113. Open Market, Inc.: Managing in a Turbulent Environment

    Presents the story of Open Market, Inc., one of numerous companies formed in 1994 to engage in electronic commerce over the Internet. This case examines the company's development--its business strategy and organization evolution--as the company increased in size and gained a firm foothold in the uncertain electronic commerce.

    Keywords: Business Strategy; Growth and Development; Business Startups; Internet; Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizations; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Janis Lee Gogan. "Open Market, Inc.: Managing in a Turbulent Environment." Harvard Business School Case 196-097, March 1996. (Revised August 1996.) View Details
  114. Overview of E-Business Pricing Models

    Supplements National Logistics Management.

    Keywords: Internet; Price; Business Model; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., W. Earl Sasser, and Kristin Kohler. "Overview of E-Business Pricing Models." Harvard Business School Supplement 801-182, September 2000. (Revised June 2002.) View Details
  115. Paving the Information Superhighway

    Examines solutions to many of the information-sharing problems that limit growth of electronic commerce on the Internet. Serves as a basic primer for the use of electronic information exchange. While familiarizing the student with the basic tenets and terminology of the new technology, it also provides step-by-step guidance to navigating the World Wide Web.

    Keywords: Web; Knowledge Sharing; Problems and Challenges; Retail Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Geoffrey Bock, and Janis Lee Gogan. "Paving the Information Superhighway." Harvard Business School Background Note 195-202, January 1995. (Revised July 1996.) View Details
  116. PepsiCo: A View from the Corporate Office

    Describes the three business segments of PepsiCo (beverages, snack foods, and restaurants). It then explores the competitive environment within each segment and the response of PepsiCo's businesses. It seeks to show how PepsiCo CEO, D. Wayne Calloway, in a very "hands-off" and decentralized manner, achieves high growth rates in each segment through a process of "continual transformation." Calloway strives to hold together a fast-growing and rapidly changing business through shared values (instead of implementing tighter controls and increasing supervision).

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Change; Governance Controls; Management Style; Organizational Structure; Situation or Environment; Competitive Strategy; Value; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Leonard A. Schlesinger. "PepsiCo: A View from the Corporate Office." Harvard Business School Case 694-078, May 1994. (Revised November 1994.) View Details
  117. Phillips 66: Controlling a Company Through Crisis

    The downstream operations subsidiary of a major U.S. petroleum company is faced with major restructuring decisions and responds by developing an Executive Information System (EIS) which allows for increased responsiveness, wider span of control, and higher levels of effective communication among senior managers. The case examines how the EIS was developed, what business needs it serves, how it is currently used, and how its developers are approaching managing its growth.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Information Management; Governance Controls; Organizational Design; Crisis Management; Communication; Management Teams; Growth Management; Mining Industry; Energy Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Phillips 66: Controlling a Company Through Crisis." Harvard Business School Case 189-006, July 1987. (Revised October 1995.) View Details
  118. Phillips 66: Controlling a Company Through Crisis & Transforming for the 1990s, Teaching Note

    Keywords: Change Management; Crisis Management; Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Phillips 66: Controlling a Company Through Crisis & Transforming for the 1990s, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 189-072, September 1988. (Revised November 1995.) View Details
  119. Pitching Business Opportunities

    This note can be used to develop a business plan pitch for a new venture.

    Keywords: Business Plan; Business Startups; Spoken Communication; Competency and Skills; Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, and Alexis Brownell. "Pitching Business Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 811-086, March 2011. View Details
  120. ProfitLogic (CW)

    This interactive spreadsheet accompanies the ProfitLogic case (#802-110) to enable analysis of the cash flow implications of three business models that the company is considering. Students are able to change key assumptions and see the impact on cash flow.

