Joshua D. Margolis

James Dinan and Elizabeth Miller Professor of Business Administration

Joshua Margolis is Professor of Business Administration in the Organizational Behavior unit and the Faculty Chair of the Christensen Center for Teaching and Learning. His research and teaching revolve around leadership and ethics. He has taught courses on Leadership and Organizational Behavior, Leadership and Corporate Accountability, Authentic Leadership Development, and the new required first-year course, Field Immersion Experiences for Leadership Development (FIELD).

Professor Margolis’ research focuses on leading in complex situations involving tradeoffs. In particular, he focuses on the distinctive ethical challenges that arise in organizations and how managers can navigate these challenges with practical effectiveness and moral integrity, especially in perform-or-else settings. Professor Margolis has published his work in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Business Ethics Quarterly, Harvard Business Review, Journal of Applied PsychologyJournal of Management, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes; and along with James P. Walsh, he authored the book, People and Profits: the Search for a Link between a Company’s Social and Financial Performance.

Professor Margolis is currently engaged in research on how companies and individuals defy countervailing forces to make a significant impact and how professionals in a variety of settings navigate moral adversity and address ethical challenges with a combination of ingenuity and integrity.

Professor Margolis received his B.A. from Yale University and his A.M. (Sociology) and Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from Harvard University, where he was also a Fellow in the Program in Ethics and the Professions. Joshua joined the HBS faculty in 2000 after spending three years on the faculty at the University of Michigan as a Fellow in the Society of Scholars.

He has received the Robert F. Greenhill Award, the Student Association Faculty Award for teaching excellence, the Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching, and the Academy of Management award for Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior.

Journal Articles

  1. How Much Is Sweat Equity Worth?

    The article presents a case study of a business decision related to the valuing of sweat equity in a start-up business. One man starts a premium vodka business, bringing in his cousin at an early stage, but with no initial discussion of the eventual split of equity or managerial control between the two. The article offers each man's case for his ownership stake in a narrative style, and then presents various views of how and what they should decide.

    Keywords: Valuation; Ownership Stake; Business Startups;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Joshua D. Margolis. "How Much Is Sweat Equity Worth?" R1212X. Harvard Business Review 90, no. 12 (December 2012). View Details
  2. Does Power Corrupt or Enable: When and Why Power Facilitates Self-interested Behavior

    Does power corrupt a moral identity, or does it enable a moral identity to emerge? Drawing from the power literature, we propose that the psychological experience of power, although often associated with promoting self-interest, is associated with greater self-interest only in the presence of a weak moral identity. Furthermore, we propose that the psychological experience of power is associated with less self-interest in the presence of a strong moral identity. Across a field survey of working adults and in a lab experiment, individuals with a strong moral identity were less likely to act in self-interest, yet individuals with a weak moral identity were more likely to act in self-interest, when subjectively experiencing power. Finally, we predict and demonstrate an explanatory mechanism behind this effect: the psychological experience of power enhances moral awareness among those with a strong moral identity, yet decreases the moral awareness among those with a weak moral identity. In turn, individuals' moral awareness affects how they behave in relation to their self-interest.

    Keywords: Power; moral identity; self-interested behavior; moral awareness; commons dilemma; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    DeCelles, K.A., D.S. DeRue, J.D. Margolis, and T.L. Ceranic. "Does Power Corrupt or Enable: When and Why Power Facilitates Self-interested Behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology 97, no. 3 (May 2012): 681–689. View Details
  3. The Bedside Manner of Homo Economicus: How and Why Priming an Economic Schema Reduces Compassion

    We investigate how, why and when activating economic schemas reduces the compassion that individuals extend to others in need when delivering bad news. Across three experiments, we show that unobtrusively priming economic schemas decreases the compassion that individuals express to others in need, that this effect is mediated by dampened feelings of empathy and heightened perceptions of unprofessionalism, and that it is circumscribed to bad news that has economic implications. We discuss implications for theory and research on schemas, procedural justice, emotion expression, and prosocial behavior.

    Keywords: Behavior; Framework; Emotions; Societal Protocols; Economics;

    Citation:

    Molinsky, Andrew, Adam M. Grant, and Joshua D. Margolis. "The Bedside Manner of Homo Economicus: How and Why Priming an Economic Schema Reduces Compassion." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 119, no. 1 (September 2012): 27–37. View Details
  4. A Global Leader's Guide to Managing Business Conduct

    An extensive global survey by three Harvard Business School professors finds that employees agree on core standards of corporate behavior. But meeting those standards will require new approaches to managing business conduct. The compliance and ethics programs of most companies today fall short of addressing multinationals' basic responsibilities, let alone such vexing issues as how to stay competitive in markets where rivals follow different rules. Companies must bring to the management of business conduct the same performance tools and concepts that they use to manage quality, innovation, and financial results.

