Christian H.M. Ketels

Principal Associate

Dr. Christian Ketels is a member of the Harvard Business School faculty at Professor Michael E. Porter’s Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness. He holds a PhD (Econ) from the London School of Economics and further degrees from the Kiel Institute for World Economics and Cologne University. He is President of TCI, a global network of professionals in the field of competitiveness, clusters, and innovation, Honorary Professor at the European Business School Oestrich-Winckel, and Senior Research Fellow at the Stockholm School of Economics. In 2009 he served as a Visiting Professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore. Dr. Ketels has led cluster and competitiveness projects in many parts of the world, has written widely on economic policy issues, and is a frequent speaker on competitiveness and strategy in Europe, North America, and Asia.

Dr. Ketels is the chair of the academic advisory board of ORKESTRA The Basque Competitiveness Institute and currently serves on the advisory boards of The Baltic Development Forum, the Center for Strategy and Competitiveness at the Universidad de los Andes, the Center for Competitiveness at the University Fribourg, and is a special advisor to the Asia Competitiveness Institute. He is a member of the selection committee for the Spitzencluster-Initiative launched by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany), served on the European Commission's European Cluster Policy Group and  2011 RegioStars jury, and is currently part of its Mirror Group for the  S3 Smart Specialization Platform.

Journal Articles

  1. Recent Research on Competitiveness and Clusters: What Are the Implications for Regional Policy?

    Christian Ketels

    This paper reviews implications of recent research on competitiveness and clusters for regions and regional policy. A new framing of competitiveness clarifies the role of regions. Its empirical findings align well with the literature on drivers of regional performance, but there are opportunities for mutual learning. A step-change in the availability of data on clusters and cluster policies has enabled new research approaches. Clusters are shown to have a close association with regional economic performance and evolution. Cluster policies are largely focused on strengthening existing agglomerations, not creating new ones. The paper discusses several practical insights for regional policy makers.

    Keywords: Competition; Industry Clusters; Policy;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian. "Recent Research on Competitiveness and Clusters: What Are the Implications for Regional Policy?" Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society (2013). View Details
  2. From Clusters to Cluster-Based Economic Development

    Christian H.M. Ketels and Olga Memedovic

    Over the last decades, changes in the global economy and the emergence of Global Value Chains (GVCs) have raised the interest in understanding the specific conditions and cross-company interactions within and across locations. For companies, the need to choose the right location for specific activities moved from an operational to a strategic issue. For countries, regions and cities, competition raised the stakes of understanding how to improve productivity and attract firms in specific fields beyond providing low factor costs and subsidies. Many countries, from natural-resource-rich, to transition economies, and to developed countries have launched competitiveness policies and cluster initiatives involving various stakeholders. The paper addresses how clusters can be leveraged for economic policy and what the role of different stakeholders in this process is. This paper summarises the cluster concept, focusing on the main theoretical framework and on recent empirical findings, and discusses key pillars of a cluster-based economic policy approach. The paper concludes with an application of the concept to resource-rich, oil-dependent economies.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Economy; Value; Business Strategy; Competition; Performance Productivity; Cost; Natural Environment; Policy; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Framework; Industry Clusters;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M., and Olga Memedovic. "From Clusters to Cluster-Based Economic Development." Special Issue on Global Value Chains and Innovation Networks: Prospects for Industrial Upgrading in Developing Countries. Part 1. International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation, and Development 1, no. 3 (August 2008). View Details
  3. Industrial Specialization and Regional Clusters in the Ten New EU Member States

    Orjan Solvell, Christian H.M. Ketels and Goran Lindqvist

    Purpose—The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of regional concentration patterns within ten new European Union (EU) member states, EU10, and make comparisons with EU15 and the US economy.
    Design/methodology/approach—Industrial specialization and clusters are measured as employment in the intersection between a sector (three-digit NACE data) and a particular region (NUTS 2 level), with a total of 38 sectors and 41 regions within EU10. Regional cluster size and degree of specialization is measured along 3D: absolute number of employees (>10,000 jobs is used as cut-off for a regional cluster), degree of specialization (regional sector employment is at least two times expected levels) and degree of regional market labor dominance (>3 per cent of total employment in a particular sector). Each of these three measures of cluster size, specialization and labor market focus are classified with a "star." The largest and most specialized clusters receive three stars.
    Findings—EU10 exhibits 19 three-star regional clusters, which display high values for each of the three measured parameters. In addition, there are 92 two-star regional clusters and 313 one-star regional clusters. The analysis also suggests that regional concentration in EU10 is clearly lower than in the USA, and slightly lower than in the old EU member states. In a few cases—IT, biopharmaceuticals and communications equipment—where the total size of the cluster is small, and there is little historical legacy in Eastern Europe, the EU10 exhibits higher geographical concentration than EU15.
    Research limitations/implications—Overall, the economies of EU10 exhibit a pattern of geographical concentration close to a random distribution, i.e. the process of regional concentration and redistribution of industry is in a very early phase. If Europe is to build a more competitive economy, industrial restructuring towards larger clusters must be allowed and pushed by policy makers both at the national and EU levels.
    Practical implications—Policymakers must be well informed about geographical concentration patterns of industry. The research offers a consistent methodology of mapping regional clusters and geographical concentration patterns across sectors.
    Originality/value—This paper is the first in measuring regional concentration patterns in Europe at this fine level, and is based on a new methodology developed by Professor Michael E. Porter at Harvard University. The paper has also introduced a new method of ranking clusters according to the star model.

    Keywords: Geographic Location; Policy; Employment; Industry Clusters; Industry Structures; European Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Solvell, Orjan, Christian H.M. Ketels, and Goran Lindqvist. "Industrial Specialization and Regional Clusters in the Ten New EU Member States." Special Issue on Macro and Micro Level Competitiveness Competitiveness Review 18, nos. 1/2 (2008): 104 – 130. View Details
  4. Industrial Policy in the United States

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Does US government policy purposefully benefit particular industries or is industrial policy absent in the USA? Based on a review of recent US policies this paper argues that the USA applies many policies with an industry-specific impact. But these policies do not differ significantly from those in other countries and the process in which US industrial policies emerge severely limits their consistency. What differentiates the USA is a microeconomic business environment that enables a high degree of regional specialization, benefits especially knowledge-driven industries, and raises the impact of innovation and entrepreneurship policies.

