Geoffrey G. Jones

Isidor Straus Professor of Business History

Geoffrey Jones is the Isidor Straus Professor of Business History, and Faculty Chair of the School's Business History Initiative. He holds degrees of BA, MA and PhD from Cambridge University, UK. He has an honorary Doctorate in Economics and Business Administration from Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, and an honorary PhD from the University of Helsinki, Finland. He taught previously at the London School of Economics, and Cambridge and Reading Universities in the UK, and at Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Netherlands. He has held Visiting Professorships at Gakushuin University, Tokyo, and Universidad de los Andes, Bogota. Elsewhere at Harvard, he serves on the faculty committee of the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, and on the Policy Committee of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies.

Professor Jones researches the evolution and impact of global business. He has written extensively on the history of international entrepreneurship and multinational corporations, specializing in consumer products including beauty and fashion, as well as services such as banking and commodity trading. He is a Fellow of the Academy of International Business.

Professor Jones's books include British Multinational Banking 1830-1990 (Oxford University Press, 1993), Merchants to Multinationals (Oxford University Press, 2000), (edited with Franco Amatori) Business History around the World (Cambridge University Press, 2003), Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to Twenty First Century (Oxford University Press, 2005), Renewing Unilever. Transformation and Tradition (Oxford University Press, 2005), and (edited with Jonathan Zeitlin) the Oxford Handbook of Business History (Oxford University Press, 2008).  Professor Jones's most recent book, Beauty Imagined (Oxford University Press, 2010) provides the first history of the global beauty industry from a business perspective. He is currently writing a new book called Profits and Sustainability: A Global History of Green Entrepreneurship, which is scheduled for publication by Oxford University Press in 2015. 

Books

  1. Business History

    Walter A. Friedman and Geoffrey Jones

    This volume contains a selection of 42 foundational articles on the discipline of business history written between 1934 and the present day by scholars based in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Latin America. A wide-ranging editorial introduction describes the formation and evolution of the discipline from its origins at the Harvard Business School in the late 1920s. Over the following century, the editors show that the discipline and its practitioners often found themselves on the margins of academic discourses and their own institutions. There was a constant struggle to define the borders of the field and the central research questions that it sought to answer. However, the commitment to engage with the complexities of business and the disinclination to rely on models with simplistic assumptions about business behavior also enabled business history to be highly creative and, at times, to exercise a huge impact on management studies more generally, especially strategy and the study of entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Economic History; business history; History;

    Citation:

    Friedman, Walter A. and Geoffrey Jones, eds. Business History. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014. View Details
  2. Entrepreneurship and Multinationals: Global Business and the Making of the Modern World

    Geoffrey Jones

    This book examines the history of entrepreneurship and multinationals in the making of the modern world. In recent years economists, historians, and political scientists have written extensively on the history of globalization and patterns of global wealth and poverty, but business enterprises have rarely been identified as significant independent actors. This book argues that firms mattered and shows how they have mattered. It explores the role of firms as facilitators of globalization during the nineteenth century and more recently and as preservers of it when governments sought to close it down in the interwar years. However the ability of firms to shape the world was always constrained, especially by governments. The outcomes of global capitalism are also shown to have been complex. The book demonstrates the unique ability of capitalism to create wealth for societies through innovation, yet also cautions that the history of global capitalism since the nineteenth century was associated with an enormous divergence in the wealth of the developed West compared to the rest of the world, which is only now partially closing.

    Keywords: FDI; Economic History; business history; entrepreneurship; industrial organization; Chinitz; agglomeration; clusters; cities; mines; Globalization; Entrepreneurship; Government and Politics; Banking Industry; Chemical Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Electronics Industry; Africa; Asia; Europe; Latin America; Middle East; North and Central America; South America;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. Entrepreneurship and Multinationals: Global Business and the Making of the Modern World. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013. View Details
  3. Banks as Multinationals

    G. Jones

    This is a revised edition of a comparative, international study which looks at the history of multinational banks. Researchers from the United States, Japan, Europe, and Australia survey the evolution of multinational banks over time and suggest a conceptual framework in which this development can be understood. In-depth analyses of the multinational banking strategies of selected countries and institutions extend from the early nineteenth century to the present day. The approach is interdisciplinary, with economists and business historians joining together to confront theory with empirical evidence.

    Keywords: Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Banks and Banking; Business Strategy; Geographic Location; Trends; Theory;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. Banks as Multinationals. New York: Routledge, 2012. View Details
  4. The Rise of the Modern Firm

    Geoffrey Jones and Walter A. Friedman

    This authoritative volume focuses on the rise of modern firms, from their early history to the present day. It considers the role of laws and contracts in shaping the growth and influence of business enterprises. It presents entrepreneurs, executives and the firms they controlled as driving actors in national economies and international growth. Alongside an original introduction, Professors Jones and Friedman have selected work by scholars who have used corporate archives to explore the fine details of how firms actually operated. It also includes work by those who have been influenced by evolutionary, transaction costand resource-based theories of the firm. The book will be an essential source of reference for industrial economists, management scholars and business historians.

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Economy; Business History; Archives; Contracts; Theory;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Walter A. Friedman, eds. The Rise of the Modern Firm. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012. View Details
  5. El impacto histórico de la globalización en Argentina y Chile: Empresas y empresarios [The Historical Impact of Globalization in Argentina and Chile: Enterprises and Entrepreneurs]

    Geoffrey Jones and Andrea Lluch

    This book presents new research on the historical impact of globalization on Argentina and Chile. The authors focus on the role of entrepreneurs and firms.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Business History; Research; Argentina; Chile;

  6. Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry

    G. Jones

    The global beauty business permeates our lives, influencing how we perceive ourselves and what it is to be beautiful. The brands and firms that have shaped this industry, such as Avon, Coty, Estée Lauder, L'Oréal, and Shiseido, have imagined beauty for us. This book provides the first authoritative history of the global beauty industry from its emergence in the nineteenth century to the present day, exploring how today's global giants grew. It shows how successive generations of entrepreneurs built brands that shaped perceptions of beauty and the business organizations needed to market them. They democratized access to beauty products, once the privilege of elites, but they also defined the gender and ethnic borders of beauty, and its association with a handful of cities, notably Paris and later New York. The result was a homogenization of beauty ideals throughout the world. Today globalization is changing the beauty industry again; its impact can be seen in a range of competing strategies. Global brands have swept into China, Russia, and India, but at the same time, these brands are having to respond to a far greater diversity of cultures and lifestyles as new markets are opened up worldwide. In the twenty-first century, beauty is again being reimagined anew.

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Markets and Industry History; Brands and Branding; Industry Growth; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. View Details
  7. Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition

    G. Jones

    Unilever's brands can now be found in one out of every two households in the world. This arresting and impressive fact shows the scope and scale of this unique global corporation. Geoffrey Jones, a leading business historian from the Harvard Business School, takes us inside this corporation, which from its origins in Britain and the Netherlands has become a worldwide manufacturer of fast-moving consumer products. Unilever's operations cover food and home and personal care, and its brands include Lipton Tea, Hellmann's, Bird's Eye, Wall's, Ben and Jerry's, Surf, Domestos, Comfort, Dove, Sunsilk, Pond's, Signal, Axe, and Calvin Klein. In particular the book focuses on the evolution of the company over the last half century. Managing such a firm in the era of globalization posed enormous challenges. The book covers the company's strategies and provides compelling evidence of its decision making, marketing, brand management, innovation, acquisition strategies, corporate culture, and human resource management. The author has had full access to corporate archives and executives and provides us with a unique insight into the workings and strategies of one of the world's oldest and largest multinationals.

    Keywords: Business History; Business Growth and Maturation; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Organizational Culture; Globalization; Brands and Branding; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari, 2010, Turkish ed. View Details
  8. Merchants to Multinationals

    G. Jones

    Merchants to Multinationals examines the evolution of multinational trading companies from the eighteenth century to the present day. During the Industrial Revolution, British merchants established overseas branches which became major trade intermediaries and subsequently engaged in foreign direct investment. Complex multinational business groups emerged controlling large investments in natural resources, processing, and services in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.

    Keywords: Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational Firms and Management; Business History; Alliances; Groups and Teams; Distribution Industry; Africa; Asia; Great Britain; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Merchants to Multinationals. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha, 2009, Japanese ed. View Details
  9. The Oxford Handbook of Business History

    G. Jones and Jonathan Zeitlin

    The Handbook of Business History contains 25 original chapters from around the world to present a comprehensive, critical and interdisciplinary examination of current research in business history. The Handbook reveals business history as a wide-ranging and dynamic area of study, generating compelling empirical data, which has sometimes confirmed and sometimes contested widely-held views in management and the social sciences.

    Keywords: Change; Economics; Government and Politics; Business History; Research; Society;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Jonathan Zeitlin, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Business History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. View Details
  10. Entrepreneurship and Global Capitalism

    G. Jones and Rohit Daniel Wadhwani

    These volumes demonstrates the importance of historical perspectives in the study of entrepreneurship. By exploring the role of entrepreneurship in the history of global capitalism, the authors show that historical knowledge can challenge widely accepted generalizations made about entrepreneurship. The selected articles cover the best historical research on the role of entrepreneurship in creating global capitalism; the cultural and institutional explanations for geographical and temporal variations in entrepreneurship; the deep historical origins of "born global" companies; the importance of networks and diaspora in new international market development; the key role of public policy in shaping cross-border entrepreneurial activity; and the impact of international entrepreneurship on local economies.

    Keywords: Diasporas; Economic Systems; Entrepreneurship; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Globalized Economies and Regions; Globalized Firms and Management; History;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Rohit Daniel Wadhwani, eds. Entrepreneurship and Global Capitalism. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007. View Details
  11. Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition

    G. Jones

    This book examines the history of Unilever over the last half century. Managing such a firm in the era of globalization posed enormous challenges. The book covers the company's strategies and provides compelling evidence of its decision-making, marketing, brand management, innovation, acquisition stratgeies, corporate culture, and human resource management. The book is translated into Chinese, Dutch, and Turkish, and is currently being translated into Japanese.

    Keywords: History; Decision Making; Organizational Culture; Globalization; Transformation; Human Resources; Business Strategy; Brands and Branding; Innovation and Invention; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. View Details
  12. Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century

    G. Jones

    This book provides an essential framework for understandng global business. It shows how entrepreneurs built a global economy in the nineteenth century by creating firms that pursued resources and markets across borders. It demonstrates how firms shifted strategies as the first global economy disintegrated in the political and economic chaos between the two world wars, and how they have driven the creation of the contemporary global economy. The book provides compelling evidence on the diversity and discontinuities of the globalization process.

    Keywords: Transition; Economy; Trade; Framework; Globalization; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. View Details
  13. Business History Around the World

    Franco Amatori and Geoffrey Jones

    This book offers the first in-depth international survey of current research and debates in business history. It provides wide-ranging surveys of the literature in the United States, Europe, LAtin America, Japan and the Chinese-speaking world, and examines international comparative research on multinationals, family business and government relations.

    Keywords: Family Business; Debates; Business History; Body of Literature; Surveys; Business and Government Relations; Research; China; Japan; Europe; Latin America; United States;

    Citation:

    Amatori, Franco, and Geoffrey Jones, eds. Business History Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. View Details
  14. Foreign Multinationals in the United States: Management and Performance

    Geoffrey Jones and Lina Galvez-Munoz

    In this volume, leading scholars in international business and business history examine the investments and performance of British, Canadian, French, German, Spanish and Japanese firms in the United States over time. They explore why so many foreign firms experience disappointing financial performances from their US businessess. The book provides a unique eveolutionary and comparative perspective on the management and performance of foreign companies in the United States over the past fifteen years.

    Keywords: Investment; Multinational Firms and Management; Books; Management; Performance; Perspective; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Lina Galvez-Munoz, eds. Foreign Multinationals in the United States: Management and Performance. London: Routledge, 2001. View Details
  15. Merchants to Multinationals

    G. Jones

    This book examines the evolution of multinational trading companies from the eighteenth century to the present day. During the Industrial Revolution, British merchants established overseas branches which became major trade intermediaries, and later engaged in foreign direct investment. Complex international business groups emerged controlling lare investments in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. These firms constantly re-invented themselves, and this study examines their competences in information-gathering, relationshipbuilding, human resource, and corporate governance systems.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Governance; Growth and Development; Human Resources; Information Management; Relationships; Corporate Strategy; Africa; Asia; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Merchants to Multinationals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. (Winner of Newcomen-Harvard Book Award Given once every three years to the best work in the field of business history published in the United States.) View Details
  16. The Multinational Traders

    G. Jones

    This book examines the history and theory of multinational trading companies. The essays in this volume demonstrate the importance of trading companies in trade and investment flows in the world economy from the nineteenth century to the present day. The empirical research is based on studies of the US, Europe and Asia, and the authors adpt evolutionary and comparative perspectives to examine diversification strategies and organizational structures.

    Keywords: Trade; Globalization; Company History; Books; Organizational Structure; Perspective; Diversification; Theory; Asia; Europe; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. The Multinational Traders. London: Routledge, 1998. View Details
  17. Adding Value: Brands and Marketing in Food and Drink

    G. Jones and Nicholas J. Morgan

    Branding is one of the most prominent topics in business today. This volume explores both the impact it has had on major products and the business strategies which have shaped the success, or failure, of these brands. Focusing on the history of marketing in the food and drink industries, the essays in this volume explore the ways in which branding adds value. The often surprising strategies of some of the most familiar names in the marketplace, including Coca-Cola and Carlsberg, are revealed in a study which provides unique insights on the historical development of marketing and brands.