    Keywords: Leadership; Management;

    Citation:

    Paine, Lynn S., Rohit Deshpandé, and Joshua D. Margolis. "A Global Leader's Guide to Managing Business Conduct." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 9 (September 2011). (Online edition.) View Details
  5. Bringing Ethics into Focus: How Regulatory Focus and Risk Preferences Influence (Un)ethical Behavior

    Keywords: Ethics; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Bringing Ethics into Focus: How Regulatory Focus and Risk Preferences Influence (Un)ethical Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 115, no. 2 (July 2011): 145–156. View Details
  6. How to Bounce Back from Adversity

    The article focuses on how companies can be managed to overcome adversity with resilience. The characteristics of resilient managers who provide leadership for their teams and can build resilience in their employees are discussed. The manager's ability to shift from cause-oriented to response-oriented thinking depends on the four perspectives or lenses controlling the factors causing the crisis, impact of management's actions, breadth of the crisis, and duration of the situation. A resilience regimen of questions that managers can use to reframe negative events and understand their thought processes is explained.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Leadership; Crisis Management; Managerial Roles; Behavior; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Paul G. Stoltz. "How to Bounce Back from Adversity." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 1 (January–February 2010). View Details
  7. The Performer's Reactions to Procedural Injustice: When Prosocial Identity Reduces Prosocial Behavior

    Considerable research has examined how procedural injustice affects victims and witnesses of unfavorable outcomes, with little attention to the “performers” who deliver these outcomes. Drawing on dissonance theory, we hypothesized that performers' reactions to procedural injustice in delivering unfavorable outcomes are moderated by prosocial identity—a helping-focused self-concept. Across two experiments, individuals communicated unfavorable outcomes decided by a superior. Consistent with justice research, when prosocial identities were not primed, performers experienced greater negative affect and behaved more prosocially toward victims when a superior's decision-making procedures were unjust. Subtly activating performers' prosocial identities reversed these reactions. Results highlight how roles and identities shape the experience and delivery of unfavorable outcomes; when procedures are unjust, prosocial identity can reduce prosocial behavior.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Judgments; Fairness; Outcome or Result; Behavior; Identity; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Grant, Adam M., Andrew Molinsky, Joshua D. Margolis, Melissa Kamin, and William Schiano. "The Performer's Reactions to Procedural Injustice: When Prosocial Identity Reduces Prosocial Behavior." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 39, no. 2 (2009): 319–349. View Details
  8. Navigating the Bind of Necessary Evils: Psychological Engagement and the Production of Interpersonally Sensitive Behavior

    We develop grounded theory about how individuals respond to the subjective experience of performing "necessary evils" and how that influences the way they treat targets of their actions. Despite the importance and difficulty of delivering just, compassionate treatment when it is most needed—when necessarily harming another person—little research has focused on those who must do so. Using qualitative data from 111 managers, doctors, police officers, and addiction counselors, we document how performers both engage and disengage when doing these tasks, unearth multiple forms of interpersonal justice, and identify four styles of response for handling necessary evils.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Fairness; Moral Sensibility; Problems and Challenges; Behavior; Power and Influence; Welfare or Wellbeing;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Andrew Molinsky. "Navigating the Bind of Necessary Evils: Psychological Engagement and the Production of Interpersonally Sensitive Behavior." Academy of Management Journal 51, no. 5 (October 2008): 847–872. (Winner of Academy of Management. Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior Award presented by Academy of Management.) View Details
  9. Do Well by Doing Good? Don't Count on It

    Research over 35 years shows only a weak link between socially responsible corporate behavior and good financial performance. However, there's no evidence of risk in doing good, only in being exposed for misdeeds.

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Profit; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Performance Effectiveness; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Hillary Anger Elfenbein, and James P. Walsh. "Do Well by Doing Good? Don't Count on It." Special Issue on HBS Centennial. Harvard Business Review 86, no. 1 (January 2008): 19. View Details
  10. The Emotional Tightrope of Downsizing: Hidden Challenges for Leaders and Their Organizations

    Keywords: Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Problems and Challenges; Emotions; Leadership; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Molinsky, Andrew, and Joshua D. Margolis. "The Emotional Tightrope of Downsizing: Hidden Challenges for Leaders and Their Organizations." Organizational Dynamics 35, no. 2 (2006): 145–159. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Expanding Ethical Standards of HRM: Necessary Evils and the Multiple Dimensions of Impact

    Keywords: Ethics; Human Resources; Labor and Management Relations;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Adam M. Grant, and Andrew Molinsky. "Expanding Ethical Standards of HRM: Necessary Evils and the Multiple Dimensions of Impact." Chap. 16 in Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment, edited by Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin, and Tom Campbell, 15 pages. Oxford University Press, 2007. View Details
  2. Three Practical Challenges of Moral Leadership

    Keywords: Ethics; Trust; Leadership Style; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Andrew Molinsky. "Three Practical Challenges of Moral Leadership." In Moral Leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy, edited by Deborah L. Rhode, 77–93. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006. View Details
  3. Responsibility, Inconsistency, and the Paradoxes of Morality in Human Nature: de Waal's Window into Business Ethics