    Keywords: Cash Flow; Business Model;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Richard G. Hamermesh, and Michael J. Roberts. "ProfitLogic (CW)." Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 808-704, April 2008. View Details
  121. PSA: The World's Port of Call

    Details the evolution of an e-business strategy and capabilities over a 16-year period. What began in 1984 as an effort to automate the port of Singapore to achieve productivity savings, by 2000 had evolved into a global e-business called Portnet.com. Closes as senior managers contemplate the progress they have made and the challenges still ahead.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Business Strategy; Technological Innovation; Internet; Business or Company Management; Shipping Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Nancy Bartlett, Dolly Chang-Leow, and Neo Boon Siong. "PSA: The World's Port of Call." Harvard Business School Case 802-003, July 2001. (Revised October 2004.) View Details
  122. QuickenInsurance: The Race to Click and Close (A)

    ES Technologies started in 1976 as a storefront in Tempe, Arizona selling personal computer kits to hobbyists. Twenty years later, revenues exceeded $3.5 billion, and the business had evolved from a computer store to a master reseller and full-line integrator of information technology products. At the time of the case, the founder (who remains as CEO) must decide whether to reinvent the company yet again to become an online "orchestrator" for the information technology (IT) industry.

    Keywords: Customer Value and Value Chain; Entrepreneurship; Technological Innovation; Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Structures; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Information Technology; Information Technology Industry; Arizona;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "QuickenInsurance: The Race to Click and Close (A)." Harvard Business School Case 800-295, February 2000. (Revised November 2002.) View Details
  123. Rattling SABRE: New Ways to Compete on Information TN

    Teaching Note for Harvard Business Review article (90307).

    Keywords: Information Technology; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Competitive Advantage; Technological Innovation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Rattling SABRE: New Ways to Compete on Information TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 196-009, November 1995. View Details
  124. RealNetworks, Inc.: Converging Technologies/Expanding Opportunities

    Highlights issues related to the impact of the Internet on industry and technology convergence. RealNetworks has succeeded in establishing its position as a market leader (over 90% market share) in the Internet streaming media segment. Can they maintain this position now that Microsoft has entered the market?

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Opportunities; Competitive Strategy; Expansion; Internet; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Kirk A. Goldman. "RealNetworks, Inc.: Converging Technologies/Expanding Opportunities." Harvard Business School Case 399-025, October 1998. (Revised February 2000.) View Details
  125. ReSource Pro

    Matt Bruno, founder and general manager of ReSource Pro, left his job working for a New York City-based insurance program shortly after the World Trade Center bombing and arrived in China. Initially he planned to teach English, but soon the entrepreneurial spirit of the country caused him to begin exploring opportunities. He returned to New York and talked his former boss into allowing him to start a back-office services firm for their insurance company clients, which grew into ReSource Pro. By year-end 2007, ReSource Pro employed 250 people, of whom only 4 were U.S.-based. With aggressive growth plans, Bruno began examining potential cities in China for expansion. After narrowing his list of potential expansion sites to the five Chinese cities of Chengdu (the capital of Sichuan Province), Jinan (capital of Shandong Province), Nanjing (capital of Jiangsu Province), Suzhou (Jiangsu), and Wuhan (capital of Hubei Province), he now had to make a final choice.

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Talent and Talent Management; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Insurance Industry; Service Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, Elisabeth Koll, and David Lane. "ReSource Pro." Harvard Business School Case 812-031, December 2011. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  126. Revolution in the Communications Switching Industry

    As data packet switches threatened the voice circuit switch industry in 1999, major switch and router vendors began paying high premiums to acquire venture-backed switch companies. This note explains what a switch is and suggests why large vendors might be so anxious to acquire new technology.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Restructuring; Capital; Technology; Technology Adoption; Communications Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Light, Jay O., Lynda M. Applegate, and Daniel J. Green. "Revolution in the Communications Switching Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 800-121, September 1999. View Details
  127. Riding the Wave of Technological Change at RE/MAX, LLC.

    David Liniger, cofounder of RE/MAX, LLC., wondered if his business was prepared to exploit the next wave of business opportunities in the real estate market. This industry had moved from one in which broker/owners controlled all of the consumers' access to information, to an industry in which the agents were empowered as independent contractors with a fee-based obligation to the brokers, to an industry in which the buyer and seller have direct access to and control of information. Could RE/MAX use the next wave of IT to support its agents while also reaching out to today's well-informed and tech-savvy home buyers and sellers? Would a shift towards direct consumer support jeopardize RE/MAX's franchise sales and agent recruitment and retention?