    Keywords: Markets and Industry History; Brands and Branding; Product; Business Strategy; Value; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Nicholas J. Morgan, eds. Adding Value: Brands and Marketing in Food and Drink. London: Routledge, 1994. View Details
  18. The Making of Global Enterprises

    G. Jones

    This volume presents new insights on the history of international business. Two main themes are addressed: how and when has global business developed over the last century? and what has been its impact on host economies? The volume includes a pioneering study by Mira Wilkins which ranks host economies over time throughout the world by size of inward investment, an essay by Geoffrey Jones and Frances Bostock which discusses the dimensions and characteristics of 685 foreign companies which established British manufacturing subsidiaries between 1850 and 1962, and a case study by Akira Kudo of IG Farben's transfer of technology and management to interwar Japan.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Economy; Trade; Globalized Firms and Management; Economic History; Technology;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. The Making of Global Enterprises. London: Frank Cass, 1994. View Details
  19. British Multinational Banking 1830-1990

    G. Jones

    This book provides the first modern history of British multinational banking. It analyses their emergence, growth and performance from their origins in the 1830s until the present day. It is based on a wide rnage of confidential banking records, which are placed in the context of modern theories of multinational enterprise and competitive advantage.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Multinational Firms and Management; Growth and Development; Markets and Industry History; Information Management; Performance; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. British Multinational Banking 1830-1990. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. View Details
  20. Coalitions and Collaboration in International Business

    G. Jones

    This volume provides a selection of the most important research on the history of international business collaboration from the nineteenth century until the present day. The selected essays cover the extensve literature on international cartels, other forms of non-equity collaboration including licensing, and joint ventures and other equity forms of collaboration. The collection reveals the rich state of empirical information available for those seeking to test theories of international business collaboration against historical evidence.

    Keywords: Joint Ventures; Trade; Equity; Markets and Industry History; Body of Literature; Relationships; Research;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. Coalitions and Collaboration in International Business. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1993. View Details
  21. The Rise of Multinationals in Continental Europe

    G. Jones and Harm Schroter

    This book examines the historical growth of Continental European multinationals over the previous 100 years. It includes new research on the evolution of multinational firms in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden and oter countries, and the book includes much new information previously unavailable in English.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Growth and Development; Markets and Industry History; Books; Research; France; Germany; Netherlands; Sweden; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Harm Schroter, eds. The Rise of Multinationals in Continental Europe. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1993. View Details
  22. Competitiveness and the State: Government and Business in Twentieth-Century Britain

    G. Jones and M. W. Kirby

    Tis book looks at the relationship between the British government and business since 1900, and examines the impact of government policies on business, productivity and competitiveness. The authors argue that government has a legitimate role to play in improving competitiveness, but that many policies pursued in twentieth century Britain were largely ineffectual or inconsistent compared to other European countries.

    Keywords: Policy; Business History; Political History; Performance Consistency; Performance Effectiveness; Performance Productivity; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Europe;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and M. W. Kirby, eds. Competitiveness and the State: Government and Business in Twentieth-Century Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991. View Details
  23. Multinational and International Banking

    G. Jones

    The essays in this volume explore the historical evolution of multinational and international banking. Contemporary studies, and most writers on the theory of multinational banking, focus on US data, yet historically European financial institutions were the leaders in international financial activity. This volume, by providing rich data on the historical experience of multinational banking, provides an opportunity to renew and refresh current theories of multinational banking and international financial centers.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Multinational Firms and Management; Financial History; Data and Data Sets; Opportunities; Theory; Banking Industry; Europe; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. Multinational and International Banking. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1991. View Details
  24. Banks as Multinationals

    G. Jones

    This comparative and international study looks at the origins and business strategies of multinational banks using empirical research from the United States, Japan, Europe and Australia. The authors survey the evolution of multinational banks over time, and suggest a conceptual framework in which this development can be understood.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Framework; Multinational Firms and Management; Growth and Development; Surveys; Research; Business Strategy; Japan; Europe; United States; Australia;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., ed. Banks as Multinationals. London: Routledge, 1990. View Details
  25. Planning and Power in Iran

    G. Jones

    This book provides a biography of Abol Hassan Ebtehaj, who headed Iran's central bank and Plan Organization during the 1940s and 1950s. It provides a wide-ranging survey of the problems of modernization and economic planning in Iran. Ebtehaj was at the center of decision-making in Iran after World War 2, and strove to harness Iran's oil wealth for the purposes of development. He was a bitter critic of official corruption and excessive military spending, and eventually resigned from office in 1959. The book makes the argument that if the Shah had followed Ebtehaj's policies, the Islamic Revolution in 1979 might have been avoided.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Decision Making; Economics; Central Banking; Policy; Political History; Resignation and Termination; Biography; Books; Surveys; Growth and Development Strategy; Planning; Iran;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Planning and Power in Iran. London: Frank Cass, 1989. View Details
  26. British Business in Asia since 1860

    G. Jones and R.P.T. Davenport-Hines

    This book examines the historical experience of British business in Asia since 1860. Chapters on Irna, India, Thailand, Malayasia, China, Russian Asia and Japan explore the British impact on the region, and the relationship between British business and British and local governments.

    Keywords: Business History; Business and Government Relations; India; Iran; Japan; Malaysia; Thailand;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and R.P.T. Davenport-Hines, eds. British Business in Asia since 1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. View Details
  27. Banking and Oil

    G. Jones

    This is the second of two volumes of a business history of a major British bank in the Middle East. Volume 1 traces the history of the bank from its foundation in 1889 as The Imperial Bank of Persia, through the years it was the state bank of Iran, and its development of modern banking in that country, to the ending of its links in 1952. This volume tells the story of how the bank pioneered modern banking in much of the Gulf, including Kuwait, Dubai and Oman, and how it built successful businesses in Iran, Jordan and elsewhere in the Middle East despite political and eocnomic turbulence. The book also explores the acquisition of the BBME by HSBC in 1959, and how it became the basis of that bank's extensive Middle Eastern business today.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Economics; Banks and Banking; Government and Politics; Growth and Development; Business History; Problems and Challenges; Iran; Jordan; Kuwait; Oman; Dubai;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Banking and Oil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. View Details
  28. Banking and Empire in Iran

    G. Jones

    This is the first of two volumes of a business history of a major British bank in the Middle East. Volume 1 traces the history of the bank from its foundation in 1889 as The Imperial Bank of Persia, through the years it was the state bank of Iran, and its development of modern banking in that country, to the ending of its links in 1952. The Bank's history has great importance for an understanding of the economic and political history of Iran in the first half of the twentieth century, and of Britain's diplomatic and economic relations with Iran, and provides evidence challenging many accepted viewpoints. The Bank played a vital role in the region, and in the 'Great Game' between Britain and Russia. During the inter-war years its history was enmeshed with the Pahlavi dynasty and the rise of Iranian nationalism. The book is invaluable to business and other historians as one of the first scholarly histories of a British overseas bank.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; International Relations; Business History; Economic History; Political History; War; Iran; Russia; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. Banking and Empire in Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Making 'Green Giants': Environment Sustainability in the German Chemical Industry, 1950s–1980s

    Geoffrey Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This article examines the evolution of corporate environmentalism in the West German chemical industry between the 1950s and the 1980s. It focuses on two companies, Bayer and Henkel, that have been identified as "green giants," and traces the evolution of their environmental strategies in response to growing evidence of pollution and resulting political pressures. The variety of capitalism literature has suggested that the German coordinated market economy model was more conducive to green corporate strategies than liberal market economies such as the United States. This article finds instead that regional influences were more important, supporting sociological theories about the importance of visibility in corporate green strategies. It identifies major commonalities between corporate strategies in the German and American chemical industries until the 1970s, when the two German firms diverged from their American counterparts in using public relations strategies not only to contain fallout from criticism, but also as opportunities for changes in corporate culture aimed at promoting a positive bond with consumers based on new green brand identities.

    Keywords: business history; chemical industry; Green Business; regional strategy; pollution; Henkel; Bayer; Globalization; History; Chemical Industry; Germany; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Christina Lubinski. "Making 'Green Giants': Environment Sustainability in the German Chemical Industry, 1950s–1980s." Business History 56, no. 4 (April–June 2014): 623–649. View Details
  2. Firmes mondialisées et imaginaire de la beauté

    G. Jones

    This article highlights the role of business enterprises as influences on ideals of human beauty. The homogenization of such ideals has been one of the most noteworthy features of globalization over the last two centuries. This study suggests that firms were both responders to, and shapers of, beauty ideals. It uses case studies of three prominent firms to support the argument. During the nineteenth century, Coty and other French firms imagined Paris as the global capital of beauty. During the middle of the twentieth century, the strategies of Estée Lauder and other firms drove the rise in importance and prestige of American beauty brands. In the more recent past, L'Oréal has fostered a new pluralism in beauty by acquiring American and other international brands and offering global consumers a portfolio of beauty ideals, which were both global and locally customized. The article concludes by suggesting that the strategies of business enterprises need to be more fully integrated into wider narratives of the history of globalization.

    Keywords: American History; Economic History; business history; globalization; Globalization; Entrepreneurship; History; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Europe; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Firmes mondialisées et imaginaire de la beauté." Relations internationales 157 (April–June 2014): 131–146. View Details
  3. The Future of Economic, Business, and Social History

    G. Jones, Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and Stephen Broadberry

    Three leading scholars in the fields of business, economic, and social history review the current state of these disciplines and reflect on their future trajectory. Geoffrey Jones reviews the development of business history since its birth at the Harvard Business School during the 1920s. He notes the discipline's unique record as a pioneer of the scholarly study of entrepreneurship, multinationals, and the relationship between strategy and structure in corporations, as well as its more recent accomplishments, including exploring new domains including family business, networks, and business groups, and retaining an open architecture and inter-disciplinary approach. Yet Jones also notes that the discipline has struggled to achieve a wider impact, in part because of methodological under-development. He discusses three alternative futures for the discipline. The first, which he rejects, is a continuing growth of research domains to create a diffuse "business history of everything." The second is a re-integration with the sister discipline of economic history, which has strongly recovered from its near-extinction two decades ago through a renewed attention to globalization and the Great Divergence between the West and the Rest. The third path, which the author supports, is that business historians retain a distinct identity by building on their proud tradition of deep engagement with empirical evidence by raising the bar in methodology and focusing on big issues for which many scholars, practitioners and students seek answers. He identifies four such big issues related to debates on entrepreneurship, globalization, business and the natural environment, and the social and political responsibility of business.

    Keywords: Economic History; business history; History; Asia; Africa; Europe; Latin America; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., Marco H.D. van Leeuwen, and Stephen Broadberry. "The Future of Economic, Business, and Social History." Scandinavian Economic History Review 60, no. 3 (November, 2012): 225–253. View Details
  4. The Growth Opportunity That Lies Next Door

    G. Jones

    This article uses the case of Natura, the largest Brazilian beauty company and one of the world's top twenty beauty companies, to explore how the logic of globalization is changing for corporations from emerging countries as growth opportunities in those countries outpace those in developed markets. For 30 years Natura attempted to move, with mixed results, into developed markets even as the opportunities of its region have grown stronger and stronger. Ultimately Natura has moved beyond stereotypes of globalization, recognizing that winning in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico can be an entry onto the world stage every bit as effective as conquering Paris or New York.

    Keywords: Brazil; marketing; globalization; green marketing; environment; Globalization; Developing Countries and Economies; Geographic Location; Growth and Development Strategy; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Latin America; Europe;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The Growth Opportunity That Lies Next Door." Harvard Business Review 90, nos. 7-8 (July–August 2012): 141–145. View Details
  5. Managing Political Risk in Global Business: Beiersdorf 1914-1990

    Geoffrey Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This article is concerned with business strategies of political risk management during the twentieth century. It focuses especially on Beiersdorf, a pharmaceutical and skin care company in Germany. During World War I, the expropriation of its brands and trademarks revealed its vulnerability to political risk. Following the advent of the Nazi regime in 1933, the largely Jewish owned and managed company faced a uniquely challenging combination of home and host country political risk. This article reviews the company's responses to these adverse circumstances, challenging the prevailing literature that interprets so-called "cloaking" activities as one element of businesses cooperation with the Nazis. It also departs from previous literature in assessing the outcomes of the company's strategies after 1945. It examines the challenges and costs faced by the company in recovering the ownership of its brands. While the management of distance became much easier over the course of the twentieth century because of communications improvements, this article shows that the challenges of managing governments and political risk grew sharply.

    Keywords: Business Strategy; Government and Politics; Risk Management; Brands and Branding; Problems and Challenges; Communication Technology; Cost; Trademarks; Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Christina Lubinski. "Managing Political Risk in Global Business: Beiersdorf 1914-1990." Enterprise & Society 13, no. 1 (March 2012): 85–119. View Details
  6. Wider dem sauren Mund. Beiersdorfs U.S.-Geschaeft mit der Zahnpastamarke Pebeco

    G. Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This article examines the growth and ultimate demise of the toothpaste brand Pebeco, which was created by the German personal care company Beiersdorf in 1903. The brand was an enormous international success, becoming for a time the largest toothpaste brand in the United States. During the interwar years, however, the brand suffered a precipitate decline and fell into oblivion. This article explores the rise and fall of the Pebeco brand. It shows the challenges faced by German-based multinationals in the United States (and elsewhere) during and after World War I, as well as demonstrating the rapidly changing market for dental hygiene in the interwar period. New marketing strategies based on psychological science and consumer protection agencies changed the rules of the game and left Pebeco unable to compete against firms such as Colgate.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Market Entry and Exit; Problems and Challenges; Marketing Strategy; Markets; Change; Customers; Social Psychology; Science; Brands and Branding; Competitive Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; United States; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Christina Lubinski. "Wider dem sauren Mund. Beiersdorfs U.S.-Geschaeft mit der Zahnpastamarke Pebeco." Hamburger Wirtschafts-Chronik 9 (2012): 141–165. View Details
  7. Globalization and Beauty: A Historical and Firm Perspective

    G. Jones

    This paper uses the beauty industry to explore the impact of globalization over the very long run. As the first wave of modern globalization started in the nineteenth century, there began a massive homogenization of beauty ideals around the world that has, to some extent, continued until the present day. This had enormous societal and cultural consequences. Business enterprises were at the heart of this process. The paper explores how entrepreneurs and firms translated societal values into brands, globalized them, and changed societal perceptions of beauty as a result. It also shows the limitations of the homogenization achieved by firms even at its high point, before making the case that contemporary globalization is working to facilitate greater diversity in beauty ideals again.