    Keywords: Ethics;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D. "Responsibility, Inconsistency, and the Paradoxes of Morality in Human Nature: de Waal's Window into Business Ethics." In Business, Science and Ethics, edited by R. Edward Freeman and Patricia H. Werhane, 43–52. Ruffin Series. Society for Business Ethics, 2004. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Does 'Could' Lead to Good? Toward a Theory of Moral Insight

    We introduce the construct of moral insight and study how it can be elicited when people face ethical dilemmas—challenging decisions that feature tradeoffs between competing and seemingly incompatible values. Moral insight consists of discovering solutions that move beyond selecting one conflicting ethical option over another. Moral insight encompasses both a cognitive process and a discernible output: it involves the realization that an ethical dilemma might be addressed other than by conceding one set of moral imperatives to meet another, and it involves the generation of solutions that allow competing objectives to be met. Across four studies, we find that moral insight is generated when individuals are prompted to consider the question "What could I do?" in place of their intuitive approach of considering "What should I do?" Together, these studies point toward a theory of moral insight and important practical implications.

    Keywords: Moral insight; Ethical dilemma; Could mindset; creativity; Divergent thinking; Moral Sensibility; Creativity; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Zhang, Ting, Francesca Gino, and Joshua Margolis. "Does 'Could' Lead to Good? Toward a Theory of Moral Insight." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-118, June 2014. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Chobani: Growing a Live and Active Culture

    Hamdi Ulukaya, CEO of the Greek yogurt company Chobani, Inc., was reflecting on what explained his young company's meteoric rise. The company held over half of the U.S. Greek yogurt market, and nearly 20% of the total yogurt market. The company's innovative approach to product design, sales, marketing, and communication had made its yogurt a hit with consumers, and its entrepreneurial and innovative culture made it popular with its employees. But by 2012, major food companies, such as General Mills and Groupe Danone among others, were beginning to aggressively promote their Greek yogurt. In addition, Chobani was rolling out innovative new products, and had to determine how to enter new markets. At the same time, Ulukaya was also focused on preserving the company's unique culture and approach to work as it grew.

    Keywords: innovation; leadership; culture; entrepreneurship; marketing; Agribusiness; growth strategy; growth management; yogurt; Innovation Strategy; Leadership; Culture; Entrepreneurship; Marketing; Agribusiness; Manufacturing Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; United States; Canada; Australia;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Matthew Preble. "Chobani: Growing a Live and Active Culture." Harvard Business School Case 413-022, December 2012. View Details
  2. Fritidsresor Under Pressure (A): The First 10 Hours

    When a tsunami hit Southeast Asia on December 26, 2004, the leadership team at a Swedish tour company must manage a devastating crisis affecting thousands of its customers and employees in Thailand. Documents the challenges the company faced in the first ten hours of the crisis. Amid the uncertainty of those first hours, the leadership team must make a range of decisions to orchestrate the company's response and manage the rest of its business. Describes the chaotic environment of a crisis, especially when the normal course of business is interrupted, and puts students in the shoes of a range of managers, each having to make decisions on his/her own, while coordinating with one another to enable the company to respond effectively.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Leadership; Crisis Management; Natural Disasters; Tourism Industry; Thailand; Sweden;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Vincent Marie Dessain, and Anders Sjoman. "Fritidsresor Under Pressure (A): The First 10 Hours." Harvard Business School Case 407-007, September 2006. (Revised March 2012.) View Details
  3. Finalizing a Deal between Riva Corporation and Charlton Corporation: The Riva Team Perspective

    Keywords: Negotiation Deal;

    Citation:

    Zelleke, Andy, Joshua D. Margolis, and Anthony J. Mayo. "Finalizing a Deal between Riva Corporation and Charlton Corporation: The Riva Team Perspective." Harvard Business School Exercise 312-065, October 2011. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  4. Finalizing a Deal between Riva Corporation and Charlton Corporation: The Charlton Team Perspective

    Keywords: Negotiation Deal;

    Citation:

    Zelleke, Andy, Joshua D. Margolis, and Anthony J. Mayo. "Finalizing a Deal between Riva Corporation and Charlton Corporation: The Charlton Team Perspective." Harvard Business School Exercise 312-066, October 2011. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  5. VeeV on the Rocks?

    Three pressing challenges (equity split, extent of commitment to social responsibility, and product discoloration) confront VeeV, the world's first alcoholic beverage infused with acai berries. Brothers Courtney and Carter Reum founded VeeV in 2007 and the firm has experienced rapid growth since then. The case documents the backgrounds of the young founders, details the launch and early phase of the company, and presents three challenges the founders must address: how to split the equity of the new company, how far to go in their efforts to be a "green" and socially responsible brand, and an unexpected potential product quality issue.

