Dennis Campbell

Professor of Business Administration

Dennis W. Campbell is a Professor in the Accounting & Management Unit at Harvard Business School. He is currently the course head for the HBS required MBA course Financial Reporting and Control. He also teaches the elective MBA course Managing Service Operations as well as in the HBS doctoral program and several executive education programs including Driving Corporate Performance (U.S. and China), Achieving Breakthrough Service, and Consumer Financial Services.

Professor Campbell's research, teaching, and case writing focus on the design of performance measurement and management control systems, with a particular focus on identifying design choices that enable more effective interactions between organizations and their customers. He has studied these issues extensively in both the U.S. and international services sectors and has published numerous case studies across a variety of related industries including retail, hospitality, and financial services. His research has been published in leading academic journals including Journal of Accounting Research, The Accounting ReviewManufacturing & Service Operations Management, and Management Science.   

Professor Campbell received his doctorate from Harvard Business School and his bachelors degrees in mathematics and economics from the University of Redlands (Redlands, CA). Prior to beginning his doctoral studies, he worked at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve in Washington, D.C. on research and policy related to the structure, conduct, and performance of U.S. banking institutions and markets. He is currently serving on the board of the Harvard University Employees Credit Union and is a research fellow at the Filene Research Institute. He enjoys living in Sudbury, MA with his wife, son, daughter, and two dogs.  

Journal Articles

  1. Discussion of 'The Use of Management Control Mechanisms to Mitigate Moral Hazard in the Decision to Outsource'

    Keywords: Management; Decision Making; Ethics; Job Cuts and Outsourcing;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Discussion of 'The Use of Management Control Mechanisms to Mitigate Moral Hazard in the Decision to Outsource'." Journal of Accounting Research 50, no. 2 (May, 2012): 593–604.
  2. Employee Selection as a Control System

    Theories from the economics, management control, and organizational behavior literatures predict that when it is difficult to align incentives by contracting on output, aligning preferences via employee selection may provide a useful alternative. This study investigates this idea empirically using personnel and lending data from a financial services organization that implemented a highly decentralized business model. I exploit variation in this organization in whether or not employees are selected via channels that are likely to sort on the alignment of their preferences with organizational objectives. I find that employees selected through such channels are more likely to use decision-making authority in the granting and structuring of consumer loans than those who are not. Conditional on using decision-making authority, their decisions are also less risky ex post. These findings demonstrate employee selection as an important, but understudied, element of organizational control systems.

    Keywords: Management Systems; Governance Controls; Employees; Selection and Staffing; Motivation and Incentives; Decision Making; Business Model;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Employee Selection as a Control System." Journal of Accounting Research 50, no. 4 (September, 2012): 931–966.
  3. Bouncing Out of the Banking System: An Empirical Analysis of Involuntary Bank Account Closures

    Using a new database, we document the factors that relate to the extent of involuntary consumer bank account closure resulting from excessive overdraft activity. Consumers who have accounts involuntarily closed for overdraft activity may have limited or no access to the formal banking system. In the period 2000 through 2005, there were approximately 30 million checking accounts reportedly closed for excessive overdrafting. Closure rates jointly reflect (a) financial mismanagement on the behalf of families and (b) bank forbearance policies regarding overdrawn customers. We focus on five factors to explain the incidence of involuntary closures: personal traits, community traits, economic trends, bank policies, and credit access through the alternative financial services sector. We find that involuntary closures are most frequent in U.S. counties with high rates of households headed by single mothers, low levels of college education, high rates of property crime, a strong presence of multi-market vs. local banks, higher levels of competition among banks, and low rates of electoral participation. Negative shocks to income and rates of employment are also associated with increases in closure activity within counties over time. We interpret these results as consistent with involuntary consumer account closures being jointly driven by thin margins between income and expenditures, general consumer inability to budget and forecast, bank incentives, and community norms and social capital. Furthermore, using both national data and a natural experiment, we find that access to payday lending seems to lead to higher rates of involuntary account closure.

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Customers; Social Issues; Outcome or Result; Budgets and Budgeting; Forecasting and Prediction; Competition; Banks and Banking; Policy; Personal Characteristics; Credit; Employment; United States;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, F. Asis Martinez-Jerez, and Peter Tufano. "Bouncing Out of the Banking System: An Empirical Analysis of Involuntary Bank Account Closures." Journal of Banking & Finance 36, no. 4 (April 2012): 1224–1235.
  4. Market Heterogeneity and Local Capacity Decisions in Services

    We empirically document factors that influence how local operating managers use discretion to balance the tradeoff between service capacity costs and customer sensitivity to service time. Our findings, using data from one of the largest financial services providers in the U.S., indicate that customer sensitivity to service time varies widely and predictably with observable market characteristics. In turn, we find evidence that local operating managers account for market specific customer sensitivities to service times by deviating frequently and in predictable ways from the recommendations offered by a centralized capacity planning model. Finally, we document that these discretionary capacity supply decisions exhibit a strong learning effect whereby experienced operating managers place more weight than their less experienced counterparts on the market-specific tradeoff between service capacity costs and customer sensitivity to service times. Overall, our results demonstrate both the importance of local knowledge as an input in service operations and the potential for incorporating richer data on customer behavior and preferences into service cost and productivity standard metrics.