    Keywords: Globalization; Business Ventures; Trends; Societal Protocols; Value; Brands and Branding; Perception; Entrepreneurship; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Globalization and Beauty: A Historical and Firm Perspective." Ou Mei yan jiu [EurAmerica] 41, no. 4 (December 2011): 885–916. View Details
  8. Blonde and Blue-eyed?: Globalizing Beauty, c.1945–c.1980

    Geoffrey Jones

    This article examines the globalization of the beauty industry between 1945 and 1980. The industry grew quickly. Firms employed marketing and marketing strategies to diffuse products and brands internationally, despite business, economic, and cultural obstacles to globalization. The process was difficult and complex. The globalization of toiletries proceeded faster than cosmetics, skin care and hair care. By 1980, strong differences remained among consumer markets. Although American influence was strong, it was already evident that globalization had not resulted in the creation of a stereotyped American blond and blue-eyed female beauty ideal as the world standard, although it had significantly narrowed the range of variation in beauty and hygiene ideals.

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Globalized Markets and Industries; Globalism History; Markets and Industry History; Product Marketing; Standards; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Blonde and Blue-eyed? Globalizing Beauty, c.1945–c.1980." Economic History Review 61, no. 1 (February 2008). View Details
  9. Learning to Live with Governments: Unilever in India and Turkey, 1950-1980

    G. Jones

    A noteworthy characteristic of the contemporary global economy is the uneven distribution of world foreign direct investment (FDI). In 2007 three-quarters of world FDI was located in developed countries. The residual was concentrated in a small number of emerging countries. Large countries with little inward FDI included India and Turkey. This is puzzling, given that both countries have greatly liberalized their regulations on inward FDI. After 1945 many developing governments pursued policies which restricted foreign-owned firms. India and Turkey were among the countries with particularly difficult policy environments. This paper explores why Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch consumer products company, was able to sustain large businesses in developing countries such as India and Turkey. The paper argues that the explanation is multi-causal. Unilever held first-mover advantages, but was also prepared to accept low dividend remittances for years. It pursued flexible business strategies beyond its "core" business, even distributing condoms. It maintained a high standard of corporate ethics. It was effective at building contacts with local business and government elites, primarily through localization of management.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Ethics; Foreign Direct Investment; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Consumer Products Industry; India; Turkey;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Learning to Live with Governments: Unilever in India and Turkey, 1950-1980." Entreprises et histoire 49 (December 2007). View Details
  10. Acquisitions and Firm Growth: Creating Unilever's Ice Cream and Tea Business

    G. Jones and Peter Miskell

    This article provides a longitudinal case study of the use of acquisitions by the Anglo-Dutch multinational Unilever to build the world's largest ice cream and tea businesses. The study supports recent resource-based theory which argues that complementary rather than related acquisitions add value. It identifies the importance of local knowledge as a key complementary asset. The article also identifes reasons why Unilever was able to integrate acquisitions quite successfully, including clear strategic intent and the fact that employee resistance was reduced because most acquisitions were agreed. Unilever also took a long-term view because of its size, and relative inconcern for shareholder interests before the 1980s.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Integration; Value; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Business and Shareholder Relations; Interests; Business Ventures; Employees; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Peter Miskell. "Acquisitions and Firm Growth: Creating Unilever's Ice Cream and Tea Business." Business History 49, no. 1 (January 2007). View Details
  11. Schumpeter's Plea: Historical Methods in the Study of Entrepreneurship

    Rohit Daniel Wadhwani and Geoffrey Jones

    This paper outlines the case for why and how historical methods are important to the study of entrepreneurship. We show that research in entrepreneurship has displayed declining attention to historical context since the field first emerged in the 1940s. We discuss why analysis of historical context as well as individual and firm behavior is essential to the study of entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: History; Research; Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Wadhwani, Rohit Daniel, and Geoffrey Jones. "Schumpeter's Plea: Historical Methods in the Study of Entrepreneurship." Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings (August 2006). View Details
  12. Bringing History (Back) into International Business

    G. Jones and Tarun Khanna

    We argue that the field of international business should evolve its rhetoric from the relatively uncontroversial idea that 'history matters' to exploring how it matters. We discuss four conceptual channels through which history matters, illustrating each with a major example. First, historical variation is at least a worthy complement to contemporary cross-sectional variation in illuminating conceptual issues. As an example, we show that conclusions reached by the literature on contemporary emerging market business groups are remarkably similar to independently reached conclusions about a very similar organizational form that was ubiquitous in the age of empire. Second, historical evidence avoids spurious labeling of some phenomena as 'new', and by so doing may challenge current explanations of their determinants. Whereas some firm types today were also present earlier, some types have disappeared, some have appeared, and some have disappeared and reappeared later. Third, history can allow us to move beyond the oft-recognized importance of issues of path dependence to explore the roots of Penrosian resources. We argue that the choices made by Jardine's and Swire's in Asia today, for example, are an outgrowth of strategic choices first in evidence more than a century ago. These would remain obscured absent an historical analysis. Fourth, there are certain issues that are unaddressable, except in the really long (that is, historical) run. Exploring the causal relationship (if any) between foreign direct investment, a staple of the international business literature, and long-run economic development provides one important example. Throughout, we advocate embracing rigorous methods for analyzing small-sample and qualitative data when conventional regression techniques do not apply. That is, we suggest that re-embracing history in the mainstream is not tantamount to sacrificing methodological rigor.

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Tarun Khanna. "Bringing History (Back) into International Business." Journal of International Business Studies 37, no. 4 (July 2006): 453–468. View Details
  13. The End of Nationality? Global Firms and 'Borderless Worlds'

    G. Jones

    This article provides a historical perspective to current debates whether large global firms are becoming "stateless" and whether this is a historically new phenomenon. It shows that a great deal of international business in the nineteenth century was not easily fitted into national categories. The place of registration, the nationality of shareholders, and the nationality of management could and quite often did point in different directions. During the twentieth century such "cosmopolitan capitalism" was replaced by sharper national identities. However the interwar disintegration of the international economy led to the subsidiaries of multinationals taking on stronger local identities and becoming "hybrids." Over the past two decades, as the pace of globalization quickened, ambiguities increased again, especially if the focus is the "nationality" of products and services. Yet ownership, location and geography still matter enormously in global business.

    Keywords: Business Subsidiaries; Multinational Firms and Management; Trade; Ownership; International Finance; Economic Systems; International Accounting; Globalized Economies and Regions; Geographic Location; Nationality Characteristics; Boundaries; Global Strategy;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The End of Nationality? Global Firms and 'Borderless Worlds'." Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 51, no. 2 (2006): 149–166. View Details
  14. European Integration and Corporate Restructuring: The Strategy of Unilever c1957-c1990

    Geoffrey Jones and Peter Miskell

    This article examines the role of the large Anglo-Dutch consumer products company in promoting European integration. It shows that Unilever contributed financially to campaigns to support the creation of the European Union, and its subsequent expansion, despite a corporate policy of not making political contributions. In contrast, the firm struggled to overcome its legacy of decentralized decision-making to build a Europe-wide business. As economic integration and a convergence of consumer preferences changed cost structures and markets, Unilever's competitors including US-owned Procter & Gamble responded more quickly by focusing on fewer brands and seeking to rationalize production. Within Unilever, change was constrained by acute organizational rigidities which arose from vested interests and inherited corporate values.

    Keywords: Horizontal Integration; Organizations; Policy; Expansion; Market Transactions; Geographic Location; Restructuring; Competition; Brands and Branding; Production; Capital Structure; Value; Consumer Products Industry; European Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Peter Miskell. "European Integration and Corporate Restructuring: The Strategy of Unilever c1957-c1990." Economic History Review 58, no. 1 (February 2005): 113–139. View Details
  15. Corporate Venturing: The Origins of Unilever's Pregnancy Test

    G. Jones and Alison Kraft

    The relative ability of different sizes of firm and organisational designs to develop and sustain dynamic capabilities in innovation and create new businesses remains a matter of contention. While Chandler among many others has emphasised the pre-eminent role of large corporations as the engines of innovation over the last century, during the 'high tech' boom of the 1990s new business creation was strongly associated with entrepreneurs, start-ups, venture capitalists and angel investors. This article explores the issue of corporate innovation using a case study of new business creation within a large, established, multinational corporation. Large corporations are known to face obstacles to innovation from technological and resource lock-ins, and routine and cultural rigidities. Unilever has, since its creation in 1929, been one of Europe's largest consumer businesses, and is known in Britain for consumer brands such as Persil detergents, Flora margarine, Walls ice cream and Birds Eye fish fingers. This study focuses on this company's development of the successful home pregnancy test, Clearblue, which was launched in Britain in 1985. Clearblue was a radical technological innovation which, equally importantly, departed from Unilever's traditional markets. The focus on Clearblue casts fresh light on the problems of new business creation within large corporations and allows in-depth investigation of one organisational solution to those problems.

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Organizational Design; Technological Innovation; Business Startups; Venture Capital; Brands and Branding; Multinational Firms and Management; Product Development; Product Launch; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Alison Kraft. "Corporate Venturing: The Origins of Unilever's Pregnancy Test." Business History 46, no. 1 (January 2004): 100–122. View Details
  16. Business Enterprises and Global Worlds

    G. Jones

    The role of business enterprise in integrating economies is one of the central historical themes of the last two centuries. Although globalization—both in its current iteration and in its nineteenth-century form—has been widely studied, the role of the firm, as opposed to macroeconomic forces, has yet to receive sufficient attention. Many research questions remain, including the role of the United States as a host country, the place of multinationals based in emerging markets, and the importance of understudied sectors such as retailing. Business historians should shift the focus of queries from "why" to "how" and go beyond the discipline's traditional organization along national lines to study the behavior of firms worldwide.

    Keywords: Macroeconomics; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizations; Emerging Markets; Behavior; Business Ventures; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Business Enterprises and Global Worlds." Enterprise & Society 3, no. 4 (December 2002): 581–605. View Details
  17. Control, Performance, and Knowledge Transfers in Large Multinationals: Unilever in the United States, 1945-1980

    G. Jones

    This article considers key issues relating to the organization and performance of large multinational firms in the post-Second World War period. Although foreign direct investment is defined by ownership and control, in practice the nature of that "control" is far from straightforward. The issue of control is examined, as is the related question of the "stickiness" of knowledge within large international firms. The discussion draws on a case study of the Anglo-Dutch consumer goods manufacturer Unilever, which has been one of the largest direct investors in the United States in the twentieth century. After 1945 Unilever's once successful business in the United States began to decline, yet the parent company maintained an arms-length relationship with its U.S. affiliates, refusing to intervene in their management. Although Unilever "owned" large U.S. businesses, the question of whether it "controlled" them was more debatable.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Governance Controls; Performance; Business or Company Management; Ownership; Consumer Products Industry; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

  18. Diversification Strategies of British Trading Companies: Harrisons & Crosfield c1900-c1980

    G. Jones and Judith Wale

    This article examines the diversification strategies and organisational competencies of Harrisons & Crosfield, a British-based multinational, between 1900 and 1980. There is an accumulating body of case study evidence on the historical evolution of British multinationals, but most of these firms were in the manufacturing sector. Harrisons & Crosfield provides a new dimension in that the firm began the period as an international trading company, evolved into a natural resource producer as well as trader, and ended the twentieth century as a manufacturer. This evolutionary diversification into different activities, the ability to survive external shocks such as the world wars, Great Depression and decolonisation, combined with its long-term financial performance was quite impressive, at least in so far as valid comparisons can be made. The article explains how Harrisons & Crosfield identified new opportunities and exploited them. Emphasis is given to the evolutionary and tacit nature of the firm's competencies. Knowledge and information were accumulated within the firm and used as the basis for incremental diversification. The firm also developed routines and competencies which permitted it to absorb or work with other firms. The employment of network forms of organisation added to flexibility until the advent of strong indigenous business groups in Southeast Asia made it a threat to the firm's survival.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Diversification; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Competency and Skills; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Judith Wale. "Diversification Strategies of British Trading Companies: Harrisons & Crosfield c1900-c1980." Business History 41, no. 2 (April 1999): 69–101. View Details
  19. Merchants as Business Groups: British Trading Companies in Asia before 1945

    G. Jones and Judith Wale

    Merchants formed an important component of British foregn direct investment before 1945. Locating in parts of Asia, Latin America and other developing economies, they often diversified into non-trading activities, inclding the ownership of plantations. This article examines three such British firms active initially in Asia, which also had operations in North America, Europe and Africa. Often regarded as handicapped by managerial failings, the authors instead cast these firms as more entrepreneurial, and possessing greater managerial competences than has been suggested.

    Keywords: Trade; Developing Countries and Economies; Diversification; Competency and Skills; Entrepreneurship; Foreign Direct Investment; Asia; Latin America; Europe; Africa; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Judith Wale. "Merchants as Business Groups: British Trading Companies in Asia before 1945." Business History Review 72, no. 3 (autumn 1998): 367–408. View Details
  20. U.S. Multinationals in British Manufacturing before 1962

    G. Jones and Frances Bostock

    This article presents a new database on U.S. multinationals active in British manufacturing between 1907 and 1962. Britain was the largest European host economy for U.S. direct investment in manufacturing and the second largest host worldwide. This article identifies the industrial distribution and mode of entry of U.S. investors, and offers explanations for the time trends which are shown. It goes on to trace the evolution of U.S. subsidiaries, and shows that rates of divestment were substantial. An examination of the characteristics of U.S. subsidiaries, including the substantial investments in R&D and high export propensity, is followed by a survey of British public policy, which made Britain an attractive host but did little to shape the form of U.S. investment.