    Keywords: Quality; Food; Business Growth and Maturation; Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Entrepreneurship; Business Startups; Equity; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Christopher Marquis, and Laura Winig. "VeeV on the Rocks?" Harvard Business School Case 410-006, July 2009. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  6. Ramesh Patel at Aragon Entertainment Limited

    Ramesh Patel, a high potential employee, was excited to be named to the company's New Horizons Board, a select team responsible for producing recommendations for new products or line extensions for Aragon Entertainment. Patel's co-worker and friend, Jeremy Gibson was also named to the Board, and the two were assigned to work together on a sub-taskforce. Patel was frustrated by Gibson's lack of effort and support on the taskforce and decides he must confront Gibson about his behavior.

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Conflict and Resolution; Conflict Management; Interpersonal Communication; Spoken Communication; Communication Intention and Meaning; Jobs and Positions; Performance; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Mayo, Anthony J., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Ramesh Patel at Aragon Entertainment Limited." Harvard Business School Case 412-042, August 2011. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  7. Orientation to Leadership Intelligence Days, 2011

    Julie Bornstein, senior vice president of Sephora Direct, is seeking to double her budget for social media and other digital marketing initiatives for 2011. A number of digital efforts implemented in the past two years seem to be bearing fruit and there is a desire to intensify Sephora's social media, online video and mobile presence. Bornstein must justify the need for the additional funding, determine how best to allocate the money across the various platforms, and establish effective ways to measure return on investment (ROI) for digital marketing spend. She must also take into account that the funding requested will likely come at the expense of Sephora's traditional marketing programs. Importantly, Bornstein needs to begin thinking about a cohesive long-term strategy that clearly identifies the role digital platforms play and how they help Sephora maintain its leadership position in the prestige beauty care space. The constant emergence of new players, such as Groupon and Shop Socially, the growing power of social media platforms such as Facebook, and the way consumer behavior and user generated content are rapidly evolving in a digital era, make her task all the more challenging.

    Keywords: Budgets and Budgeting; Borrowing and Debt; Investment Return; Resource Allocation; Marketing Communications; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Online Technology; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Anthony J. Mayo. "Orientation to Leadership Intelligence Days, 2011." Harvard Business School Module Note 412-057, September 2011. View Details
  8. Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Denise Frazer's Perspective

    Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto, two HBS students, have decided to give each other feedback on their class participation. While Denise believes that she has provided concrete, actionable feedback to Paolo, she does not feel that Paolo is reciprocating. His feedback is general and superficial. Denise and Paolo have set a time to meet to discuss their latest class participation, and Denise has decided to use this time to address her issues with Paolo. This case should be used with its partner case: Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Paolo Canto's Perspective.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Perspective; Outcome or Result; Performance Evaluation;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Anthony J. Mayo. "Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Denise Frazer's Perspective." Harvard Business School Case 412-045, August 2011. View Details
  9. Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Paolo Canto's Perspective

    Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto, two HBS students, have decided to give each other feedback on their class participation. While Paolo believes that he has been sensitive to Denise in providing feedback, he does not feel that Denise is reciprocating. Her feedback seems to be very negative and feels like a personal attack. He chose to be less negative and use feedback as a way to encourage Denise. He feels that she is not doing the same. Denise and Paolo have set a time to meet to discuss their latest class participation, and Paolo has decided to use this time to address his issues with Denise. This case should be used with its partner case: Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Denise Frazer's Perspective.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Perspective; Outcome or Result; Performance Evaluation;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Anthony J. Mayo. "Denise Frazer and Paolo Canto: A Case Vignette on Feedback - Paolo Canto's Perspective." Harvard Business School Case 412-046, August 2011. View Details
  10. Danielle Marcoux at AdNet2Win Technologies

    Danielle Marcoux, Director of Web Design at AdNet2Win Technologies, must decide how best to confront Charles Davide, the Chief Technology Officer and leader of the design team charged with overseeing a major upgrade of the company's proprietary customer loyalty platform. Davide has kept tight control on the development process and has not allowed the design team to discuss difficult issues or challenge each other. Marcoux decides she must confront Davide about his management approach before the team loses their commitment to the design effort.

    Keywords: Management Style; Management Teams; Interpersonal Communication; Creativity; Status and Position; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Mayo, Anthony J., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Danielle Marcoux at AdNet2Win Technologies." Harvard Business School Case 412-039, August 2011. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  11. Mary Griffin at Derby Foods

    Mary Griffin, Vice President of Consumer Products, must provide feedback to one of her direct reports, Simon York. York is a strong performer, but he has displayed some poor interpersonal skills in the manner in which he interacts with his team and the production staff. Griffin needs to provide feedback to help prevent York from derailing in his career at Derby Foods.

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Training; Interpersonal Communication; Labor and Management Relations; Management Skills; Management Style; Management Teams; Managerial Roles;

    Citation:

    Mayo, Anthony J., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Mary Griffin at Derby Foods." Harvard Business School Case 412-040, August 2011. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  12. Michael Lester at Lachlan Consulting

    Michael Lester, a consultant with Lachlan, was frustrated by his client's unwillingness to provide key data for an important presentation. Lester must decide how best to confront Nadine Robert, his client, knowing that his personal success and the reputation of his consulting firm hinge on his ability to build and sustain a strong relationship. How firm should he be with the client? What type of feedback would help this situation?

