Michael W. Toffel

Associate Professor of Business Administration

Faculty Fellow, Harvard Environmental Economics Program
Faculty Affiliate, Harvard University Center for the Environment
Faculty Affiliate, Kennedy School of Government Center for Business and Government Regulatory Policy Program

Mike Toffel's research focuses on operational discipline by examining companies' environmental, occupational safety, and quality programs and performance. His work seeks to identify which types of programs distinguish participating companies as having superior environmental, safety, or quality management or performance, and which of these programs help companies improve their performance in these domains. His work ranges from academic articles based on econometric analyses of large datasets to case studies of individual companies. His work on quality management systems and environmental management systems has been profiled by LRQA Business Assurance and the ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board. His research on occupational health and safety has been profiled by the head of U.S. OSHA and featured in the national press including US News & World Report, BusinessWeek, and Scientific American.   His work has been published in scholarly journals including Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science, Strategic Management Journal, and Organization Science, in practitioners journals including Sloan Management Review and California Management Review, and in mainstream outlets including The Atlantic Monthly, Newsweek/DailyBeast, and Grist.

Prof. Toffel serves on the Editorial Boards of the Strategic Management Journal and Organization Science. He serves as a founding board member of the Alliance for Research on Corporate Sustainability (ARCS), which organizes a leading annual conference to foster high-quality research on corporate sustainability and to build collaboration among scholars engaged in these topics. 

His co-authors include Julia Adler-MilsteinRonnie Chatterji, Magali Delmas, Anil Doshi, Glen Dowell, Kira Fabrizio, Andrea Hugill, Chonnikarn (Fern) Jira, Matthew Johnson, Andrew King, David Levine, Julian Marshall, Chris Marquis, Melissa Ouellet, Lamar Pierce, Erin ReidTim Simcoe, Sara SingerJodi Short, and David Vogel.

He recommends the HBS Business & Environment InitiativeEnvironmental Leader, Grist, Ethical Corporation, and SustainableBusiness.com to keep up on corporate environmental news.

Toffel has organized several conferences related to his research, includig conferences on corporate sustainability at HBS (2010), the role of information disclosure in corporate transparency and accountability at the National Press Club in Washington DC (2009), business and human rights in operations and supply chains at HBS (2008), and industry self-regulation at HBS (2007) .

Professor Toffel received a Ph.D. from the Haas School of Business' Business and Public Policy department at the University of California at Berkeley, an MBA from the Yale School of Management, a Master’s in Environmental Management (Industrial Environmental Management) from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, and a BA in Government from Lehigh University.  He has worked as the Director of Environment, Health and Safety at the Jebsen & Jessen (South East Asia) Group of Companies, based in Singapore. He has also worked as an environmental management consultant for Arthur Andersen, Arthur D. Little, and Xerox Corporation. He started his career as an operations management analyst at J.P. Morgan.

Prof. Toffel has served on the Advisory Panel of the Newsweek Green Rankings and on the School Site Council of the Edward Devotion School, a public school in Brookline, MA.

 

Journal Articles

  1. Engaging Supply Chains in Climate Change

    Suppliers are increasingly being asked to share information about their vulnerability to climate change and their strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Their responses vary widely. We theorize and empirically identify several factors associated with suppliers being especially willing to share this information with buyers, focusing on attributes of the buyers seeking this information and of the suppliers being asked to provide it. We test our hypotheses using data from the Carbon Disclosure Project's Supply Chain Program, a collaboration of multinational corporations requesting such information from thousands of suppliers in 49 countries. We find evidence that suppliers are more likely to share this information when requests from buyers are more prevalent, when buyers appear committed to using the information, when suppliers belong to more profitable industries, and when suppliers are located in countries with greenhouse gas regulations. We find evidence that these factors also influence the comprehensiveness of the information suppliers share and their willingness to share the information publicly.

    Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Motivation and Incentives; Risk Management; Weather and Climate Change; Supply Chain Management; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Jira, Chonnikarn Fern, and Michael W. Toffel. "Engaging Supply Chains in Climate Change." Special Issue on the Environment. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 15, no. 4 (Fall 2013): 559–577.
  2. The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring

    Governments and other organizations often outsource activities to achieve cost savings from market competition. Yet such benefits are often accompanied by poor quality resulting from moral hazard, which can be particularly onerous when outsourcing the monitoring and enforcement of government regulation. In this paper, we argue that the considerable moral hazard associated with private regulatory monitoring can be mitigated by understanding conflicts of interest in the monitoring organizations' product/service portfolios and by the effects of their private governance mechanisms. These organizational characteristics affect the stringency of monitoring through reputation, customer loyalty, differential impacts of government sanctions, and the standardization and internal monitoring of operations. We test our theory in the context of vehicle emissions testing in a state in which the government has outsourced these inspections to the private sector. Analyzing millions of emissions tests, we find empirical support for our hypotheses that particular product portfolios and forms of governance can mitigate moral hazard. Our results have broad implications for regulation, financial auditing, and private credit- and quality-rating agencies in financial markets.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Decision Choices and Conditions; Corporate Accountability; Governance Compliance; Policy; Management Practices and Processes; Demand and Consumers; Market Design; Market Entry and Exit; Market Transactions; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Business Processes; Organizational Structure; Performance Effectiveness; Performance Expectations; Practice; Transportation; Transportation Industry; Service Industry; United States; New York (state, US);

    Citation:

    Pierce, Lamar, and Michael W. Toffel. "The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring." Organization Science 24, no. 5 (September–October 2013): 1558–1584.
  3. How Firms Respond to Mandatory Information Disclosure

    Mandatory information disclosure regulations seek to create institutional pressure to spur performance improvement. By examining how organizational characteristics moderate establishments' responses to a prominent environmental information disclosure program, we provide among the first empirical evidence characterizing heterogeneous responses by those mandated to disclose information. We find particularly rapid improvement among establishments located close to their headquarters and among establishments with proximate siblings, especially when the proximate siblings are in the same industry. Large establishments improve more slowly than small establishments in sparse regions, but both groups improve similarly in dense regions, suggesting that density mitigates the power of large establishments to resist institutional pressures. Finally, privately held firms' establishments outperform those owned by public firms. We highlight implications for institutional theory, managers, and policymakers.

    Keywords: information disclosure; institutional theory; environmental strategy; mandatory disclosure; environmental performance; Information; Corporate Disclosure; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Performance Improvement; Environmental Sustainability; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Doshi, Anil R., Glen W.S. Dowell, and Michael W. Toffel. "How Firms Respond to Mandatory Information Disclosure." Strategic Management Journal 34, no. 10 (October 2013): 1209–1231. (Featured in U Penn's RegBlog.)
  4. Customer-Driven Misconduct: How Competition Corrupts Business Practices

    Competition among firms yields many benefits but can also encourage firms to engage in corrupt or unethical activities. We argue that competition can lead organizations to provide services that customers demand but that violate government regulations, especially when price competition is restricted. Using 28 million vehicle emissions tests from more than 11,000 facilities, we show that increased competition is associated with greater inspection leniency, a service quality attribute that customers value but is illegal and socially costly. Firms with more competitors pass customer vehicles at higher rates and are more likely to lose customers whom they fail, suggesting that competition intensifies pressure on facilities to provide illegal leniency. We also show that, at least in markets in which pricing is restricted, firms use corrupt and unethical practices as an entry strategy.

    Keywords: Competition; Crime and Corruption; Management Practices and Processes; Ethics; Consumer Behavior; Customer Satisfaction; Auto Industry; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Bennett, Victor Manuel, Lamar Pierce, Jason A. Snyder, and Michael W. Toffel. "Customer-Driven Misconduct: How Competition Corrupts Business Practices." Management Science 59, no. 8 (August 2013): 1725–1742. (Online Appendix.  Lead article. Nominated for "Best Conference Paper Award" and "SMS Best Conference Paper Prize for Practice Implications" at 2012 Strategic Management Society International Conference.)
  5. Randomized Government Safety Inspections Reduce Worker Injuries with No Detectable Job Loss

    Controversy surrounds occupational health and safety regulators, with some observers claiming that workplace regulations damage firms' competitiveness and destroy jobs and others arguing that they make workplaces safer at little cost to employers and employees. We analyzed a natural field experiment to examine how workplace safety inspections affected injury rates and other outcomes. We compared 409 randomly inspected establishments in California with 409 matched-control establishments that were eligible, but not chosen, for inspection. Compared with controls, randomly inspected employers experienced a 9.4% decline in injury rates (95% confidence interval = -0.177 to -0.021) and a 26% reduction in injury cost (95% confidence interval = -0.513 to -0.083). We find no evidence that these improvements came at the expense of employment, sales, credit ratings, or firm survival.

    Keywords: regulation; safety; occupational safety; evaluation; regression; matching; difference in differences; Safety; Health; Working Conditions; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Competitive Advantage; Performance; Manufacturing Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Levine, David I., Michael W. Toffel, and Matthew S. Johnson. "Randomized Government Safety Inspections Reduce Worker Injuries with No Detectable Job Loss." Science 336, no. 6083 (May 18, 2012): 907–911. (Featured by the head of US OSHA's blog and article, and in Bloomberg Businessweek, The Washington Post, U.S. News & World Report and many other news outlets. Basis of U.S. Congressional testimony on promoting safe workplaces.)
  6. Coming Clean and Cleaning Up: Does Voluntary Self-Reporting Indicate Effective Self-Policing

    Regulatory agencies are increasingly establishing voluntary self-reporting programs both as an investigative tool and to encourage regulated firms to commit to policing themselves. We investigate whether voluntary self-reporting can reliably indicate effective self-policing efforts that might provide opportunities for enforcement efficiencies. We find that regulators used self-reports of legal violations as a heuristic for identifying firms that are effectively policing their own operations, shifting enforcement resources away from those that voluntarily disclose. We also find that these firms that voluntarily disclosed regulatory violations and committed to self-policing improved their regulatory compliance and environmental performance, which suggests that the enforcement relief they received was warranted. Collectively, our results suggest that self-reporting can be a useful tool for reliably identifying and leveraging the voluntary self-policing efforts of regulated companies.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Programs; Governance Compliance; Corporate Disclosure; Law Enforcement;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Jodi L. Short. "Coming Clean and Cleaning Up: Does Voluntary Self-Reporting Indicate Effective Self-Policing." Journal of Law & Economics 54, no. 3 (August 2011): 609–649.
  7. Quality Management and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard for Quality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers

    Several studies have examined how the ISO 9001 Quality Management System standard predicts changes in organizational outcomes such as profits. This is the first large-scale study to explore how employee outcomes such as employment, earnings, and health and safety change when employers adopt ISO 9001. We analyzed a matched sample of nearly 1,000 companies in California. ISO 9001 adopters subsequently had far lower organizational death rates than a matched control group of non-adopters. Among surviving employers, ISO adopters had higher growth rates for sales, employment, payroll, and average annual earnings. Injury rates declined slightly for ISO 9001 adopters, although total injury costs did not. These results have implications for organizational theory, managers, and public policy.

