Doctoral Student

Lingling Zhang

I am a doctoral student in the Marketing Unit at the Harvard Business School. I am on the Marketing job market this year and will attend the 2015 AMA in Chicago.

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Working Papers

  1. Selling to a Moving Target: Dynamic Marketing Effects in US Presidential Elections

    Doug J. Chung and Lingling Zhang

    We examine the effects of various political campaign activities on voter preferences in the domain of US Presidential elections. We construct a comprehensive data set that covers the three most recent elections, with detailed records of voter preferences at the state-week level over an election period. We include various types of the most frequently utilized marketing instruments: two forms of advertising—candidate’s own and outside advertising, and two forms of personal selling—retail campaigning and field operations. Although effectiveness varies by instrument and party, among the significant effects we find that a candidate’s own advertising is more effective than outside advertising, and that advertising and retail campaigning work more favorably towards Republican candidates. In contrast, we find field operations to be more effective for Democratic candidates, primarily through get-out-the-vote efforts. We do not find any betweenparty differences in the effectiveness of outside advertising. Lastly, we also find a moderate but statistically significant carryover effect of campaign activities, indicating the presence of dynamics of marketing efforts over time.

    Keywords: multi-channel marketing; Personal selling; advertising; political campaigns; dynamicpanel data; instrumental variables;


    Chung, Doug J., and Lingling Zhang. "Selling to a Moving Target: Dynamic Marketing Effects in US Presidential Elections." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-095, June 2015. View Details