    Keywords: Outcome or Result; Training; Customer Focus and Relationships; Interpersonal Communication; Success; Reputation;

    Citation:

    Mayo, Anthony J., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Michael Lester at Lachlan Consulting." Harvard Business School Case 412-041, August 2011. (Revised November 2012.) View Details
  13. Lawrence Trinh: Venturing to Vietnam

    Should Lawrence Trinh pursue his aspiration of working in Vietnam—and if so, what set of principles and practices should he adopt if he encounters corruption? These are questions that reverberate for many students who wish to work in emerging markets and other contexts that pose stiff ethical challenges. Trinh seeks to combine his background in financial services with his desire to contribute to Vietnam's economic development, and he has to decide among four job offers with investment firms. But it is a complicated decision. First, none of the job offers fit his selection criteria perfectly. Second, despite growing reforms, Vietnam is still ranked poorly on indices of corruption. Third, Trinh's father (who fled Vietnam following the war) frowns upon doing anything that could contribute to the communist regime. Fourth, Trinh's girlfriend is about to start her next stage of medical training in the United States, which means that pursuing his aspiration now will separate them. All of these considerations raise three questions: (1) Is the timing right for Trinh to embark on his personal mission of contributing to the well-being of Vietnam? (2) Which job offer should he accept? (3) What set of principles and practices should he adopt that will enable him to remain true to his values and sustain his capacity to be a true agent of change, yet not undermine his ability to succeed as an investor?

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Ethics; Investment; Leadership Development; Emerging Markets; Personal Development and Career; Welfare or Wellbeing; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Rachel Gordon. "Lawrence Trinh: Venturing to Vietnam." Harvard Business School Case 409-017, October 2008. (Revised January 2011.) View Details
  14. VeeV on the Rocks? (TN)

    Teaching Note for 410006.

    Keywords: Quality; Ownership Stake; Growth and Development; Problems and Challenges; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Brands and Branding; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Joshua D. Margolis, and Bobbi Thomason. "VeeV on the Rocks? (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-076, December 2010. View Details
  15. Avi Kremer

    If you were diagnosed with a terminal illness, how would you respond and what would you do with your remaining time? Avi Kremer contemplates four options for how to devote himself 18 months after being diagnosed with ALS. His experience thus far and the choices he faces foster insight into building resilience and finding purpose. The case documents Kremer's personal history before and after diagnosis, describing the ups and downs in his life both prior to and after the diagnosis, lending insight into what enabled him to respond in the extraordinary way he has. The case highlights Kremer's remarkable efforts to fight for a cure; the doubts and obstacles he experiences along the way; and the current options Kremer faces, from returning home to spend time with family to founding a new biotech venture. Through this stark, realistic, and inspiring example, the case prompts discussion relevant to anyone at any point in life about resilience and purpose, prompting all students to reflect upon handling adversity and leading a purpose-driven life—and what it takes to equip oneself to do both.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Values and Beliefs; Health Disorders; Leadership Development; Personal Development and Career; Social Enterprise; Personal Characteristics;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Mark Wetzel. "Avi Kremer." Harvard Business School Case 411-022, August 2010. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  16. Medisys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team

    Key topics include designing teams, managing teams, managing conflict, group dynamics, project management, product development, interdepartmental relations, and organizational change. MediSys, a U.S.-based medical equipment maker, has been developing IntensCare, a new medical system for monitoring intensive-care patients. MediSys has invested heavily in IntensCare, which is eagerly awaited by the market. The product development team, representing several functional areas of the company, has been working on the product for six months but is now running into significant problems with the product design, the schedule, and their own group dynamics. Recently, pressure increased when they learned that two more powerful competitors had begun work on their own products for this market. Several team members are concerned about meeting the team's targets. Struggling especially hard to overcome the various problems is the marketing manager who has profit-and-loss responsibility for IntensCare.

    Keywords: leadership; project management; conflict management; Interdepartmental relations; product development; Organizational change; Leadership; Conflict Management; Interpersonal Communication; Groups and Teams; Product Design; Product Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Health Care and Treatment; Power and Influence; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Donnellon, Anne, and Joshua D. Margolis. "Medisys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team." Harvard Business School Brief Case 094-059, October 2009. View Details
  17. Medisys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team (Brief Case)

    Teaching Note for 094059

    Keywords: leadership; project management; conflict management; Interdepartmental relations; product development; organizational change and transformation;

    Citation:

    Donnellon, Anne, and Joshua D. Margolis. "Medisys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team (Brief Case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 094-062, October 2009. View Details
  18. Delivering Personally on Responsibility