    Keywords: Production; Trade; Foreign Direct Investment; Research and Development; Business Subsidiaries; Policy; Investment; Manufacturing Industry; United States; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Frances Bostock. "U.S. Multinationals in British Manufacturing before 1962." Business History Review (summer 1996): 207–256. View Details
  21. Diversification Strategies and Corporate Governance in Trading Companies: Anglo-Japanese Comparisons since the Late Nineteenth Century

    G. Jones

    Keywords: Diversification; Corporate Governance; Trade; Business Ventures; Japan;

  22. Foreign Multinationals in British Manufacturing, 1850-1962

    G. Jones and Frances Bostock

    This article draws on a new database to describe the dimensions and characteristics of 685 foreign companies which established British manufacturing subsidiaries between 1850 and 1962. The numbers of foreign companies grew from the 1890s, expanded rapidly in the inter-war years, and even more rapidly from the 1950s. The majority were American, and were clustered in chemicals, mechanical and electrical engineering, metal goods, motor vehicles and food products. The majority of foreign firms established greenfield plants in Britain, but there were a significant number of acquisitions from 1900, and this became an important mode of entry from 1950. Many foreign investors were of modest size, and a considerable number of investors were short lived. The majority of factories were always in the south-east of England, but there was a surge of investment in Scotland and Wales after 1945. Foreign-owned companies began to undertake R&D activity in Britain from the inter-war years, and had a notable propensity to engage in foreign trade.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Business Subsidiaries; Expansion; Chemicals; Metals and Minerals; Food; Mergers and Acquisitions; Market Entry and Exit; Research and Development; Trade; Investment; Production; United Kingdom; United States; Scotland; Wales;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Frances Bostock. "Foreign Multinationals in British Manufacturing, 1850-1962." Business History (January 1994): 89–126. View Details
  23. Cross-Investments in Transnational Banking: Britain, Germany and the United States in the Twentieth Century

    G. Jones

    Keywords: Investment; Banks and Banking; Business History; Banking Industry; United Kingdom; Germany; United States;

Book Chapters

  1. Business History and the Impact of MNEs on Host Economies

    Geoffrey Jones

    Business history has long been recognized as providing an important dimension in international business studies. Much of this historical work has focused on mapping historical growth patterns of multinationals and exploring the determinants of their growth. However, there is also growing literature on the long-term impact of multinational investment in host economies, and this chapter reviews this research. The focus is primarily on developing country host economies and more broadly on the global distribution of wealth and poverty. This chapter suggests three major arguments. First, it is necessary to take a long-time horizon when assessing impact on host economies. Second, it is necessary to incorporate societal and cultural impacts alongside more traditional measures of economic impact. Third, there is weak historical evidence that multinationals have had a substantial positive impact over the long run on the development of host developing countries. A hypothesis is suggested that, given adequate domestic growth-supporting institutions and human capital development, developing countries achieve more sustained development from excluding foreign-owned multinationals rather than hosting them.

    Keywords: multinational; international business; business history; culture; Globalization; History; Africa; Asia; Europe; Latin America; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Business History and the Impact of MNEs on Host Economies." In Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows. Vol. 16, edited by Jean J. Boddewyn, 177–198. Research in Global Strategic Management. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2014. View Details
  2. Firms and Global Capitalism

    Geoffrey Jones

    This chapter forms part of the two-volume Cambridge History of Capitalism, a definitive new reference work that traces the history of capitalism from its origins to the present day. The chapter focuses on the role of business enterprises as powerful actors in the spread of global capitalism after 1848 and up the present day. It shows how multinational firms have created and co-created markets and ecosystems through their ability to transfer financial, organizational, and cultural assets, as well as skills and ideologies across borders. The chapter argues that capitalism proved much better than political leaders in building institutions that coordinated activities across borders, but also points to the historical evidence concerning disappointing and sometimes negative outcomes in knowledge and technology transfer. Business enterprises emerge both as important drivers of international economic growth and as significant agents in the divergent patterns of wealth and poverty that have characterized the last two centuries.

    Keywords: political economy; American History; Economic History; business history; labor history; slavery; numeracy and quantification; science and technology studies; History of the Book; globalization; international investment; international business; international marketing; Globalization; History;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Firms and Global Capitalism." Chap. 6 in The Cambridge History of Capitalism: Volume 2. The Spread of Capitalism: From 1848 to the Present, edited by Larry Neal and Jeffrey G. Williamson, 169–200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. View Details
  3. Schumpeter's Plea: Historical Reasoning in Entrepreneurial Theory and Research

    G. Jones and R. Daniel Wadhwani

    This chapter draws on theories of entrepreneurship and history to explore the ways in which historical processes play an integral role in entrepreneurship. It builds off the plea by Joseph Schumpeter for an active exchange between historical approaches and theories of entrepreneurship and its role in the process of historical change. Sadly, the field of entrepreneurship as it has evolved in recent decades has become narrow, and is often confined to little more than econometric testing of large datasets concerning high tech entrepreneurs in the United States. This chapter makes the case for the study of entrepreneurship to become again bold and transformational through re-engagement with history. Historical theories of time, context and change are applied to entrepreneurship theory to demonstrate how they illuminate aspects of the entrepreneurial process that traditonal social science reasoning about behavior and cognition miss. The chapter seeks to establish a theoretical foundation for a turn towards historicism in entrepreneurial studies which is already partly underway. The authors stress that the path will not be easy, but that the prize will be a richer and deeper understanding of entrepreneurship and how it shapes and reshapes the modern world.

    Keywords: entrepreneurs; business history; organizations; Entrepreneurship; History; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and R. Daniel Wadhwani. "Schumpeter's Plea: Historical Reasoning in Entrepreneurial Theory and Research." Chap. 8 in Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods, edited by Marcelo Bucheli and R. Daniel Wadhwani, 192–216. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. View Details
  4. The Global and the Local in the Beauty Industry: A Historical Perspective

    G. Jones

    This chapter explores the impact of the global beauty industry on beauty ideals. It shows that as the industry internationalized from the late nineteenth century, there was a homogenization of beauty ideals and practices around the world. Western and white beauty ideals emerged as the global standard. The momentum of this standard was reinforced by the impact of Hollywood and other drivers of an international consumer culture from the interwar years. However the study shows that the drive for homogenization, although powerful, was never complete. The local was never entirely subsumed by the global. Convergence and homogenization were stronger in aspirations than in preferences for particular products and scents, which remained more persistently local despite the spread of global brand names. The more recent era of globalization since the 1980s has coincided with a strong revival in interest in local traditions and practices, which is particularly noticeable in some of the fastest growing emerging markets such as China.

    Keywords: Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; business history; Globalization; History; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Asia; Europe; Latin America; Middle East; North and Central America; South America;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The Global and the Local in the Beauty Industry: A Historical Perspective." Chap. 1 in Globalizing Beauty: Consumerism and Body Aesthetics in the Twentieth Century, edited by Hartmut Berghoff and Thomas Kuhne, 25–40. Worlds of Consumption. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. View Details
  5. Business Groups in Historical Perspectives

    Geoffrey Jones and Asli M. Colpan

    Business groups-collections of legally independent firms interconnected by multiple economic and social linkages that exhibit widely diversified product portfolios-are viewed as the prototypical large-enterprise form in contemporary emerging economies. By exploring the evolution of the diversified business groups organized around British trading companies from the late eighteenth century until today, this chapter demonstrates that such organizational forms were also present in developed economies historically, and even today. In analyzing this historical evidence, the chapter first shows how organizational forms of business groups were employed over long time periods to control large and diversified multinational complexes. It then shows that these British business groups possessed competitive advantages and management skills residing in contacts, knowledge, information, and relationships that sustained long-lasting and successful international businesses and that gave them genuine efficiency-enhancing roles. A major contribution of this chapter is to demonstrate that its theoretical conclusion based on the historical experiences of business groups built up by the British-based trading companies with their eighteenth- and nineteenth-century origins comes close to mainstream assessments reached by the research on business groups in contemporary emerging markets.

    Keywords: Business History; Management Skills; Emerging Markets; Alliances; Groups and Teams; Competitive Advantage; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Asli M. Colpan. "Business Groups in Historical Perspectives." Chap. 3 in The Oxford Handbook of Business Groups, edited by Asli M. Colpan, Takashi Hikino, and James R. Lincoln. Oxford Handbooks in Business and Management. Oxford University Press, 2010. View Details
  6. The Decline and Renewal of British Multinational Banking.

    G. Jones and Lucy Newton

    This chapter discusses the renaissance of British multinational banking from the 1990s. British commercial banks had pioneered multinational banking during the 19th century, but they were unable to build on this legacy during the new wave of global banking that began in the 1960s with the advent of the Euromarkets. However, from the 1990s there was major restructuring and a much improved performance. The chapter explores the shifts in strategy and management that enabled HSBC and other British banks to become global leaders in contemporary multinational banking, at least until the global financial crisis, which began in 2007, raised fundamental questions about the future trajectory of the entire global financial system.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Commercial Banking; International Finance; Multinational Firms and Management; Strategy; Banking Industry; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Lucy Newton. "The Decline and Renewal of British Multinational Banking." In Business in Britain in the Twentieth Century, edited by Richard Coopey and Peter Lyth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. View Details
  7. Entrepreneurship and the History of Globalization

    G. Jones and R. Daniel Wadhwani

    In this article, we build on the recent efforts of scholars to reintroduce entrepreneurship into the research agenda of business historians. We examine the value and limitations of adapting recent social scientific theories and methods on entrepreneurship to research on international business history. Specifically, we focus on three recent areas of social scientific work on entrepreneurship and weigh their value to business history research. First, we consider how scholars can employ research on entrepreneurial cognition to understand the historical ownership advantages of multinational firms. Second, we draw on concepts from entrepreneurial strategy and finance and examine their use in understanding the history of how firms allocated resources to uncertain international ventures. Finally, we look at the question of the diffusion of the benefits of globalization and its impact on entrepreneurship within host economies. We conclude that the cautious adoption of some of these recent conceptual developments offers fertile opportunities for further research in international business history.

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; Resource Allocation; Research; Entrepreneurship; Cognition and Thinking; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and R. Daniel Wadhwani. "Entrepreneurship and the History of Globalization." In The Act of Accumulation. Essays in Honor of Gyorgy Kover, edited by J. Klement, K. Halmos, A. Pogany, and B. Tomka. Budapest: Századvég Kiadó, 2009. View Details
  8. Business Archives and Overcoming Survivor Bias

    G. Jones

    Among the most longstanding criticisms of business history as an academic discipline is the bias caused towards studying successful firms rather than failures, and the related use of longevity as a major criterion for success. The grand narratives of business history have been focused on the firms that got their strategies and organizations "right," rather than those that got them wrong, and towards the winners rather than the losers. This paper explores how corporate archives can be used to correct this bias, as they often contain the archives of firms.

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Business History; Archives; Failure; Success;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Business Archives and Overcoming Survivor Bias." In Business Archives. Reflections and Speculations, edited by M. Anson. London: Business Archives Council, 2008. View Details
  9. The International Competitiveness of the UK: Is It Eroding or Rather Changing Form?

    G. Jones, J. Dunning and L. Nachum

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Trade; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., J. Dunning, and L. Nachum. "The International Competitiveness of the UK: Is It Eroding or Rather Changing Form?" In Multinational Firms: The Global-Local Dilemma, edited by J. H. Dunning and J. L. Mucchielli. London: Routledge, 2001. View Details
  10. Multinational Cross-Investment between Switzerland and Britain 1914-1945

    G. Jones

    This chapter examines multinational cross-investment between Switzerland and Great Britain between 1914 and 1945. While Great Britain and Switzerland were both major home economies for multinationals,few companies from either country were interested in investing in the other country. The British companies which invested in Switzerland came from the most competitive elements of the British economy, and included firms such as Lever, Coats and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, which were amongst the country's largest multinationals. Switzerland was never a large market for any of them, and during the 1930s they found the country difficult because of extensive government regulation, as well as political nationalism. In contrast, Swiss companies were attracted by the size of the British market, but they often preferred to export until tariffs made this strategy difficult during the 1930s. In consumer goods, both Nestle and Wander built successful businesses in Great Britain, but other firms such as Hoffman-La-Roche and Sandoz found multinational investment in that country much less easy.

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; International Relations; Investment; Great Britain; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Multinational Cross-Investment between Switzerland and Britain 1914-1945." In Switzerland and the Great Powers 1914-1945, edited by Sebastien Guex. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1999. View Details
  11. British Overseas Banks as Free-Standing Companies 1830-1994

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; Business Ventures; Globalized Firms and Management; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "British Overseas Banks as Free-Standing Companies 1830-1994." In The Free-Standing Company in the World Economy, 1830-1996, edited by M. Wilkins and H. G. Schroter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. View Details
  12. Concentration and Internationalisation in Banks after the Second World War

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; Supply and Industry; Globalized Markets and Industries; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Concentration and Internationalisation in Banks after the Second World War." In International Banking in an Age of Transition, edited by Sara Kinsey and Lucy Newton. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1998. View Details
  13. Big Business, Management and Competitiveness in Twentieth Century Britain

    G. Jones

    Keywords: Management; Business Ventures; History; Competition; Great Britain;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Big Business, Management and Competitiveness in Twentieth Century Britain." In Big Business and the Wealth of Nations, edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Franco Amatori, and Takashi Hikino. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. View Details
  14. The Evolution of European Multinational Banking before 1914: Comparisons and Contrasts

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; Europe;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The Evolution of European Multinational Banking before 1914: Comparisons and Contrasts." In Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Unternehman, edited by W. Feldenkirchen, F. Schonert-Rohlk, and G. Schulz. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1995. View Details
  15. British Multinationals and British Business since 1850

    G. Jones

    Keywords: Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Business Ventures; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "British Multinationals and British Business since 1850." In Business Enterprise in Modern Britain: From the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by M. W. Kirby and M. Rose. London: Routledge, 1994. View Details
  16. International Financial Centres in Asia, the Middle East and Australia: A Historical Perspective

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; International Finance; Financial Institutions; Banking Industry; Financial Services Industry; Asia; Australia; Middle East;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "International Financial Centres in Asia, the Middle East and Australia: A Historical Perspective." In Finance and Financiers in European History, 1880-1960, edited by Y. Cassis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. View Details
  17. The Legacy of the Past: British Multinational Banking Strategies since the Nineteenth Century

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The Legacy of the Past: British Multinational Banking Strategies since the Nineteenth Century." In Multinational Enterprises in the World Economy, edited by Peter J. Buckley and Mark Casson. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1992. View Details
  18. Competition and Competitiveness in British Banking 1918-1971

    G. Jones

    Keywords: History; Competitive Advantage; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Competition and Competitiveness in British Banking 1918-1971." In Competitiveness and the State: Government and Business in Twentieth-Century Britain, edited by G. Jones and M. Kirby. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991. View Details
  19. The British Government and Foreign Multinationals before 1970

    G. Jones

    Keywords: Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Business and Government Relations; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "The British Government and Foreign Multinationals before 1970." In Governments, Industries and Markets: Aspects of Government-Industry Relations in Great Britain, Japan, West Germany and the United States of America since 1945, edited by M. Chick. Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1990. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Entrepreneurship and Business Groups: An Evolutionary Perspective on the Growth of the Koç Group in Turkey

    Asli M. Coplan and Geoffrey Jones

    This working paper examines the origins and development of the Koç Group, which grew to be the largest business group in Turkey. This enterprise was an important actor in the emergence of modern business enterprise in the new state of the Republic of Turkey from the 1920s. After World War II it diversified rapidly, forming part of a cluster of business groups which dominated the Turkish economy alongside state-owned firms. This study shows how the founder of the Group, Vehbi Koç, formulated his business model, and analyzes how his firm evolved into a diversified business group. The research supports prevailing explanations of business groups which identify the role of institutional voids, government policies and contact capabilities, but it also builds on and extends earlier suggestions in both the management and business history literatures that entrepreneurship needs incorporating more strongly as an explanatory factor. This working paper argues that Koç acted as both a Kirznerian and Schumpeterian entrepreneur to build his business group, both in its formative stages and later in its subsequent growth into a diversified group.