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Entrepreneurship; Policy; Innovation and Invention; Supply and Industry; Business and Government Relations; United States;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Industrial Policy in the United States." Special Issue on The Future of Industrial Policy Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 7, nos. 3-4 (December 2007): 143–323. View Details
  5. Review of Stig Tenold's Tankers in Trouble

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    In "Tankers in Trouble," Stig Tenold looks at the experience of the Norwegian shipping industry during the 1970s and 1980s, specifically of those companies active in the tanker business. The review discusses some complementary insights that can be gained from applying Michael Porter's cluster framework to the analysis of Norwegian shipping and the crisis of the 1970s and 1980s. It shows how the cluster perspective contributes to the understanding of why Norwegian shipping was so strong in the first place, it helps to distinguish whether the Norwegian crisis of the 1970s and 1980s was mainly demand or supply driven, and it can explain the drivers of the resurgence of Norwegian shipping in the 1990s and 2000s.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Framework; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Crisis Management; Perspective; Demand and Consumers; Industry Clusters; Shipping Industry; Norway;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Review of Stig Tenold's Tankers in Trouble." International Journal of Maritime History 21, no. 2 (December 2007): 407–411. View Details
  6. Competitive Advantage and the Value Network Configuration: Making Decisions at a Swedish Life Insurance Company

    Øystein D. Fjeldstad and Christian H.M. Ketels

    When the Swedish Life Insurers Förenade Liv found themselves in difficulties in a rapidly changing market, their response was to call in the consultants. And one of the consultant's first suggestions was to use the Value Network, not the Value Chain, as a new analytical tool to represent the company's activities. How the Value Network model changed the way company executives and consultants framed the company's problems and evaluated its strategic options provides the background to this article. The authors take care to outline how value creation and competitive advantage work in mediating industries that facilitate transactions between customers within a network, and show how the Value Network model asks more effective questions, and thus yields more effective answers, in such situations. In sectors such as communications, insurance etc, where firms' main activity is to assemble and manage a pool of customers as the network in which transactions take places, who already is a customer is important for who might become one. The composition and the size of the customer set can be as important an influence on the benefits of being a member as the quality of the actual services the network provides: mechanisms affecting the composition of the customer pool are at the heart of the company's competitive position. The case analysis shows how, while the product offered had not deteriorated, the market into which it was being offered had changed radically, with dramatic effects on the customer pool that could be attracted. The authors point to the growing importance of new market sectors with network properties, where old value configurations are being challenged and supplanted, and where using the appropriate analytical tools to understand them can become critical for companies to gain a competitive edge in their strategic decision-making.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Fluctuation; Networks; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Value; Quality; Decision Making; Market Transactions; Performance Effectiveness; Customers; Insurance Industry; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Fjeldstad, Øystein D., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Competitive Advantage and the Value Network Configuration: Making Decisions at a Swedish Life Insurance Company." Long Range Planning 39, no. 2 (April 2006): 109–131. View Details
  7. Großbritanniens Zweifel an der Europäischen Wirtschafts - und Währungsunion (The UK and Its Hesitance towards European Economic and Monetary Union)

    Christian H.M. Ketels

  8. Review of 'Financial Integration, Corporate Governance, and the Performance of Multinational Companies' by M. Fukao

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Finance; Integration; Corporate Governance; Performance; Business Ventures; Global Range;

Book Chapters

  1. Clusters and Competitiveness: Porter's Contribution

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    While clusters have been known to exist at least since the days of Marshall, Michael Porter's work, first in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (Porter, 1990) and then in On Competition (originally published in 1998; updated edition in Porter, 2008), has undoubtedly had a singular role in raising the profile of these ideas to a wider audience. The chapter looks at the origins of Porter's interest in clusters, which turns out to be a natural extension of his earlier work on companies. It identifies the key characteristics of Porter's conceptual thinking on clusters. The discussion explores the particular perspective that Porter has taken, often as a result of his specific background and prior research interests. The chapter then turns to extensions of these core concepts in Porter's more recent work. A central focus of this work has been the creation of broad-based empirical datasets that allow the testing and further development of the original cluster framework. The fourth part then explores the policy implications to be drawn from Porter's work on clusters. Porter develops recommendations on how to leverage clusters as a tool in economic development. While many current cluster programs are broadly consistent with these ideas, some policy practice and much of the academic criticism of policies inspired by Porter's cluster work have taken a different direction, looking instead into ways of creating clusters. The fifth section discusses why Porter's work in this field has had such a profound impact, especially on practitioners. A central reason is that Porter addresses very specific needs of different practitioner constituencies, providing a framework and actionable ideas they could easily relate to. The final section turns to a number of open issues that will determine whether Porter's long-term impact on the practice and thinking in this field will reach its full potential.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Framework; Policy; Industry Clusters; Practice; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Clusters and Competitiveness: Porter's Contribution." Chap. 10 in Competition, Competitive Advantage, and Clusters: The Ideas of Michael Porter, edited by Robert Huggins and Hiro Izushi, 173–192. Oxford University Press, 2011. View Details
  2. Política de clústers: guia per a l'Estat del Debat (Cluster Policy: The State of the Debate)

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The chapter provides an overview of the recent literature discussing the pros and cons of cluster policy

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Policy; Body of Literature; Industry Clusters;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Política de clústers: guia per a l'Estat del Debat (Cluster Policy: The State of the Debate)." In Clusters i competitivitat: el cas de Catalunya (1993-2010), edited by Joan Miquel Hernandez Gascon, Alberto Pezzi, and Antoni Soy I Casals, 129 – 150. Papers d'economia industrial. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament d'Innovació, Universitats i Empresa, 2010, Spanish ed. View Details
  3. Clusters and Industrial Districts - Common Roots, Different Perspectives

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Industry Clusters; Local Range; Perspective;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Clusters and Industrial Districts - Common Roots, Different Perspectives." In The Handbook of Industrial Districts, edited by Giacomo Becattini, Marco Bellandi, and Lisa De Propris. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009. View Details
  4. The Global Competitive Position of the Baltic Sea Region

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; Competition; Trade; Baltic Countries;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "The Global Competitive Position of the Baltic Sea Region." Chap. 1.3 in Transnational Cooperation for Prosperity in the Baltic Sea Region, 15–19. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, 2009. View Details
  5. Moving to a New Global Competitiveness Index

    Michael E. Porter, Mercedes Delgado-Garcia, Christian H.M. Ketels and Scott Stern

    Keywords: Globalization; Competitive Advantage; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Mercedes Delgado-Garcia, Christian H.M. Ketels, and Scott Stern. "Moving to a New Global Competitiveness Index." Chap. 1.2 in Global Competitiveness Report 2008/2009, edited by Michael E. Porter and Klaus Schwab, 43–63. Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2008. View Details
  6. Clusterentwicklung als Element lokaler und regionaler Wirtschaftsentwicklung - internationale Erfahrungen

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Development Economics; Developing Countries and Economies; Local Range;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Clusterentwicklung als Element lokaler und regionaler Wirtschaftsentwicklung - internationale Erfahrungen." In Cluster in der kommunalen und regionalen Wirtschaftspolitik. 5th ed. Edited by Holger Floeting, 41–54. Edition Difu--Stadt, Forschung, Praxis. Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Urbanistik, 2008, German ed. View Details
  7. Microeconomic Determinants of Location Competitiveness for MNEs

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The concept of microeconomic competitiveness based on the frameworks developed by Michael Porter since 1990 are popular with policy makers interested in improving the attractiveness and economic performance of their countries and regions. This concept also has many important implications for multinational businesses, a notion that has been initially discussed at the end of the 1990s. This chapter revisits the linkages between the two areas, focusing on the more recent learnings about microeconomic competitiveness and their implications for multinational companies. It lays out different dimensions of locational competitiveness and discusses their structural differences in terms of how they affect companies and how they can be affected by government. It finds that locational competitiveness is becoming an increasingly strategic question for both locations and companies: Locations need to choose their role in the global economy in terms of activities and value provided, and excel in the specific set of microeconomic dimensions that support this particular positioning. Companies need to choose locations that provide the specific assets and capabilities that are best placed to strengthen their own strategic positioning on the market place. The chapter also points out that the locational agenda for companies has broadened: they need to focus not just on choosing the right location, but on developing their strategies to leverage the locations in which they are present and on investing in those aspects of the microeconomic environment in their locations that are most critical to their own strategic position.