    How can individuals equip themselves to exercise leadership in the face of moral adversity? This six-session module aims to prepare students to meet moral responsibility when it is simultaneously most essential and most difficult. Moral adversity refers to situations in which a person confronts a pressing moral responsibility-to oppose wrong-doing, aid others in desperate need, or stand up for inviolable principles, for example-yet meeting that responsibility is very difficult. The difficulty may arise because the situation entails personal or organizational sacrifice, for example, or colliding duties, or unfavorable conditions-such as time pressure, uncertainty, and uncooperative third parties. The module explores two forms that leadership can take in the face of moral adversity: taking direct action oneself to meet one's responsibilities and guiding others to meet collective responsibility. By examining protagonists who encounter moral adversity and must respond to urgent and complex calls to leadership, the module aims to provide students with: (1) An understanding of characteristic challenges and complications that make it so hard to exercise leadership in the face of moral adversity; (2) A map of the process for delivering on responsibility in the face of moral adversity; (3) A developmental perspective for approaching moral adversity, which casts ethically challenging situations not solely as tests of character but as opportunities to build one's personal capacity to shoulder responsibility and exercise leadership; (4) A moral compass that outlines the personal capacity students need to build, specifying capabilities and commitments students need to develop in order to navigate through moral adversity.

    Keywords: Ethics; Leadership; Moral Sensibility; Leadership Development;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D. "Delivering Personally on Responsibility." Harvard Business School Module Note 409-093, April 2009. (Revised July 2009.) View Details
  19. Your Own Case Study

    Designed to aid in the transfer and application of knowledge gained from the executive program to the live situation that program participants face in their jobs. Teaching Purpose: To bring practical relevance to executive education programs, permitting focused consideration of a concrete, current business problem managers are facing at work.

    Keywords: Executive Education; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Management; Practice;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Sarah Marie Kauss. "Your Own Case Study." Harvard Business School Exercise 405-037, August 2004. (Revised March 2009.) View Details
  20. Antegren: A Beacon of Hope

    The CEO of Biogen Idec faces a set of difficult decisions regarding a promising drug for Multiple Sclerosis that is headed for early approval by the FDA. The first in a series focuses on operational decisions triggered by the drive for early approval. Sparks discussion about a leader's economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities to multiple constituencies and how a leader can guide a company to execute effectively, fulfilling those responsibilities, in a complex situation. Decisions facing the company include how to sustain credible research on the drug's efficacy and safety, how to increase manufacturing capacity to meet expected demand, and how to secure insurer reimbursement. All of these challenges arise against the backdrop of the accelerated approval process, uncertainty about what the FDA will ultimately decide, and whether the company should indeed pursue early approval.

    Keywords: Demand and Consumers; Leadership; Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Decision Choices and Conditions; Crisis Management; Health Testing and Trials; Biotechnology Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Thomas J. DeLong, and Terence Heymann. "Antegren: A Beacon of Hope." Harvard Business School Case 408-025, November 2007. View Details
  21. South African Airways (A)

    Amid efforts to engineer a turnaround at South African Airways (SAA), the CEO confronts an impending strike at the struggling company. How should the company address questions of distributive and procedural justice in post-Apartheid South Africa, and how should the CEO recover from a crucial misstep at the start of the strike? Chronicles the challenges and missteps of previous CEOs and the turnaround plan put in place by Ngqula to help curtail waste and abuse and capitalize on the growing international market.

    Keywords: Fairness; Crisis Management; Employees; Employment; Growth and Development; Developing Countries and Economies; Air Transportation Industry; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Laura Morgan Roberts, and Laura Winig. "South African Airways (A)." Harvard Business School Case 407-014, February 2007. View Details
  22. George McClelland at KSR (A)

    George McClelland accepts a position as the chief administrative officer/chief operating officer at Kendall Square Research (KSR), a fledgling computer company that is taking its promising parallel computer technology to market. McClelland is a veteran of the computer industry, has previously worked with members of KSR's executive management team, and is familiar with KSR's product. He is offered an exciting opportunity to navigate the company through its upcoming growth phase. The case lays out the company's context and history, its technology and market, its central strategic challenges, and consolidated financial data. Also details McClelland's background and initial impressions of KSR.

    Keywords: History; Technological Innovation; Leadership; Business History; Accounting; Problems and Challenges; Business Strategy; Growth and Development; Computer Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Ayesha Kanji, and Wan Wong. "George McClelland at KSR (A)." Harvard Business School Case 403-163, June 2003. (Revised October 2006.) View Details
  23. Confronting a Necessary Evil: The Firing of Alex Robins (B)

    A manager recounts his experience firing the person he was asked to replace and reflects on the challenges of the experience. Teaching Purpose: To role-play and reflect on tasks that entail harming other people to fulfill one's responsibility.

    Keywords: Resignation and Termination;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D. "Confronting a Necessary Evil: The Firing of Alex Robins (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 404-113, February 2004. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  24. Confronting a Necessary Evil: The Firing of Alex Robins (A)

    A manager recounts his experience firing the person he was asked to replace and reflects on the challenges of the experience. Teaching Purpose: To role-play and reflect on tasks that entail harming other people to fulfill one's responsibility.

