Alison Wood Brooks

Assistant Professor of Business Administration, Hellman Faculty Fellow

Unit: Negotiation, Organizations & Markets

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Alison Wood Brooks is an Assistant Professor of Business Administration and Hellman Faculty Fellow in the Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit at Harvard Business School. She teaches FIELD Foundations in the MBA required curriculum (RC), Negotiation in the MBA elective curriculum (EC), Micro Topics in Organizational Behavior in the PhD curriculum, and is affiliated with the Behavioral Insights Group at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Center for Public Leadership.

In her research, Professor Brooks studies the psychology of conversation--why we say things we shouldn't and don't say things we should--and how emotions influence how we think and interact with others, particularly in the workplace. Much of her work examines the behavioral consequences of anxiety, and how individuals can regulate their anxious feelings. Her research has been published in leading academic journals, including the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Psychological Science, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and has been featured in media outlets such as The New York Times, The Economic Times, Harvard Business Review, Wall Street Journal, and Scientific American.

Professor Brooks holds a Ph.D. in Decision Processes from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and a bachelor's degree in Psychology and Finance from Princeton University.

Featured Work

Publications

Journal Articles

  1. Risky Business: When Humor Increases and Decreases Status

    T. B. Bitterly, A.W. Brooks and M. E. Schweitzer

    Across eight experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller’s status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups.

    Keywords: Status and Position; Behavior; Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Bitterly, T. B., A.W. Brooks, and M. E. Schweitzer. "Risky Business: When Humor Increases and Decreases Status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (in press). View Details
  2. Don't Stop Believing: Rituals Improve Performance by Decreasing Anxiety

    Alison Wood Brooks, Julianna Schroeder, Jane Risen, Francesca Gino, Adam D. Galinsky, Michael I. Norton and Maurice Schweitzer

    From public speaking to first dates, people frequently experience performance anxiety. And when experienced immediately before or during performance, anxiety harms performance. Across a series of experiments, we explore the efficacy of a common strategy that people employ to cope with performance-induced anxiety: rituals. We define a ritual as a predefined sequence of symbolic actions often characterized by formality and repetition that lack direct instrumental purpose. Using different instantiations of rituals and measures of anxiety (both physiological and self-report), we find that enacting rituals improves performance in public and private performance domains by decreasing anxiety. Belief that a specific series of behaviors constitute a ritual is a critical ingredient to reduce anxiety and improve performance: engaging in behaviors described as a “ritual” improved performance more than engaging in the same behaviors described as “random behaviors.”

    Keywords: Behavior; Performance; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Brooks, Alison Wood, Julianna Schroeder, Jane Risen, Francesca Gino, Adam D. Galinsky, Michael I. Norton, and Maurice Schweitzer. "Don't Stop Believing: Rituals Improve Performance by Decreasing Anxiety." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (forthcoming). View Details
  3. Managing Perceptions of Distress at Work: Reframing Emotion as Passion

    Elizabeth Baily Wolf, Jooa Julia Lee, Sunita Sah and Alison Wood Brooks

    Expressing distress at work can have negative consequences for employees: observers perceive employees who express distress as less competent than employees who do not. Across five experiments, we explore how reframing a socially inappropriate emotional expression (distress) by publicly attributing it to an appropriate source (passion) can shape perceptions of, and decisions about, the person who expressed emotion. In Studies 1a–c, participants viewed individuals who reframed distress as passion as more competent than those who attributed distress to emotionality or made no attribution. In Studies 2a–b, reframing emotion as passion shifted interpersonal decision making: participants were more likely to hire job candidates and choose collaborators who reframed their distress as passion compared to those who did not. Expresser gender did not moderate these effects. Results suggest that in cases when distress expressions cannot or should not be suppressed, reframing distress as passion can improve observers' impressions of the expresser.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Wolf, Elizabeth Baily, Jooa Julia Lee, Sunita Sah, and Alison Wood Brooks. "Managing Perceptions of Distress at Work: Reframing Emotion as Passion." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (forthcoming): 1–12. View Details
  4. Emotion and the Art of Negotiation: How to Use Your Feelings to Your Advantage