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Geographic Location; Multinational Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Competition;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Microeconomic Determinants of Location Competitiveness for MNEs." In Foreign Direct Investments, Location and Competitiveness. Vol. 2, edited by John Dunning and Philippe Gugler. Progress in International Business Research. Oxford: Elsevier, 2007. View Details
  8. The Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index

    Michael E. Porter, Christian H.M. Ketels and Mercedes Delgado-Garcia

    Keywords: Microeconomics; Welfare or Wellbeing; Competitive Advantage; Globalized Economies and Regions;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian H.M. Ketels, and Mercedes Delgado-Garcia. "The Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: Findings from the Business Competitiveness Index." In Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007, edited by Augusto Lopez-Claros, Michael E. Porter, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, and Klaus Schwab. Palgrave Macmillan: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. View Details
  9. Competitiveness in Developing Economies: The Role of Clusters and Cross-Cutting Policies

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Competitiveness is high up on the policy agenda for countries around the world and at all stages of development. But while there is little disagreement that countries need to "upgrade their competitiveness"—even more so as the level of globalization is increasing—there are many different views on what competitiveness actually is and which policies should be employed to improve it. In addition, there is a serious argument of whether the competitiveness framework applies equally to advanced as to developing economies and how these differences in terms of economic development affect appropriate policy choices. In particular, questions arise as to the role of cluster initiatives, an instrument that has become more widely used in many countries in recent years, in a developing economy context.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Framework; Globalization; Policy; Growth and Development; Industry Clusters; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Competitiveness in Developing Economies: The Role of Clusters and Cross-Cutting Policies." In Nurturing the Sources of Growth in Tanzania -- Workshop Proceedings. Dar-es-Salam: Tanzania Ministry of Planning, Economy, and Empowerment, 2006. View Details
  10. UK Competitiveness-Old Labour Market Institutions, New Collaborative Roles

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Labor and Management Relations; Working Conditions; Cooperation; Competitive Advantage; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "UK Competitiveness-Old Labour Market Institutions, New Collaborative Roles." In Productive Partnerships: The Role of Employment Relations in Growing the UK Economy, edited by Tony Pilch, 12–23. London: Smith Institute, 2006. View Details
  11. Export-Led Development in Regional Economies

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Trade; Developing Countries and Economies;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Export-Led Development in Regional Economies." In Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. 4 vols. Edited by Karen Christensen, Robin Jarrett, Dennis Judd, David Levinson, William Metcalf, Roberta Moudry, Ray Oldenburg, Sonya Salamon, Thomas Sander, Michael Shuman, Barry Wellman, and Michael Zuckerman. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing, 2003. View Details
  12. The Impact of Globalisation

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Keywords: Globalization;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "The Impact of Globalisation." In Future Directions of Innovation Policy in Europe: Proceedings of the Innovation Policy Workshop. Vol. 31. Innovation Papers. Brussels: European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General, 2002. View Details
  13. Cooperative Customer Management: Is There Strategic Potential for a New Relationship between Retail and Industry?

    Christian H.M. Ketels, Dirk Seifert and Alexander Kracklauer

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Cooperation; Supply Chain Management; Retail Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M., Dirk Seifert, and Alexander Kracklauer. "Cooperative Customer Management: Is There Strategic Potential for a New Relationship between Retail and Industry?" In Consulting 2002, edited by Felix Breichenstein. Frankfurt, Germany: FAZ-Verlag, 2002. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Clusters and the New Growth Path for Europe

    Christian Ketels and Sergiy Protsiv

    This paper outlines elements of a conceptual framework that clarifies the role that clusters play relative to government policies and actions of individual companies in supporting the emergence of "High Road" strategies that lead to better New Growth Path–related outcomes. It then focuses on creating a new set of data that can start shedding light on the empirical relevance of this framework. The first main section of the paper draws on a new set of employment and wage data across European clusters. The data is used to analyze whether cluster presence is significantly correlated with higher wages, which, as an indicator of higher productivity, are likely to signal the presence of "High Road" strategies. We then take a closer look at the scale of the relationship relative to location-specific and other effects. We find cluster presence to be significantly related to higher wages, with the effect being moderate but meaningful. This suggests that cluster presence enhances the ability of economic activities to deliver high performance but is unlikely to be able to substitute weak business environment conditions. The second section then deploys a wide range of regional performance data collected for the European Competitiveness Index and the European Cluster Observatory. We create indicators for New Growth Path performance and its main dimensions and classify European regions by their performance patterns. This provides critical insights into the compatibility of the different economic, social, and ecological objectives pursued. We then relate these outcomes to the presence of strong cluster portfolios and strong business environment conditions. Both are most strongly associated with stronger economic outcomes, with lower impact on other dimensions of the New Growth Path. The third section creates a new dataset of cluster initiative intensity at the regional and cluster category level. It also classifies close to 1,000 cluster initiatives in Europe by their engagement in New Growth Path–related activities. We then deploy this data to test the impact of cluster initiatives on regional New Growth Path performance. Overall, we find evidence consistent with clusters playing a role in making "High Road" strategies more likely to emerge. We also find evidence that European regions differ in their strategies towards these goals, with some being able to pursue all three dimensions in parallel. Cluster initiatives widely engage in New Growth Path–related activities, indicating their potential as a tool in mobilizing joint action in these areas.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Competition; Industry Clusters; Globalization; Economic Growth; Europe;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian, and Sergiy Protsiv. "Clusters and the New Growth Path for Europe." WWW for Europe Working Paper Series, No. 14, July 2013. (WIFO, Vienna.) View Details
  2. The Determinants of National Competitiveness

    Mercedes Delgado, Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter and Scott Stern

    We define foundational competitiveness as the expected level of output per working-age individual that is supported by the overall quality of a country as a place to do business. The focus on output per potential worker, a broader measure of national productivity than output per current worker, reflects the dual role of workforce participation and output per worker in determining a nation's standard of living. Our framework highlights three broad and interrelated drivers of foundational competitiveness: social infrastructure and political institutions, monetary and fiscal policy, and the microeconomic environment. We estimate this framework using multiple data sets covering more than 130 countries over the 2001–2008 period. We find a positive and separate influence of each driver on output per potential worker. The microeconomic environment has a positive effect on output per potential worker even after controlling for historical legacies. Using our framework we define a new concept, global investment attractiveness, which is the cost of factor inputs relative to a country's competitiveness. This analysis reveals important insight into the economic trajectory of individual countries. Our framework also offers a novel methodology for the estimation of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated measure of national competitiveness.