    Keywords: general management; information technology; Business Strategy; Entrepreneurship; Business Model; Information Technology; Transformation; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ramiro Montealegre, and Jeffrey Sweeney. "Riding the Wave of Technological Change at RE/MAX, LLC." Harvard Business School Case 813-054, October 2012. View Details
  128. Royal DSM N.V.: Information Technology Enabling Business Transformation

    Describes how Royal DSM NV, an $8 billion dollar global corporation, leveraged information technology to enable a major corporate portfolio transformation between 2000 and 2006.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Edward Watson, and Mara Vatz. "Royal DSM N.V.: Information Technology Enabling Business Transformation." Harvard Business School Case 807-167, June 2007. (Revised August 2007.) View Details
  129. Royal DSM N.V.: Information Technology Enabling Business Transformation (TN)

    Teaching Note for [807167].

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Information Technology; Transformation; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Deborah Soule. "Royal DSM N.V.: Information Technology Enabling Business Transformation (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 809-078, November 2008. View Details
  130. The Sandbox: Creating a Bottom-Up Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Discussion of new model of Social Enterprise that applies the venture capital model to social enterprise.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Non-Governmental Organizations; Venture Capital; Business Model;

    Citation:

    Ghosh, Shikhar, Lynda M. Applegate, Rhea Ghosh, and Amar Kumar. "The Sandbox: Creating a Bottom-Up Entrepreneurial Ecosystem." Harvard Business School Case 811-053, April 2011. View Details
  131. Sarah Vickers-Willis: Career Decisions (A)

    Sarah Vickers-Willis, HBS MBA 1999, faces a critical career decision: Does she redirect the Internet start-up she helped found or join in shaping a for-profit firm with a social mission? Sarah, a young Australian business executive, has always strived to "find space" for what's important to her in her career. Her career decisions began when she decided to interrupt a successful consulting career in Australia to attend Harvard Business School and continued through her founding (with three other HBS classmates) a fast-track Internet start-up. This case traces Sarah's increasing involvement with a small for-profit firm dedicated to improving the financial education of young women and ends with a decision point: Should she stay with the company she helped found, or should she move to the entrepreneurial firm with a social mission?

    Keywords: Decisions; Leadership; Internet; Social Entrepreneurship; Personal Development and Career; Gender Characteristics; Business Startups;

    Citation:

    Hart, Myra M., Lynda M. Applegate, Sarah Harden, and Susan Saltrick. "Sarah Vickers-Willis: Career Decisions (A)." Harvard Business School Case 802-111, December 2001. View Details
  132. Sarah Vickers-Willis: Career Decisions (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Decisions; Leadership; Internet; Social Entrepreneurship; Personal Development and Career; Gender Characteristics; Business Startups;

    Citation:

    Hart, Myra M., Lynda M. Applegate, Sarah Harden, and Susan Saltrick. "Sarah Vickers-Willis: Career Decisions (B)." Harvard Business School Case 802-112, December 2001. View Details
  133. Satelite Distribuidora de Petroleo

    Marcelo Alecrim, the owner of SAT, a gas distribution company in Brazil, envisioned many growth opportunities but lacked financial resources to pursue them. He was approaching an American private equity fund to raise money. Describes Alecrim's challenge in creating SAT and the way he leveraged his vision and a sound business model.

    Keywords: Business Model; Entrepreneurship; Private Equity; Growth and Development Strategy; Emerging Markets; Utilities Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Andrea M.A.F. Minardi. "Satelite Distribuidora de Petroleo." Harvard Business School Case 808-062, August 2007. View Details
  134. The Shaw Group Inc.: Entrepreneurial Innovation

    The case describes the founding and evolution of the Shaw Group through acquisition. The case is set at the time that the company is redesigning its business processes, organization, and information technology infrastructure to support aggressive growth and increased complexity.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Entrepreneurship; Innovation and Invention; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Infrastructure; Business Processes; Organizational Design; Information Technology;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Edward Watson. "The Shaw Group Inc.: Entrepreneurial Innovation." Harvard Business School Case 810-135, June 2010. View Details
  135. Singapore TradeNet: Beyond TradeNet to the Intelligent Island

    Describes the actions taken by the government of Singapore to enable the country to survive and prosper after it achieved independence in the late 1960s. Recognizing that its small size, limited natural resources, but excellent location placed it in a vulnerable position, the prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, defined a vision for the country as an information, trade, and business hub for Southeast Asia. TradeNet is an interesting class of IT system that possesses two distinct components: first, it is an example of an interorganizational strategic application that forms the core of a successful redesign of the trade process, which solidifies the country's position as a transshipment port for Southeast Asia; second, TradeNet also provides an information management and communication infrastructure that can be used to create additional strategic applications. This case relates how Singapore is continuing to implement its IT2000 National Information Infrastructure Plan in 1995.