    Alison Wood Brooks

    Negotiations can be fraught with emotion, but it's only recently that researchers have examined how particular feelings influence what happens during deal making. Here the author shares some key findings and advice. Anxiety leads to poor outcomes. You will be less nervous about negotiating, however, if you repeatedly practice and rehearse. You can also avoid anxiety by asking an outside expert to represent you at the bargaining table. Anger is a double-edged sword. In some cases, it intimidates the other parties and helps you strike a better deal, but in other situations, particularly those involving long-term relationships, it damages trust and goodwill and makes an impasse more likely. To avoid or defuse anger, take a break to cool off or try expressing sadness and a desire to compromise. Disappointment can be channeled to reach a more satisfactory outcome. Before disappointment becomes regret, ask plenty of questions to assure yourself that you've explored all options. And don't close the deal too early; you might find ways to sweeten it if you keep talking. Excitement isn't always a good thing. Getting excited too early can lead you to act rashly and gloating about the final terms can alienate your counterparts. But if feelings of excitement, like other emotions, are well managed, everyone can feel like a winner.

    Keywords: Negotiation Style; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Brooks, Alison Wood. "Emotion and the Art of Negotiation: How to Use Your Feelings to Your Advantage." Harvard Business Review 93, no. 12 (December 2015): 56–64. View Details
  5. Compared to Men, Women View Professional Advancement as Equally Attainable, but Less Desirable

    Francesca Gino, Caroline Ashley Wilmuth and Alison Wood Brooks

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. While a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research, we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views impact their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In Studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In Studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In Studies 5–7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from school, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige, money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict, tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in Studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies.

    Keywords: Personal Development and Career; Gender;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Caroline Ashley Wilmuth, and Alison Wood Brooks. "Compared to Men, Women View Professional Advancement as Equally Attainable, but Less Desirable." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (in press). View Details
  6. The Organizational Apology: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Maurice E. Schweitzer, Alison Wood Brooks and Adam D. Galinsky

    At some point, every company makes a mistake that requires an apology—to an individual; a group of customers, employees, or business partners; or the public at large. And more often than not, companies and their leaders fail to apologize effectively, if at all, which can severely damage their reputations and their relationships with stakeholders. Companies need clearer guidelines for determining whether a mistake merits an apology and, when it does, for crafting and delivering an effective message. In this article, the authors present their framework—the apology formula—to help companies navigate the tricky terrain. Leaders should ask themselves four questions: Was there a violation? Was it core to our promise or mission? How will the public react? Are we committed to change? As a general rule, the more central to the mission of the company the violation is and the more people it affects, the more important it is that the apology be pitch-perfect. Once a company decides that an apology is necessary, it needs to carefully consider the who, what, where, when, and how of executing it. For core violations, the "who" has to be senior leaders, the "what" has to show a tremendous commitment to change, the "where" has to be high profile, the "when" has to be fast, and the "how" must be deeply sincere and demonstrate empathy.

    Keywords: Corporate Accountability; Marketing; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Schweitzer, Maurice E., Alison Wood Brooks, and Adam D. Galinsky. "The Organizational Apology: A Step-by-Step Guide." Harvard Business Review 93, no. 9 (September 2015): 44–52. View Details
  7. Anxious and Egocentric: How Specific Emotions Influence Perspective Taking

    Andrew R. Todd, Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer, Alison Wood Brooks and Adam D. Galinsky

    People frequently feel anxious. Although prior research has extensively studied how feeling anxious shapes intrapsychic aspects of cognition, much less is known about how anxiety affects interpersonal aspects of cognition. Here, we examine the influence of incidental experiences of anxiety on perceptual and conceptual forms of perspective taking. Compared with participants experiencing other negative, high-arousal emotions (i.e., anger or disgust) or neutral feelings, anxious participants displayed greater egocentrism in their mental-state reasoning: They were more likely to describe an object using their own spatial perspective, had more difficulty resisting egocentric interference when identifying an object from others' spatial perspectives, and relied more heavily on privileged knowledge when inferring others' beliefs. Using both experimental-causal-chain and measurement-of-mediation approaches, we found that these effects were explained, in part, by uncertainty appraisal tendencies. Further supporting the role of uncertainty, a positive emotion associated with uncertainty (i.e., surprise) produced increases in egocentrism that were similar to anxiety. Collectively, the results suggest that incidentally experiencing emotions associated with uncertainty increase reliance on one's own egocentric perspective when reasoning about the mental states of others.