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Cost; Standards; Service Delivery; Service Operations; Performance Capacity; Performance Productivity; Financial Services Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Frances X. Frei. "Market Heterogeneity and Local Capacity Decisions in Services." Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 13, no. 1 (winter 2011). (Lead Article.)
  5. The Learning Effects of Monitoring

    This paper investigates the relationship between monitoring, decision making, and learning among lower-level employees. We exploit a field-research setting in which business units vary in the "tightness" with which they monitor employee decisions. We find that tighter monitoring gives rise to implicit incentives in the form of sharp increases in employee termination linked to "excessive" use of decision rights. Consistent with these implicit incentives, we find that employees in tightly monitored business units are less likely than their loosely monitored counterparts to 1) use decision rights and 2) adjust for local information, including historical performance data, in their decisions. These decision-making patterns are associated with large and systematic differences in learning rates across business units. Learning is concentrated in business units with "loose monitoring" and entirely absent in those with "tight monitoring." The results are consistent with an experimentation hypothesis in which tight monitoring of decisions leads to more control but less learning.

    Keywords: Learning; Business or Company Management; Decision Making; Employees; Research; Resignation and Termination; Rights; Business Units; Governance Controls; Performance; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Marc Epstein, and F. Asis Martinez-Jerez. "The Learning Effects of Monitoring." Accounting Review 86, no. 6 (October 2011): 1909–1934.
  6. The Cost Structure, Customer Profitability, and Retention Implications of Self-Service Distribution Channels: Evidence from Customer Behavior in an Online Banking Channel

    This paper uses the context of online banking to investigate the consequences of employing self-service distribution channels to alter customer interactions with the firm. Using a sample of retail banking customers observed over a 30-month period at a large U.S. bank, we test whether changes in service consumption, cost-to-serve, and customer profitability are associated with the adoption of online banking. We find that customer adoption of online banking is associated with (1) substitution primarily from incrementally more costly self-service delivery channels (ATM and voice response unit); (2) augmentation of service consumption in more costly service delivery channels (branch and call center); (3) a substantial increase in total transaction volume; (4) an increase in estimated average cost-to-serve resulting from the combination of (1) through (3); and (5) a reduction in short-term customer profitability. However, we find that use of the online banking channel is associated with higher customer retention rates over one-, two-, and three-year horizons. The documented relationship between the use of online banking and customer retention remains positive even after controlling for self-selection into the online channel. We also find evidence that future market shares for our sample firm are systematically higher in markets with high contemporaneous utilization rates for the online banking channel. This finding holds even after controlling for contemporaneous market share suggesting it is not simply the result of increased market power leading to the acquisition of online banking customers.

    Keywords: Cost; Service Operations; Distribution Channels; Consumer Behavior; Online Technology; Banks and Banking; Technology Adoption; Service Delivery; Market Transactions; Market Participation; Profit; Retail Industry; Banking Industry; United States;

  7. Are Self-service Customers Satisfied or Stuck?

    This paper investigates the impact of self-service technology (SST) usage on customer satisfaction and retention. Specifically, we disentangle the distinct effects of satisfaction and switching costs as drivers of retention among self-service customers. Our empirical analysis examines 26,924 multi-channel customers of a nationwide retail bank. We track each customer's channel usage, overall satisfaction, and retention over a 1-year period. We find that, relative to face-to-face service, customers who use self-service channels for a greater proportion of their transactions are either no more satisfied, or less satisfied with the service they receive, depending on the channel. However, we also find that these same customers are predictably less likely to defect to a competitor if they are heavily reliant on self-service channels characterized by high switching costs. Through a mediation model, we demonstrate that, when self-service usage promotes retention, it does so in a way that is consistent with switching costs. As a robustness check, we examine the behavior of channel enthusiasts, who concentrate transactions among specific channels. Relative to more diversified customers, we find that self-service enthusiasts in low switching cost channels defect with greater frequency, while self-service enthusiasts in high switching cost channels are retained with greater frequency.