    Keywords: Quality; Management; Jobs and Positions; Employees; Forecasting and Prediction; Organizations; Sales; Profit; Business Earnings; Safety; Health Care and Treatment; Policy;

    Citation:

    Levine, David I., and Michael W. Toffel. "Quality Management and Job Quality: How the ISO 9001 Standard for Quality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers." Management Science 56, no. 6 (June 2010): 978–996. (Profiled by industry practitioners in Quality Digest, Quality Progress, ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board (ANAB).)
  8. How Firms Respond to Being Rated

    While many rating systems seek to help buyers overcome information asymmetries when making purchasing decisions, we investigate how these ratings also influence the companies being rated. We hypothesize that ratings are particularly likely to spur responses from firms that receive poor ratings, and especially those that face lower-cost opportunities to improve or that anticipate greater benefits from doing do. We test our hypotheses in the context of corporate environmental ratings that guide investors to select "socially responsible," and avoid "socially irresponsible," companies. We examine how several hundred firms respond to corporate environmental ratings issued by a prominent independent social rating agency and take advantage of an exogenous shock that occurred when the agency expanded the scope of its ratings. Our study is among the first to theorize about the impact of ratings on subsequent performance, and we introduce important contingencies that influence firm response. These theoretical advances inform stakeholder theory, institutional theory, and economic theory.

    Keywords: System; Information; Decisions; Cost; Opportunities; Performance; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Economics; Theory; System Shocks; Rank and Position;

    Citation:

    Chatterji, Aaron K., and Michael W. Toffel. "How Firms Respond to Being Rated." Strategic Management Journal 31, no. 9 (September 2010): 917–945. (Lead article.)
  9. Making Self-Regulation More Than Merely Symbolic: The Critical Role of the Legal Environment

    Using data from a sample of U.S. industrial facilities subject to the federal Clean Air Act from 1993 to 2003, this article theorizes and tests the conditions under which organizations' symbolic commitments to self-regulate are particularly likely to result in improved compliance practices and outcomes. We argue that the legal environment, particularly as it is constructed by the enforcement activities of regulators, significantly influences the likelihood that organizations will effectively implement the self-regulatory commitments they symbolically adopt. We investigate how different enforcement tools can foster or undermine organizations' normative motivations to self-regulate. We find that organizations are more likely to follow through on their commitments to self-regulate when they (and their competitors) are subject to heavy regulatory surveillance and when they adopt self-regulation in the absence of an explicit threat of sanctions. We also find that historically poor compliers are significantly less likely to follow through on their commitments to self-regulate, suggesting a substantial limitation on the use of self-regulation as a strategy for reforming struggling organizations. Taken together, these findings suggest that self-regulation can be a useful tool for leveraging the normative motivations of regulated organizations but that it cannot replace traditional deterrence-based enforcement.

    Keywords: Adoption; Code Law; Environmental Sustainability; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Organizations; Governance Compliance; Strategy; Motivation and Incentives; United States;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "Making Self-Regulation More Than Merely Symbolic: The Critical Role of the Legal Environment." Administrative Science Quarterly 55, no. 3 (September 2010): 361–396. (Lead article; Featured in the Stanford Social Innovation Review (Summer 2011).)
  10. Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies

    The challenges associated with climate change will require governments, citizens, and firms to work collaboratively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a task that requires information on companies' emissions levels, risks, and reduction opportunities. This paper explores the conditions under which firms participate in this endeavor. Building on theories of how social activists inspire changes in organizational norms, beliefs, and practices, we hypothesize that shareholder actions and regulatory threats are likely to prime firms to adopt practices consistent with the aims of a broader social movement. We find empirical evidence of direct and spillover effects. In the domain of private politics, shareholder resolutions filed against it and others in its industry increase a firm's propensity to engage in practices consistent with the aims of the related social movement. Similarly, in the realm of public politics, threats of state regulations targeted at a firm's industry as well as regulations targeted at other industries increase the likelihood that the firm will engage in such practices. These findings extend existing theory by showing that both activist groups and government actors can spur changes in organizational practices, and that challenges mounted against a single firm and an industry can inspire both firm and field-level changes.

    Keywords: Weather and Climate Change; Problems and Challenges; Pollution and Pollutants; Risk and Uncertainty; Business and Shareholder Relations; Management Practices and Processes; Social Issues; Corporate Disclosure; Values and Beliefs; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Government and Politics;

    Citation:

    Reid, Erin Marie, and Michael W. Toffel. "Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies." Strategic Management Journal 30, no. 11 (November 2009): 1157–1178. (Featured in the Stanford Social Innovation Review, and by the Network for Business Sustainability.)
  11. How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?

    Ratings of corporations' environmental activities and capabilities influence billions of dollars of "socially responsible" investments as well as some consumers, activists, and potential employees. In one of the first studies to assess these ratings, we examine how well the most widely used ratings—those of Kinder, Lydenberg, Domini Research & Analytics (KLD)—provide transparency about past and likely future environmental performance. We find KLD "concern" ratings to be fairly good summaries of past environmental performance. In addition, firms with more KLD concerns have slightly, but statistically significantly, more pollution and regulatory compliance violations in later years. KLD environmental strengths, in contrast, do not accurately predict pollution levels or compliance violations. Moreover, we find evidence that KLD's ratings are not optimally using publicly available data. We discuss the implications of our findings for advocates and skeptics of corporate social responsibility as well as for studies that relate social responsibility ratings to financial performance.

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Measurement and Metrics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Effectiveness; Natural Environment; Pollution and Pollutants;

    Citation:

    Chatterji, Aaron K., David I. Levine, and Michael W. Toffel. "How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?" Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 18, no. 1 (spring 2009): 125–169.
  12. Organizational Responses to Environmental Demands: Opening the Black Box

    This paper combines new and old institutionalism to explain differences in organizational strategies. We propose that differences in the influence of corporate departments lead their facilities to prioritize different external pressures and thus adopt different management practices. Specifically, we argue that external constituents—including customers, regulators, legislators, local communities, and environmental activist organizations—who interact with influential corporate departments are more likely to affect facility managers' decisions. As a result, managers of facilities that are subjected to comparable institutional pressures adopt distinct sets of management practices that appease different external constituents. We test our framework in the context of the adoption of environmental management practices using an original survey and archival data obtained for nearly 500 facilities. We find support for these hypotheses.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Management Practices and Processes; Decisions; Adoption;

    Citation:

    Delmas, Magali, and Michael W. Toffel. "Organizational Responses to Environmental Demands: Opening the Black Box." Strategic Management Journal 29, no. 10 (October 2008): 1027–1055.
  13. Coerced Confessions: Self-Policing in the Shadow of the Regulator

    As part of a recent trend toward more cooperative relations between regulators and industry, novel government programs are encouraging firms to monitor their own regulatory compliance and voluntarily report their own violations. In this study, we examine how regulatory enforcement activities influence organizations' decisions to self-police. We created a comprehensive data set for the "Audit Policy," a United States Environmental Protection Agency program that encourages companies to self-disclose violations of environmental laws and regulations in exchange for reduced sanctions. We find that facilities are more likely to self-disclose if they were recently subjected to one of several different enforcement measures and if they were provided with immunity from prosecution for self-disclosed violations.

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Law Enforcement; Corporate Disclosure; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Environmental Sustainability; Programs; Power and Influence; Organizations; Decisions; Business and Government Relations; United States;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "Coerced Confessions: Self-Policing in the Shadow of the Regulator." Journal of Law, Economics & Organization 24, no. 1 (May 2008): 45–71.
  14. Framing the Elusive Concept of Sustainability: A Sustainability Hierarchy

    Keywords: Framework;

    Citation:

    Marshall, Julian D., and Michael W. Toffel. "Framing the Elusive Concept of Sustainability: A Sustainability Hierarchy." Environmental Science & Technology 39, no. 3 (2005): 673–682. (Profiled by the Network for Business Sustainability.)
  15. Stakeholders and Environmental Management Practices: An Institutional Framework

    Despite burgeoning research on companies' environmental strategies and environmental management practices, it remains unclear why some firms adopt environmental management practices beyond regulatory compliance. This paper leverages institutional theory by proposing that stakeholders - including governments, regulators, customers, competitors, community and environmental interest groups, and industry associations - impose coercive and normative pressures on firms. However, the way in which managers perceive and act upon these pressures at the plant level depends upon plant- and parent-company-specific factors, including their track record of environmental performance, the competitive position of the parent company and the organizational structure of the plant. Beyond providing a framework of how institutional pressures influence plants' environmental management practices, various measures are proposed to quantify institutional pressures, key plant-level and parent-company-level characteristics and plant-level environmental management practices

    Keywords: Strategy; Management Practices and Processes; Environmental Sustainability; Adoption; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Organizational Structure; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Competition; Framework; Governance Compliance; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Delmas, Magali, and Michael W. Toffel. "Stakeholders and Environmental Management Practices: An Institutional Framework." Business Strategy and the Environment 13, no. 4 (July/August 2004): 209–222.
  16. Environmental Implications of Wireless Technologies: News Delivery and Business Meetings

    Keywords: Technology; Communication; Information; Environmental Sustainability; Business Ventures; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Arpad Horvath. "Environmental Implications of Wireless Technologies: News Delivery and Business Meetings." Environmental Science & Technology 38, no. 11 (May 2004): 2961–2970.
  17. Improving Environmental Performance Assessment: Comparative Analysis of Weighting Methods used to Evaluate Chemical Release Inventories

    Keywords: Performance; Theory; Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Julian D. Marshall. "Improving Environmental Performance Assessment: Comparative Analysis of Weighting Methods used to Evaluate Chemical Release Inventories." Journal of Industrial Ecology 8, nos. 1-2 (winter 2004): 143–172.
  18. Estimating and Controlling Workplace Risk: An Approach for Occupational Hygiene and Safety Professionals

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Labor; Safety;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Lawrence Birkner. "Estimating and Controlling Workplace Risk: An Approach for Occupational Hygiene and Safety Professionals." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 17, no. 7 (July 2002): 477–485.

Managerial Articles

  1. Women Make More Rigorous Supply Chain Auditors

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Women Make More Rigorous Supply Chain Auditors." Guardian (April 9, 2014).
  2. Greening Is Not Enough: 4 Steps to Corporate Leadership on Climate Change

    Environmental sustainability usually means greening operations and products, but that's not nearly enough to stop climate change. Corporate leadership on climate change also requires urging action by governments, trade associations, and suppliers — and marketing these efforts.