    Keywords: business groups; Turkey; Entrepreneurship in emerging markets; Entrepreneurship; History; Government and Politics; Auto Industry; Banking Industry; Electronics Industry; Middle East; Europe;

    Citation:

    Coplan, Asli M., and Geoffrey Jones. "Entrepreneurship and Business Groups: An Evolutionary Perspective on the Growth of the Koç Group in Turkey." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-035, November 2014. View Details
  2. Waste, Recycling and Entrepreneurship in Central and Northern Europe, 1870–1940

    Geoffrey Jones and Andrew Spadafora

    This working paper examines the role of entrepreneurs in the municipal solid waste industry in industrialized central and northern Europe from the late nineteenth century to the 1940s. It explores the emergence of numerous German, Danish, and other European entrepreneurial firms explicitly devoted to making a profitable business out of conserving and returning valuable resources to productive use, while maintaining public sanitation and in many cases offering nascent environmental protections. These ventures were qualitatively different from both earlier, smaller private waste traders, and the later garbage agglomerates, and have been neglected in an era that historians have treated as a period of municipalization. These entrepreneurs sometimes had strikingly modern views of environmental challenges and the need to overcome them. They initiated processes for sorting and recycling waste materials that are still employed today. Yet it proved difficult to combine making profits and achieving social value in accordance with the "shared value" model of today. As providers of public goods such as health and sanitation and a cleaner environment, the entrepreneurs were often unable to capture sufficient profits to sustain businesses. Recycled-goods markets were volatile. There was also a tension between the constant waste stream on the collection side and a seasonal/cyclical demand for recycled products. The frequent failure of these businesses helps to explain why in more recent decades private waste companies have been associated with late entry into recycling, often trailing municipal governments and non-profit entities.

    Keywords: Environmental Entrepreneurship; business history; Entrepreneurship; Health; History; Green Technology Industry; Germany; Denmark; Hungary; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Andrew Spadafora. "Waste, Recycling and Entrepreneurship in Central and Northern Europe, 1870–1940." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-084, March 2014. View Details
  3. Historical Origins of Environmental Sustainability in the German Chemical Industry, 1950s-1980s

    Geoffrey Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This working paper examines the growth of corporate environmentalism in the West German chemical industry between the 1950s and the 1980s. German business has been regarded as pioneering corporate environmentalism after World War II. In contrast, this study reveals major commonalities between the sustainability strategies of leading German and American firms until the 1970s. However during that decade the German firms diverged from their American counterparts in using public relations strategies not only to contain fallout from criticism of their pollution impact, but also to create opportunities for changes in corporate culture to encourage sustainability. While the U.S. chemical industry remained defensive and focused on legal compliance, there was a greater proactivity among the German firms. This paper stresses the importance of regional embeddedness of leading firms in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, which made their reputations especially vulnerable to criticism. The research supports organizational sociology theory, which has identified the importance of visibility in corporate green strategies. The German chemical firms were pioneers in understanding that investing in environmental sustainability could provide an opportunity to create value for the firm by delivering both commercial and reputational benefits.

    Keywords: sustainability; Green Business; business history; chemical industry; pollution; Environmental Sustainability; Business History; Chemical Industry; Germany; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Christina Lubinski. "Historical Origins of Environmental Sustainability in the German Chemical Industry, 1950s-1980s." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-018, August 2013. View Details
  4. Debating the Responsibility of Capitalism in Historical and Global Perspective

    Geoffrey Jones

    This working paper examines the evolution of concepts of the responsibility of business in a historical and global perspective. It shows that from the nineteenth century American, European, Japanese, Indian and other business leaders discussed the responsibilities of business beyond making profits, although until recently such views have not been mainstream. There was also a wide variation concerning the nature of this responsibility. This paper argues that four factors drove such beliefs: spirituality; self-interest; fears of government intervention; and the belief that governments were incapable of addressing major social issues.

    Keywords: Rachel Carson; sustainability; local food; operations management; supply chain; business and society; Business ethics; business history; corporate philanthropy; corporate social responsibility; corporate social responsibility and impact; environmentalism; Environmental Entrepreneurship; environmental and social sustainability; Ethics; Globalization; History; Religion; Consumer Products Industry; Chemical Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Energy Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Forest Products Industry; Green Technology Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Asia; Europe; Latin America; Middle East; North and Central America; Africa;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Debating the Responsibility of Capitalism in Historical and Global Perspective." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-004, July 2013. View Details
  5. Entrepreneurs, Firms and Global Wealth since 1850

    G. Jones

    This working paper integrates the role of entrepreneurship and firms into debates on why Asia, Latin America and Africa were slow to catch up with the West following the Industrial Revolution and the advent of modern economic growth. It argues that the currently dominant explanations, which focus on deficient institutions, poor human capital development, geography and culture are important, but not sufficient. This is partly because recent research in business history has shown that several of the arguments are not empirically proved, but especially because the impact of these factors on the creation and performance of innovative business enterprises is not clearly specified. Modern economic growth diffused from its origins in the North Sea region to elsewhere in western and northern Europe, across the Atlantic, and later to Japan, but struggled to get traction elsewhere. The societal and cultural embeddedness of the new technologies posed significant entrepreneurial challenges. The best equipped to overcome these challenges were often entrepreneurs based in minorities who held significant advantages in capital-raising and trust levels. By the interwar years productive modern business enterprise was emerging across the non-Western world. Often local and Western managerial practices were combined to produce hybrid forms of business enterprise. After 1945 many governmental policies designed to facilitate catch-up ended up crippling these emergent business enterprises without putting effective alternatives in place. The second global economy has provided more opportunities for catch up from the Rest, and has seen the rapid growth of globally competitive businesses in Asia, Latin America and Africa. This is explained not only by institutional reforms, but by new ways for business in the Rest to access knowledge and capital, including returning diaspora, business schools and management consultancies. Smarter state capitalism was also a greater source of international competitive advantage than the state intervention often seen in the past.

    Keywords: Wealth and Poverty; globalization; business history; institutional change; political economy; emerging economies; developing countries; industrial development; culture; human capital; Economic History; History; Wealth and Poverty; Business History; Emerging Markets; Globalization; Developing Countries and Economies; Manufacturing Industry; Mining Industry; Service Industry; Latin America; Asia; North and Central America; Africa; South America; Europe;

    Citation:

    Jones, G. "Entrepreneurs, Firms and Global Wealth since 1850." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-076, March 2013. View Details
  6. Entrepreneurship in the Natural Food and Beauty Categories Before 2000: Global Visions and Local Expressions

    Geoffrey Jones

    This working paper examines the creation of the global natural food and beauty categories before 2000. This is shown to have been a lengthy process of new category creation involving the exercise of entrepreneurial imagination. Pioneering entrepreneurs faced little consumer demand for natural products, and little consumer knowledge of what they entailed. The creation of new categories involved three overlapping waves of entrepreneurship. The first involved making the ideological case for natural products. This often entailed investment in education and publishing activities. Second, entrepreneurs engaged in the creation of industry associations which could advocate, as well as give the nascent industry credibility and create standards. Finally, entrepreneurs established retail stores, supply and distribution networks, and created brands. Entrepreneurial cognition and motivation frequently lay in individual, and very local, experiences, but many of the key pioneers were also highly globalized in their world views, with strong perception of how small, local efforts related to much bigger and global pictures. A significant sub-set of the influential historical figures were articulate in expressing strong religious convictions. The paper concludes that by the 1990s it was evident that the success of entrepreneurial pioneers in building the market for green products created a new set of issues, especially related to the legitimacy of their businesses and of the concept of greenness.

    Keywords: globalization; marketing; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; business history; consumer goods; entrepreneurs; environment; food; Food; Globalization; Business History; Agribusiness; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Asia; Europe; Latin America; Middle East; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Entrepreneurship in the Natural Food and Beauty Categories Before 2000: Global Visions and Local Expressions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-024, August 2012. View Details
  7. Managing Political Risk in Global Business: Beiersdorf 1914-1990

    Geoffrey Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This working paper examines corporate strategies of political risk management during the twentieth century. It focuses especially on Beiersdorf, a German-based pharmaceutical and skin care company. During World War I the expropriation of its brands and trademarks revealed its vulnerability to political risk. Following the advent of the Nazi regime in 1933, the largely Jewish owned and managed company, faced a uniquely challenging combination of home and host country political risk. The paper reviews the firm's responses to these adverse circumstances, challenging the prevailing literature which interprets so-called "cloaking" activities as one element of businesses' cooperation with the Nazis. The paper departs from previous literature in assessing the outcomes of the company's strategies after 1945. It examines the challenges and costs faced by the company in recovering the ownership of its brands. While the management of distance became much easier over the course of the twentieth century because of communications improvements, this working paper shows that the costs faced by multinational corporations in managing governments and political risk grew sharply.

    Keywords: History; Risk Management; Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Intellectual Property; Cooperation; Business and Government Relations; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Christina Lubinski. "Managing Political Risk in Global Business: Beiersdorf 1914-1990." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 12-003, July 2011. View Details
  8. Historical Trajectories and Corporate Competences in Wind Energy

    Geoffrey Jones and Loubna Bouamane

    This working paper surveys the business history of the global wind energy turbine industry between the late nineteenth century and the present day. It examines the long-term prominence of firms headquartered in Denmark, the more fluctuating role of U.S.-based firms, and the more recent growth of German, Spanish, Indian, and Chinese firms. While natural resource endowment in wind has not been very significant in explaining the country of origin of leading firms, the existence of rural areas not supplied by grid electricity was an important motivation for early movers in both the U.S. and Denmark. Public policy was the problem rather than the opportunity for wind entrepreneurs before 1980, but beginning with feed-in tariffs and other policy measures taken in California, policy mattered a great deal. However, Danish firms, building on inherited technological capabilities and benefitting from a small-scale and decentralized industrial structure, benefitted more from Californian public policies. The more recent growth of German, Spanish, and Chinese firms reflected both home country subsidies for wind energy and strong local content policies, while successful firms pursued successful strategies to acquire technologies and develop their own capabilities.

    Keywords: Business History; Renewable Energy; Competitive Advantage; Technology Adoption; Policy; Business and Government Relations; Energy Industry; United States; Denmark;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Loubna Bouamane. "Historical Trajectories and Corporate Competences in Wind Energy." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-112, May 2011. View Details
  9. Multinational Strategies and Developing Countries in Historical Perspective

    Geoffrey Jones

    This working paper offers a longitudinal and descriptive analysis of the strategies of multinationals from developed countries in developing countries. The central argument is that strategies were shaped by the trade-off between opportunity and risk. Three broad environmental factors determined the trade-off. The first was the prevailing political economy, including the policies of both host and home governments, and the international legal framework. The second was the market and resources of the host country. The third factor was competition from local firms. The impact of these factors on corporate strategies is explored, as shown in Fig. 1, during the three eras in the modern history of globalization from the nineteenth century until the present day. The performance of specific multinationals depended on the extent to which their internal capabilities enabled them to respond to these external opportunities and threats.

    Keywords: History; Competition; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Developing Countries and Economies; Business and Government Relations;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Multinational Strategies and Developing Countries in Historical Perspective." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 10-076, March 2010. View Details
  10. 'Power from Sunshine': A Business History of Solar Energy

    Geoffrey Jones and Loubna Bouamane

    This working paper provides a longitudinal perspective on the business history of solar energy between the nineteenth century and the present day. It covers early attempts to develop solar energy, the use of passive solar in architecture before World War 2, and the subsequent growth of the modern photovoltaic industry. It explores the role of entrepreneurial actors, sometimes motivated by broad social and environmental agendas, whose strategies to build viable business models proved crucially dependent on two exogenous factors: the prices of alternative conventional fuels and public policy. Supportive public policies in various geographies facilitated the commercialization of photovoltaic technologies, but they also encouraged rent-seeking and inefficiencies, while policy shifts resulted in a regular boom and bust cycle. The perceived long-term potential of solar energy, combined with the capital-intensity and cyclical nature of the industry, led to large electronics, oil and engineering companies buying entrepreneurial firms in successive generations. These firms became important drivers of innovation and scale, but they also found solar to be an industry in which achieving a viable business model proved a chimera, whilst waves of creative destruction became the norm.

    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Business History; Policy; Entrepreneurship; Innovation and Invention; Business Model; Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Loubna Bouamane. "'Power from Sunshine': A Business History of Solar Energy." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 12-105, May 2012. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Vehbi Koç and the Making of Turkey's Largest Business Group (B)

    Geoffrey Jones and Asli M. Colpan

    The case builds on the earlier A case which described the origins of the Turkish business group established by Vehbi Koç before 1988. This case takes the story forward to 2012 as the Koç group was led by Vehbi's son Rahmi followed by his grandson Mustafa. It explores both the professionalization of the management, and a radical restructuring of the business portfolio as the group refocused on five core sectors. The case also examines the start of the group's globalization strategy which was focused on the white goods affiliate Arçelic.