    Keywords: Service Delivery; Technology; Customer Satisfaction; Competition; Cost; Banks and Banking; Behavior; Market Transactions; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Buell, Ryan W., Dennis Campbell, and Frances X. Frei. "Are Self-service Customers Satisfied or Stuck?" November/December Production and Operations Management 19, no. 6 (2010). (Awarded the Decision Sciences Institute Stan Hardy Award for Outstanding Paper Published during 2010 in the Field of Operations Management.)
  8. Organizational Design and Control across Multiple Markets: The Case of Franchising in the Convenience Store Industry

    Many companies operate units that are dispersed across different types of markets, and thus serve significantly diverging customer bases. Such market-type dispersion is likely to compromise the headquarter's ability to control its local managers' behavior and satisfy the divergent needs of different types of customers. In this paper we find evidence that market-type dispersion is an important determinant of delegation and the provision of incentives. Using a sample of convenience store chains, we show that market-type dispersion is related to the degree of franchising at the chain level as well as the probability of franchising a given store within a chain. Our results are robust to alternative definitions of market-type dispersion and to other determinants of franchising such as the stores' geographic distance from headquarters and geographic dispersion. Additional analyses also suggest that chains that do not franchise at all may cope with market-type dispersion by decentralizing operations from headquarters to their stores, and, to a weaker extent, by providing higher variable pay to their store managers.

    Keywords: Business Headquarters; Geographic Location; Governance Controls; Distribution; Organizational Design; Franchise Ownership; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Srikant M. Datar, and Tatiana Sandino. "Organizational Design and Control across Multiple Markets: The Case of Franchising in the Convenience Store Industry." Accounting Review 84, no. 6 (November 2009).
  9. Nonfinancial Performance Measures and Promotion-Based Incentives

    Keywords: Performance; Measurement and Metrics; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Nonfinancial Performance Measures and Promotion-Based Incentives." Journal of Accounting Research 46, no. 2 (May 2008).
  10. Choose the Right Measures, Drive the Right Strategy

    Metrics overload is a common problem that can have serious consequences: Specifically, it can make it difficult for employees to see what actions they should take to execute strategic objectives. Having too many metrics dilutes the focus and invariably means many are irrelevant. Here, accounting and performance measurement expert Dennis Campbell traces a major Canadian bank's experience in overhauling its customer satisfaction metrics to make them meaningful--and actionable--to frontline employees.

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Strategy; Employees; Customer Satisfaction;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Choose the Right Measures, Drive the Right Strategy." Balanced Scorecard Report (May–June 2006).
  11. The Persistence of Customer Profitability: Empirical Evidence and Implications from a Financial Services Firm

    Keywords: Customers; Markets; Information; Finance; Business Ventures; Profit; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Frances X. Frei. "The Persistence of Customer Profitability: Empirical Evidence and Implications from a Financial Services Firm." Journal of Service Research 7, no. 2 (November 2004).
  12. Putting Strategy Hypotheses to the Test with Cause-and-Effect Analysis

    Keywords: Strategy; Theory;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Putting Strategy Hypotheses to the Test with Cause-and-Effect Analysis." Balanced Scorecard Report 4, no. 5 (September–October 2002).

Book Chapters

  1. Cost Structure Patterns in the Asset Management Industry

    This chapter examines patterns in the cost structure of asset management firms and establishes two important trends in cost behavior. First, when revenues are growing, "indirect" costs related to sales, distribution, marketing, personnel, technology, and occupancy are far from fixed in this industry. In some cases they are "supervariable" or rising at a faster rate than sales. Second, and in contrast, such indirect costs appear relatively fixed in the face of sales "declines" in this industry. We discuss potential sources of these cost-structure patterns and their implications for cost management efforts as asset management firms move forward from the financial crisis of 2008.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Asset Management; Cost Management; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Frances X. Frei. "Cost Structure Patterns in the Asset Management Industry." Chap. 8 in Operational Control in Asset Management: Processes and Costs, edited by Michael Pinedo, 154–168. Denmark: SimCorp StrategyLab, 2010.

Working Papers

  1. Monitoring and the Portability of Soft Information

    We study the portability of soft information in a decentralized financial institution. Theories from a variety of literatures suggest that difficulties in capturing, storing, and communicating soft information can inhibit its portability over time and across individuals within the organization. Using unique data on lending decisions made by employees in a highly decentralized financial services organization, we show that a monitoring system which captures soft information for vertical communication (to superiors) purposes also facilitates the horizontal communication of soft information (across employees) for decision-making purposes. Contrary to prevailing views on the limited portability of soft information, our results provide evidence that the "stock" of soft information accumulated in this system has persistent effects on the lending decisions of employees. We show that employees rely on this information to increase access to credit for borrowers, provide more favorable pricing terms, and reduce the ex post risk of their lending decisions. These effects remain even when this information was acquired by employees other than the decision-maker, and they are not diminished by the physical separation of employees working in different business units.