    Keywords: Leadership; Weather and Climate Change; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Schendler, Auden, and Michael W. Toffel. "Greening Is Not Enough: 4 Steps to Corporate Leadership on Climate Change." Network for Business Sustainability, Thought Leaders (blog) (July 8, 2013). (Reprinted in Greenbiz.com July 9, 2013.)
  3. How Caesars Entertainment Is Betting on Sustainability: Response

    One of the largest gaming companies in the world expanded its sustainability efforts using a scorecard to guide and goad managers. This response assesses Caesars Entertainment's CodeGreen scorecard, advocates a more comprehensive environmental assessment to target subsequent improvement efforts, and describes how the company can leverage and scale its environmental efforts by advocating climate change mitigation policies within its supply chain and in government policy.

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Entertainment; Energy; Energy Conservation; Buildings and Facilities; Goals and Objectives; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Evaluation; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Caesars Entertainment Is Betting on Sustainability: Response." MIT Sloan Management Review 54, no. 4 (Summer 2013): 72–73.
  4. Corporate Sustainability Is Not Sustainable

    Despite perceptions that sustainable business efforts are progressing, the environment reminds us we're failing to deal with the problem sufficiently. Here's what business leaders must do next.

    Keywords: Leadership; Environmental Sustainability; Failure;

    Citation:

    Schendler, Auden, and Michael W. Toffel. "Corporate Sustainability Is Not Sustainable." Grist (June 2, 2013). (Republished by Climate Progress and as "Corporate Leaders Need to Step Up on Climate Change" in HBS Working Knowledge.)
  5. Can Global Brands Create Just Supply Chains? Response: Promoting Political Mobilization

    Codes of conduct indicate that working conditions are improving overall at the factories being monitored by multinational corporations, and that these codes of conduct also create possibilities for political mobilization that can improve labor conditions more broadly.

    Keywords: regulation; auditing; Labor relations; occupational safety; Environmental Operations; environmental regulation; Employees; Labor; Labor and Management Relations; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Manufacturing Industry; China; Bangladesh; India; Honduras; Nicaragua; Pakistan; Guatemala; Malaysia; Viet Nam;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "Can Global Brands Create Just Supply Chains? Response: Promoting Political Mobilization." Boston Review 38, no. 3 (May–June 2013).
  6. The Big Flaw in Corporate Sustainability Rankings

    Citation:

    Chatterji, Aaron K., and Michael W. Toffel. "The Big Flaw in Corporate Sustainability Rankings." Harvard Business Review Blogs (October 24, 2012). http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/10/the_big_flaw_in_corporate_sustainability_rankings.html.
  7. What Green Rankings Don't Tell You

    Citation:

    Chatterji, Aaron K., and Michael W. Toffel. "What Green Rankings Don't Tell You." Daily Beast (October 22, 2012).
  8. Toxics Release Inventory: A Case Study in Information Disclosure Regulation

  9. Robust Enforcement Should Complement Voluntary Regulation

    Spurred by the anti-regulation movement that started in the 1970s, voluntary self-regulation programs have emerged in many regulatory agencies, seeking to increase cooperation between government and industry to achieve greater and more cost-effective compliance. "Beyond compliance" programs recognize and reward firms for practices that go above and beyond the requirements of the law. "Self-policing" programs adopted by several agencies shift the burden of monitoring regulatory compliance and reporting noncompliance from the government to the private sector. Policymakers often refer to these programs as a win-win-win scenario: compliance improves, regulators conserve enforcement resources, and firms save money. But this outcome can only be achieved if the self-regulatory activities of corporations can effectively substitute for government enforcement, a largely untested assumption that our research examines. We find that, to the contrary, the success of voluntary regulation is contingent on a robust regime of government inspection and enforcement. Within such a regime, we find that voluntary compliance efforts by regulated firms can actually lead to improved environmental performance. In summary, the polarized claims that corporate voluntary regulation represents a win-win opportunity—or constitutes a smokescreen that allows firms to operate with less regulatory oversight—are misguided. Instead, the key to efficient and effective regulatory design is finding the right mix of public and private regulatory activities.

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Business and Government Relations;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "Robust Enforcement Should Complement Voluntary Regulation." Georgetown University Economic Policy Vignette (September 2012).
  10. ISO Standards Stamp Approval

    Citation:

    James, Michael, and Michael W. Toffel. "ISO Standards Stamp Approval." European CEO (August 2012).
  11. Government Regulation That Actually Works

    Citation:

    Levine, David I., and Michael W. Toffel. "Government Regulation That Actually Works." Harvard Business Review Blogs (May 30, 2012). http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/05/government_regulation_that_act.html.
  12. The Problem with Green Rankings

    Citation:

    Schendler, Auden, and Michael W. Toffel. "The Problem with Green Rankings." ChinaDialogue (December 20, 2011). (Also in Chinese and in The Guardian (UK).)
  13. What's the Greenest Building? The Problem With Ranking Systems

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Buildings and Facilities; Problems and Challenges; System;

    Citation:

    Schendler, Auden, and Mike Toffel. "What's the Greenest Building? The Problem With Ranking Systems." Atlantic Monthly (October 19, 2011). (Republished in grist. Revised version in The Guardian (UK) and in ChinaDialogue including in Chinese.)
  14. The Factor Environmental Ratings Miss

    There's a problem with most major environmental rankings of businesses: too often, the ratings fail to incorporate advocacy activities that influence environmental regulation.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Problems and Challenges; Rank and Position; Environmental Sustainability; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Schendler, Auden, and Michael W. Toffel. "The Factor Environmental Ratings Miss." MIT Sloan Management Review 53, no. 1 (fall 2011): 17–18.
  15. The Causes and Consequences of Industry Self-Policing

    Innovative regulatory programs are encouraging firms to police their own regulatory compliance and voluntarily disclose, or "confess," the violations they find. Despite the "win-win" rhetoric surrounding these government voluntary programs, it is not clear why companies would participate and whether the programs themselves do anything to enhance regulatory effectiveness. Tasked with monitoring the legality of its own operations, why would a firm that identifies violations turn itself in to regulators rather than quietly fix the problem? And why would regulators entrust regulated entities to monitor their own compliance and enforce the law against themselves? This paper addresses these questions by investigating the factors that lead organizations to self-disclose violations, the effects of self-policing on regulatory compliance, and the effects of self-disclosing on the relationship between regulators and regulated firms. We investigate these research questions in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy.

    Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Governance Compliance; Law Enforcement; Policy; United States;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "The Causes and Consequences of Industry Self-Policing." Yale Economic Review (summer 2008).
  16. Transparency Needed in Berkeley Lab Nanotechnology

    Argues that the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory should be significantly more transparent about the health and environmental issues associated with its new nanotechnology facility.

    Keywords: disclosure; transparency; nanotechnology; Precautionary Principle; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Transparency Needed in Berkeley Lab Nanotechnology." Berkeley Daily Planet (November 29, 2005).
  17. Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience

    This case study describes how an industrial design company developed a sustainability management system (SMS) standard, designed and implemented an SMS throughout its business, and then became the first company in the world to achieve third-party SMS certification by a third-party certification organisation.

    Keywords: Design; Governance Compliance; Management Practices and Processes; Standards; Environmental Sustainability; Auto Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    McElhaney, Kellie, Michael W. Toffel, and Natalie Hill. "Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience." Greener Management International: The Journal of Corporate Environmental Strategy and Practice 46 (summer 2004): 103–116.
  18. Strategic Management of Product Recovery

    Manufacturers of an expanding range of durable products are facing regulatory and market pressures to manage the products they manufactured upon their end of life (EOL). In part, this attention is motivated by a growing number of countries—especially across Europe and East Asia—that are enacting legislation that imposes greater responsibilities on manufacturers for managing their EOL products. Even in non-regulated markets, however, some manufacturers are engaging in EOL product recovery to reduce production costs, promote an image of environmental responsibility, meet changing customer expectations, protect aftermarkets, and preempt pending legislation or regulations. This article leverages transaction cost economics, capabilities, and resource dependence theories to describe when manufacturers should directly engage in product recovery efforts versus when they should leave this task to independent firms. Technologies that enhance the productivity of product recovery, the level of uncertainty associated with reverse logistics, various manufacturing-related capabilities, the uniqueness of recovered assets, and the desire to avoid dependence on other organizations are key determinants that shape the industrial organization of EOL product recovery.

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Markets; Government Legislation; Customers; Cost Management; Economy; Assets; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Product; Performance Productivity; Logistics; Risk and Uncertainty; Europe; Asia;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Strategic Management of Product Recovery." California Management Review 46, no. 2 (winter 2004).
  19. The Growing Strategic Importance of End-of-Life Product Management

    Requiring manufacturers to manage the their products when they become waste is an innovative form of regulation, one that has been adopted by countries in Asia, Europe, and North America on a variety of products that range from vehicles to appliances to batteries. However, even in many unregulated industries, some manufacturers are voluntarily assuming more responsibility for their end-of-life products, driven by customer demand and cost efficiencies. This article explores various forms of take-back regulation and highlights some of the key features of the institutions that emerge in response. In addition, six strategic product recovery alternatives are presented, followed by a discussion of some factors managers should consider in developing a take-back strategy.

    Keywords: Managerial Roles; Product; Innovation and Invention; Cost Management; Demand and Consumers; Strategy; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Environmental Sustainability; Manufacturing Industry; Asia; Europe; North and Central America;

  20. Closing the Loop: Product Take-back Requirements and their Strategic Implications

    In Asia, Europe, and North America, regulators are seeking to reduce waste disposal and develop recycling markets by requiring manufacturers to manage the end-of-life disposition of products they produce. Such policies attempt to "close the loop" for products ranging from electronics to vehicles by creating incentives for manufacturers to increase the usage intensity of materials embodied in their products to reduce the demand for virgin raw materials and energy. This article describes take-back regulations and highlights some of their key features. In addition, several product take-back strategies are presented along with a few key questions managers should consider in selecting an appropriate strategy for their company.

    Keywords: Wastes and Waste Processing; Energy Conservation; Product Development; Strategy; Policy; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Manufacturing Industry; Asia; Europe; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Closing the Loop: Product Take-back Requirements and their Strategic Implications." Corporate Environmental Strategy 10, no. 9 (2003).
  21. BMW Group's Sustainability Management System: Preliminary Results, Ongoing Challenges, and the UN Global Compact

    This article describes preliminary results and ongoing challenges faced by Designworks/USA, an industrial design subsidiary of BMW Group, in its sustainability management efforts since it implemented the world's first certified Sustainability Management System (SMS). In addition, the extent to which the SMS promotes BMW Group's commitment to implement the United Nations Global Compact's human rights, labor, and environmental principles is analyzed. A detailed description of the development of a SMS standard and its deployment throughout the business operations of Designworks/USA was provided in the previous issue of CES Journal.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Management Systems; Standards; Social Issues; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Outcome or Result; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Natalie Hill, and Kellie McElhaney. "BMW Group's Sustainability Management System: Preliminary Results, Ongoing Challenges, and the UN Global Compact." Corporate Environmental Strategy 10, no. 3 (2003).
  22. Developing a Management Systems Approach to Sustainability at BMW Group

    This article describes how Designworks/USA, a subsidiary of BMW Group, developed a Sustainability Management System (SMS) by integrating the management of environmental, social, and traditional business issues. After several months of deploying the SMS throughout its business operations, this industrial design company became the first organization in the world to achieve third-party certification of a SMS. An article in the next issue of CES Journal will describe the preliminary outcomes of the SMS and challenges Designworks/USA faces in its ongoing SMS development efforts. In addition, that article will describe how the SMS is facilitating BMW Group's commitment to implement the United Nations Global Compact's human rights, labor, and environmental principles.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Management Systems; Standards; Operations; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Natalie Hill, and Kellie McElhaney. "Developing a Management Systems Approach to Sustainability at BMW Group." Corporate Environmental Strategy 10, no. 2 (2003).