    Keywords: Transition; Communication Technology; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Multi-Sided Platforms; Information Technology; Technology Adoption; Information Technology Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., John L. King, and Soon-Siong Neo. "Singapore TradeNet: Beyond TradeNet to the Intelligent Island." Harvard Business School Case 196-105, October 1995. View Details
  136. Singapore TradeNet: The Tale Continues

    Continues the story of Singapore Network Services Pte. Ltd. (SNS), which was created to initiate and manage the creation of value-added networks for trade and other aspects of commerce in the island nation of Singapore. SNS built on its TradeNet experience to develop and implement networks for other sectors of the Singapore economy, mostly in profit-sharing partnership arrangements with government departments and industry associations. New EDI networks were developed in health care, legal, retailing, and manufacturing sectors.

    Keywords: Internet; Technology Networks; Online Technology; Profit Sharing; Partners and Partnerships; Trade; Business and Government Relations; Web Services Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., John L. King, and Boon-Siong Neo. "Singapore TradeNet: The Tale Continues." Harvard Business School Case 193-136, March 1993. (Revised June 1995.) View Details
  137. Singapore Unlimited: Building the National Information Infrastructure

    Describes the actions taken by the government of Singapore to enable the country to survive and prosper after it achieved independence in the late 1960s. Recognizing that its small size, limited natural resources, but excellent location placed it in a vulnerable position, the prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, defined a vision for the country as an information, trade, and business hub for Southeast Asia. This case describes the evolution of the vision, organization, and IT infrastructure as Singapore attempts to extend its influence and reach outside its national boundaries.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Natural Environment; Expansion; Policy; Infrastructure; Singapore; Southeast Asia;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., John L. King, Soon-Siong Neo, and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Singapore Unlimited: Building the National Information Infrastructure." Harvard Business School Case 196-012, October 1995. (Revised October 1996.) View Details
  138. Singapore Unlimited: Building the National Information Infrastructure, Teaching Note

    Teaching Note for (9-196-012). A rewritten version of an earlier teaching note.

    Keywords: Information Management; Infrastructure; Policy; Government Administration; Information Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "Singapore Unlimited: Building the National Information Infrastructure, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 399-098, February 1999. View Details
  139. Slingshot Technology, Inc. (A)

    Slingshot Technology Inc. (STI) is a privately held software start-up founded in 1995 focused on identifying emerging spaces in the IT services industry and partnering with vendors selling promising but unproven technologies in those spaces. The vendors used STI to extend their system development and integration capabilities to deliver on aggressive deadlines, STI gained a steady stream of consulting and engineering work plus opportunities to identify and meet follow-on needs of the vendors' Fortune 1000 customers. Four years after the company was founded with $1,000, revenue had exploded to $1.9 million on the basis of partnerships with enterprise applications development and enterprise application integration vendors. In late 1998, the founder was pondering how to set up an innovative "software factory" to complement the consulting side of the business while ensuring that STI's knowledge assets and intellectual property were protected.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Private Ownership; Opportunities; Partners and Partnerships; Entrepreneurship; Software; Intellectual Property; Business Startups; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "Slingshot Technology, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 804-022, May 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  140. Slingshot Technology, Inc. (B)

    Slingshot Technology Inc. (STI) is a privately held software start-up founded in 1995 focused on identifying emerging spaces in the IT services industry and partnering with vendors selling promising but unproven technologies in those spaces. The vendors used STI to extend their system development and integration capabilities to deliver on aggressive deadlines, STI gained a steady stream of consulting and engineering work plus opportunities to identify and meet follow-on needs of the vendors' Fortune 1000 customers. Four years after the company was founded with $1,000, revenue had exploded to $1.9 million on the basis of partnerships with enterprise applications development and enterprise application integration vendors. In late 1998, the founder was pondering how to set up an innovative "software factory" to complement the consulting side of the business while ensuring that STI's knowledge assets and intellectual property were protected.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Private Ownership; Opportunities; Partners and Partnerships; Information Technology; Entrepreneurship; Software; Intellectual Property; Business Startups; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "Slingshot Technology, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 804-023, May 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  141. Slingshot Technology, Inc. (C)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Private Ownership; Opportunities; Partners and Partnerships; Information Technology; Entrepreneurship; Software; Intellectual Property; Business Startups; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "Slingshot Technology, Inc. (C)." Harvard Business School Case 804-024, May 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  142. Slingshot Technology, Inc. Supplement: Partnership Agreements