    Keywords: Information; Decision Making; Knowledge Management; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Maria Loumioti. "Monitoring and the Portability of Soft Information ." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-077, March 2013.
  2. How Do Customers Respond to Increased Service Quality Competition?

    When does increased service quality competition lead to customer defection, and which customers are most likely to defect? Our empirical analysis of 82,235 customers exploits the varying competitive dynamics in 644 geographically isolated markets in which a nationwide retail bank conducted business over a five-year period. We find that customers defect at a higher rate from the incumbent following increased service quality (price) competition only when the incumbent offers high (low) quality service relative to existing competitors in a local market. We provide evidence that these results are due to a sorting effect, whereby firms trade-off service quality and price, and in turn, the incumbent attracts service (price) sensitive customers in markets where it has supplied relatively high (low) levels of service quality in the past. Furthermore, we show that it is the high quality incumbent's most profitable customers who are the most attracted by superior quality alternatives. Our results appear to have long-run implications whereby sustaining a high level of service quality is associated with the incumbent attracting and retaining more profitable customers over time.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Quality; Customer Value and Value Chain; Service Operations; Consumer Behavior; Customer Satisfaction; Price; Market Entry and Exit; Service Delivery; Competitive Strategy; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Buell, Ryan W., Dennis Campbell, and Frances X. Frei. "How Do Customers Respond to Increased Service Quality Competition?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-084, February 2011. (Revised April 2013.)
  3. Employee Selection as a Control System

    Theories from the economics, management control, and organizational behavior literatures predict that when it is difficult to align incentives by contracting on output, aligning preferences via employee selection may provide a useful alternative. This study investigates this idea empirically using personnel and lending data from a financial services organization that implemented a highly decentralized business model. I exploit variation in this organization in whether or not employees are selected via channels that are likely to sort on the alignment of their preferences with organizational objectives. I find that employees selected through such channels are more likely to use decision-making authority in the granting and structuring of consumer loans than those who are not. Conditional on using decision-making authority, their decisions are also less risky ex post. These findings demonstrate employee selection as an important, but understudied, element of organizational control systems.

    Keywords: Accounting; Decision Making; Governance Controls; Employees; Selection and Staffing; Management Systems; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Employee Selection as a Control System." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-021, August 2010. (Revised September 2010, April 2012.)
  4. Testing Strategy with Multiple Performance Measures: Evidence from a Balanced Scorecard at Store24

    We analyze balanced scorecard data from a convenience store chain, Store24, during the implementation of an innovative, but ultimately unsuccessful strategy. Quarterly strategic reviews, based in part on the firm's balanced scorecard, led executives at Store24 to identify problems with, and eventually abandon, this strategy over a two year period. We find that formal statistical tests of the hypotheses underlying the firm's balanced scorecard and strategy map reveal problems with the strategy on a timelier basis. We also test alternative hypotheses to those underlying the firm's formal strategy map and scorecard that are consistent with concerns expressed by some of Store24's top executives during the initial stages of implementing the new strategy. Our analysis demonstrates that this firm's balanced scorecard contained useful and timely information for distinguishing between these alternatives. These results provide some of the first field-based evidence on the potential for a firm's balanced scorecard to provide useful information for detecting problems in its strategy.

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Balanced Scorecard; Problems and Challenges; Business Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Srikant M. Datar, Susan L. Kulp, and V.G. Narayanan. "Testing Strategy with Multiple Performance Measures: Evidence from a Balanced Scorecard at Store24." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-081, February 2008.

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Coordinating and Controlling Customer-Facing Operations

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Coordinating and Controlling Customer-Facing Operations." Harvard Business School Module Note 112-093, April 2012. (Revised April 2012.)
  2. Shangri-La Hotels (TN)

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Shangri-La Hotels (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 112-090, March 2012.
  3. Affinity Plus (TN)

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "Affinity Plus (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 112-091, March 2012.
  4. Affinity Plus: Priorities and Performance Pressures

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Rui Lu. "Affinity Plus: Priorities and Performance Pressures." Harvard Business School Case 112-095, March 2012.
  5. Affinity Plus (A)

    The executive team at Affinity Plus Federal Credit Union has pushed the concept of members first deeply throughout the organization, empowering employees to put member-owners' interests ahead of either the organization's interests or their own interests. As a result of this focus, the credit union must determine what to do with its profitable indirect auto lending business, which some see as inconsistent with the strategic direction set by the management team.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Financial Institutions; Financing and Loans; Profit; Cooperative Ownership; Conflict of Interests; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Peter Tufano. "Affinity Plus (A)." Harvard Business School Case 209-026, July 2008. (Revised October 2012.)
  6. Slots, Tables, and All that Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel (TN)

    Teaching note to 106029.