Book Chapters

  1. Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy

    A broad literature has emerged over the past decades demonstrating that firms' environmental strategies and practices are influenced by stakeholders and institutional pressures. Such findings are consistent with institutional sociology, which emphasizes the importance of regulatory, normative, and cognitive factors in shaping firms' decisions to adopt specific organizational practices, above and beyond their technical efficiency. Similarly, institutional theory emphasizes legitimation processes and the tendency for institutionalized organizational structures and procedures to be taken for granted, regardless of their efficiency implications. However, the institutional perspective does not address the fundamental issue of business strategy necessary to explain the persistence of substantially different strategies among firms that are subjected to comparable levels of institutional pressures. In this chapter, we present current research arguing that such firms adopt heterogeneous sets of environmental management practices despite facing common institutional pressures because organizational characteristics lead managers to interpret these pressures differently.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Natural Environment; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Delmas, Magali A., and Michael W. Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." In The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Environment, edited by Pratima Bansal and Andrew J. Hoffman. Oxford University Press, 2012.
  2. Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States

    The United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are federal systems in which the responsibility for environmental policy-making is divided or shared between the central government and the (member) states. The attribution of decision-making power has important policy implications. This chapter compares the role of central and local authorities in the US and the EU in formulating environmental regulations in three areas: automotive emissions for health-related (criteria) pollutants, packaging waste, and global climate change. Automotive emissions are relatively centralised in both political systems. In the cases of packaging waste and global climate change, regulatory policy-making is shared in the EU, but is primarily the responsibility of local governments in the US. Thus, in some important areas, regulatory policy-making is more centralised in the EU. The most important role local governments play in the regulatory process is to help diffuse stringent local standards through more centralised regulations, a dynamic which has recently become more important in the EU than in the US.

    Keywords: Natural Environment; Policy; Government and Politics; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; European Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Vogel, David, Michael W. Toffel, Diahanna Post, and Nazli Z. Uludere Aragon. "Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States." Chap. 11 in A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy. 2nd ed. Edited by Frank Wijen, Kees Zoeteman, Jan Pieters, and Paul van Seters, 321–361. Cheltenham, UK, 2012.
  3. Self-regulatory Institutions for Solving Environmental Problems: Perspectives and Contributions from the Management Literature

    Scholars of management have long considered how institutions can help resolve market imperfections and thereby improve human welfare. Most previous research has emphasized the use of for-profit firms. Such institutions cannot effectively address many environmental problems, however, because environmental problems often transcend firm boundaries. As a result, management scholars have begun to explore the use of more distributed institutional forms. In this article, we review the emerging scholarship on the formation and function of self-regulatory institutions.

    Keywords: For-Profit Firms; Investment; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    King, Andrew A., and Michael W. Toffel. "Self-regulatory Institutions for Solving Environmental Problems: Perspectives and Contributions from the Management Literature." Chap. 4 in Governance for the Environment: New Perspectives, edited by Magali Delmas and Oran Young, 98–115. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  4. Evaluating the Impact of SA8000 Certification

    SA 8000, along with other types of certification standards and corporate codes of conduct, represents a new form of private governance of working conditions, initiated and implemented by companies, labor unions, and non-governmental activist groups. Whether these codes represents a substantive or merely symbolic approach to governing working conditions is the subject of an ongoing debate, which to date has been dominated by philosophical and political discourse due to a lack of systematic evaluation. Very little empirical evidence is available to indicate whether these codes legitimately distinguish adopting companies and factories as providing better working environments (e.g., health and safety, freedom of association, fair pay practices) and whether these codes have affected their business outcomes (e.g., staff turnover and absenteeism, product defect rates, sales growth). In this book chapter, we review the existing evaluations of other private codes governing workplace conditions, including the Ethical Trading Initiative's Base Code, Nike's code of conduct, and Fair Trade. We then describe several key elements of program evaluation that are becoming standard practice in other domains, which we believe should be incorporated in future evaluation studies of these codes. We emphasize the importance of examining performance over time, comparing adopters to non-adopters, and incorporating strategies to overcome selection bias. Evaluations that meet the highest methodological standards are critical to inform the debates about this new form of private governance, and to highlight opportunities for improvement in their standards and monitoring procedures.

    Keywords: Corporate Governance; Working Conditions; Standards; Performance Evaluation;

    Citation:

    Hiscox, Michael J., Claire Schwartz, and Michael W. Toffel. "Evaluating the Impact of SA8000 Certification." In Social Accountability 8000: The First Decade -- Implementation, Influence, and Impact, edited by Deborah Leipziger. Greenleaf Publishing, 2009.
  5. Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Auto Industry; Germany; United States;

    Citation:

    McElhaney, Kellie, Michael W. Toffel, and Natalie Hill. "Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience." In Strategic Sustainability: The State of the Art in Corporate Environmental Management Systems, edited by J. Sarkis and R. Sroufe. Sheffield, U.K.: Greenleaf Publishing, 2006.
  6. Coerced Confessions: How Regulatory Deterrence Drives Self-Policing

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Corporate Governance; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., and Michael W. Toffel. "Coerced Confessions: How Regulatory Deterrence Drives Self-Policing." In Best Paper Proceedings of the Sixty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, edited by K. Mark Weaver. Academy of Management, 2006. (Winner of Charles H. Levine Award for Best Conference Paper presented by Academy of Management. Previously titled "Turning Themselves In: Why Some Firms Self-disclose Regulatory Violations.")
  7. Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States

    The United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are federal systems in which the responsibility for environmental policy-making is divided or shared between the central government and the (member) states. The attribution of decision-making power has important policy implications. This chapter compares the role of central and local authorities in the US and the EU in formulating environmental regulations in three areas: automotive emissions, packaging waste, and global climate change. Automotive emissions are relatively centralised in both political systems. In the cases of packaging waste and global climate change, regulatory policy-making is shared in the EU but is primarily the responsibility of local governments in the US. Thus, in some important areas, regulatory policy-making is relatively centralised in the EU. The most important role local governments play in the regulatory process is to help diffuse stringent local standards through centralised regulation, a dynamic which has become more common in the EU than in the US.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Government Legislation; Natural Environment; Pollution and Pollutants; Weather and Climate Change; European Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Vogel, David, Michael W. Toffel, and Diahanna Post. "Environmental Federalism in the European Union and the United States." Chap. 9 in A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy: National Government Interventions in a Global Arena, edited by F. Wijen, K. Zoeteman, and J. Pieters, 247–276. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.
  8. Institutional Pressure and Environmental Management Practices

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Delmas, Magali, and Michael W. Toffel. "Institutional Pressure and Environmental Management Practices." In Stakeholders, the Environment, & Society, edited by Sanjay Sharma and Mark Starik. Sheffield, U.K.: Greenleaf Publishing, 2004.
  9. The Leverage of a Small Designer Group: Designworks

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Leverage of a Small Designer Group: Designworks." In Raising the Bar: Creating Value with the UN Global Compact, edited by C. Fussler, A. Cramer, and S. van der Vegt. Sheffield, U.K.: Greenleaf Publishing, 2004.
  10. Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience

    This case study describes how an industrial design company developed a Sustainability Management System (SMS) standard, designed and implemented an SMS throughout its business, and then became the first company in the world to achieve third-party SMS certification. The case also describes ongoing development and challenges and examines how the SMS has facilitated the implementation of the United Nations Global Compact.

    Keywords: Design; Governance Compliance; Management Practices and Processes; Standards; Environmental Sustainability; United States;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Natalie Hill, and Kellie McElhaney. "Designing Sustainability at BMW Group: The Designworks/USA Experience." In From Principles to Practice, 57–83. Case Studies Series. Global Compact Office, 2003.
  11. Anticipating Greener Supply Chain Demands: One Singapore Company's Journey to ISO 14001

    Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Standards; Environmental Sustainability; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Anticipating Greener Supply Chain Demands: One Singapore Company's Journey to ISO 14001." Chap. 16 in ISO 14001 Case Studies and Practical Experiences, edited by Ruth Hillary, 182–199. Sheffield, U.K.: Greenleaf Publishing, 2000.

Working Papers

  1. Monitoring the Monitors: How Social Factors Influence Supply Chain Auditors

    Supply chain auditors provide companies with strategic information about the practices of suppliers, yet little is known of what influences auditors' ability to identify and report dangerous, illegal, and unethical behavior at factories. Drawing on insights from the literatures on street-level bureaucracy and on regulatory and audit design, we theorize and investigate the factors that shape the practices of private supply chain auditors. We find evidence that their reporting practices are shaped by an array of social factors, including an auditor's experience, gender, and professional training; ongoing relationships between auditors and audited factories; and gender diversity on audit teams. By providing the first comprehensive and systematic findings on supply chain auditing practices, our study suggests strategies for designing more credible monitoring regimes.

    Keywords: industry self-regulation; auditing; Codes of conduct; supply chains; corporate social responsibility; globalization; Accounting Audits; Developing Countries and Economies; Supply Chain; Operations; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Safety; Social Issues; Social Enterprise; Labor; Working Conditions; Law Enforcement; Globalization; Corporate Accountability; Fashion Industry; Forest Products Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Short, Jodi L., Michael W. Toffel, and Andrea R. Hugill. "Monitoring the Monitors: How Social Factors Influence Supply Chain Auditors." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-032, October 2013. (Revised February 2014. Previously titled "What Shapes the Gatekeepers? Evidence from Global Supply Chain Auditors.")
  2. Government Green Procurement Spillovers: Evidence from Municipal Building Policies in California

    We investigate whether government green procurement policies stimulate private-sector demand for similar products and the supply of complementary inputs. Specifically, we measure the impact of municipal policies requiring governments to construct green buildings on private-sector adoption of the US Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard. Using matching methods, panel data, and instrumental variables, we find that government procurement rules produce spillover effects that stimulate both private-sector adoption of the LEED standard and supplier investments in green building expertise. Our findings suggest that government procurement policies can accelerate the diffusion of new environmental standards that require coordinated complementary investments by various types of private adopters.