    Keywords: business groups; Turkey; entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship; Management; Manufacturing Industry; Transportation Industry; Auto Industry; Central Asia; Middle East;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Asli M. Colpan. "Vehbi Koç and the Making of Turkey's Largest Business Group (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 815-078, December 2014. View Details
  2. Jurlique: Globalizing Beauty from Nature and Science

    Geoffrey Jones and Andrew Spadafora

    Considers the marketing and strategic challenges faced by natural beauty brands using the case of Australian-based Jurlique, which was acquired by Pola of Japan in 2011. The case opens two years later in July 2013 when Sam McKay, the chief executive officer, on a visit to Pola's head office in Tokyo, heard news of critical comments about the company and animal testing in a Facebook post from a group in South Australia, where the brand had been founded as a small biodynamic farm in 1985. The discussion of Jurlique's involvement with animal testing was a sensitive issue as it contradicted the brand's strong environmentally-friendly and ethical positioning. The matter had already arisen during the Pola acquisition as Pola, like all Japanese cosmetics companies, traditionally tested products on animals. The animal testing issue is put in context by a discussion of how during Jurlique's growth as a successful premium brand there had been substantial changes in market position, in part associated with shifts of ownership. At times the brand had been focused on core green consumers, but McKay had sought to broaden the consumer base by repositioning it as making "the most effective products as natural as possible." The company lost few existing customers, and found that Jurlique's image was an asset in attracting Chinese consumers who liked the story of the Australian farm which produced most ingredients. However, Chinese regulations refusing to allow the firm's stores to use recycled wood, and mandating of animal testing, were challenging to the brand's global natural brand position. The case can be taught both in marketing classes concerned with green business and in strategy classes exploring the challenges faced by global brands.

    Keywords: Australia; China; environmental strategies; Green Business; marketing; Entrepreneurship; Globalization; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; China; Australia; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Andrew Spadafora. "Jurlique: Globalizing Beauty from Nature and Science." Harvard Business School Case 314-087, March 2014. View Details
  3. Goldfinger: Charles W. Engelhard Jr. and Apartheid-era South Africa

    Geoffrey Jones and Elliot R. Benton

    This case considers the strategies of Charles W. Engelhard, an American mining magnate who made large investments in apartheid-era South Africa. Engelhard was widely believed to have been the model for the James Bond villan Auric Goldfinger. During the 1950s and 1960s Engelhard, who was well-connected with the leadership of the Democratic Party in the United States including President Lyndon B. Johnson, was one of the largest American investors in that country. His close relationship with Harry Oppenheimer, the head of the Anglo-American Corporation, gave him substantial influence within the South African business system. The case starts with anti-apartheid demonstrators protesting outside a ceremony awarding him a prize in Newark, New Jersey. It provides an opportunity to debate the political and ethical responsibilities of businesses in repressive regimes, and the challenges faced by entrepreneurs operating in countries with different value systems and political regimes.

    Keywords: political economy; business history; FDI; corporate social responsibility and impact; South Africa; mining; Ethics; Globalization; Government and Politics; History; Mining Industry; Africa; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Elliot R. Benton. "Goldfinger: Charles W. Engelhard Jr. and Apartheid-era South Africa." Harvard Business School Case 313-148, June 2013. (Revised March 2014.) View Details
  4. TATCHA: Marketing the Beauty Secrets of Japanese Geisha

    Geoffrey Jones and Veronica Tong

    Case considers the creation and early growth of California-based TATCHA, a Japanese-themed luxury beauty brand. It explores how Vicky Tsai developed the concept, assembled financial and management resources,and launched the first product of Japanese blotting paper in 2009 using a grassroots marketing campaign. Identifying a 200-year old book employed by Japanese geisha, Tsai started to diversify her product line into skin and other cosmetic products. The case ends in December 2010 with Tsai receiving an acquisition offer, and debating the merits of exiting or continuing to build her business.

    Keywords: cosmetics industry; Japan; Startup; entrepreneurship; Marketing; Entrepreneurship; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Veronica Tong. "TATCHA: Marketing the Beauty Secrets of Japanese Geisha." Harvard Business School Case 313-149, June 2013. (Revised November 2014.) View Details
  5. Marc Rich and Global Commodity Trading

    Geoffrey Jones and Espen Storli

    Examines the career of Marc Rich, the world's leading commodity trader before his criminal indictment in the United States in 1983. The case surveys the historical growth of commodity trading, especially in metals, from the late nineteenth century, and its evolving forms as governments intervened in markets after 1945. Rich joined Philipp Brothers, then the largest commodity trader, in 1954. He formed his own firm two decades later. He was instrumental in the creation of a spot market in petroleum, and assumed a pivotal role in the industry during the 1970s by selling Iranian oil to Israel and South Africa. The case provides a means to explore the rationale and advantages of giant commodity traders, as well as enabling students to debate corporate use of tax havens.

    Keywords: business history; commodity market; natural resources; Metals and Minerals; Business History; Entrepreneurship; Service Industry; Mining Industry; Africa; Europe; Middle East; North and Central America; Israel; South Africa; Iran;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Espen Storli. "Marc Rich and Global Commodity Trading." Harvard Business School Case 813-020, June 2012. (Revised March 2014.) View Details
  6. Elia Nuqul and the Making of a Middle Eastern Business Group (A)

    G. Jones and Lana Ghanem

    The case is concerned with Elia Nuqul, the founder of Jordanian-based Nuqul Brothers, a large diversified business group. It shows how Nuqul, a Christian Palestinian whose family was forced to flee to Jordan after the creation of Israel in 1948, built a business in his new home, first in trading and later in consumer products such as hygienic paper mnaufacturing. The case shows the challenges of building such an entrepreneurial business in a developing region with high political instability. The case is positioned within the wider context of the regional conflict in Palestine and Israel, and it provides a vehicle for exploring the role and responsibility of entrepreneurs, if any, in such conflicts.

    Keywords: business history; Middle East; entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship; Globalization; History; Government and Politics; Consumer Products Industry; Middle East;

    Citation:

    Jones, G., and Lana Ghanem. "Elia Nuqul and the Making of a Middle Eastern Business Group (A)." Harvard Business School Case 813-052, August 2012. (Revised April 2014.) View Details
  7. Rupert Murdoch: The Last Tycoon

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Harishankar Balkrishna

    The case examines the entrepreneurial career of Rupert Murdoch and the growth of News Corporation from a small Australian newspaper to a global media giant. It shows how he expanded geographically to Europe, the United States, and Asia and from newspapers to the film and television industries. The case identifies the personal role of Murdoch in this growth and the role of his family in its management. The case considers the political impact of News Corporation's newspapers and other media and their alleged role in shaping political opinion.

    Keywords: Family Business; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Business History; Business and Government Relations; Power and Influence; Media and Broadcasting Industry; Publishing Industry; Europe; United States; Australia;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Harishankar Balkrishna. "Rupert Murdoch: The Last Tycoon." Harvard Business School Case 811-017, August 2010. (Revised February 2012.) View Details
  8. Kaweyan: Female Entrepreneurship and the Past and Future of Afghanistan

    Geoffrey Jones and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon

    Explores the challenges of female entrepreneurship in Afghanistan through the case of Kemeli Sediqi, who built a business under the Taliban, and founded a consultancy in 2004. The case positions Sediqi's experiences against the background of Afghanistan's turbulent history, with a focus on the contested role of women in Afghani society.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Social Entrepreneurship; Problems and Challenges; Welfare or Wellbeing; Gender Characteristics; Afghanistan;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon. "Kaweyan: Female Entrepreneurship and the Past and Future of Afghanistan." Harvard Business School Case 811-023, August 2010. (Revised February 2012.) View Details
  9. Hans Wilsdorf and Rolex

    Geoffrey Jones and Alexander Atzberger

    Explores the creation of the Rolex watch by Hans Wilsdorf. Provides a case study of how one of the world's leading luxury brands was created and, more generally, provides a vehicle for exploring the competitive advantage of Switzerland in watchmaking (and other industries). Although Switzerland was a traditional watchmaking center, Wilsdorf—who was neither a watchmaker nor Swiss—created this successful brand through his emphasis on quality and reliability, combined with celebrity marketing.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Geographic Location; Brands and Branding; Luxury; Competitive Advantage; Consumer Products Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Alexander Atzberger. "Hans Wilsdorf and Rolex." Harvard Business School Case 805-138, May 2005. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  10. The Octopus and the Generals: The United Fruit Company in Guatemala

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Marcelo Bucheli

    Examines the overthrow of President Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala in 1954 in a U.S.-backed coup in support of the United Fruit Co. Over the previous half century, United Fruit had built a large vertically integrated tropical fruit business that owned large banana plantations in the "banana republics" of Central America, including Guatemala. Examines the impact and role of United Fruit in the Guatemalan economy, one of the poorest in the world, and the reasons for growing hostility toward the company, culminating in Arbenz's agrarian reform policies aimed at redistributing some of the land held by United Fruit. The United States, which regarded Arbenz as pro-communist, supported United Fruit in the context of the Cold War.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Multinational Firms and Management; Policy; International Relations; Business History; Business and Government Relations; Central America; Guatemala; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Marcelo Bucheli. "The Octopus and the Generals: The United Fruit Company in Guatemala." Harvard Business School Case 805-146, May 2005. (Revised January 2012.) View Details
  11. McKinsey and the Globalization of Consultancy

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Alexis Lefort

    Considers McKinsey's strategy during the first stage of the globalization of the management consultancy industry between the 1950s and 1973. Briefly reviews the history of management consulting before considering the factors that led McKinsey to open its first international office in London in 1959. Describes the subsequent rapid international growth of McKinsey and its leading competitors and their role in diffusing American management concepts worldwide. By 1973, however, McKinsey's new managing director faced evidence that the global demands for such services was in decline, in part because the American management model was becoming less attractive.

    Keywords: History; Demand and Consumers; Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Service Operations; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Alexis Lefort. "McKinsey and the Globalization of Consultancy." Harvard Business School Case 806-035, August 2005. (Revised January 2012.) View Details
  12. The Guggenheims and Chilean Nitrates

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Felipe Tamega Fernandes

    The case describes the growth of Guggenheim Brothers as one of the largest mining companies in the world in the early twentieth century. Global expansion led the firm to Chile, first in copper and later in natural nitrates. Chile's economic growth was driven by the profits from mining, especially its world monopoly of nitrates. The Guggenheims invested in Chilean nitrates after synthetics were developed by German chemists. Their strategies to modernize the industry collapsed with the outbreak of the Great Depression, during which Chile experienced the greatest fall of incomes of any country. The case serves as a vehicle to explore the devastating economic and political impact of the Great Depression on the countries of the South, such as Chile, which had specialized in primary commodities, and on mining and financial capitalists such as the Guggenheims.

    Keywords: History; Venture Capital; Business History; Entrepreneurship; Globalization; Foreign Direct Investment; Financial Crisis; Mining Industry; Chile;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Felipe Tamega Fernandes. "The Guggenheims and Chilean Nitrates." Harvard Business School Case 810-141, June 2010. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  13. Female Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Alexis Lefort

    Examines the extent of and challenges facing female entrepreneurs in developing countries. There are higher rates of female entrepreneurship in developing countries than developed countries, but necessity is often the main driver in lower income countries. Explores the challenges facing women arising from societal inequality, including lack of educational provision, and difficulties in securing funding.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Gender Characteristics; Developing Countries and Economies;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Alexis Lefort. "Female Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries." Harvard Business School Background Note 807-018, August 2006. (Revised July 2014.) View Details
  14. Vehbi Koç and the Making of Turkey's Largest Business Group

    Asli M. Colpan and Geoffrey Jones

    The case describes the creation of Turkey's largest business group by Vehbi Koç. The foundation of this group in the interwar years, and its subsequent diversification into many industries, including automobiles, household goods, and services, is analysed. The case serves as a vehicle to explain why diversified business groups are so important in emerging markets such as Turkey. It explores the role of market imperfections, government policies and entrepreneurial ambition in their creation, as well as the organizational challenges posed by managing such diversified firms owned by a family. Much of the firm's growth came from licensing and joint venture agreements with multinational firms which were unable, or unwilling, to invest directly in Turkey because of political risk and government restrictions. The case ends in 1988, when the founder has received a report from the management consultancy Bain calling for the firm to reduce the range of activities it undertakes because of the competitive challenges resulting from the liberalization of the Turkish economy.

    Keywords: Emerging Markets; Entrepreneurship; Globalization; Organizational Structure; Diversification; Manufacturing Industry; Turkey;

    Citation:

    Colpan, Asli M., and Geoffrey Jones. "Vehbi Koç and the Making of Turkey's Largest Business Group." Harvard Business School Case 811-081, June 2011. (Revised November 2014.) View Details
  15. Werner von Siemens and the Electric Telegraph

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Bjoern von Siemens

    This case describes the nineteenth century founding by Werner Siemens of the Siemens electrical business in Germany. Werner's dual role as inventor and entrepreneur is explored as he created one of the world's first multinational enterprises, whose growth initially rested on its pioneering role in the new telegraph industry. Werner sent his brothers to open businesses in Great Britain and Russia, and the case explores the advantages and disadvantages of family business as a form of organization, as well as the challenges growing it poses for such family firms.

    Keywords: Business Organization; Family Business; Entrepreneurship; Multinational Firms and Management; Business History; Growth and Development Strategy; Electronics Industry; Telecommunications Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Bjoern von Siemens. "Werner von Siemens and the Electric Telegraph." Harvard Business School Case 811-004, July 2010. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  16. Willy Jacobsohn and Beiersdorf: Managing Expropriation and Anti-Semitism

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Christina Lubinski

    This case examines the management of home and host country risk by Beiersdorf during the interwar years. It can be used both in business history courses and more generally to teach political risk management by multinational corporations. Beiersdorf, a German personal products company, expanded globally before 1914, but had its foreign factories and intellectual property expropriated during World War 1. After 1919 ceo Willy Jacobson rebuilt the international business, and sought to protect it by "cloaking" the ultimate ownership. Following the appointment of Adolf Hitler, as German Chancellor in 1933, Beiersdorf and Jacobson personally also came under attack by the anti-Semitic Nazi regime in its home country. The case can be used as a vehicle to understand the rise of both host and home country risk by companies during the interwar years, and more generally to explore the strategies which firms can follow to attempt to manage such risks.