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Customers; Profit; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Francisco de Asis Martinez-Jerez. "Slots, Tables, and All that Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 107-072, April 2007. (Revised April 2011.)
  7. Dataset for "Slots, Tables, and All That Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel" (CW)

    Datasets of gaming and hotel customers to perform analysis for the case.

    Keywords: Data and Data Sets; Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Las Vegas;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Francisco de Asis Martinez-Jerez. Dataset for "Slots, Tables, and All That Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel" (CW). Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 111-711, February 2011.
  8. LG Display

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Rui Lu. "LG Display." Harvard Business School Case 111-072, November 2010. (Revised December 2010.)
  9. TD Canada Trust (Abridged)

    The case illustrates the role of performance measurement and analytics in translating TD-Canada Trust's service model of "comfortable banking" into operational terms. In 2000, in a banking market where consumers and regulators were typically hostile to mergers and acquisitions, Canada's fifth largest commercial bank, Toronto-Dominion Bank (TD Bank), undertook a merger with a relatively small trust company, Canada Trust, which was known for exceptional customer service. To assuage the concerns of regulators, consumer groups, and newly acquired customers, TD Bank made several public pronouncements promising to maintain Canada Trust's high customer service standards and to deliver a "comfortable banking" experience. Chris Armstrong, executive vice president and chief marketing officer, was now faced with the task of defining the comfortable banking model and consistently delivering on these promises. Armstrong and his team undertake a systematic analysis of the drivers of customer satisfaction and branch network profitability and, based on the results, must decide how to change TD-Canada Trust's branch compensation and performance reporting systems to consistently, and profitably, deliver a "comfortable banking" experience.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Customer Satisfaction; Commercial Banking; Profit; Balanced Scorecard; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Banking Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Brent Kazan. "TD Canada Trust (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 110-049, December 2009. (Revised October 2013.)
  10. TD Canada Trust (A): The Green and the Red

    The case series illustrates the role of performance measurement and analytics in translating TD-Canada Trust's service model of "comfortable banking" into operational terms. In 2000, in a banking market where consumers and regulators were typically hostile to mergers and acquisitions, Canada's fifth largest commercial bank, Toronto-Dominion Bank (TD Bank), undertook a merger with a relatively small trust company, Canada Trust, which was known for exceptional customer service. To assuage the concerns of regulators, consumer groups, and newly acquired customers, TD Bank made several public pronouncements promising to maintain Canada Trust's high customer service standards and to deliver a "comfortable banking" experience. Chris Armstrong, executive vice president and chief marketing officer, was now faced with the task of defining the comfortable banking model and consistently delivering on these promises. Armstrong and his team undertake a systematic analysis of the drivers of customer satisfaction and branch network profitability and, based on the results, must decide how to change TD-Canada Trust's branch compensation and performance reporting systems to consistently, and profitably, deliver a "comfortable banking" experience.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Customer Satisfaction; Commercial Banking; Profit; Balanced Scorecard; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Banking Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Brent Kazan. "TD Canada Trust (A): The Green and the Red." Harvard Business School Case 108-005, April 2008. (Revised October 2008.)
  11. TD Canada Trust (B): Linking the Service Model to the P&L

    Keywords: Profit; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Brent Kazan. "TD Canada Trust (B): Linking the Service Model to the P&L." Harvard Business School Supplement 108-043, April 2008. (Revised October 2008.)
  12. TD Canada Trust (C): Translating the Service Model to Service Operations

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Business Model; Service Operations; Banking Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Brent Kazan. "TD Canada Trust (C): Translating the Service Model to Service Operations." Harvard Business School Supplement 108-055, April 2008. (Revised October 2008.)
  13. China Resources Corporation (B): China Resources Microelectronics

    Supplements the (A) case. Late in October 2006, China Resources (Holdings) Co., Ltd. (CRC) CEO Charlie Song Lin, CFO Jiang Wel, and Information Center GM Derek Cheng were traveling from Hong Kong to Wuxi, China to attend the first ever meeting of China Resources Microelectronic's (CRM) newly established Office of Strategy Management. The team had high hopes for this meeting as CRM was not only one of CRC's most strategically important profit centers, but also a potential model for the implementation of the CRC 6S management system in all of CRC's 19 profit centers.

    Keywords: Accounting; Business Conglomerates; Profit; Governance Controls; Management Systems; Business Strategy; China;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and David Lane. "China Resources Corporation (B): China Resources Microelectronics." Harvard Business School Supplement 107-015, November 2006. (Revised August 2008.)
  14. TD Canada Trust (TN) (A), (B), and (C)

    Teaching Note for [108-005].