    Keywords: Country; Competition; Microeconomics; Macroeconomics;

    Citation:

    Delgado, Mercedes, Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. "The Determinants of National Competitiveness." NBER Working Paper Series, No. 18249, July 2012. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge

    Michael E. Porter and Christian Ketels

    The case discusses the origins and development of the European Integration process from the post-war period up to 2007, focusing particularly on the efforts of the Lisbon-agenda under way since 2000 to enhance Europe's competitiveness. It discusses the different policy areas that have been approached at the European level over time, and provides background on the architecture of European institutions. The case enables students to understand how European integration has affected competitiveness across the continent. It provides a platform to discuss the impact of collaboration across countries in large geographies on competitiveness, and the lessons that the European integration experience might hold for other world regions.

    Keywords: Integration; Globalized Economies and Regions; Competition; Development Economics; Global Range; Policy; Failure; European Union; Europe;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian Ketels. "European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge." Harvard Business School Case 714-405, July 2013. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  2. New York City: Bloomberg's Strategy for Economic Development

    Michael E. Porter, Christian H.M. Ketels and Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo

    Traces the economic development of New York City from its founding in the 17th century through 2012. Focuses on the decisions made by New York City officials, past and present, highlighting the challenges of economic development at the city level. Enables deep examination of the interdependence and interrelation of economic policies at the city, state, and federal level and explores the role of economic and cluster performance. Detailed historical economic and social data allow for an evaluation of policy results. The case finishes highlighting the main economic challenges the city was facing in 2012.

    Keywords: History; Development Economics; Industry Clusters; Policy; Government Administration; Financial Crisis; Growth and Development Strategy;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian H.M. Ketels, and Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo. "New York City: Bloomberg's Strategy for Economic Development." Harvard Business School Case 714-404, July 2013. (Revised September 2013.) View Details
  3. Estonia: From Transition to EU Membership

    Michael E. Porter, Christian Ketels and Orjan Solvell

    The case discusses the economic development of Estonia, focusing on the period regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 to 2007. It tracks the process from the initial transition towards a market economy to becoming an EU member country, and profiles the economy, its key clusters, and the quality of its business environment in 2007 when the first signs of overheating were emerging. The case provides the background for a discussion of policy reforms in a transition economy, and the role of legacy and geographical neighborhood in the process of economic upgrading.

    Keywords: Economy; Macroeconomics; Microeconomics; Policy; Government and Politics; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy; Estonia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian Ketels, and Orjan Solvell. "Estonia: From Transition to EU Membership." Harvard Business School Case 713-479, June 2013. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  4. Vietnam: Sustaining the Growth of an Asian Tiger

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    The case tracks Vietnam's economic policy choices and performance from the end of the Vietnam war to the Doi Moi economic reforms and the economic transformation that followed. Throughout this period, the country had become a darling of the international aid community. As the country was preparing for the 2011 Party Congress, however, signs of growing economic frictions were becoming increasingly visible. The case closes by setting the scene for the challenges the new leadership was going to face.

    Keywords: Conflict Management; Leadership; Policy; Transformation; Economic Growth; Developing Countries and Economies; Macroeconomics; Viet Nam;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Vietnam: Sustaining the Growth of an Asian Tiger." Harvard Business School Case 713-480, January 2013. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  5. The Basque Country: Strategy for Economic Development

    Michael E. Porter, Christian H.M. Ketels and Jesus M. Valdaliso

    The Basque country, with a population of 2.1 million and covering 7,233 square kilometers, is an autonomous region located in the north of Spain, physically separated from it by the Pyrenees Mountains. Presents the history of the region—highly prosperous at the turn of the 20th century, but nearing bankruptcy by the 1950s. By 2001, the Basque GDP per capita had risen to a level well ahead of Spain and most European countries. At the same time that the region was enjoying the spoils of admirably executed cluster initiatives, it was being threatened by the destabilizing violence of the Basque separatist extreme, a slowing global economy, and an always precarious balance of power between the Basque's own government and the government of Spain.

    Keywords: History; Crime and Corruption; Industry Clusters; Competitive Strategy; Microeconomics; Developing Countries and Economies; Government and Politics; Basque Provinces; Spain;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Christian H.M. Ketels, and Jesus M. Valdaliso. "The Basque Country: Strategy for Economic Development ." Harvard Business School Case 713-474, January 2013. View Details
  6. Remaking Singapore

    Michael E. Porter, Boon Siong Neo and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Looking through the lenses of both macro and micro economic policy, this case examines how Singapore has achieved such stellar success throughout its history, from independence through 2008. The case discusses the different policy choices the Singaporean government has made as well as how the government's structure has aided development.

    Keywords: History; Development Economics; Industry Clusters; Competitive Advantage; Policy; Economic Growth; Microeconomics; Government and Politics; Macroeconomics; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Boon Siong Neo, and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Remaking Singapore." Harvard Business School Case 710-483, June 2010. (Revised August 2013.) View Details
  7. Iceland: Small fish in a global pond

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Describes the economic development of Iceland since 1945, focusing in particular on the years since 2000, when Iceland experienced strong growth and Icelandic companies aggressively internationalized.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Competition; Macroeconomics; Iceland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Iceland: Small fish in a global pond." Harvard Business School Case 708-472, November 2007. (Revised August 2009.) View Details
  8. Indonesia: Attracting Foreign Investment

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Describes the economic development of Indonesia from independence after World War II to 2006 and the post-Suharto period. The coverage of the post-Suharto period provides evidence of how political and economic conditions are intertwined after a change in the political regime. Profiles the business environment in 2006, including a documentation of past and present policies that shaped the current situation. A particular focus is Indonesia's stance towards attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). The country has a checkered history of oscillating between seeking and fighting foreign investors. Provides a perspective on the relative importance of FDI policies, general economic policies and business environment conditions, and the nature of competition from other locations on FDI flows.

    Keywords: History; Situation or Environment; Competitive Strategy; Emerging Markets; Policy; Foreign Direct Investment; Business and Government Relations; Public Administration Industry; Indonesia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Indonesia: Attracting Foreign Investment." Harvard Business School Case 708-420, November 2007. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  9. Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Describes the economic development of Latvia, a small eastern European country on the shores of the Baltic Sea, from regaining independence in 1991 to European Union (EU) accession in 2004 and is set on May 1st, 2004, the day Latvia became an EU member. Latvia had achieved strong growth since regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1990. Describes Latvia's economic development over this period, discussing the economic policy efforts that have taken place and includes general information on the country, its history and politics, and the business environment that companies faced in 2004. A special focus is the influence that the EU accession process has on the Latvian economy and on economic policy choices in the country. Challenges students to discuss how the environment changes as EU membership is achieved, and which new priorities the country might need to define for its economic policy.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Economic Growth; Policy; Business and Government Relations; European Union; Latvia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession." Harvard Business School Case 707-515, February 2007. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  10. Cluster Mobilization in Mitteldeutschland

    Jeffrey Fear and Christian H.M. Ketels

    As part of the privatization in Eastern Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Dow Chemical made a major investment in the Halle-Leipzig region, one of the largest chemical industry sites in Europe. The executive in charge of Dow's operations in the region, Bart Groot, increasingly felt that the long-term success of Dow's investment depended on a more dynamic development of the entire regional economy. On his own initiative, in 1997, Groot launched a private sector-driven effort to enhance the economic development in central Germany, the region located around Halle-Leipzig. Bundling together 50 other firms and four cities, he founded a regional marketing effort to brand or market the area, but then shifted focus to building clusters. Examines the motivations of companies and company executives to get involved in regional competitiveness efforts and provides a platform to discuss the factors that drive the success of cluster-building efforts through cooperation across firms in a disadvantaged area.