    Keywords: Ethics; Problems and Challenges; Leadership Development; Behavior; Decision Making; Resignation and Termination;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D. "Confronting a Necessary Evil: The Firing of Alex Robins (A)." Harvard Business School Case 404-125, April 2004. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  25. Necessary Evils: A Diagnostic Exercise

    Central to the work of leaders and professionals are tasks that entail harming one party to deliver benefits or advance valued and worthy goals. Sometimes a person must, as part of his or her job, perform an act that causes emotional, material, or physical harm to another human being in the service of achieving a greater good or purpose. Examples in management include firing people, laying people off, delivering bad news, delivering negative performance feedback, and, in medicine, performing a painful procedure. Through a series of introspective questions, punctuated by small group discussions and concluding with a large group discussion of insights, students and practicing professionals are better equipped to manage the challenges of necessary evils.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Leadership; Problems and Challenges; Ethics; Management Skills;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Andrew Molinsky. "Necessary Evils: A Diagnostic Exercise." Harvard Business School Exercise 404-027, February 2004. (Revised April 2005.) View Details
  26. Aventis SA (A): Planning for a Merger

    Eight executives at Hoechst and Rhone-Poulenc must make four crucial decisions on the eve of merging their companies to become Aventis--what would become the world's third largest pharmaceutical firm. In addition to formulating a vision and strategy, the two firms must plot their intensified efforts in the U.S. market, pick a leader, and choose between two approaches to research and development. The merger represents the ongoing efforts of the two predecessor companies to remake themselves into life science companies. They face a range of pressures, from falling prices and intensifying demands on R&D for blockbuster pharmaceuticals to union opposition to the merger, skepticism from research analysts, and regulatory scrutiny. Amid these pressures, they must combine national and corporate cultures, merge into a single entity, and deliver the promised synergies. Concludes with a surprising development, when one of Hoechst's major shareholders objects to the merger.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Mergers and Acquisitions; Horizontal Integration; Organizational Design; Organizational Culture; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Aventis SA (A): Planning for a Merger." Harvard Business School Case 404-003, June 2004. View Details
  27. Aventis SA (B): A Company is Born

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Mergers and Acquisitions; Horizontal Integration; Organizational Design; Organizational Culture; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. "Aventis SA (B): A Company is Born." Harvard Business School Case 404-108, June 2004. View Details
  28. Necessary Evils: A Diagnostic Exercise (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-404-027), (9-404-113), (9-404-125), and (9-404-805).

    Keywords: Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Andrew Molinsky. "Necessary Evils: A Diagnostic Exercise (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 404-107, April 2004. (Revised June 2004.) View Details
  29. Martha McCaskey

    Martha McCaskey, a project leader at a consulting firm, is asked to complete a project at a crucial point in her career. Successful completion of the project would gain McCaskey a promotion and a significant raise. McCaskey, however, cannot see a way to complete the project without compromising her values. She must decide whether to maintain the high degree of integrity that has always characterized her work or to compromise and "play the game."

    Keywords: Ethics; Values and Beliefs; Personal Development and Career; Decision Making; Problems and Challenges; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., and Bart J. van Dissel. "Martha McCaskey." Harvard Business School Case 403-114, November 2002. (Revised January 2004.) View Details
  30. Workplace Safety at Alcoa (A)

    Examines the challenge facing the managers of a large aluminum manufacturing plant in its drive to improve workplace safety. The CEO of the company has made safety a top priority. The plant has made good progress in reducing the injury rate, but now confronts the need to accelerate its improvement. Doing so requires the safety director to consider progress to date and analyze the opportunities for improvement, many of which involve fundamental changes in behavior at all levels of the organization. Progress has not been uniform throughout the plant and past approaches may not be adequate in meeting the challenge. As the case comes to a close, these issues come to a head because a superintendent wants to fire a supervisor who has failed to adhere to safety procedures. Designed to introduce students to the issues of safety in its operating context. Students have information available that allows them to analyze underlying causes and identify major opportunities for improvement. However, the interactions between safety and other dimensions of manufacturing performance are evident in developing and implementing a plan for improvement.

    Keywords: Working Conditions; Safety; Problems and Challenges; Change Management; Operations; Resignation and Termination; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Clark, Kim B., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Workplace Safety at Alcoa (A)." Harvard Business School Case 692-042, October 1991. (Revised January 2000.) View Details
  31. Micom Caribe (A)

    Describes the Puerto Rican manufacturing plant of a transnational company. The award-winning plant has dramatically improved the quality of flexibility of its operations, by taking a radical approach to manufacturing. The methods center on the use of specific techniques along with a building of trust with the workforce. This generates broad participation and creates a strong commitment to continuous improvement throughout the plant. In 1987, the plant was held responsible for quality problems which marred the launch of an important product. Four years later, a new product is to be launched and the plant must develop a plan to ensure that this launch is a success, as well as develop a strategy for the future. Examines, in detail, the development of a manufacturing infrastructure for quality and flexibility and introduces students to the challenges of managing manufacturing in a transnational environment.