    Keywords: Performance Evaluation; Banks and Banking; Mergers and Acquisitions; Customer Focus and Relationships; Profit; Balanced Scorecard; Service Delivery; Announcements; Compensation and Benefits; Canada;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "TD Canada Trust (TN) (A), (B), and (C)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 108-076, May 2008.
  15. Central Bank: The ChexSystemsSM QualiFile® Decision

    The "Central Bank" series analyzes the use of information and product design for managing the counterparty risk of newly acquired customers. Central Bank, a mid-sized regional U.S. bank, was attempting to grow its customer base by increasing the number of new checking accounts. Like many banks, Central saw checking accounts as an important tool for customer acquisition and loyalty-building. However, the bank realized that the aggressive pursuit of new accounts could result in an increased number of overdrafts and, ultimately, customer defaults. The first case, "Central Bank: The ChexSystems(SM) QualiFile(R) Decision," analyzes how QualiFile, a debit scoring product commercialized by ChexSystems, can be used to manage this risk.

    Keywords: Central Banking; Knowledge Management; Customer Satisfaction; Risk Management; Risk and Uncertainty; Decision Making; Banking Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Francisco de Asis Martinez-Jerez, Peter Tufano, and Emily McClintock. "Central Bank: The ChexSystemsSM QualiFile® Decision." Harvard Business School Case 208-029, July 2007. (Revised May 2008.)
  16. China Resources Corporation (TN) (A) and (B)

    Teaching Note for [107013] and [107015].

    Keywords: Balanced Scorecard; Governance Controls; Performance Productivity; Problems and Challenges; State Ownership; Strategy; China;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis. "China Resources Corporation (TN) (A) and (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 108-074, April 2008.
  17. Central Bank: The ChexSystemsSM QualiFile® Decision (TN)

    Teaching Note for [208029].

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Francisco de Asis Martinez-Jerez. "Central Bank: The ChexSystemsSM QualiFile® Decision (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 208-038, April 2008.
  18. Managing Service Operations: The Managerial Research Design Process

    Keywords: Service Operations; Management;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Managing Service Operations: The Managerial Research Design Process." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-155, April 2008.
  19. Store24 (TN) (A) and (B)

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Store24 (TN) (A) and (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 606-107, March 2006. (Revised April 2008.)
  20. Pilgrim Bank (A): Customer Profitability (TN)

    Teaching Note for 602104.

    Keywords: Customers; Profit; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (A): Customer Profitability (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-115, January 2008. (Revised April 2008.)
  21. Pilgrim Bank (B): Customer Retention (TN)

    Teaching Note for [602095].

    Keywords: Customers; Banks and Banking; Customer Focus and Relationships; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (B): Customer Retention (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-116, January 2008. (Revised April 2008.)
  22. Pilgrim Bank (C): Electronic Billpay (TN)

    Teaching Note for [602103].

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Online Technology; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (C): Electronic Billpay (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 608-117, January 2008. (Revised April 2008.)
  23. Improvement with Customer-Operators

    Taught as the third module in a Harvard Business School course on Managing Service Operations: Understanding the Customer Operating Role (606-092). Explores how firms can systematically leverage their customer-operators in the organizational improvement process is investigated in the third module. This opportunity is addressed in two ways, (1) by surfacing and evolving the assumptions about customer-operators that are often built into service models, and (2) by utilizing the operational insight of customers. Both focal points build on firms' traditional use of employees to improve operations.

    Keywords: Service Operations; Performance Improvement; Customer Focus and Relationships; Framework; Employees; Business Model; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Improvement with Customer-Operators." Harvard Business School Module Note 608-135, April 2008.
  24. Store24 (TN)

    Teaching Note for (9-103-058).

    Keywords: Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Susan L. Kulp, and V.G. Narayanan. "Store24 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 103-078, April 2003. (Revised April 2008.)
  25. GuestFirst Hotel (TN) (A) and (B)

    Keywords: Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "GuestFirst Hotel (TN) (A) and (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 606-062, March 2006. (Revised April 2008.)
  26. Shangri-La Hotels

    In November 2006, Symon Bridle, the newly appointed chief operating officer of Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, was thinking about a number of organizational issues that presented challenges to Shangri-La's rapid expansion strategy. There were three major issues at hand: (1) the company was expanding into high-wage economies in Europe and North America; (2) the company was expanding its presence in China-a country where front-line employees were not used to exercising decision-making authority; and (3) newcomers in the Chinese hotel market were poaching Shangri-La's staff and driving up wages in historically low-waged markets. As a COO, Bridle needed to ensure that Shangri-La's signature standards of "Asian Hospitality" were maintained during this expansion.

    Keywords: Employees; Growth and Development Strategy; Standards; Service Delivery; Organizational Culture; Accommodations Industry; China; Europe; North America;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Brent Kazan. "Shangri-La Hotels." Harvard Business School Case 108-006, March 2008.
  27. Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.