    Keywords: Risk Management; War; Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Global Strategy; Ownership; Government and Politics; Business and Government Relations; Consumer Products Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Christina Lubinski. "Willy Jacobsohn and Beiersdorf: Managing Expropriation and Anti-Semitism." Harvard Business School Case 811-060, April 2011. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  17. Opium and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century

    Geoffrey G. Jones, Elisabeth Koll and Alexis Lefort

    Concerns the growth of multinational trading companies in the first global economy. Examines two Scottish-owned merchant houses, Jardine Matheson and James Finlay, and shows their changing trade and investment strategies as well as their use of an organizational form later known as business groups. Also demonstrates the role of ethnic networks in globalization during this historical period. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; Globalized Economies and Regions; Ethnicity Characteristics; Multinational Firms and Management; Groups and Teams; Trade; Social and Collaborative Networks; China;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., Elisabeth Koll, and Alexis Lefort. "Opium and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century." Harvard Business School Case 805-010, July 2004. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  18. Thomas J. Watson, IBM and Nazi Germany

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Adrian Brown

    Considers the strategy of U.S.-owned IBM, then a manufacturer of punch cards, in Nazi Germany before 1937. Opens with IBM CEO Thomas J. Watson meeting Adolf Hitler in his capacity as President of the International Chamber of Commerce. IBM had acquired a German company in 1922 and, like other American companies, found itself operating after 1933 in a country whose government violently suppressed political dissent and engaged in intimidation and discrimination against Jews. Explores the tensions between IBM's German affiliate and its parent and provides an opportunity to explore the options and responsibilities of multinationals with investments in politically reprehensible regimes.

    Keywords: Business History; Values and Beliefs; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Investment; Business and Government Relations; Germany;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Adrian Brown. "Thomas J. Watson, IBM and Nazi Germany." Harvard Business School Case 807-133, June 2007. (Revised March 2011.) View Details
  19. Ivar Kreuger and the Swedish Match Empire

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Ingrid Vargas

    Taught in Evolution of Global Business. Globalization and corporate fraud are the central themes of this case on the international growth of Swedish Match in the interwar years. Between 1913 and 1932, Ivar Kreuger, known as the "Swedish Match King," built a small, family-owned match business into a $600 million global match empire. Despite the economic and political disruptions of the interwar period, Swedish Match owned manufacturing operations in 36 countries, had monopolies in 16 countries, and controlled 40% of the world's match production. Kreuger companies lent over $300 million dollars to governments in Europe, Latin America, and Asia in exchange for national match monopolies. Relying on international capital markets to finance acquisitions and monopoly deals, by 1929 the stocks and bonds of Kreuger companies were the most widely held securities in the United States and the world. After Kreuger's 1932 suicide, forensic auditors discovered that Kreuger had operated a giant pyramid scheme. His accounts were ridden with fictitious assets, the truth hidden in a maze of over 400 subsidiary companies. Swedish Match's deficits exceeded Sweden's national debt.

    Keywords: History; International Finance; Globalized Firms and Management; Crime and Corruption; Ethics; Monopoly; Business and Government Relations; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Ingrid Vargas. "Ivar Kreuger and the Swedish Match Empire." Harvard Business School Case 804-078, November 2003. (Revised February 2014.) View Details
  20. Creating Global Oil, 1900-1935

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Daniel Wadhwani

    Taught in the elective MBA course entitled The Evolution of Global Business. Examines the development of an international cartel in the oil industry in the 1920s and 1930s. Focuses on the decisions and actions of the leading multinational oil companies—particularly Standard Oil of New Jersey, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Anglo-Persian (BP)—in acting together to try to stabilize prices and market shares beginning in the late 1920s through the Achnacarry or "As-is" Agreement. Set against the backdrop of the development of the global oil industry, it examines the causes of the change in firm strategy from competition to cooperation and offers an opportunity for readers to assess the success of efforts at inter-firm coordination and stabilization. Also explores the personal and professional relationships between the leading oil-industry executives who forged the cartel, including Henry Deterding, Walter Teagle, and John Cadman. Important subissues include the changing nature of the oil industry in the 1910s and 1920s, the rise of oil diplomacy, and the impact of U.S. antitrust laws on the global oil business.

    Keywords: History; Competition; Multinational Firms and Management; Alliances; Cooperation; Business and Government Relations; Energy Industry;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Daniel Wadhwani. "Creating Global Oil, 1900-1935." Harvard Business School Case 804-089, November 2003. (Revised July 2014.) View Details
  21. Jamnalal Bajaj, Mahatma Gandhi, and the Struggle for Indian Independence

    Geoffrey Jones, Prabakar 'PK' Kothandaraman and Kerry Herman

    Describes the role of a leading Indian business leader in the campaign for independence before 1947 and his close relationship with the legendary Mahatma Gandhi. Provides the opportunity to consider the impact of colonialism on shaping Indian entrepreneurship and the role of the small Marwari group, originally from the Marwar region of Rajasthan, in creating many of India's leading business houses, including the Bajaj. The Bajaj, like other Marwari, were traders who after World War I transitioned into manufacturing, including sugar manufacturing and steel rolling.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Government and Politics; Business History; Leadership; Business and Government Relations; Power and Influence; India;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, Prabakar 'PK' Kothandaraman, and Kerry Herman. "Jamnalal Bajaj, Mahatma Gandhi, and the Struggle for Indian Independence." Harvard Business School Case 807-028, August 2006. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  22. Unilever as a "multi-local multinational" 1945-1979

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Stephanie D. Decker

    Explores the opportunities and threats to Unilever's global business in 1978 based on the commercial and political challenges faced by three of its subsidiaries, Lever Brothers in the United States, Hindustan Lever in India, and United Africa Company in West Africa. Management faced several problems: criticism of multinational companies, anti-trust legislation, expropriations, and rising competition from international and local rivals. Focuses on developing a new global strategy for a company that placed a premium on a consensual management style and local autonomy.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Local Range; Global Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Management Style; Africa; India; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Stephanie D. Decker. Unilever as a "multi-local multinational" 1945-1979. Harvard Business School Case 808-025, August 2007. (Revised September 2010.) View Details
  23. Weetman Pearson and the Mexican Oil Industry (A)

    Geoffrey Jones and Lisa Bud-Freirman

    Taught in the MBA Evolution of Global Business course, a business history course on the growth of multinationals. Explores the role of the British entrepreneur Weetman Pearson in developing the Mexican oil industry before 1914. Shows this entrepreneur's evolution from a domestic British builder to an international contractor, building tunnels, railroads, and harbors worldwide, including the United States and Mexico. In Mexico, where Pearson developed close relations with the dictator Porfirio Diaz, the government awarded large oil concessions. In 1910, Pearson discovered one of the world's largest oil wells, and this was used as a basis to build an integrated oil company. But by 1918—when the case ends—Pearson is considering whether to sell his investment in the face of growing political risk.

    Keywords: History; Risk and Uncertainty; Non-Renewable Energy; Growth Management; Multinational Firms and Management; Entrepreneurship; Investment; Developing Countries and Economies; Energy Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Lisa Bud-Freirman. "Weetman Pearson and the Mexican Oil Industry (A)." Harvard Business School Case 804-085, November 2003. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  24. Weetman Pearson and the Mexican Oil Industry (B)

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Lisa Bud-Freirman

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Business History; Entrepreneurship; Multinational Firms and Management; Business and Government Relations; Energy Industry; United Kingdom; Mexico; Arizona;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Lisa Bud-Freirman. "Weetman Pearson and the Mexican Oil Industry (B)." Harvard Business School Case 804-086, January 2004. (Revised August 2010.) View Details
  25. Bernd Beetz: Creating the New Coty

    Geoffrey Jones and David Kiron

    Considers the creation of the world's largest fragrance company by Bernd Beetz, appointed chief executive of Coty Inc. in 2001. In 1990 the German consumer goods company Benkiser began acquiring fragrance and cosmetics brands with the intent of developing a beauty business. These included the long-established, but relatively small, U.S. fragrance company Coty. In 1996 the beauty business was spun off under the name Coty. When Beetz was hired as chief executive, it was still a fragmented collection of recently acquired brands. The case describes how Beetz re-ignited the dormant celebrity fragrance business with the successful launch of a new Jennifer Lopez fragrance line. Fashioning a new entrepreneurial culture based on the principles of "faster, further, freer," Coty hired longstanding executives from other firms and liberated their entrepreneurial capabilities, refreshing brands which had been tarnished into a global mass color cosmetics brand. In 2005 the acquisition of Calvin Klein from Unilever, and its renewal, catapulted Coty into the position of the world's largest fragrance company. The case provides an opportunity to examine the entrepreneurial, cultural, and organizational factors which enable acquired brands and employees to be re-invigorated and molded into a dynamic new global business. It asks if the cultural and other factors behind its rapid growth can sustain the company as it seeks growth much further as a top-five beauty company.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Germany; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and David Kiron. "Bernd Beetz: Creating the New Coty." Harvard Business School Case 808-133, June 2008. (Revised April 2013.) View Details
  26. 'Walking on a Tightrope': Maintaining London as a Financial Center

    Geoffrey Jones and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine

    Focuses on the development of London as a leading international financial center and the difficulties it faces maintaining its status. Examines London's history as a financial center from Roman times to the present day. London's position in the 19th century rested on the great importance of Britain in the world economy and the role of sterling as the major international currency. By the mid-20th century both of these factors were much reduced in importance, but London was renewed as the physical home of the Euromarkets. Explores regulatory and other factors, including economies of agglomeration, which contribute to making a financial center.

    Keywords: International Finance; Geographic Location; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Business History; Status and Position; Financial Services Industry; Europe; London;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine. "'Walking on a Tightrope': Maintaining London as a Financial Center." Harvard Business School Case 804-081, November 2003. (Revised July 2014.) View Details
  27. Brazil at the Wheel

    Geoffrey Jones

    Taught in the second-year MBA elective on the Evolution of Global Business. Examines the costs and benefits of the Brazilian government's policies to encourage foreign multinationals to develop an automobile industry during the 1950s. A combination of incentives and market closure were used to attract foreign direct investment. Volkswagen responded more positively than the U.S. firms Ford and GM and was able to become market leader as a result.

    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational Firms and Management; Policy; Government and Politics; Business History; Business and Government Relations; Auto Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey. "Brazil at the Wheel." Harvard Business School Case 804-080, November 2003. (Revised September 2014.) View Details
  28. Christian Dior: A New Look for Haute Couture

    Geoffrey Jones and Veronique Pouillard

    The case describes the foundation of Christian Dior, the leading Parisian fashion house, in 1946 and its subsequent globalization strategy. After explaining the historical origins of France's preeminence in upscale fashion, the case explores the challenges to this position from New York after World War 2, and the importance of Christian Dior's New Look in restoring French fashion to world leadership. The case examines, in particular, Dior's innovative strategy to combine a high-fashion business in Paris with a ready-to-wear business in New York, and his subsequent pursuit of licensing opportunities in jewelry and other luxury products. The case provides an opportunity to explore the role of creativity in the luxury fashion industry, and the challenges and opportunities of globalizing such an industry.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Globalized Markets and Industries; Business History; Innovation Strategy; Luxury; Fashion Industry; France; New York (city, NY);

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Veronique Pouillard. "Christian Dior: A New Look for Haute Couture." Harvard Business School Case 809-159, June 2009. (Revised April 2013.) View Details
  29. Ernesto Tornquist: Making a Fortune on the Pampas

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Andrea Lluch

    Examines the career of Ernesto Tornquist, a cosmopolitan financier considered to be the most significant entrepreneur in Argentina at the end of the 19th century. Tornquist created a diversified business group, linked to the political elite, which integrated Argentina into the trading and financial networks of the first global economy. Provides an opportunity to understand why Argentina was such a successful economy at this time, and to debate whether its very success laid the basis for the country's subsequent poor economic performance.

    Keywords: History; Development Economics; Partners and Partnerships; Personal Development and Career; Entrepreneurship; Financing and Loans; Trade; Globalized Markets and Industries; Argentina;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Andrea Lluch. "Ernesto Tornquist: Making a Fortune on the Pampas." Harvard Business School Case 807-155, May 2007. (Revised June 2013.) View Details
  30. Yataro Iwasaki: Founding Mitsubishi (A)

    Geoffrey G. Jones, Masako Egawa and Mayuka Yamazaki

    Considers the entrepreneurial career of the founder of Mitsubishi, Yataro Iwasaki, who built a large shipping company against the opposition of powerful Western incumbents. Although sometimes supported by the Japanese government, and often times opposed, the case identifies Iwasaki's entrepreneurial talent and organization-building skills as key drivers of success. This case provides a vehicle for examining the entrepreneurial factors behind Japan's remarkable transition from a feudal to a modern society in the second half of the nineteenth century.

    Keywords: History; Leadership; Business History; Organizational Structure; Entrepreneurship; Business and Government Relations; Japan;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., Masako Egawa, and Mayuka Yamazaki. "Yataro Iwasaki: Founding Mitsubishi (A)." Harvard Business School Case 808-158, June 2008. (Revised February 2010.) View Details
  31. Yataro Iwasaki: Founding Mitsubishi (B)

    Geoffrey G. Jones, Masako Egawa and Mayuka Yamazaki

    This brief (B) case documents the fate of Mitsubishi and the shipping company NYK after the death of Yataro Iwasaki in 1885. The case supplements case 808-158, “Yataro Iwaski: Founding Mitsubishi (A).”

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Business History; Leadership; Japan;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., Masako Egawa, and Mayuka Yamazaki. "Yataro Iwasaki: Founding Mitsubishi (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 809-038, August 2008. (Revised February 2010.) View Details
  32. In Search of Global Regulation

    Geoffrey Jones and Alexis Gendron

    The history of the international regulation of global capitalism is surveyed, addressing the challenges facing firms confronting international, national, and regional regulation. Follows the history of global regulation after 1914, from the League of Nations' Conference on the Codification of International Law to the establishment of the World Trade Organization. Tracks initiatives by the OECD and the United Nations to develop regulatory regimes for multinationals and explores why none of these initiatives resulted in mandatory regulations. Also describes a range of other regulation tools, including bilateral investment treaties and corporate codes of conduct.

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; International Relations; Laws and Statutes; Corporate Governance; Business and Government Relations;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Alexis Gendron. "In Search of Global Regulation." Harvard Business School Case 805-025, October 2004. (Revised October 2013.) View Details
  33. Multinational Corporations in Apartheid-era South Africa: The Issue of Reparations

    Geoffrey Jones and Cate Reavis

    Considers the lawsuits filed on behalf of victims of apartheid against multinationals who operated in South Africa prior to 1994. Reviews the debates about divestment from and sanctions against South Africa from the 1950s. Includes case studies of companies that divested—Eastman Kodak and IBM—and stayed—Royal Dutch/Shell and Johnson & Johnson. Concludes with evidence on the use of the Alien Tort Claims Act against corporations in other international contexts.