    Keywords: Public procurement; green building; quality certification; environmental policy; Buildings and Facilities; Law; Markets; Supply Chain; Risk and Uncertainty; Business and Government Relations; Real Estate Industry; Construction Industry; Public Administration Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Simcoe, Timothy, and Michael W. Toffel. "Government Green Procurement Spillovers: Evidence from Municipal Building Policies in California." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-030, September 2012. (Revised September 2013. Revise and resubmit at Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.)
  3. Scrutiny, Norms, and Selective Disclosure: A Global Study of Greenwashing

    Under increased pressure to report environmental impacts, some firms selectively disclose relatively benign impacts, creating an impression of transparency while masking their true performance. We identify key company- and country-level factors that, by intensifying scrutiny on firms and diffusing global norms to their headquarters countries, limit firms’ use of selective disclosure. We test our hypotheses using a novel panel dataset of 4,750 public companies across many industries and headquartered in 45 countries during 2004-2007. Results show that firms that are more environmentally damaging, particularly those in countries where they are more exposed to scrutiny and global norms, are less likely to engage in selective disclosure. We discuss contributions to the literature that spans institutional theory and strategic management and to the literature on information disclosure.

    Keywords: disclosure strategy; disclosure; environmental performance; environmental strategy; environment; symbolic; reporting; Integrated Corporate Reporting; Globalization; Corporate Accountability; Corporate Disclosure; Governance Compliance; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business and Government Relations; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Michael W. Toffel. "Scrutiny, Norms, and Selective Disclosure: A Global Study of Greenwashing." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-115, May 2011. (Revised April 2014. Formerly titled "When Do Firms Greenwash? Corporate Visibility, Civil Society Scrutiny, and Environmental Disclosure.")
  4. Codes in Context: How States, Markets, and Civil Society Shape Adherence to Global Labor Standards

    Corporate codes of conduct are becoming an increasingly important vehicle for promoting and assessing adherence to global labor standards at factories in global supply chains, but little is known about the factors that predict when supplier factories will comply with them. Regulation and governance scholarship suggests that factories' compliance with global labor standards depends on the institutional environments in which they are embedded. However, there are few systematic, comprehensive studies of how different regulatory institutions influence private firms' compliance with global norms. We conduct one of the first large-scale comparative studies using tens of thousands of codes of conduct audits from one of the world's largest social auditors to determine what constellation of international, domestic, civil society, and market institutions promotes compliance with the global labor standards embodied in codes. We find that supplier factories are more likely to comply when they are embedded in states that have highly protective labor regulation and high levels of press freedom; when they serve buyers located in countries where consumers are wealthy and socially conscious; and, among factories in developing countries, those situated in states with more international labor treaty obligations and greater densities of international nongovernment organizations (INGOs). Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of multiple, robust, overlapping, and reinforcing governance regimes to meaningful transnational regulation.

    Keywords: Transnational regulation; Labor standards; Consumer politics; Codes of conduct; Compliance; Accounting Audits; Corporate Accountability; Governance Compliance; Governance Controls; Working Conditions; Law Enforcement; Production; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Evaluation; Safety; Quality; Nonprofit Organizations; Non-Governmental Organizations; Supply Chain; Supply Chain Management; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Electronics Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Asia; Europe; China; United States;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Jodi L. Short, and Melissa Ouellet. "Codes in Context: How States, Markets, and Civil Society Shape Adherence to Global Labor Standards." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-045, November 2012. (Revised October 2013. Revise and resubmit at Regulation & Governance.)
  5. Managerial Practices That Promote Voice and Taking Charge among Frontline Workers

    Process-improvement ideas often come from frontline workers who speak up by voicing concerns about problems and by taking charge to resolve them. We hypothesize that organization-wide process-improvement campaigns encourage both forms of speaking up, especially voicing concern. We also hypothesize that the effectiveness of such campaigns depends on the prior responsiveness of line managers. We test our hypotheses in the healthcare setting, in which problems are frequent. We use data on nearly 7,500 reported incidents extracted from an incident-reporting system that is similar to those used by many organizations to encourage employees to communicate about operational problems. We find that process-improvement campaigns prompt employees to speak up and that campaigns increase the frequency of voicing concern to a greater extent than they increase taking charge. We also find that campaigns are particularly effective in eliciting taking charge among employees whose managers have been relatively unresponsive to previous instances of speaking up. Our results therefore indicate that organization-wide campaigns can encourage voicing concerns and taking charge, two important forms of speaking up. These results can enable managers to solicit ideas from frontline workers that lead to performance improvement.

    Keywords: Communication; Employees; Knowledge Sharing; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Management Practices and Processes; Operations; Business Processes; Performance Improvement;

    Citation:

    Adler-Milstein, Julia, Sara J. Singer, and Michael W. Toffel. "Managerial Practices That Promote Voice and Taking Charge among Frontline Workers." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-005, July 2010. (Revised Sept. 2011. Best Theory-to-Practice Paper Award by Academy of Management's Health Care Management Division. Selected for Best Paper Proceedings of the 2011 Academy of Management Meeting.)
  6. Resolving Information Asymmetries in Markets: The Role of Certified Management Programs

    Firms and regulators are increasingly relying on voluntary mechanisms to signal and infer quality of difficult-to-observe management practices. Prior evaluations of voluntary management programs have focused on those that lack verification mechanisms and have found little evidence that they legitimately distinguish adopters as having superior management practices or performance. In this paper, I conduct one of the first evaluations to determine whether a voluntary management program that features an independent verification mechanism is achieving its ultimate objectives. Using a sample of thousands of manufacturing facilities across the United States, I find evidence that the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System Standard has attracted companies with superior environmental performance. After developing quasi-control groups using propensity score matching, I also find that adopters subsequently improve their environmental performance. These results suggest that robust verification mechanisms such as independent certification may be necessary for voluntary management programs to mitigate information asymmetries surrounding management practices. Implications are discussed for the industry-associations, government agencies, and the non-governmental organizations that design these programs, the companies that are investing resources to adopt them, and those that are relying on them to infer the quality of management practices.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Standards; Performance Improvement; Programs; Environmental Sustainability; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Resolving Information Asymmetries in Markets: The Role of Certified Management Programs." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 07-023, December 2008. (October 2006.)
  7. Diffusing Management Practices within the Firm: The Role of Information Provision

    A key role of corporate managers is to encourage subsidiaries to adopt innovative practices. This paper examines the conditions under which corporate managers use information provision to encourage subsidiaries' adoption of advanced management practices. Focusing on the distribution of expertise across subsidiaries, we propose that corporate managers elect an information provision strategy when (i) subsidiaries, on average, possess moderate levels of related expertise, (ii) subsidiaries exhibit significant heterogeneity in this expertise, and (iii) the subsidiaries are more diversified and less concentrated. We examine the efforts to diffuse pollution prevention practices exhibited by manufacturing firms in the information and communication technology sector in the United States, and find empirical support for the four hypotheses developed here. The research presented in this paper has implications for our understanding not only of who adopts advanced environmental management practices, but more broadly, of when firms adopt information provision strategies to encourage knowledge transfer within the organization.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Knowledge Sharing; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Management Practices and Processes; Corporate Strategy; Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Lenox, Michael J., and Michael W. Toffel. "Diffusing Management Practices within the Firm: The Role of Information Provision." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-085, October 2008. (March 2008.)
  8. Extending Producer Responsibility: An Evaluation Framework for Product Take-Back Policies

    Manufacturers are increasingly being required to adhere to product take-back regulations that require them to manage their products at the end of life. Such regulations seek to internalize products' entire life cycle costs into market prices, with the ultimate objective of reducing their environmental burden. This article provides a framework to evaluate the potential for take-back regulations to actually lead to reduced environmental impacts and to stimulate product design changes. It describes trade-offs associated with several major policy decisions, including whether to hold firms physically or financially responsible for the recovery of their products, when to impose recycling fees, whether to include disposal and hazardous substance bans, and whether to mandate product design features to foster reuse and recycling of components and materials. The framework also addresses policy elements that can significantly affect the cost efficiency and occupational safety hazards of end-of-life product recovery operations. The evaluation framework is illustrated with examples drawn from take-back regulations promulgated in Europe, Japan, and the United States governing waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Keywords: Product; Cost; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Antoinette Stein, and Katharine Lee. "Extending Producer Responsibility: An Evaluation Framework for Product Take-Back Policies." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-026, July 2008. (September 2008.)
  9. Contracting for Servicizing

    Servicizing, a novel business practice that sells product functionality rather than products, has been touted as an environmentally beneficial business practice. This paper describes how servicizing transactions mitigate some problems associated with sales transactions, but creates several others. The success of servicizing—or product service systems—requires manufacturers to develop contracts that attract customers while protecting their interests. Several propositions are offered to facilitate empirical testing of the concepts discussed.

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Contracts; Market Transactions; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Sales;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Contracting for Servicizing." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-063, February 2008. (February 2008.)

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Implementing Environmentally Sustainable Operations

    Keywords: sustainability; Sustainability Management; sustainability reporting; sustainable supply chains; Sustainable Operations; environment; environmental and social sustainability; environmental management; Environmental Operations; environmental performance; environmental policy; environmental protection; environmental strategy; environmental regulation; operations management; operations strategy; supply chain management; Operations; Supply Chain; Business Processes; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Evaluation; Performance Improvement; Safety; Social Enterprise; Quality; Production; Working Conditions; Animal-Based Agribusiness; Buildings and Facilities; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Construction Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Implementing Environmentally Sustainable Operations." Harvard Business School Module Note 613-090, March 2014.
  2. Groom Energy Solutions: Selling Efficiency

    Groom Energy Solutions helps organizations reduce their energy use and costs through the implementation of energy efficiency measures, which create long-term financial and environmental benefits. With early success serving customers in the cold storage and industrial manufacturing sectors, the seven-year-old company must now decide whether to continue expanding within these segments or transition into commercial retail and office buildings, which offer growth potential and unique challenges. Groom Energy must also decide which geographic regions provide the best opportunity.
    This case study provides background on the history of the energy efficiency industry, the energy efficiency paradox, and the benefits and challenges of a business focused on implementing efficiency measures. The case is particularly relevant to courses focused on energy management, environmental sustainability, and entrepreneurship within the energy and sustainability areas.