    Chairman Yin Jiaxu must communicate that the company's extraordinary reported performance in 2002 reflects Changan's unique strategy within the competitive dynamics of China's automobile industry. Changan's 2002 annual report demonstrated an extraordinary level of success for the company, with net income growth of 421% over the prior year. Chairman Yin viewed this astonishing level of growth as the reward for the company's strategic shift in sales mix toward Changan's higher margin automobiles, coupled with component price decreases and hard-fought internal cost reduction efforts. However, an anonymous article posted on the Internet attributed Changan's reported success to fraudulent financial reporting, attracting the attention of the press, analysts, and financial Web sites. At the heart of the concerns raised in the article were fluctuations in Changan's quarterly gross margins, including a large increase in gross margin in the fourth quarter, a large amount of accrued marketing expenses on its balance sheet, and high reported margins on one of its top selling models, the Star of Changan SC6350 minivan. Facing suspension of trading in Changan Automobile Co.'s shares on the Shenzen Stock Exchange amid widespread investor concern over the company's financial reporting practices, Chairman Yin must devise a communication strategy to convince investors that the company's financial reports reflect the underlying economics of the company.

    Keywords: Financial Reporting; Ethics; Corporate Disclosure; Media; Business and Shareholder Relations; Auto Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Donglin Xia. "Changan Automobile Co., Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 107-006, July 2006. (Revised March 2008.)
  28. Store24 (B): Service Quality and Employee Skills

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction; Employees; Service Delivery; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Store24 (B): Service Quality and Employee Skills." Harvard Business School Supplement 602-097, November 2001. (Revised July 2007.)
  29. China Resources Corporation (A): 6S Management

    In 2006, Jiang Wei, CFO of China Resources Corporation, was seeking to implement a variety of new management control systems in a complex diversified corporation during a period of rapid economic expansion in mainland China. Instilling efficiency, productivity, management, and control into what had been a traditional state-owned enterprise posed challenges on many fronts. The case enables a discussion of the various ways in which balanced scorecards and strategy maps can be integrated with traditional management control systems to govern strategy implementation in a diversified corporation. Additionally, it allows students to appreciate the benefits and challenges of using highly formal performance management systems in the face of strategic uncertainty.

    Keywords: Accounting; Business Conglomerates; Governance Controls; Balanced Scorecard; Management Systems; Performance Improvement; Business Strategy; China;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and David Lane. "China Resources Corporation (A): 6S Management." Harvard Business School Case 107-013, October 2006. (Revised July 2007.)
  30. GuestFirst Hotel (A): Customer Loyalty

    Provides a hotel context in which to explore the link between customer loyalty and financial performance, using four years of hotel data. Challenges students to find the extent of the relationship between loyalty and performance.

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives; Mathematical Methods; Finance; Performance; Relationships; Customer Focus and Relationships; Data and Data Sets; Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "GuestFirst Hotel (A): Customer Loyalty." Harvard Business School Case 602-099, November 2001. (Revised December 2006.)
  31. Using Data Desk for Statistical Analysis

    Describes how to use the Data Desk software package to perform statistical analysis.

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Using Data Desk for Statistical Analysis." Harvard Business School Background Note 605-060, February 2005. (Revised November 2006.)
  32. Slots, Tables, and All That Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel

    The MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas had detailed information on loyal gaming customers, but could its information systems also be tailored to nongaming customers? As the nongaming business sectors became increasingly profitable both at the MGM Grand and in Las Vegas generally, understanding the nongaming customers appeared to be of critical importance to the continuing growth of the resort.

    Keywords: Games, Gaming, and Gambling; Customer Relationship Management; Customer Value and Value Chain; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Accommodations Industry; Nevada;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, Francisco de Asis Martinez-Jerez, Marc Epstein, and Joshua Bellin. "Slots, Tables, and All That Jazz: Managing Customer Profitability at the MGM Grand Hotel." Harvard Business School Case 106-029, March 2006. (Revised September 2006.)
  33. Informing Service Management with Customer Data

    Taught as the third module in a Harvard Business School course on Managing Service Operations. Explores the role of data analysis in ongoing service management. Describes how to realize the maximum amount of value from analyses and use this information in decision-making while overcoming associated organizational resistance. Also addresses common pitfalls to designing and applying data analysis methods.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Design; Data and Data Sets; Service Operations; Mathematical Methods; Value;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Informing Service Management with Customer Data." Harvard Business School Background Note 606-097, April 2006.
  34. Economics of Retail Banking Note

    Explains the financial operations of retail banking, highlighting profitability challenges facing the industry. For U.S. banks, it is quite common for more than half of the customer base to be unprofitable and to have relatively few customers make up the vast majority of profits. Attempts to explain how retail banks generate revenue and incur costs while serving their customer base.