    Keywords: Industry Clusters; Development Economics; Privatization; Chemicals; Foreign Direct Investment; Management Teams; Private Sector; Competitive Strategy; Brands and Branding; Market Participation; Chemical Industry; Germany;

    Citation:

    Fear, Jeffrey, and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Cluster Mobilization in Mitteldeutschland." Harvard Business School Case 707-004, August 2006. (Revised March 2007.) View Details
  11. Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession (TN)

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    Teaching note to 707515.

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Emerging Markets; Market Entry and Exit; Perspective; Opportunities; Retail Industry; Latvia; Russia; China; Germany; India;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Latvia: Economic Strategy after EU Accession (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 707-524, March 2007. View Details

Presentations

  1. UK Competitiveness: Entering a New Stage

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porter's articles and books, in particular, The Competitive Advantage of Nations (The Free Press, 1990), "The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development," in The Global Competitiveness Report 2003, (World Economic Forum, 2003), "Clusters and the New Competitive Agenda for Companies and Governments" in On Competition (Harvard Business School Press, 1998), and our joint ESRC/DTI report "UK Competitiveness: Entering a New Stage," 2003.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "UK Competitiveness: Entering a New Stage." Smith Institute, London, United Kingdom, March 16, 2004. View Details
  2. Cluster-Based Economic Development: What Have We Learned?

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porter's articles and books, in particular, The Competitive Advantage of Nations (The Free Press, 1990), "The Microeconomic Foundations of Economic Development," in The Global Competitiveness Report 2003 (World Economic Forum, 2003), "Clusters and the New Competitive Agenda for Companies and Governments" in On Competition (Harvard Business School Press, 1998), and the "Cluster Initiative Greenbook" by C Ketels, O Solvell, and G Lindqvist.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Cluster-Based Economic Development: What Have We Learned?" United Kingdom, Department of Trade and Industry, London, March 17, 2004. View Details
  3. Asia Competitiveness Institute Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    2003This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porter's articles and books, in particular, The Competitive Advantage of Nations(The Free Press, 1990), "Building the Microeconomic Foundations of Competitiveness," in The Global Competitiveness Report 2002, (World Economic Forum, 2002), "Clusters and the New Competitive Agenda for Companies and Governments" in On Competition(Harvard Business School Press, 1998), and joint work with the SasinGraduate School of Business on Thai competitiveness financed by the NESDB.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Thailand;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Asia Competitiveness Institute Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy." Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Bangkok, Thailand, May 2003. View Details
  4. Global Competitiveness Report 2004-05: Sweden’s Business Competitiveness

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porte'’s books and articles, in articular, "Building the Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity," in The Global Competitiveness Report 2004-05 (World Economic Forum, 2004); "Clusters and the New Competitive Agenda for Companies and Governments," in On Competition (Harvard Business School Press, 1998); Clusters of Innovation Initiative (www.compete.org), a joint effort of the Council on Competitiveness, Monitor Group, and ongoing research.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Global Competitiveness Report 2004-05: Sweden’s Business Competitiveness." Global Competitiveness Report Launch, Stockholm, October 13, 2004. View Details
  5. The Cluster Observatory Classroom

    Christian H.M. Ketels, Örjan Sölvell and Göran Lindqvist

    The European Cluster Observatory offers a free educational video series: ON CLUSTERS. The series covers three programs: 1.Cluster Dynamics, 2.Cluster Policy, 3.Cluster Management

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M., Örjan Sölvell, and Göran Lindqvist. "The Cluster Observatory Classroom." European Cluster Observatory, March 2010. View Details
  6. European Competitiveness in 2004

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porter's articles and books, in particular, The Competitive Advantage of Nations (The Free Press, 1990), "Building the Microeconomic Foundations of Competitiveness," in The Global Competitiveness Report 2003-2004, (Oxford University Press, 2004), "Clusters and the New Competitive Agenda for Companies and Governments" in On Competition (Harvard Business School Press, 1998), and ongoing research on clusters and competitiveness.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Croatia;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "European Competitiveness in 2004." MBA Lecture, Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Ekonomski fakultet, June 16, 2004. View Details
  7. Microeconomic Aspects of Competitiveness:Lessons for Post-Crisis Growth Policies

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Prof. Christian Ketels - Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School and Center for Strategy and Competitiveness, Stockholm School of Economics

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Society; Latvia;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Microeconomic Aspects of Competitiveness:Lessons for Post-Crisis Growth Policies." Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Riga, Latvia, September 15, 2010. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Clusters, Cluster Policy, and Swedish Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Proximity enables firms to take advantage of knowledge spill-overs and exploit supplier demand linkages with other entities engaged in related activities. Cluster strength thus seems to be one of the important determinants of prosperity differences across geographies. How can cluster-based economic policy help Sweden succeed in global competition? The report "Clusters, Cluster Policy, and Swedish Competitiveness in the Global Economy" approaches this central question through three different steps. First, what can be learnt from the academic research on clusters so far? Second, what conclusions can be drawn from the debate about whether cluster policy is at all useful, and how can it be structured to achieve the best possible impact? Third, what does this mean in terms of implementing a cluster policy for Sweden? The author outlines specific recommendations on how policy should be designed to improve cluster dynamics, how the fundamentals can be changed to make the emergence of strong clusters more likely, and the extent to which cluster processes can be a channel back into overall competitiveness policies at the regional and national level.

    Keywords: Economics; Growth and Development; Sweden;

  2. Sweden's Position in the Global Economy

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    In the spring of 2012, the Swedish economy is, as many of its peers, facing a difficult and uncertain economic environment. While these challenges are real, the Swedish economy looks much better prepared to deal with them than many of its peers. Following its own financial crisis in the early 1990s, subsequent Swedish governments have made policy choices that reversed the country's previous economic decline. The objective of this report is to look ahead and identify what new challenges Sweden has to address in order to retain and enhance its ability to achieve high standards of living in global competition. As a "base report" for the Globalization Forum's work, the intention is to go wide rather than deep: we want to identify areas that are a priority for policy action but also further analysis, not develop specific recommendations for any individual policy field. The methodological framework used in this report is similar to the Nordic Globalization Barometer and related analyses of country competitiveness (Ketels, 2011). At its core is a definition of competitiveness as "the expected level of output per working-age individual, given the overall quality of a country as a place to do business" (Delgado et al., 2012). This definition is focused on understanding the broad range of drivers of locational prosperity amenable to policy action. The report aims to cover this large range of issues in a way that is accessible and concise: it is comprehensive in its coverage of policy areas but provides detail only where important to establish a specific argument. It draws largely on existing data and analysis rather than significant primary research. It wants to provide overall orientation and identify critical issues, not answer detailed policy questions in a particular field.