    Keywords: Anxiety; Egocentrism; Emotion; Perspective Taking; Risk and Uncertainty; Perspective; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Todd, Andrew R., Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer, Alison Wood Brooks, and Adam D. Galinsky. "Anxious and Egocentric: How Specific Emotions Influence Perspective Taking." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144, no. 2 (April 2015): 374–391. View Details
  8. Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence

    A.W. Brooks, F. Gino and M.E. Schweitzer

    Although individuals can derive substantial benefits from exchanging information and ideas, many individuals are reluctant to seek advice from others. We find that people are reticent to seek advice for fear of appearing incompetent. This fear, however, is misplaced. We demonstrate that individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent than those who do not seek advice. This effect is moderated by task difficulty, advisor egocentrism, and advisor expertise. Individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent when the task is difficult than when it is easy, when people seek advice from them personally than when they seek advice from others, and when people seek advice from experts than from non-experts or not at all.

    Keywords: Behavior; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., F. Gino, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence." Management Science 61, no. 6 (June 2015): 1421–1435. View Details
  9. A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery

    Ting Zhang, Tami Kim, Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino and Michael I. Norton

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we use a "time capsule" paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity-provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we find that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences compared to rediscovering extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer to rediscover those moments in the future. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten.

    Keywords: History; Information Management; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Zhang, Ting, Tami Kim, Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino, and Michael I. Norton. "A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery." Psychological Science 25, no. 10 (October 2014): 1851–1860. View Details
  10. Investors Prefer Entrepreneurial Ventures Pitched by Attractive Men

    A.W. Brooks, L. Huang, S.W. Kearney and F. Murray

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Entrepreneurship; Investment; Gender;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., L. Huang, S.W. Kearney, and F. Murray. "Investors Prefer Entrepreneurial Ventures Pitched by Attractive Men." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, no. 12 (March 25, 2014): 4427–4431. View Details
  11. Get Excited: Reappraising Pre-Performance Anxiety as Excitement

    A.W. Brooks

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared to those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mindset (as opposed to a threat mindset), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Attitudes; Performance;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W. "Get Excited: Reappraising Pre-Performance Anxiety as Excitement." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 3 (June 2014): 1144–1158. (Received Outstanding Dissertation Award by International Association for Conflict Management 2013.) View Details
  12. I'm Sorry About the Rain! Superfluous Apologies Demonstrate Empathic Concern and Increase Trust

    A.W. Brooks, H. Dai and M.E. Schweitzer

    Existing apology research has conceptualized apologies as a device to rebuild relationships following a transgression. As a result, apology research has failed to investigate the use of apologies for outcomes for which individuals are obviously not culpable (e.g., apologies for heavy traffic or bad weather). In this paper, we define superfluous apologies as expressions of regret for an undesirable circumstance for which the apologizer is clearly not responsible. Across four studies, we find that issuing a superfluous apology demonstrates empathic concern, which motivates an increase in trust and liking.

    Keywords: superfluous apology; apology; trust; benevolence-based trust; empathy; stochastic trust game; Trust; Emotions; Societal Protocols;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., H. Dai, and M.E. Schweitzer. "I'm Sorry About the Rain! Superfluous Apologies Demonstrate Empathic Concern and Increase Trust." Social Psychological & Personality Science 5, no. 4 (May 2014): 467–474. View Details
  13. Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice

    F. Gino, A.W. Brooks and M.E. Schweitzer

    Across eight experiments, we describe the influence of anxiety on advice seeking and advice taking. We find that anxious individuals are more likely to seek and rely on advice than are those in a neutral emotional state (Experiment 1), but this pattern of results does not generalize to other negatively-valenced emotions (Experiment 2). The relationships between anxiety and advice seeking and anxiety and advice taking are mediated by self-confidence; anxiety lowers self-confidence, which increases advice seeking and reliance upon advice (Experiment 3). Though anxiety also impairs information processing, impaired information processing does not mediate the relationship between anxiety and advice taking (Experiment 4). Finally, we find that anxious individuals fail to discriminate between good and bad advice (Experiment 5a-c), and between advice from advisors with and without a conflict of interest (Experiment 6).