    Slingshot Technology Inc. (STI) is a privately held software start-up founded in 1995 focused on identifying emerging spaces in the IT services industry and partnering with vendors selling promising but unproven technologies in those spaces. The vendors used STI to extend their system development and integration capabilities to deliver on aggressive deadlines, STI gained a steady stream of consulting and engineering work plus opportunities to identify and meet follow-on needs of the vendors' Fortune 1000 customers. Four years after the company was founded with $1,000, revenue had exploded to $1.9 million on the basis of partnerships with enterprise applications development and enterprise application integration vendors. In late 1998, the founder was pondering how to set up an innovative "software factory" to complement the consulting side of the business while ensuring that STI's knowledge assets and intellectual property were protected.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Business Startups; Emerging Markets; Partners and Partnerships; Intellectual Property; Information Technology Industry; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Elizabeth Collins. "Slingshot Technology, Inc. Supplement: Partnership Agreements." Harvard Business School Supplement 804-025, May 2004. View Details
  143. Start-Up Chile: April 2012

    Start-Up Chile is a unique program to encourage entrepreneurs to bring their new ventures to Chile. Policymakers must evaluate its effectiveness in achieving economic and social goals.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Venture Capital; Policy; Chile;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., William R. Kerr, Josh Lerner, Dina D. Pomeranz, Gustavo A. Herrero, and Cintra Scott. "Start-Up Chile: April 2012." Harvard Business School Case 812-158, May 2012. View Details
  144. Submarino.com (A)

    Enables a thorough analysis of Submarino.com, a B2C e-commerce company with a presence in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and Portugal. Examines the company's global operations as well as its organizational design and operating and management capabilities. Considers the company's challenge of determining its strategic and financial priorities as it launches a rapid growth plan with limited resources in 2001.

    Keywords: Business Model; Globalized Firms and Management; Operations; Organizational Design; Strategy; Internet; Retail Industry; Portugal; Spain; Mexico; Argentina; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Meredith Collura, and Luiz Felipe Monteiro. "Submarino.com (A)." Harvard Business School Case 801-350, May 2001. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  145. Submarino.com (B)

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Globalized Firms and Management; Management Skills; Growth Management; Retail Industry; Web Services Industry; Brazil; Argentina; Mexico; Spain; Portugal;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Luiz Felipe Monteiro. "Submarino.com (B)." Harvard Business School Case 803-012, May 2003. (Revised May 2004.) View Details
  146. Taco Bell Inc. (1983-1994)

    Details the actions of John Martin, newly named CEO, as he leads Taco Bell through a decade of incremental and radical changes. By the end of the case, total system sales within Taco Bell, a Mexican style fast-food restaurant chain and a division of PepsiCo, have grown from $700 million in 1983 to $3.9 billion in 1994, and the company is managing over 10,000 eat-in restaurants and a wide variety of other retail sites around the world.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Transformation; Economic Growth; Food; Leadership Style; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Design; Performance Effectiveness; Food and Beverage Industry; Service Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Leonard A. Schlesinger, and Dave DeLong. "Taco Bell Inc. (1983-1994)." Harvard Business School Case 398-129, May 1998. (Revised October 2001.) View Details
  147. Technology for Teams

    The importance of groups in organizations has long been recognized but, until recently, groups were always "tacked onto" organizations that were designed around individuals. It was not just the logic of classical organizational theory that perpetuated this focus on the individual; the entire entrepreneurial tradition of U.S. society and culture supported it. Recently, companies have begun to break down these traditional organizational and cultural barriers and to recognize teams as a formal unit of the organizational structure. While autonomous (or semi-autonomous) work teams have operated within manufacturing environments for several decades, more recently companies like General Electric, IBM, and Frito-Lay have attempted to create "empowered" work teams as the basic unit of organizational work throughout their organizations. As companies attempt to formally recognize the team as a structural unit of the organization, they are also forced to reevaluate organizational processes and structures that detract from effective group functioning. A growing number of companies are finding that technology can be an important tool for facilitating team processes.