    Keywords: Economy; Financial Crisis; Government and Politics; Policy; Globalization; Competitive Advantage; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Sweden's Position in the Global Economy." Globaliseringsforum Rapport, Entreprenörskapsforum, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012. View Details
  3. State of the Region Report 2011: The Top of Europe's Quest for Resilience--A Competitive Region Facing a Fragile Global Economy

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The State of the Region Reports provide an annual discussion of competitiveness and collaboration across the Baltic Sea Region, covering the Nordic countries, the Baltic countries, Northern Germany, Northern Poland, and Northwestern Russia. The 2011 edition, the 8th in this series, documents in its first part how this Region has been able to recover more strongly after the crisis than many of its peers. It provides updated information about underlying competitiveness as well as key policy initiatives. A special section is devoted to Poland. The second part then discusses the level of collaboration in the Region, covering the activities of the many cross-regional institutions and networks. It looks in particular at the progress made in the context of the EU Baltic Sea Region Strategy, the European Union's first macroregional strategy. The third section then provides a discussion of entrepreneurship across the Region,

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Entrepreneurship; Globalized Economies and Regions; Policy; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Cooperation; Baltic Countries;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "State of the Region Report 2011: The Top of Europe's Quest for Resilience--A Competitive Region Facing a Fragile Global Economy." Report Series, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, October 2011. View Details
  4. Nordic Globalization Barometer 2011

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The Nordic Globalization Barometer 2011, the fourth in its series, builds on the methodology established in previous editions: The first part provides a short overview of the macroeconomic climate in the Nordic countries. The second part tracks the changes in economic performance, the ultimate way in which competitiveness translates into prosperity. The third part covers the main drivers of competitiveness. The fourth part covers indicators of a country's ability to project its competitiveness globally. The two final parts of the Barometer provide information on policy actions by the Nordic countries in the main dimensions of competitiveness and globalization readiness covered. The Barometer concludes with a number of summary remarks on the main findings and policy conclusions. The Nordic economies—small, open, and with robust macroeconomic and financial market regulation policies following their own financial crisis in the 1990s—have been fully exposed to the dramatic recent changes in the global economy. Their solid domestic policies enabled them to deal with the crisis much better than many of their OECD peers, with Iceland being a special case. But their dependence on foreign trade also exposed them to the full-blown shock of the trade collapse. In the short run, the fiscal imbalances created by the economic crisis are a dominant concern for a significant part of the region, Denmark and Finland in particular. In the longer run, all Nordic countries face the question of where they will stand when the centre of gravity in the global economy moves away from Europe.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Financial Crisis; Macroeconomics; Trade; Globalized Economies and Regions; Policy; Competitive Strategy; Scandinavia;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Nordic Globalization Barometer 2011." Report Series, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2011. View Details
  5. Vietnam Competitiveness Report 2010

    Christian H.M. Ketels, Nguyen Dinh Cung, Nguyen Thi Tue Anh and Do Hong Hanh

    The 2010 Vietnam Competitiveness Report contains a broad assessment of Vietnam's current competitiveness, an analysis of the key challenges and opportunities ahead, and a proposal for an economic strategy to enable Vietnam to reach a higher level of sustainable growth. The Report has been developed by Vietnam's Central Institute for Economic Management and the Singapore-based Asia Competitiveness Institute upon the request of Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Trade; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Labor; Industry Clusters; Performance Capacity; Performance Productivity; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M., Nguyen Dinh Cung, Nguyen Thi Tue Anh, and Do Hong Hanh. "Vietnam Competitiveness Report 2010." Report Series, Central Institute for Economic Management, Hanoi/Singapore, December 2010. View Details
  6. State of the Region Report 2010: The Top of Europe Recovering—Regional Lessons from a Global Crisis

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The 2010 State of the Region Report, the seventh in this series of annual evaluations of competitiveness and cooperation across the Baltic Sea Region, takes the Region's economic temperature in the first year after the full onslaught of the global crisis. The focus of the policy debate is shifting towards the exit from last year's emergency measures and the design of growth strategies that can put the economy back on a sustainable development path. It is in this context of how to achieve sustainable growth that the analysis of competitiveness and of the role regional collaboration can play in strengthening is playing an important role. Part A of the Report tracks different indicators of competitiveness and cooperation in the Region, much as in previous Reports. The Report highlights the changes since last October and provides a summary assessment of the situation in other areas. Part B focuses on the longer-term economic trends in the Baltic countries and Poland. The dramatic shift from high growth to deep recession in the Baltic countries raises fundamental questions about their future economic policy approach.

    Keywords: Trends; Economic Growth; Financial Crisis; Policy; Performance Effectiveness; Competitive Strategy; Cooperation; Baltic Countries;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "State of the Region Report 2010: The Top of Europe Recovering—Regional Lessons from a Global Crisis." Report Series, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, 2010. View Details
  7. Nordic Globalization Barometer 2010

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The 2010 Nordic Globalization Barometer, the third in this series, is again designed to serve as input to the discussions of the five Nordic Prime Ministers (representing Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) at the Nordic Globalization Forum. In its first part, the Barometer tracks the evolution of the global competitiveness of the Nordic countries during and after the global crisis. In its second part, it focuses on the status and trends of coporate R&D activities in the Nordic countries as the competitive pressure from other parts of the world, like China, is growing. The report closes with a number of policy recommendations.

    Keywords: Globalization; Competition; Research and Development; Policy; Financial Crisis; Denmark; Finland; Iceland; Norway; China;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Nordic Globalization Barometer 2010." Report Series, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2010. View Details
  8. Spitzencluster in der globalen Innovationslandschaft

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Discussion of the German "Spitzencluster-Wettbewerb" (Excellence cluster competition) in the context of changes in the global market for innovation

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Collaborative Innovation and Invention; Independent Innovation and Invention; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Spitzencluster in der globalen Innovationslandschaft." Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Berlin, 2010. View Details
  9. Singapore Competitiveness Report

    Christian H.M. Ketels, Ashish Lall and Boon Siong Neo

    The 2009 Singapore Competitiveness Report, the first in this new series of regular assessments by the Asia Competitiveness Institute (ACI) at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, provides data and analysis to inform the discussions on the impact of the crisis on the medium- to long-term development of Singaporean competitiveness.

    Singapore has become an internationally respected model for a country that is willing to continuously review its position, and has taken decisive action where needed. This Report is written in this context, hoping to provide Singaporean policy makers with our analysis and perspective of the key issues and some possible options to consider. This is the first Singapore Competitiveness Report produced by the Asia Competitiveness Institute, and we intend to continue to use subsequent reports to highlight our analysis and perspective of the competitiveness issues facing Singapore in the medium term.

    The Report uses multiple sources of data to assess Singapore's competitiveness in this broad framework. It focuses on integrating and analysing this data in an integrated fashion, while adding additional primary data only in selected areas where gaps exist. The ambition is to present the best possible analysis given the data available, rather than conducting extensive primary research as part of this Report.

    The data is organized in a number of key categories that provide different perspectives on Singapore's competitiveness position:

    The first group of indicators assess Singapore's track record on the indicators of economic performance: the quality of life Singaporeans are able to enjoy as a consequence of the fundamentals present in their economy. Relevant data points include prosperity levels, equality, and measures of human development

    The second group of indicators looks at economic outcomes that are signs of and contributors to competitiveness but may not be the ultimate goals of economic policy. This includes measures of foreign and domestic investment, international trade, innovation, and entrepreneurship.