    Keywords: Ethics; Multinational Firms and Management; Government Legislation; Lawsuits and Litigation; Business and Government Relations; Prejudice and Bias; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Cate Reavis. "Multinational Corporations in Apartheid-era South Africa: The Issue of Reparations." Harvard Business School Case 804-027, August 2003. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  34. Can Bollywood Go Global?

    Geoffrey Jones, Namrata Arora, Surachita Mishra and Alexis Lefort

    Considers the opportunities and challenges facing Indian film producers in accessing the global film market. Provides a historical context by describing the history of the cinema and the rise of Hollywood to global dominance by the 1920s. Although film industries continued elsewhere, including Great Britain and France, their products had limited international appeal. Discusses the rise of the Indian film industry and the industry structure. Bollywood films, produced in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), are the most well-known genre. They are typically long, melodramatic, and musical. There are also regional language films produced in Chennai, independent films, and "crossover" films, typically incorporating the experience of the Diaspora in Western countries. Bollywood films in particular have sold well in Southeast Asia and among the Indian Diaspora. Raises the issue whether Indian content films can compete with Hollywood in global markets and to what extent a change in content is necessary for this strategy to work.

    Keywords: History; Competition; Film Entertainment; Globalized Markets and Industries; Product Development; Motion Pictures and Video Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, Namrata Arora, Surachita Mishra, and Alexis Lefort. "Can Bollywood Go Global?" Harvard Business School Case 806-040, August 2005. (Revised July 2014.) View Details
  35. The Octopus and the Generals: The United Fruit Company in Guatemala (TN)

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Marcelo Bucheli

    Teaching Note for [805146].

    Keywords: Policy; Vertical Integration; Economy; War; Poverty; Government and Politics; Food and Beverage Industry; Guatemala; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Marcelo Bucheli. "The Octopus and the Generals: The United Fruit Company in Guatemala (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 809-084, January 2009. View Details
  36. Aristotle Onassis and the Greek Shipping Industry

    Geoffrey Jones and Paul Gomopoulos

    Examines the career of Aristotle Onassis and his creation of one of the world's largest shipping companies between 1945 and 1973. Explores the role of ethnic and family networks in Greek shipping and how Onassis was able to penetrate this system despite being an outsider. Looks at Onassis' role as a strategic innovator in flags of convenience and supertankers. Examines the dynamics of competitive advantage in shipping, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of family-owned firms. Ends with the death of Onassis' only son in 1973 and the resulting vacuum in succession.

    Keywords: Networks; Ethnicity Characteristics; Family Business; Innovation Strategy; Management Succession; Competitive Advantage; Personal Development and Career; Shipping Industry; Greece;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and Paul Gomopoulos. "Aristotle Onassis and the Greek Shipping Industry." Harvard Business School Case 805-141, May 2005. (Revised October 2014.) View Details
  37. Globalizing Consumer Durables: Singer Sewing Machine before 1914

    Geoffrey G. Jones and David Kiron

    Examines the global strategy of Singer, one of the world's first multinationals, before 1914. Singer, a U.S. pioneer of the modern sewing machine, established its first foreign factory in Scotland in 1867. Investments followed in manufacturing and marketing in other countries, especially Russia. By 1914, Singer held a remarkable 90% share of all sewing machine sales outside the United States and was the seventh largest firm in the world. Examines why sewing machines became one of the world's first global products and the entrepreneurial and organizational factors behind Singer's international success. Taught as the first case in the MBA elective Evolution of Global Business.

    Keywords: History; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Culture; Entrepreneurship; Investment;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and David Kiron. "Globalizing Consumer Durables: Singer Sewing Machine before 1914." Harvard Business School Case 804-001, October 2003. (Revised September 2008.) View Details
  38. Rwanda and the Thousand Hills Coffee Co.: Breaking New Grounds

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Michelle McDonald

    Examines the strategies of a Boston-based start-up to market Rwandan coffee. Describes the history of the coffee industry, the era of cartelization and the International Coffee Agreement, and the subsequent collapse in producer prices after 1989. Also describes the various options open to coffee producers, including recartelization, diversification, fair trade, and selling to boutique markets, the strategy of the Thousand Hills Coffee Co.

    Keywords: History; Marketing Strategy; Entrepreneurship; Business Startups; Food and Beverage Industry; Rwanda; Boston;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Michelle McDonald. "Rwanda and the Thousand Hills Coffee Co.: Breaking New Grounds." Harvard Business School Case 807-004, August 2006. (Revised July 2008.) View Details
  39. Making China Beautiful: Shiseido and the China Market

    Geoffrey G. Jones, Akiko Kanno and Masako Egawa

    Describes the multinational growth of Shiseido, the world's fourth-largest cosmetics company, with a focus on its strategy in China since 1981. Explores the challenges facing firms in the globalization of a culturally specific industry such as cosmetics. The Japanese company displayed an early interest in international expansion, but its early investments were lost during World War II. Thereafter, it sought to build businesses in Europe and North America, but was challenged by market conditions quite different from those in Japan. Even within its home market, deregulation and the entry of foreign firms during the 1990s led to a significant loss in market share. Shiseido entered China in 1981 and built Aupres, a large cosmetics brand specifically aimed at Chinese women. Further growth followed, and in 2003, plans were announced to build a large network of voluntary chain stores. Highlights managerial challenges of growing the China business further in the face of increasing competition and provides a framework for discussing the challenges of prioritizing the allocation of resources in a global business.

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Globalized Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Resource Allocation; Competition; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; China; Japan;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., Akiko Kanno, and Masako Egawa. "Making China Beautiful: Shiseido and the China Market." Harvard Business School Case 805-003, October 2004. (Revised July 2013.) View Details
  40. Debating the Expropriation of Mexican Oil

    Geoffrey G. Jones and R. Daniel Wadhwani

    In 1938, the Mexican government expropriated the assets of foreign oil companies. Explores the legal and moral arguments in favor of and against expropriation.

    Keywords: Ethics; Globalized Firms and Management; Government and Politics; Business History; Lawfulness; Business and Government Relations; Energy Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and R. Daniel Wadhwani. "Debating the Expropriation of Mexican Oil." Harvard Business School Case 805-011, August 2004. (Revised June 2008.) View Details
  41. Cisco Goes to China: Routing an Emerging Economy

    Geoffrey Jones and David Kiron

    Cisco, the corporate leader in the provision of infrastructure for the Internet, entered China in 1994. Companies such as Cisco, which designs products that are largely invisible and outsources their manufacture, face a number of opportunities and challenges in an emerging economy. China was among the fastest growing IT markets in the world, but Cisco faced growing competition from Chinese firms, including Huawei, and there were serious issues arising from software piracy. Cisco also had to manage a delicate relationship with the Chinese government, which was seeking international technology standards that favored Chinese technology firms.

    Keywords: Emerging Markets; Market Entry and Exit; Standards; Business and Government Relations; Competition; Information Technology Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey, and David Kiron. "Cisco Goes to China: Routing an Emerging Economy." Harvard Business School Case 805-020, July 2004. (Revised July 2014.) View Details
  42. Good Technology: Empowering Mobility Around the Globe (A)

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Adam Minnick

    Describes the global growth of Good Technology, a Silicon Valley start-up in wireless handheld computing software and service. Reviews the evaluation of wireless standards, the emergence of the world wireless market for voice and data, and the growth of the major firms in the industry. Focuses on the regulatory, legal, and managerial challenges facing Good when it sought to expand internationally and explores how these challenges were overcome. The launch of Global Connect in February 2005 enabled Good to expand without carrier permission, but the firm's future strategy faced many challenges, including relationships with its partners, the global giants in the communications and software industry.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Firms and Management; Partners and Partnerships; Expansion; Wireless Technology; Communications Industry; Technology Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Adam Minnick. "Good Technology: Empowering Mobility Around the Globe (A)." Harvard Business School Case 805-139, June 2005. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  43. Inniskillin and the Globalization of Icewine

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Jillian Hirasawa

    Deals with the growth of the icewine industry and follows Vincor International as it creates an international market for its Inniskillin Icewine--a luxury alcoholic beverage consumed as a dessert wine. Gives the history of the alcoholic beverage industry in Canada and details trends in the current global wine industry. Follows Roger Provost (HBS MBA 1980), chief marketing officer for Canadian-based Vincor, as he develops Inniskillin's initial marketing strategy within Canada. Goes on to detail Inniskillin's challenges as it enters other markets, initially through the travel retail distribution channel. Deals with issues in brand management, product development, and international marketing. Explores the opportunities and challenges facing luxury niche products in the global economy.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Globalized Markets and Industries; Marketing Strategy; Product Marketing; Luxury; Food and Beverage Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Jillian Hirasawa. "Inniskillin and the Globalization of Icewine." Harvard Business School Case 805-129, May 2005. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  44. Natura: Global Beauty Made in Brazil

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Ricardo Reisen de Pinho

    Explores the globalization strategies of Natura, Brazil's largest cosmetics company. Founded in 1969, Natura grew using a direct selling model. Led by its three founders, the firm made distinctive use of Brazil's diversity and became characterized by high ethical and environmental standards. Natura began to seek international markets in 1982, but experienced many setbacks until surviving the economic crisis in Argentina in 2001. The company opened operations in France and Mexico in 2005, and the three founders are now exploring opportunities in Moscow. To pursue further globalization, Natura must now decide whether to continue to rely primarily on the direct sales model or to experiment with other models--and whether to make acquisitions or become part of a larger group.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Globalized Markets and Industries; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Ricardo Reisen de Pinho. "Natura: Global Beauty Made in Brazil." Harvard Business School Case 807-029, August 2006. (Revised October 2012.) View Details
  45. Global Fun: The Internationalization of Theme Parks

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Steven Shaheen

    A fictitious private equity firm considers whether to buy the international theme park business of the LEGO Group. Considers the origins of theme parks in the United States; the international expansion of Disney theme parks to Tokyo and Paris since the 1970s; and the expansion of the theme park business of the LEGO Group from its home in Billund, Denmark, to Great Britain, Germany, and the United States. The LEGO Group has now announced that it intends to sell the business. Explores the rationale for international theme park business and, in particular, the drivers of profitability of parks in different locations.

    Keywords: Private Equity; Globalized Markets and Industries; Globalized Firms and Management; Global Strategy; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Germany; Tokyo; Great Britain; Denmark; United States; Paris;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Steven Shaheen. "Global Fun: The Internationalization of Theme Parks." Harvard Business School Case 806-018, July 2005. (Revised October 2006.) View Details
  46. "American Challenge, The:" Europe's Response to American Business

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine

    Examines the tensions multinationals cause by focusing on Europe's reaction to the growing U.S. multinational investment in the 20th century. Initially, Europeans rarely felt threatened by U.S. investments, however, tensions grew over time. After the Second World War, there was a major political and cultural storm over the "Coca Colonization" of France. Takes its name from the often-cited book by Jean Jacques Servan-Schreiber, published in 1967, which symbolized the ambiguous feelings of many Europeans toward U.S. investment. In other countries, U.S. management practices aroused antagonism.

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Investment; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine. "American Challenge, The:" Europe's Response to American Business. Harvard Business School Case 804-057, September 2003. (Revised June 2006.) View Details
  47. L'Oreal and the Globalization of American Beauty

    Geoffrey G. Jones, David Kiron, Vincent Dessain and Anders Sjoman

    Examines L'Oreal's acquisition of leading U.S. cosmetics brands, including Maybelline, Redken, and Kiehl's, and their subsequent renewal and globalization. Reviews the history of L'Oreal, now the world's largest cosmetics company, from its origins in France in 1907. The company entered the United States in 1953, and from 1990, expanded rapidly with the acquisition of U.S. brands, which were renewed and then taken international. Focuses on Kiehl's--since 1851, a quirky New York luxury brand--which L'Oreal acquired in 2000 and is now expanding globally. Shows how L'Oreal developed a portfolio of U.S. and European brands that are now sold globally. Explores the corporate strategy and marketing challenges facing consumer products firms as they globalize and how acquisitions can facilitate globalization.

    Keywords: Management; Corporate Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Brands and Branding; Business History; Globalization; Acquisition; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; France; United States;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., David Kiron, Vincent Dessain, and Anders Sjoman. "L'Oreal and the Globalization of American Beauty." Harvard Business School Case 805-086, April 2005. (Revised February 2006.) View Details
  48. Globalizing Consumer Durables: Singer Sewing Machine before 1914 (TN)

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    Teaching Note to (9-804-001).

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Investment; Sales; Entrepreneurship; Success; Production; Marketing; Manufacturing Industry; United States; Russia; Scotland;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G. "Globalizing Consumer Durables: Singer Sewing Machine before 1914 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 806-026, July 2005. View Details
  49. Multinationals as Engines of Growth?

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    Reviews the issues surrounding estimating the impact over time of multinationals on host economies. Uses a series of short historical case studies, including the role of United Fruit in the "banana" republics of Central America, oil and banking in Iran before the 1950s, technology transfer in Japan between 1899 and 1970, the impact of U.S. multinationals on the British diet in the 20th century, the Malaysian electronics industry after 1970, and the role of Japanese companies in the U.S. automobile industry in the 1980s.

    Keywords: Business History; Multinational Firms and Management; Trade; Growth and Development; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Globalized Economies and Regions; Iran; United States; Malaysia; Japan;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G. "Multinationals as Engines of Growth?" Harvard Business School Case 803-108, January 2003. (Revised June 2005.) View Details
  50. Expropriation in International Business

    Geoffrey G. Jones and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine

    Covers several important expropriation cases in international business from the 20th century and highlights the legal and political difficulties these companies faced. Serves to explain expropriation, to stress the vulnerability of foreign direct investments to political risk in host countries, and to discuss the limitations of international property law.

    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; Global Strategy; Government and Politics; Common Law; Risk Management; Property; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Jones, Geoffrey G., and Meghan Gallagher-Kernstine. "Expropriation in International Business." Harvard Business School Background Note 804-020, July 2003. View Details