    Keywords: Technology; Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Geoffrey Bock. "Technology for Teams." Harvard Business School Background Note 196-008, July 1995. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  148. Telecomunicacoes de Sao Paulo SA (Telesp)

    Set in Brazil during the period of telecommunication's privatization, CEO Manoel Amorim must define a sustainable strategy and build capabilities in his organization.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Emerging Markets; Privatization; Financial Crisis; Telecommunications Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Elizabeth Collins, and Ricardo Reisen de Pinho. "Telecomunicacoes de Sao Paulo SA (Telesp)." Harvard Business School Case 804-149, April 2004. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  149. Telewest Communications plc

    Created in 1992, Telewest has become the second largest broadband communication provider in the United Kingdom, offering telephone, cable television, and cable Internet services, as well as television and online content to the U.K. entertainment market. The first to launch broadband Internet and unmetered access to the Internet in the United Kingdom, the company has become the benchmark to follow in the industry. Broadband Internet and a bundled package (TV/telephone/Internet) have driven Telewest's growth, but Telewest's future is still uncertain as it faces formidable competitors, such as British Telecom and BskyB Broadcasting, the U.K. leader in pay-TV and programming. provider. This case discusses what differentiation or expansion strategies should Telewest adopt as its first-mover advantage erodes and its niche market becomes increasingly crowded.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Technological Innovation; Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Structures; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Expansion; Telecommunications Industry; Europe; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Laure Mougeot Stroock. "Telewest Communications plc." Harvard Business School Case 802-011, May 2002. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  150. Tennant Company

    Tennant, a leading producer of floor cleaning equipment, must determine how to create, finance, structure, staff, govern, measure, and manage a new venture for developing a fundamentally new product line. In 2005, Tennant Company had developed an innovative, environmentally friendly cleaning technology that could potentially revolutionize cleaning. Historically, Tennant was a producer of floor and carpet washing machines for industrial and commercial markets. Over time, it became clear that the technology had applications far beyond Tennant's core markets. In mid-2009, the company set up a new venture to develop the technology's promise. In 2010 this venture was wholly owned by Tennant and run by a Tennant manager. The case examines the decisions the CEO and new venture head must make to best structure and position the venture to succeed.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Change Management; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Disruptive Innovation; Product Development; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Research and Development;

    Citation:

    Stuart, Toby E., Lynda M. Applegate, and James Weber. "Tennant Company." Harvard Business School Case 810-040, February 2010. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  151. Tennant Company: Innovating Within and Beyond the Core

    Tennant, a leading producer of floor cleaning equipment, must determine the business model to use for its new chemical-free cleaning technology. In 2005, Tennant Company had developed an innovative, environmentally friendly cleaning technology that could potentially revolutionize cleaning. Historically, Tennant was a producer of floor and carpet washing machines for industrial and commercial markets. Over time, it became clear that the technology had applications far beyond Tennant's core markets. In mid-2009, the company set up a new venture to develop the technology's promise. In 2010 this venture was wholly owned by Tennant and run by a Tennant manager. The case examines the decisions the CEO and new venture head must make to best structure and position the venture to succeed.

    Keywords: Business Model; Business Startups; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Disruptive Innovation; Organizational Structure; Business Strategy; Value Creation; Consumer Products Industry; Industrial Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Toby E. Stuart, and James Weber. "Tennant Company: Innovating Within and Beyond the Core." Harvard Business School Case 810-139, June 2010. (Revised August 2011.) View Details
  152. ToyWorld, Inc.: Information Technology Planning

    ToyWorld, a fast growing retailer, was revitalizing its information technology (IT) infrastructure and called in AT&T to help plan for the future. Five strategic alternatives for use of information and communications technology were identified through value chain analysis and use of proprietary AT&T methodology. While two could be implemented by ToyWorld action alone, two would require external cooperation, and one represented an entirely new (but related) line of business.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Information Technology; Growth and Development; Expansion; Partners and Partnerships; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M. "ToyWorld, Inc.: Information Technology Planning." Harvard Business School Case 195-262, May 1995. (Revised March 1996.) View Details
  153. Transforming Arizona's Health Care System: Developing and Implementing the Health-e Connection Roadmap