    Keywords: Groom Energy Solutions; Jon Guerster; Salem, MA; Energy Management; Energy Efficiency Paradox; Sustainability Management; manufacturing; Cold Storage; Commercial Real Estate; Enterprise Smart Grid; Carbon Accounting; LED Lighting; Sustainability Research; entrepreneurship; Environmental Entrepreneurship; Energy Entrepreneurship; Energy Services; Electricity; Startup; Expansion; Growth; sustainability; Business Startups; Forecasting and Prediction; Energy Conservation; Revenue; Geographic Location; Human Resources; Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Operations; Service Delivery; Strategic Planning; Science; Environmental Sustainability; Weather and Climate Change; Society; Social Issues; Technology Adoption; Energy Industry; Green Technology Industry; Technology Industry; Utilities Industry; United States; Boston;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Kira R. Fabrizio, and Stephanie van Sice. "Groom Energy Solutions: Selling Efficiency." Harvard Business School Case 613-054, February 2013. (Revised July 2013.)
  3. EnerNOC: DemandSMART

    EnerNOC is an energy company with an innovative business model: it serves as an intermediary between electric utilities and electricity users. It contracts with electricity users willing to reduce demand during periods of peak energy demand, and sells this as excess capacity to electric utilities. The company is facing an upheaval in the energy markets due to the dramatic growth in natural gas fracking and the resulting increase in natural gas supply. The case enables students to evaluate the EnerNOC's business model--including its environmental implications--and the potential impact of fracking on its business. The case is accessible to non-specialists, as it provides background on the electric utility industry and the debate about fracking for natural gas. Given the substantial environmental impact of the energy and electricity industries, the case is particularly relevant for courses that focus on energy, the natural environment, and environmental sustainability.

    Keywords: Production Planning; productivity; supply chain management; environmental protection; energy; environment; business government relations; laws and regulation; Business Model; Environmental Sustainability; Innovation and Invention; Opportunities; Risk and Uncertainty; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Supply Chain Management; Production; Energy Conservation; Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Kira Fabrizio, and Stephanie van Sice. "EnerNOC: DemandSMART." Harvard Business School Case 613-036, August 2012. (Revised September 2013.)
  4. Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water

    This case examines negotiations between a company and government over natural resources. The Fijian government proposed a substantial increase in its water extraction tax that would only apply to large extractors, and thus to FIJI Water and not to its competitors. FIJI Water responded by calling the increase "discriminatory" and threatening to shut down its operations, but in the end its negotiations resulted in its agreeing to pay the tax increase.

    Keywords: Negotiation; Business and Government Relations; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Distribution Industry; Fiji;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Michael W. Toffel, and Stephanie van Sice. "Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water." Harvard Business School Case 912-030, March 2012. (Revised October 2013.)
  5. Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water (TN)

    Keywords: Negotiation; Fiji;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Michael W. Toffel, and Stephanie van Sice. "Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 912-031, March 2012. (Revised October 2012.)
  6. InterfaceRAISE: Sustainability Consulting

    InterfaceRAISE is a sustainability management consulting firm created to leverage the capabilities of its parent company Interface Inc., a carpet manufacturer recognized as a global leader in corporate environmental sustainability. This case illustrates the challenges of turning an internal capability into a client‐facing revenue stream. This is made especially difficult by the fact that the parent company is a manufacturing firm and InterfaceRAISE is a professional service firm (consulting). InterfaceRAISE is not being staffed by a traditional consulting firm model, relying instead on the part‐time availability of employees in the parent company. At the time of the case, InterfaceRAISE was grappling to identify the appropriate business model for the type of consulting firm it wants to be, to determine what its client portfolio should look like, and to set its pricing structure. InterfaceRAISE needed to decide how to accelerate its growth while better achieving its three objectives: improving its clients' sustainability performance, enhancing its parent company's brand image and sales, and increasing operating profits.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Integrated Corporate Reporting; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Entrepreneurship; Performance; Environmental Accounting; Profit; Marketing Strategy; Human Resources; Business Model; Leveraged Buyouts; Salesforce Management; Consulting Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., Robert G. Eccles, and Casey Taylor. "InterfaceRAISE: Sustainability Consulting." Harvard Business School Case 611-069, May 2011. (Revised March 2012.)
  7. InterfaceRAISE: Sustainability Consulting (TN)

    Keywords: Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Eccles, Robert G., and Michael W. Toffel. "InterfaceRAISE: Sustainability Consulting (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 612-049, November 2011.
  8. FIJI Water: Carbon Negative?

    Seeking to go beyond global best practices in reducing environmental impacts, FIJI Water, a premium artesian bottled water company in the United States, launched a Carbon Negative campaign that would offset more greenhouse gas emissions than were released by the company's operations and products. The case examines the controversies surrounding this program as well as the program's impacts on the environment and FIJI Water's brand image. The company also faced decisions regarding how to best manage its relationship with the Fijian government, which recently dramatically raised imposed export taxes and could limit FIJI Water's access to water, its primary raw material. The case enables students to better understand the challenges of implementing an environmental strategy and of negotiating with parties that control raw materials, and invites discussion of the effectiveness of various approaches and the general lessons for the management of companies seeking to operate in an environmentally responsible manner.

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Brands and Branding; Negotiation Tactics; Business and Government Relations; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States; Fiji;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Michael W. Toffel, and Stephanie van Sice. "FIJI Water: Carbon Negative?" Harvard Business School Case 611-049, June 2011. (Revised December 2013.)
  9. FIJI Water: Carbon Negative?

    Keywords: Energy; Pollution and Pollutants;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Francesca Gino. "FIJI Water: Carbon Negative?" Harvard Business School Teaching Note 612-051, November 2011. (Revised January 2014.)
  10. Trucost: Valuing Corporate Environmental Impacts

    Trucost provided corporate environmental performance data and analysis to institutional investors and corporate managers, but after operating for a decade had yet to achieve profitability. Trucost was struggling to effectively differentiate its high quality products from its lower-cost competitors, and needed to develop a strategy to educate the marketplace and pursue new distribution channels. Increased investor interest in environmental issues—and an ever growing number of corporate environmental rankings—led to a proliferation of competitors to Trucost, and an industry shakeout was predicted. How should Trucost compete?

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Distribution Channels; Investment; Measurement and Metrics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Information; Value; Environmental Sustainability; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Trucost: Valuing Corporate Environmental Impacts." Harvard Business School Case 612-025, September 2011. (Revised February 2013.)
  11. Trucost: Valuing Corporate Environmental Impacts

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Trucost: Valuing Corporate Environmental Impacts ." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 612-015, November 2011. (Revised March 2014.)
  12. The Hybrid Vehicle Market

    This note describes the hybrid electic vehicle market, the results of different automaker strategies, and the environmental regulatory issues that can promote or inhibit market growth in the United States. Introduces students to the technologies and regulatory aspects of vehicles using alternative powertrains and fuels including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, electic vehicles, and deisel engines. Enable students to evaluate the success of the Toyota Prius, especially when used as an updated supplement to a case discussion of Toyota Motor Corp.: Launching Prius (HBS Case 706458).

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Environmental Sustainability; Product Development; Technology; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Auto Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Nazli Z. Uludere Aragon. "The Hybrid Vehicle Market." Harvard Business School Background Note 612-084, March 2012. (Revised February 2013.)
  13. Carbon Footprints: Methods and Calculations

    Describes methods to calculate the carbon footprint (greenhouse gas emissions) of an organization's operations and supply chain, and a product or service. Illustrates concepts with examples of calculating the carbon footprint of an organization (Harvard Business School) and a product (a newspaper). Provides data necessary for carbon footprint calculations.

    Keywords: Operations; Supply Chain; Pollution and Pollutants; Measurement and Metrics; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Carbon Footprints: Methods and Calculations." Harvard Business School Background Note 611-075, June 2011. (Revised December 2013.)
  14. The Cage-Free Egg Movement

    Describes the social movement confronting conventional egg production techniques (battery cages) based on animal welfare concerns, and some merits and drawbacks of cage-free alternatives. Highlights animal rights activist campaigns, political and regulatory responses, and announcements by some companies to shift egg purchases or sales from conventional to alternative production methods.

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Rights; Supply Chain Management; Natural Environment; Social Issues; Competitive Strategy; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "The Cage-Free Egg Movement." Harvard Business School Background Note 611-021, September 2010. (Revised February 2013.)
  15. The Precautionary Principle

    This note describes the precautionary principle and its key tenets, highlights challenges associated with its use, and includes many examples of its application, primarily within the realm of regulating activities based on the risk of harm to human health and the environment. Appendices provide detailed examples of how the precautionary principle has been applied to regulations in three key industries: agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Describes various forms of the precautionary principle, its widespread adoption in international agreements, its distinction from cost-benefit analysis, its shift of the burden of proving that activities are safe from regulators to industry, and the importance of considering Type I and Type II errors and status quo bias when contemplating whether to evoke the precautionary principle.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Health Disorders; Business and Government Relations; Safety; Natural Environment; Pollution and Pollutants; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Chemical Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Nazli Z. Uludere Aragon. "The Precautionary Principle." Harvard Business School Background Note 610-043, June 2010. (Revised February 2013.)
  16. Aspen Skiing Company (A)

    Having begun improving the environmental performance of its own operations, Aspen Skiing Company is considering "greening" its supply chain and lobbying for greenhouse gas regulations. A world renowned ski resort vulnerable to global climate change, Aspen's activities often garner media attention, which can promote its causes. But these initiatives, which attempt to compel other firms to improve their environmental performance, risk a public relations backlash and charges of "greenwashing" given that Aspen's ski resorts are themselves environmentally intensive operations.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Supply Chain Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Government Relations; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Environmental Sustainability; Weather and Climate Change; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Aspen;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Aspen Skiing Company (A)." Harvard Business School Case 611-002, September 2010. (Revised November 2013.)
  17. Aspen Skiing Company (B)

    Having begun improving the environmental performance of its own operations, Aspen Skiing Company is considering "greening" its supply chain and lobbying for greenhouse gas regulations. A world renowned ski resort vulnerable to global climate change, Aspen's activities often garner media attention, which can promote its causes. But these initiatives, which attempt to compel other firms to improve their environmental performance, risk a public relations backlash and charges of "greenwashing" given that Aspen's ski resorts are themselves environmentally intensive operations.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Supply Chain; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Sports Industry; Aspen;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Aspen Skiing Company (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 611-003, September 2010. (Revised November 2013.)
  18. Aspen Skiing Company (C)

    Having begun improving the environmental performance of its own operations, Aspen Skiing Company is considering "greening" its supply chain and lobbying for greenhouse gas regulations. A world renowned ski resort vulnerable to global climate change, Aspen's activities often garner media attention, which can promote its causes. But these initiatives, which attempt to compel other firms to improve their environmental performance, risk a public relations backlash and charges of "greenwashing" given that Aspen's ski resorts are themselves environmentally intensive operations.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Supply Chain; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Sports Industry; Aspen;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Aspen Skiing Company (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 611-018, September 2010. (Revised September 2013.)
  19. Aspen Skiing Company (D)

    Having begun improving the environmental performance of its own operations, Aspen Skiing Company is considering "greening" its supply chain and lobbying for greenhouse gas regulations. A world-renowned ski resort vulnerable to global climate change, Aspen's activities often garner media attention, which can promote its causes. But these initiatives, which attempt to compel other firms to improve their environmental performance, risk a public relations backlash and charges of "greenwashing" given that Aspen's ski resorts are themselves environmentally intensive operations.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Supply Chain; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Sports Industry; Aspen;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Aspen Skiing Company (D)." Harvard Business School Supplement 611-019, September 2010. (Revised January 2014.)
  20. Aspen Skiing Company (A), (B), (C), and (D)

    Teaching Note for 611002, 611003, 611018, and 611019.