    Keywords: Business Plan; Multinational Firms and Management; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Product Launch; Production; Performance Improvement; Quality; Strategy; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Upton, David M., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Micom Caribe (A)." Harvard Business School Case 692-002, November 1991. (Revised June 1997.) View Details
  32. McDonald's Corporation

    McDonald's has over many years built an operating strategy based on consistency and quality through a limited product range. Competitive forces have drawn the company into a much wider variety of foods and services in order to maintain growth. Now, new competitors threaten to beat McDonald's at its own, original game. In addition, McDonald's faces unprecedented challenges in its environmental policy. The case teaches approaches and dangers arising from flexibility, and the identification of capabilities that support different types of flexibility. The integration of environmental concerns with operations strategy is also addressed.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Problems and Challenges; Environmental Sustainability; Quality; Competitive Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Operations; Integration; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Upton, David M., and Joshua D. Margolis. "McDonald's Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 693-028, October 1992. (Revised September 1996.) View Details
  33. Bernd Sterzel at the IVth Medizinische Klinik (A), (B), and (C) TN

    Teaching Note for (9-493-059), (9-493-060), and (9-493-061).

    Keywords: Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Hill, Linda A., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Bernd Sterzel at the IVth Medizinische Klinik (A), (B), and (C) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 494-121, May 1994. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  34. Australian Paper Manufacturers (A)

    Describes a company which has broken an unwritten cordial agreement amongst the three Australian paper manufacturers to split the domestic market three ways by market segment. The company invades another's "territory" with advanced technology, quality, and, importantly, by using the other company's poor environmental record to protect itself against retaliation. The defender finds itself unable to respond by adding capacity as public pressure denies it the ability to add capacity and upgrade the technology. Having won a large share of the market, and having successfully introduced a new recycled paper product, the invader is now considering the financial, strategic, and ethical issues of further expansion.

    Keywords: Agreements and Arrangements; Production; Technology; Ethics; Situation or Environment; Product Development; Segmentation; Expansion; Financial Strategy; Pulp and Paper Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Upton, David M., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Australian Paper Manufacturers (A)." Harvard Business School Case 691-041, December 1990. (Revised December 1993.) View Details
  35. Australian Paper Manufacturers (B)

    Describes events that occur after the decision point in Australian Paper Manufacturers (A). With these facts and more detailed market projections, this case intensifies the long-term financial, strategic, and ethical decisions confronting the invader.

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Finance; Strategy; Ethics; Pulp and Paper Industry; Australia;

    Citation:

    Upton, David M., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Australian Paper Manufacturers (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 691-043, December 1990. (Revised December 1993.) View Details
  36. Jonah Creighton (A)

    How do you manage yourself and your interaction with others when you feel your personal values challenged? What should you be aware of as you proceed with sensitive, ethical issues? Jonah Creighton coordinates the company's fast-track training program, and when he tries to place some participants at two of the company's overseas divisions, he learns of their discriminatory hiring practices. He finds this deeply troubling and attempts to have the issue addressed by his supervisor and others at the company. As he tries to act in accordance with his personal standards and convictions, his relationship with his supervisor deteriorates, and he feels increasingly uncertain about his future at the company. People do not seem to be responding to the problems he sees, and Jonah wonders how to proceed.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Values and Beliefs; Human Resources; Selection and Staffing; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Donnellon, Anne, and Joshua D. Margolis. "Jonah Creighton (A)." Harvard Business School Case 490-090, June 1990. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  37. Jonah Creighton (B)

    Covers Jonah's two-hour meeting with the company's executive vice president who is next in line to become president, and the outcome of the discriminatory hiring incident that initially troubled Jonah.

    Keywords: Selection and Staffing; Outcome or Result; Problems and Challenges; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Donnellon, Anne, and Joshua D. Margolis. "Jonah Creighton (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 490-091, June 1990. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  38. Mod IV Product Development Team

    Focuses sharply on a crossfunctional product development team at Honeywell's Building Controls Division. Traces the history of teams at the division, which introduced them as a response to intensifying competition and the need for faster development. Reveals the challenges team members, their managers, and executives face when an organization adopts a collaborative approach to work. With a history of sequential product development and animosity between functional areas, the MOD IV team has the added pressure of having to finish the division's most ambitious project in history under a strategy of faster development. Through three perspectives -- team member, manager, and executive -- the case exposes students to the reality of teamwork.

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Collaborative Innovation and Invention; Management Teams; Product Development; Organizational Structure; Groups and Teams; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Donnellon, Anne, and Joshua D. Margolis. "Mod IV Product Development Team." Harvard Business School Case 491-030, September 1990. (Revised March 1991.) View Details

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