    The third group of indicators then tracks Singapore's position on the broad range of macro- and microeconomic competitiveness factors that ultimately explain the medium-term trends on the economic outcomes previously discussed. The indicators covered range from assessments of governance quality, the provision of primary public services, and the solidity of public finances to the sophistication of companies, the dynamism of clusters, the quality of physical infrastructure, the intensity of local competition, and many more.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Financial Crisis; Macroeconomics; Microeconomics; Policy; Competitive Strategy; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M., Ashish Lall, and Boon Siong Neo. "Singapore Competitiveness Report." Asia Competitiveness Institute, Singapore, November 2009. View Details
  10. State of the Region Report 2009: Boosting the Top of Europe

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The 2009 State of the Region Report, the sixth in this series of annual evaluations of competitiveness and cooperation across the Baltic Sea Region, provides a perspective on the radical change in the economic climate of the Region over the last year. The Report puts the dynamics of the crisis into the context of the Region's fundamental competitiveness to assess the impact on the trajectory of the Region over time. In light of the high pressure for short-term policy reactions and a frequently changing outlook, the objective of the Report is to inform decisions that address current challenges with a view to their long-term impact on the Region's economic position. Part A of the Report tracks the context for competitiveness and cooperation in the Region. A large share of the discussion is devoted to the macroeconomic situation across the Region, with the remainder of the section documenting the activities of the main regional institutions over the last year. Part B gives an overview of different aspects of competiveness. Part C is devoted to the EU Baltic Sea Region strategy, providing an overview of its emergence and content, an example of the activities it will generate, and an assessment of what the strategy process has achieved.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Financial Crisis; Macroeconomics; Competitive Strategy; Cooperation; Baltic Countries; European Union;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "State of the Region Report 2009: Boosting the Top of Europe." Report Series, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, October 2009. View Details
  11. Clusters and Dubai's Competitiveness

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The Dubai Cluster Competitiveness Report presents a consistent analysis of the four clusters that currently dominate the Dubai economy: construction, financial services, tourism, and transportation and logistics. Each of the four cluster chapter provides a profile of the cluster, an assessment of its current performance, and a discussion of the cluster-specific business environment that drives these outcomes. Based on this analysis the chapters then discuss the outlook for the clusters and provide recommendations on key action priorities to improve the cluster's competitiveness. Key findings are summarized at the beginning of each of the four cluster chapters.

    Keywords: Economy; Industry Clusters; Performance Evaluation; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Construction Industry; Financial Services Industry; Tourism Industry; Transportation Industry; Dubai;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Clusters and Dubai's Competitiveness." Report, Dubai Economic Council, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, October 2009. View Details
  12. Clusters, Cluster Policy, and Swedish Competitiveness

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Proximity enables firms to take advantage of knowledge spill-overs and exploit supplierdemand linkages with other entities engaged in related activities. Cluster strength thus seems to be one of the important determinants of prosperity differences across geographies. How can cluster-based economic policy help Sweden succeed in global competition? The report "Clusters, Cluster Policy, and Swedish Competitiveness in the Global Economy" approaches this central question through three different steps. First, what can be learnt from the academic research on clusters so far? Second, what conclusions can be drawn from the debate about whether cluster policy is at all useful, and how can it be structured to achieve the best possible impact? Third, what does this mean in terms of implementing a cluster policy for Sweden? The author outlines specific recommendations on how policy should be designed to improve cluster dynamics, how the fundamentals can be changed to make the emergence of strong clusters more likely, and the extent to which cluster processes can be a channel back into overall competitiveness policies at the regional and national level.

    Keywords: Policy; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Industry Clusters; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Clusters, Cluster Policy, and Swedish Competitiveness." Expert Report to Sweden's Globalisation Council, Globalisation Council (Sweden), Stockholm, Sweden, 2009. View Details
  13. Nordic Globalization Barometer 2009: Global Pressure—Nordic Solutions?

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Less than a year after the first Nordic Globalization Barometer has been launched, the state of the world economy has changed dramatically. A deep financial crisis is taking its toll on investors, borrowers, and the financial institutions that serve them. A deep economic crisis is threatening to bring the global economy close to stagnation for the first time in the modern era. And while some past economic downturns and financial collapses did have an international dimension, this one is arguably the first true global crisis, affecting pretty much all economies around the globe. This raises many long-term questions about globalization, about the functioning of markets, and about the lessons the Nordic countries should draw from this crisis. And with the crisis still unfolding, there are also many short-term questions about what should be done right now to contain the downturn. The Nordic Globalization Barometer makes a contribution to those questions that are related to the supply side of the economy, i.e. the factors that influence an economy's productive capacity in the medium term. Much of the current policy focus is instead on short term efforts to shore up the financial system and make up for the downfall in aggregate demand. The challenge is to make such short-term policy choices in a way that addresses these immediate challenges while being consistent with rising levels of global competitiveness and productive capacity over time. The Barometer provides data to inform the decisions that Nordic leaders are facing in this respect.

    Keywords: Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Financial Crisis; Financial Markets; Globalized Economies and Regions; Competitive Strategy; Scandinavia;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Nordic Globalization Barometer 2009: Global Pressure—Nordic Solutions?" Report Series, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2009. View Details
  14. State of the Region Report 2008: Sustaining Growth at the Top of Europe

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The 2008 State of the Region Report is the fifth edition in this series of annual evaluations of competitiveness and cooperation across the Baltic Sea Region. The Report is organized into three parts: Part A of the Report describes the economic, political, and institutional context in which regional collaboration in the Region operates. Part B covers different aspects of the Region's competitiveness, including an assessment of its economic performance, an evaluation of its competitiveness fundamentals, and its position regarding the European Union's Lisbon Agenda. Part C looks at the relations of the Baltic Sea Region towards the institutions and policies of the European Union, and the performance of the Region in the areas of environment and energy.