    Keywords: Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Tourism Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "Aspen Skiing Company (A), (B), (C), and (D)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 611-020, January 2011. (Revised February 2014.)
  21. Genzyme Center (A)

    Genzyme Corporation is in the midst of planning its new corporate headquarters, which incorporates many innovative green building features. After learning that the building as planned would likely earn a LEED Silver rating, an intermediate score in the LEED green building rating scheme, the CEO charged the building team with exploring opportunities that would enable the building to earn the highest rating, LEED Platinum. Five additional green building features are described, and students are asked to analyze and recommend which, if any, of these features to pursue based on their cost, likelihood of earning LEED credits, and their influence on the building's environmental performance.

    Keywords: Buildings and Facilities; Business Headquarters; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Standards; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Improvement; Environmental Sustainability; Pollution and Pollutants; Green Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Aldo Sesia. "Genzyme Center (A)." Harvard Business School Case 610-008, September 2009. (Revised September 2010.) (green building, LEED rating system, economic and environmental performance, program evaluation and assessment, tradeoffs between process- and performance standards.)
  22. Genzyme Center (B)

    Genzyme Corporation is in the midst of planning its new corporate headquarters, which incorporates many innovative green building features. After learning that the building as planned would likely earn a LEED Silver rating, an intermediate score in the LEED green building rating scheme, the CEO charged the building team with exploring opportunities that would enable the building to earn the highest rating, LEED Platinum. Five additional green building features are described, and students are asked to analyze and recommend which, if any, of these features to pursue based on their cost, likelihood of earning LEED credits, and their influence on the building's environmental performance.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Standards; Cost vs Benefits; Biotechnology Industry; Construction Industry; Real Estate Industry; Green Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Aldo Sesia. "Genzyme Center (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 610-009, September 2009. (Revised December 2009.)
  23. Genzyme Center (C)

    Genzyme Corporation is in the midst of planning its new corporate headquarters, which incorporates many innovative green building features. After learning that the building as planned would likely earn a LEED Silver rating, an intermediate score in the LEED green building rating scheme, the CEO charged the building team with exploring opportunities that would enable the building to earn the highest rating, LEED Platinum. Five additional green building features are described, and students are asked to analyze and recommend which, if any, of these features to pursue based on their cost, likelihood of earning LEED credits, and their influence on the building's environmental performance.

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Standards; Cost vs Benefits; Biotechnology Industry; Construction Industry; Real Estate Industry; Green Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Aldo Sesia. "Genzyme Center (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 610-010, September 2009. (Revised December 2009.)
  24. Genzyme Center (A), (B) & (C)

    Teaching Note for [610008], [610009], and [610010].

    Keywords: environment; environmental and social sustainability; Environmental Operations; environmental protection; environmental regulation; standard setting; Standards; Environmental Accounting; Engineering; Governance; Energy; Economics; Operations; Projects; Social Enterprise; Infrastructure; Construction Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Real Estate Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Genzyme Center (A), (B) & (C)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 610-011, October 2009. (Revised January 2014.)
  25. Sustainability at Millipore

    This case describes Millipore Corporation's approach to becoming a more environmentally sustainable company. As he prepared for his quarterly meeting with the CEO, the Director of Sustainability needed to develop positions on several issues. Tactically, he needed to recommend whether the company should purchase carbon offsets to help meet its aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets, and whether to continue publicly reporting its greenhouse gas emissions and strategies despite recent problems. On a more strategic level, he needed to recommend how to take the company's Sustainability Initiative to the next level and consider whether changes were needed to its organizational structure. Finally, he needed to develop a more systematic approach to prioritizing investments in various projects being proposed to improve environmental performance.

    Keywords: Investment; Corporate Disclosure; Operations; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Structure; Natural Environment; Environmental Sustainability; Pollution and Pollutants;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Katharine Lee. "Sustainability at Millipore." Harvard Business School Case 610-012, July 2009. (Revised January 2014.) (defining sustainability in a corporate context, managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including inventories, targets, disclosure, reduction strategies.)
  26. Sustainability at Millipore (TN)

    Teaching Note for [610012].

    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; Organizational Structure; Investment; Projects; Performance Improvement; Framework; Measurement and Metrics; Corporate Disclosure; Biotechnology Industry;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Sustainability at Millipore (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 610-013, October 2009. (Revised January 2014.)
  27. Cook Composites and Polymers Co.

    This case describes how a company improves resource efficiency and process quality in its manufacturing process by developing a waste by-product into a new product. The case describes how CCP cleans production equipment between batches using styrene, which becomes a costly hazardous waste. Having worked on minimizing waste for the past 20 years, CCP believed it could not reduce the use of styrene without risking product quality. Instead, CCP was exploring the development of a by-product from its "rinse styrene," but faces uncertainty regarding the operational, financial, and environmental implications of doing so. This case contains data to support quantitative analyses of financial, operational, and environmental issues including some basic life-cycle analysis (LCA) calculations that focus on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Product Development; Business Processes; Performance Efficiency; Natural Environment; Wastes and Waste Processing; Pollution and Pollutants; Environmental Sustainability; Chemical Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Lee, Deishin, Michael W. Toffel, and Rachel Gordon. "Cook Composites and Polymers Co." Harvard Business School Case 608-055, June 2008. (Revised March 2011.)
  28. Cook Composites and Polymers Co.

    Teaching Note for [608055].

    Keywords: Chemical Industry;

    Citation:

    Lee, Deishin, and Michael W. Toffel. "Cook Composites and Polymers Co." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-079, June 2008. (Revised January 2014.)
  29. 'Shad' Process Flow Design Exercise (TN)

    This is a Teaching Note for 608-072.

    Keywords: Design;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "'Shad' Process Flow Design Exercise (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-086, May 2008. (Revised September 2009.)
  30. Clearwater Seafoods (TN)

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Reinhardt, Forest L., Michael W. Toffel, and Frederik Peter Nellemann. "Clearwater Seafoods (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 712-020, October 2011.
  31. Colbun - Powering Chile (TN)

    Keywords: Utilities Industry; Chile;

    Citation:

    Reinhardt, Forest L., Michael W. Toffel, Noel Maurer, and Frederik Nellemann. "Colbun - Powering Chile (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 712-021, December 2011.

Seminar Presentations

  1. Monitoring the Monitors: How Social Factors Influence Supply Chain Auditors

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Monitoring the Monitors: How Social Factors Influence Supply Chain Auditors." Management & Organizations Department Seminar, NYU Stern School of Business, March 28, 2014.
  2. Assessing Working Conditions in Global Supply Chains: Evidence from Social Auditors

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Assessing Working Conditions in Global Supply Chains: Evidence from Social Auditors." Technology & Operations Seminar, University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business, January 24, 2014.
  3. Which Suppliers Adhere to Global Labor Standards? Evidence from Codes of Conduct Audits

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Which Suppliers Adhere to Global Labor Standards? Evidence from Codes of Conduct Audits." Operations Seminar Series (Kellogg School of Management), April 10, 2013.
  4. OSHA Inspections: Saving Workers or Killing Jobs? Evidence from Randomized Inspections in California

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "OSHA Inspections: Saving Workers or Killing Jobs? Evidence from Randomized Inspections in California." Harvard-NIOSH Education and Research Center Seminar, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, February 25, 2013.
  5. Reinforcing Regulatory Regimes: How States, Civil Society, and Codes of Conduct Promote Adherence to Global Labor Standards

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Reinforcing Regulatory Regimes: How States, Civil Society, and Codes of Conduct Promote Adherence to Global Labor Standards." New Directions in Regulation Seminar Series, Harvard Kennedy School Regulatory Policy Program, Cambridge, MA, United States, February 14, 2013.
  6. The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring." Paper presented at the Business, Policy and Sustainability Seminar, George Washington University School of Business, April 2012.
  7. The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Disclosure: Accountability or Greenwashing?

    Keywords: Globalization; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Disclosure: Accountability or Greenwashing?" Paper presented at the Duquesne University Donahue School of Business, Sustainable MBA Seminar, April 2011.
  8. The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring

    Keywords: Organizations; Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring." Paper presented at the Emory University Goizueta Business School, Organization & Management Department Seminar, February 18, 2011.
  9. How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Organizations; Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance." Paper presented at the Wharton Operations and Information Management Department Seminar, October 2010.
  10. How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Organizations; Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance." Paper presented at the Georgia Institute of Technology Distinguished Operations Management Lecture, October 2010.
  11. The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Transparency

    Keywords: Globalization; Business Ventures; Natural Environment;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Transparency." Paper presented at the UCLA Anderson School of Management Strategy and Policy Seminar, April 2010.
  12. Organizational Scope and Governance in Private Regulatory Enforcement

    Keywords: Organizations; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Organizational Scope and Governance in Private Regulatory Enforcement." Paper presented at the Cornell University Johnson School Operations Management Workshop, April 2010.
  13. The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Transparency

    Keywords: Globalization; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Globalization of Corporate Environmental Transparency." Paper presented at the Harvard Business School Accounting & Management Unit Seminar, April 2010.
  14. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Duke Fuqua School of Business Strategy Seminar, Durham, NC, December 2009.
  15. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Stanford Operations, Information & Technology Seminars, May 2009.
  16. Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies

    Keywords: Strategy; Weather and Climate Change; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies." Paper presented at the Institute for Work and Employment Research Seminar, MIT Sloan School of Management, April 2009.
  17. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." University of Western Ontario, Richard Ivey School of Business, February 2009.
  18. Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure

    Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Information;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure." Paper presented at the Erb Institute Colloquium, March 2008.
  19. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government Business & Government Seminar Series, John F. Kennedy School of Government, March 2007.
  20. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Harvard Kennedy School Seminar on Environmental Economics and Policy, February 2007.

Conference Presentations

  1. What Shapes the Gatekeepers? Evidence from Global Supply Chain Auditors

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "What Shapes the Gatekeepers? Evidence from Global Supply Chain Auditors." Paper presented at the Workshop for Empirical Research in Operations Management, Wharton School, October 2013.
  2. Sustainability and Strategy: Institutional Drivers and Performance Outcomes

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Sustainability and Strategy: Institutional Drivers and Performance Outcomes." Paper presented at the Strategic Management Society Annual International Conference, Atlanta, September 30, 2013.
  3. Which Suppliers Better Adhere to International Labor Standards? Evidence from Codes of Conduct Audits

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Which Suppliers Better Adhere to International Labor Standards? Evidence from Codes of Conduct Audits." Paper presented at the Alliance for Research on Corporate Sustainability Annual Research Conference, Berkeley, CA, May 2013.
  4. When Do Firms Greenwash?