    Addresses the issues of leadership and change management in the process of transforming an industry through an innovative public-private partnership approach to policy making. In 2005, the Governor of Arizona issued an Executive Order to create a roadmap for the state to achieve statewide electronic health data exchange between various entities in the health care delivery system. The Roadmap development project, a key initiative for Arizona, was led primarily by the State CIO. Being one of the first states to develop a statewide Roadmap, Arizona was being recognized as a national leader in the area of healthcare IT. While the CIO and his team had successfully initiated a large-scale transformation within the state, they were now faced with the challenge of transforming the blueprint into reality. Documents the process of creating this Roadmap and the issues that need to be addressed to achieve a true and lasting transformation in the healthcare arena.

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Private Sector; Public Sector; Health Care and Treatment; Service Delivery; Partners and Partnerships; Information Technology; Health Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Ajay Vinze, T.S. Raghu, and Minu Ipe. "Transforming Arizona's Health Care System: Developing and Implementing the Health-e Connection Roadmap." Harvard Business School Case 808-072, December 2007. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  154. Transforming Matsui Securities

    Michio Matsui, president and CEO of Matsui Securities, transformed a small regional securities company into a leading player in the online broking industry in Japan. Discusses how he transformed the business model and culture of the company and took advantage of the deregulation of financial markets and penetration of the Internet within Japan. Also explains how Matsui Securities established its strategic positioning and developed a series of innovative products to differentiate its services from the competition.

    Keywords: Transformation; Financial Markets; Innovation and Invention; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Competitive Advantage; Japan;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Masako Egawa, Jamie Ladge, and Haruki Umezawa. "Transforming Matsui Securities." Harvard Business School Case 804-064, October 2003. (Revised January 2009.) View Details
  155. Transforming Singapore's Public Libraries (Abridged)

    The Singapore Public Library system was transformed from being mediocre at best to world class using information technology, progressive human-resources management, and marketing approaches unusual for government agencies.

    Keywords: Transformation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Service Delivery; Marketing Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Human Resources; Information Technology; Nonprofit Organizations; Public Administration Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Roger H. Hallowell. "Transforming Singapore's Public Libraries (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 805-028, October 2004. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  156. TripIt: The Traveler's Agent

    In July 2008, the co-founders of TripIt, a free online travel organizer that aggregated travelers' bookings from many top travel websites, had recently secured $5.1 million in new financing. While the co-founders believed that their company offered travelers a unique service, they felt growing pressure from investors to show that the company could grow revenues and achieve profitability. To be profitable, TripIt needed not only to grow its user base but also generate more traveler itineraries, which was critical to obtaining advertising revenue from travel suppliers and intermediaries. The online travel industry was a hyperactive industry, and while TripIt was breaking new ground, the threat of competitors was very real.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Investment; Profit; Revenue; Growth and Development Strategy; Competition; Internet; Travel Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Gabriele Piccoli, and Kathryn Brohman. "TripIt: The Traveler's Agent." Harvard Business School Case 809-059, October 2008. View Details
  157. Urban Video Game Academy: Getting in the Game

    Urban Video Game Academy was founded to enhance the academic and career prospects of urban youth. How will its founder grow it into a sustainable business? Provides an opportunity to discuss the challenges of social entrepreneurship and how to create a sustainable business model for a social venture.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Business Model; Social Enterprise; Change Management; Education; Education Industry; Video Game Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., and Susan Saltrick. "Urban Video Game Academy: Getting in the Game." Harvard Business School Case 807-122, February 2007. View Details
  158. Valuing the AOL Time Warner Merger

    On January 11, 2000, AOL and Time Warner announced their intention to merge, creating what AOL CEO Stephen Case and Time Warner CEO Gerald Levin called the 21st century's first fully integrated communications, media, and entertainment company. This case, prepared from public sources, enables in-depth analysis of the value of AOL Time Warner from the viewpoint of executives and analysts before their merger six months later.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Valuation; Situation or Environment; Media and Broadcasting Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Applegate, Lynda M., Rena Miller, and John N Rei. "Valuing the AOL Time Warner Merger." Harvard Business School Case 802-098, January 2002. (Revised February 2002.) View Details