    Keywords: International Relations; Performance Evaluation; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Cooperation; Baltic Countries; European Union;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "State of the Region Report 2008: Sustaining Growth at the Top of Europe." Report Series, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, December 2008. View Details
  15. Perspectives: Massachusetts Life Sciences—Locally Linked, Globally Connected

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Perspectives: Massachusetts Life Sciences—Locally Linked, Globally Connected." Supercluster: Ideas, Perspectives, and Trends Shaping the Global Impact of the Massachusetts Life Sciences Industry (2008). (New England Healthcare Institute.) View Details
  16. Nordic Globalization Barometer 2008

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The countries in the Nordic region—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden—have been among the economies that have done best in an increasingly global economy. All Nordic countries have higher levels of prosperity than the average OECD country. Only the United States and Ireland have a higher GDP per capita than the Nordic countries. How can the Nordic countries continue to be competitive on a global scale? The first Nordic Globalization Barometer, commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers on behalf of the five Nordic Prime Ministers, identifies central issues related to the dynamics of globalization and evaluates the position of the Nordic countries in the global economy in three main categories: Economic performance, competitiveness, and globalization readiness. Its aim is to spur and inspire a fruitful discussion on how the region can be strengthened further.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Globalized Economies and Regions; Competitive Strategy; Scandinavia;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "Nordic Globalization Barometer 2008." Report, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2008. View Details
  17. Competitiveness at the Crossroads: Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    The report synthesizes, interprets, and draws implications about Russia's economic progress, applying the Porter competitiveness framework. It is part of a Strategic Audit of the Russian Federation, a broader set of research activities coordinated by CSR to provide a sound analytical basis for long-term economic policy planning in the Russian Federation. The Russian economy has been studied by numerous international organizations, academics, and other analysts. This report draws on these studies, but differs in three main respects: First, it focuses on the microeconomic underpinnings of competitiveness at the level of firms, clusters, and the business environment in which firms compete. Existing studies tend to focus on macroeconomic policies, the legal system, and other broader aspects of economic context. Second, we offer an overall, strategic perspective focusing on overall priorities for the future. Existing studies tend to concentrate on detailed assessment of individual policies. Third, this report is intended not only for a technical audience but to inform both policymakers and the broader Russian community about the state of the economy during a very complex historical transition. The report is organized in three sections. First, it outlines an analytical framework to understand the medium- and long-term foundations of Russian prosperity in today's global economy. Globalization, technological change, and widespread economic reforms in other countries have shifted both the imperatives and opportunities for competitiveness. Second, we assess Russia'current competitiveness, highlighting the roles of the country's legacy, its broad economic context, microeconomic conditions, and current economic policies. Third, we offer overall recommendations for policymakers, along with priorities for further research, that seek to address the real complexities the country is facing. We are well aware that Russian leaders have to conduct economic policy in an environment of many distortions and complexities, where generic advice based on simple economic models is insufficient.

    Keywords: Macroeconomics; Microeconomics; Globalized Economies and Regions; Policy; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Russia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "Competitiveness at the Crossroads: Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy." Report, Center for Strategic Research, Moscow, Russia, December 2007. View Details
  18. State of the Region Report 2007: Doing Business at the Top of Europe

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The 2007 State of the Region Report is the fourth edition in this series of annual evaluations of competitiveness and cooperation across the Baltic Sea Region. The Report is organized into three parts: Part A of the Report describes the motivation for regional cooperation and the macroeconomic context in which it currently occurs. Part B covers different aspects of the Region's competitiveness, from an assessment of its economic performance to an evaluation of its microeconomic fundamentals to its position regarding the European Union's Lisbon Agenda. Part C looks at the Region from the perspective of businesses and discusses its attractiveness as a market, its potential as a source of competitive advantages, and its effectiveness as a policy platform for competitiveness upgrading.

    Keywords: Macroeconomics; Microeconomics; Globalized Economies and Regions; Performance Effectiveness; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Cooperation; Baltic Countries;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "State of the Region Report 2007: Doing Business at the Top of Europe." Report Series, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, November 2007. View Details
  19. Norway's Role in the Global Economy of the 21st Century—Key Policy Issues: Prepared for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The paper discusses key consequences of globalisation for Norwegian external economic policy.

    Keywords: Economics; Globalization; Policy; Norway;

  20. The Role of Clusters in the Chemical Industry

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    The European Chemical Industry, still in the leading position globally, is under intense competitive pressure from emerging locations in Asia and the Middle East. After first reacting by efficiency upgrading within companies and then pursuing outsourcing and aggressive cost pressure on suppliers, especially in logistics, chemical companies have come to the realiziation that these efforts alone will not be sufficient. They are turning to cluster efforts to organize joint action to upgrade competitiveness. This also offers new opportunities to change the dialogue with government, an important player for regulation and infrastructure, that had become increasingly dysfunctional in the debate around the European Union's REACH regulation on chemical substances. This report provides data on European Chemical clusters and on global trade flows in the chemical cluster, drawing on a new European employment data set (www.clusterobservatory.eu) and an HBS trade data set (http://data.isc.hbs.edu/iccp/index.jsp). It also discusses the context for cluster initiatives in the chemical industry.

    Keywords: Trade; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Industry Clusters; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Chemical Industry; Asia; Europe; Middle East;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "The Role of Clusters in the Chemical Industry." Report, 2007. (Prepared for the Annual Conference of the European Petrochemical Association (EPCA)) View Details
  21. The Development of the Cluster Concept—Present Experiences and Recent Developments

    Christian H.M. Ketels

    This review presents an overview of the current research on clusters and cluster-based economic development. It is organized in three parts: First, it takes a look at the conceptual foundations of the cluster approach, discussing the definition of clusters, the different types of clusters, the economic benefits that clusters provide, and the factors that influence cluster performance. Second, it summarizes some of the research testing the conceptual framework empirically. Third, it discusses the current knowledge about cluster-based economic development. While there is a fairly good understanding of clusters as an empirical phenomenon there is far less systematic knowledge about turning this understanding into effective policies.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Clusters; Development Economics; Performance; Framework; Knowledge Sharing; Policy;

    Citation:

    Ketels, Christian H.M. "The Development of the Cluster Concept—Present Experiences and Recent Developments." Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, Dusseldorf, Germany, December 2003. View Details
  22. The Cluster Initiative Greenbook

    Örjan Sölvell, Göran Lindqvist and Christian H.M. Ketels

    After Michael Porter's seminal work on clusters and competitiveness published around 1990, cluster initiatives (CIs) have become a central feature of microeconomic policy around the world. CIs add a new dimension to traditional policy areas such as industrial policies, regional and SME policies, investment attraction policies, and science and innovation policies. Experimentation with new types of partnerships linking industry clusters-government-academia is now going on in developed, transition and developing countries around the world.

    Keywords: Macroeconomics; Policy; Investment; Industry Clusters; Innovation and Invention; Developing Countries and Economies; Transition; Partners and Partnerships; Science;

    Citation:

    Sölvell, Örjan, Göran Lindqvist, and Christian H.M. Ketels. "The Cluster Initiative Greenbook." Ivory Tower AB, Stockholm, Sweden, August 2003. (Prepared for the 6th Annual Conference of The Competitiveness Institute (TCI), Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2003.) View Details
  23. UK Competitiveness: Moving to the Next Stage

    Michael E. Porter and Christian H.M. Ketels

    In October 2002, the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) appointed Professor Michael Porter and his team to conduct a brief, three-month review of the existing evidence on UK competitiveness. The effort was funded jointly by the ESRC and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) served as the UK-based academic sponsor of the project.

    The objective of this review is to synthesize, interpret, and draw implications from the available evidence on the competitiveness of the United Kingdom, applying the Porter competitiveness framework and drawing on the learning from dozens of national competitiveness projects over the last decade. The ESRC asked that special attention be paid to the role of management in UK competitiveness.

    Keywords: Competition; Economics; Performance Productivity; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Research and Development; Competency and Skills; Investment; Assets; Corporate Strategy; Policy; Management; Knowledge Use and Leverage; United Kingdom; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Christian H.M. Ketels. "UK Competitiveness: Moving to the Next Stage." DTI Economics Paper, May 2003. View Details