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "When Do Firms Greenwash?" Paper presented at the 24th Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics Annual Meeting, June 28, 2012.
  5. Engaging Supply Chains in Climate Change

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Engaging Supply Chains in Climate Change." Paper presented at the GRONEN Research Conference, Group on Organizations and the Natural Environment (GRONEN), Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume, France, June 27, 2012.
  6. Private Enforcement of Labor and Environmental Standards in Global Supply Chains

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Private Enforcement of Labor and Environmental Standards in Global Supply Chains." Paper presented at the GRONEN Research Conference, Group on Organizations and the Natural Environment (GRONEN), Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume, France, June 27, 2012.
  7. The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance in Strengthening Private Monitoring." Paper presented at the New Insight into Quality and Environmental Practices, Université Paris-Dauphine, Paris, France, June 2012.
  8. When do Firms Greenwash?

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "When do Firms Greenwash?" Paper presented at the Alliance for Research on Corporate Sustainability Annual Research Conference, New Haven, Connecticut, May 2012.
  9. Engaging Suppliers to Mitigate Climate Change

    Keywords: Weather and Climate Change;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Engaging Suppliers to Mitigate Climate Change." Paper presented at the Innovation in Operations Conference, June 11, 2011.
  10. How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Organizations; Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Stringent Is Private Regulatory Monitoring? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance." Paper presented at the INFORMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, November 7, 2010.
  11. Speaking Up Constructively: Managerial Practices That Elicit Solutions from Front-line Employees

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Employees; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Speaking Up Constructively: Managerial Practices That Elicit Solutions from Front-line Employees." Paper presented at the INFORMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, November 7, 2010.
  12. Coming Clean and Cleaning Up: Does Voluntary Self-Reporting Indicate Effective Self-Policing?

    Keywords: Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean and Cleaning Up: Does Voluntary Self-Reporting Indicate Effective Self-Policing?" Paper presented at the Workshop for Empirical Research in Operations Management, October 14, 2010.
  13. How Stringent is Private Regulatory Enforcement? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Organizations; Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Stringent is Private Regulatory Enforcement? The Role of Organizational Scope and Governance." Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Production and Operations Management Society, Vancouver, May 1, 2010.
  14. Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies

    Keywords: Strategy; Weather and Climate Change; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Responding to Public and Private Politics: Corporate Disclosure of Climate Change Strategies." Paper presented at the Strategy and the Business Environment Conference, March 06–07, 2009.
  15. Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure

    Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Information;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure." Paper presented at the Institutional Foundations for Industry Self-Regulation Conference, February 29, 2008.
  16. Are Management Standards Effective?

    Keywords: Management; Standards; Performance Effectiveness;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Are Management Standards Effective?" Paper presented at the Just Supply Chains Conference, January 11, 2008.
  17. Quality Management & Job Quality: How ISO 9001 Affects Employees & Employers

    Keywords: Management; Employees; Quality; Standards;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Quality Management & Job Quality: How ISO 9001 Affects Employees & Employers." Paper presented at the Workshop on Empirical Research in Operations Management, November 06, 2008.
  18. Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure

    Keywords: Information; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Shamed and Able: How Firms Respond to Information Disclosure." Paper presented at the Workshop on Empirical Research in Operations Management, September 27, 2007.
  19. How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?" Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 03–08, 2007.
  20. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, August 05, 2007.
  21. Inspection Holidays and Compliance Outcomes: Examining the Outcomes of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Inspection Holidays and Compliance Outcomes: Examining the Outcomes of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Strategy and the Business Environment Conference, March 30, 2007.
  22. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Conference on Institutional Foundations for Industry Self-Regulation, February 16, 2007.
  23. Turning Themselves in: Why Some Firms Self-disclose Regulatory Violations

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Corporate Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Turning Themselves in: Why Some Firms Self-disclose Regulatory Violations." Paper presented at the Strategy and the Business Environment Conference, March 24, 2006.
  24. Turning Themselves In: Why Some Firms Self-disclose Regulatory Violations

    Keywords: Governance Compliance; Corporate Governance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Turning Themselves In: Why Some Firms Self-disclose Regulatory Violations." Paper presented at the Conference on Institutional Mechanisms for Industry Self-Regulation, February 24, 2006.

Presentations to Managers

  1. Greening Supply Chains

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Greening Supply Chains." Paper presented at the Green Growth Knowledge Platform Annual Conference, Global Green Growth Institute, Paris, France, April 4, 2013.
  2. The Regulator's Role in Encouraging Self-policing: Evidence from the EPA's Audit Policy

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Regulator's Role in Encouraging Self-policing: Evidence from the EPA's Audit Policy." Paper presented at the Next Generation Environmental Compliance Workshop, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance, Washington, DC, December 2012.
  3. Environmental Disclosures: Lessons Learned from Empirical Research

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Environmental Disclosures: Lessons Learned from Empirical Research." Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Opportunities for Research and Policy Analysis , Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, October 12, 2012. (Cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.)
  4. Evaluating OSHA Inspections for Intended and Unintended Outcomes

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Evaluating OSHA Inspections for Intended and Unintended Outcomes." Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety Seminar, Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, MA, United States, August 2012.
  5. How Firms Respond to Mandatory Information Disclosure

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How Firms Respond to Mandatory Information Disclosure." Paper presented at the National Training Conference on the Toxics Release Inventory and Environmental Conditions in Communities, Washington, DC, April 12, 2012.
  6. Servicizing: Are There Win-Wins? In Search of Economic and Environmental Benefits

    Keywords: Economics; Natural Environment;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Servicizing: Are There Win-Wins? In Search of Economic and Environmental Benefits." Paper presented at the Wharton Service Supply Chain Thought Leaders Forum, San Francisco, March 01, 2011.
  7. How the ISO 9001 Standard for Quality Management Systems Improves Employee Morale and Increases Profitability and Competitiveness

    Keywords: Management Systems; Employees; Quality; Happiness; Profit;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "How the ISO 9001 Standard for Quality Management Systems Improves Employee Morale and Increases Profitability and Competitiveness." Paper presented at the IBS User Forum, Boston, October 21, 2010.
  8. Research Perspectives on Operational Auditing and Certification

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Research Perspectives on Operational Auditing and Certification." Independent Association of Accredited Registrars, Milwaukee, July 7, 2010.
  9. Corporate Environmental Disclosure: A Research Overview

    Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Natural Environment;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Corporate Environmental Disclosure: A Research Overview." Paper presented at the Amsterdam Global Conference on Sustainability and Transparency, Global Reporting Initiative, Amsterdam, May 27, 2010.
  10. Sustainability Indexes

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Sustainability Indexes." Paper presented at the Conference Board's Research Working Group on Governance and Sustainability, February 27, 2009.
  11. New Research on Corporate Environmental Disclosure and Environmental Ratings

    Keywords: Research; Corporate Disclosure; Natural Environment;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "New Research on Corporate Environmental Disclosure and Environmental Ratings." Paper presented at the Enterprise Carbon Accounting, February 25, 2009.
  12. Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing

    Keywords: Governance Compliance;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Coming Clean...and Cleaning Up? Examining the Effects of Self-Policing." Paper presented at the Conference on Corporate Transparency and Accountability, Washington, DC, February 06, 2009.
  13. MapEcos: Introduction and Facility Information Disclosure

    Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Information;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "MapEcos: Introduction and Facility Information Disclosure." Paper presented at the Small Business Environmental Roundtable, February 22, 2008.
  14. MapEcos: Facility Disclosure and Stakeholder Attention (preliminary analysis)

    Keywords: Business and Stakeholder Relations; Corporate Disclosure;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "MapEcos: Facility Disclosure and Stakeholder Attention (preliminary analysis)." Paper presented at the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) National Training Conference, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, February 12, 2008.
  15. The Health and Safety of Quality Programs: An Empirical Evaluation

    Keywords: Quality; Programs;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "The Health and Safety of Quality Programs: An Empirical Evaluation." Paper presented at the California Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation Meeting, Oakland, CA, August 25, 2005.
  16. Resolving Information Asymmetries in Supply Chains: The Role of Certified Voluntary Programs

    Keywords: Information; Supply Chain; Programs;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Resolving Information Asymmetries in Supply Chains: The Role of Certified Voluntary Programs." Paper presented at the National Environmental Partnership Summit, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL, April 11, 2005.

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Voluntary Environmental Management Initiatives: Smoke Signals or Smoke Screens?

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Management;

    Citation:

    Toffel, Michael W. "Voluntary Environmental Management Initiatives: Smoke Signals or Smoke Screens?" Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, December 2005. (Winner of Academy of Management. Social Issues in Management Division. Best Dissertation Award presented by Academy of Management. Nominated for Academy of Management. Organizations and Natural Environment Division. Best Dissertation Award presented by Academy of Management. 2005.)
  2. Survey Questionnaire on Environmental Management Practices: Summary of Results by Industry and Practices

    This document provides a summary of the results of a survey on Environmental Management Practices (EMP) conducted by the University of California at Santa Barbara during October and November 2003. The survey was sent to 3255 facilities in 8 industrial sectors: pulp, paper and paperboard mills, chemical and allied products, refining, primary metals, machinery, electronics/electrical, automotive, and utilities. The survey yielded 562 responses, which constitutes a 17.2% response rate. This summary includes a general description of the sample, a profile of the respondents, and summary statistics of facilities' environmental management practices, relations with stakeholders, and environmental performance measures. In addition, we report the factors that respondents noted were influencing them to improve their environmental performance and adopt particular environmental management practices. In many cases, these results are categorized by industry to facilitate comparisons. The environmental management practices we inquired about include the adoption of an environmental policy and its communication, the number of internal and external audits performed at the facility, the proportion of employees in various departments receiving environmental training, "green purchasing" policies, the adoption of the ISO 14001 international standard, participation in industry and governments voluntary programs, and solicitation of opinions from environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Overall, we identified important differences between industrial sectors in terms of the level of adoption of these environmental management practices. Companies can employ these survey results to benchmark their practices to facilities in their own industry as well as to other industries. In addition, government, NGOs, and local communities can employ this information to learn the prevalence of different environmental management practices across various industries, and to better understand how firms are motivated—and influenced—to adopt environmental management practices.

    Keywords: Economic Sectors; Surveys; Management Practices and Processes; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Government Relations; Environmental Sustainability; Non-Governmental Organizations;

    Citation:

    Delmas, Magali, and Michael W. Toffel. "Survey Questionnaire on Environmental Management Practices: Summary of Results by Industry and Practices." Report, 2008. (2008. University of California, Institute for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research.)