    Keywords: Customers; Economics; Cost; Banks and Banking; Profit; Revenue; Service Operations; Banking Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Economics of Retail Banking Note." Harvard Business School Background Note 602-153, April 2002. (Revised March 2006.)
  35. Moneyball (A): What Are You Paying For?

    Explores the contextual elements of Major League Baseball and presents data to allow for an analytic examination of alleged market inefficiencies within the sport.

    Keywords: Market Design; Performance; Sports; Compensation and Benefits; Sports Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., Dennis Campbell, and Eliot Sherman. "Moneyball (A): What Are You Paying For?" Harvard Business School Case 606-025, August 2005. (Revised March 2006.)
  36. GuestFirst Hotel (B): Taking Advantage of Panel Data

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Accommodations Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "GuestFirst Hotel (B): Taking Advantage of Panel Data." Harvard Business School Case 602-111, November 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  37. Pilgrim Bank (C): Electronic Billpay

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Product; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (C): Electronic Billpay." Harvard Business School Case 602-103, October 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  38. Pilgrim Bank (A): Customer Profitability

    Provides a context in which students can explore managerial decision making that is critically informed by data analysis. The setting is a retail bank and the decision making relates to the bank's policy toward online banking. The management team is evaluating whether the bank should charge for access to online banking, provide incentives to use the service, or devise some other policy altogether. With thousands of customers already using the online site, the bank is well positioned to assess the impact of the service on customer profitability and retention before making final policy decisions. Told from the perspective of a recent MBA graduate who was charged with performing the necessary data analysis and ultimately coming up with policy recommendations.

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Customers; Profit; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (A): Customer Profitability." Harvard Business School Case 602-104, October 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  39. BigEast Bank (A): Credit Card Approval

    BigEast is considering adopting a relationship-centric view in its credit card approval process. This would shift the bank's current practice of analyzing applications based on the merits of a single product to one where the customer's existing relationship is considered in the approval process.

    Keywords: Customers; Forecasting and Prediction; Banks and Banking; Data and Data Sets; Managerial Roles; Relationships; Adoption; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "BigEast Bank (A): Credit Card Approval." Harvard Business School Case 602-098, November 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  40. Pilgrim Bank (B): Customer Retention

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Pilgrim Bank (B): Customer Retention." Harvard Business School Case 602-095, October 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  41. Store24 (A): Managing Employee Retention

    Provides a retailing context in which employee retention strategies are explored through analyzing detailed store-level data.

    Keywords: Retention; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Data and Data Sets; Strategy; Mathematical Methods; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Store24 (A): Managing Employee Retention." Harvard Business School Case 602-096, October 2001. (Revised August 2005.)
  42. Moneyball (B): Do You Get What You Pay For?

    Keywords: Sports; Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., Dennis Campbell, and Eliot Sherman. "Moneyball (B): Do You Get What You Pay For?" Harvard Business School Supplement 606-026, August 2005.
  43. G.G. Toys

    This case highlights issues of management accounting and includes a review of product costing, excess capacity, variance analysis, and scrap costs.

    Keywords: Product; Cost Accounting; Financial Management;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Susan L. Kulp. "G.G. Toys." Harvard Business School Case 105-005, September 2004. (Revised April 2005.)
  44. Simple Regression Mathematics

    Describes the underlying mathematics of regression.

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Frei, Frances X., and Dennis Campbell. "Simple Regression Mathematics." Harvard Business School Background Note 605-061, February 2005. (Revised March 2005.)
  45. G.G. Toys (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-105-005).

    Keywords: Accounting Industry;

    Citation:

    Campbell, Dennis, and Susan L. Kulp. "G.G. Toys (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 105-008, November 2004.
  46. Store24

    Illustrates how nonfinancial performance measures can be used to manage a business and evaluate the success of a strategy.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Balanced Scorecard; Performance Evaluation; Strategy; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Kulp, Susan L., V.G. Narayanan, and Dennis Campbell. "Store24." Harvard Business School Case 103-058, February 2003. (Revised March 2004.)
  47. Boston Lyric Opera

    The Boston Lyric Opera was the fastest growing opera company in North America during the 1990s. Having successfully completed a move to a larger facility in 1999, the board and general director recognize the need to develop a formal strategic planning and governance process to guide the company into the future. Board members, senior managers, and artistic leaders use the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as the focus of a multi-month strategic planning process that develops a strategy map and objectives in the four BSC perspectives for three core strategic themes. This case describes the high-level scorecard development, its cascading down to departments and individuals and the directors' interactions--using the Balanced Scorecard--with the artistic leaders and board of directors.

    Keywords: Balanced Scorecard; Strategic Planning; Arts; Growth and Development Strategy; Governing and Advisory Boards; Fine Arts Industry; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Kaplan, Robert S., and Dennis Campbell. "Boston Lyric Opera." Harvard Business School Case 101-111, June 2001. (Revised July 2001.)