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., A.W. Brooks, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 3 (March 2012): 497–512. View Details
  14. Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators to Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, and Earn Less Profit

    A.W. Brooks and M.E. Schweitzer

    Negotiations trigger anxiety. Across four studies, we demonstrate that anxiety is harmful to negotiator performance. In our experiments, we induced either anxiety or neutral feelings and studied behavior in negotiation and continuous shrinking-pie tasks. Compared to negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel anxious expect lower outcomes, make lower first offers, respond more quickly to offers, exit bargaining situations earlier, and ultimately obtain worse outcomes. The relationship between anxiety and negotiator behavior is moderated by negotiator self-efficacy; high self-efficacy mitigates the harmful effects of anxiety.

    Keywords: Behavior; Negotiation Participants; Outcome or Result; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., and M.E. Schweitzer. "Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators to Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, and Earn Less Profit." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 115, no. 1 (May 2011): 43–54. (Awarded Best Paper with a Student as First Author by the International Association for Conflict Management, 2010.) View Details
  15. How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery

    M. Haselhuhn, M.E. Schweitzer and A. Wood

    After a trust violation, some people are quick to forgive, whereas others never trust again. In this report, we identify a key characteristic that moderates trust recovery: implicit beliefs of moral character. Individuals who believe that moral character can change over time (incremental beliefs) are more likely to trust their counterpart following an apology and trustworthy behavior than are individuals who believe that moral character cannot change (entity beliefs).We demonstrate that a simple but powerful message can induce either entity or incremental beliefs about moral character.

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Trust;

    Citation:

    Haselhuhn, M., M.E. Schweitzer, and A. Wood. "How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery." Psychological Science 21, no. 5 (May 2010): 645–648. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Advika Consulting Services: Challenges and Opportunities in Managing Human Capital

    Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino, Julia J. Lee and Bradley R. Staats

    Keywords: CONSULTING firms; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Brooks, Alison Wood, Francesca Gino, Julia J. Lee, and Bradley R. Staats. "Advika Consulting Services: Challenges and Opportunities in Managing Human Capital." Harvard Business School Case 916-033, June 2016. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Overview

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Professor Brooks studies the psychology of conversation and emotion—topics at the intersection of how people think, feel, and interact. From pitching ideas to seeking advice, from asking questions to giving compliments, from talking about (or hiding) our feelings and our personal struggles, she identifies and elucidates the underlying psychology of the factors that make such strategies work (and, more often than we’d like, fail). Her research focuses in particular on the pivotal role that emotional experience and expression play in making interactions go smoothly or poorly, and the external factors that influence interactions, such as the gender of the actors. With the goal of empowering individuals and their organizations to thrive, she studies these topics using experimental methods across diverse populations (e.g., behavioral laboratory participants, online panels of working adults, and field samples inside and outside organizations).

    Keywords: Anxiety; Emotion; Emotion Regulation; Reappraisal; negotiation; trust; Performance;

  2. The Psychology of Conversation

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Conversation is a profound part of the human experience. To share our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with each other, we converse face to face and remotely—via phone, email, text message, online comment boards, and in contracts. Conversations form the bedrock of our relationships and, often, function as the vehicle of productivity at work.

    Unfortunately, most people make conversational mistakes. This is especially true in the workplace, where norms and rules of appropriateness and professionalism matter, and issues surrounding voice and backlash abound. We say things we shouldn’t (errors of commission) and don’t say things we should (errors of omission). For example, Professor Brooks has identified some tactics people should use more often than they do: seeking advice, issuing apologies, revealing personal failures, and asking questions. On the other hand, she has identified some tactics people use often but shouldn't, such as making inappropriate jokes in the workplace and giving backhanded compliments. 

  3. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Once considered irrational, emotions often exert a more profound influence on decision-making and workplace outcomes than logic or reason. Professor Brooks is fascinated by emotional experience, emotional expression, and how individuals can regulate their emotions effectively. Much of her research in this domain has focused on anxiety, one of the most pervasive emotions people experience in the workplace (and outside of work). Unlike research in clinical psychology, which has focused on treatments and medications that might help individuals with disordered or abnormal anxiety, her research focuses on the type of anxious feelings most people experience every day—the anxiety we feel before leading a meeting, giving a public speech, or completing difficult tasks. She has identified important behavioral consequences of feeling anxious: it limits our ability to take others’ perspectives, causes us to seek out and rely heavily on advice (even when the advice is obviously bad), and causes individuals to reply quickly, make steep concessions, exit prematurely, and earn less profit in negotiations.

    Fortunately, anxiety can be managed. Professor Brooks has identified several novel methods for mitigating the deleterious effects of anxiety. In her dissertation work, she found that most people think they should calm down when they feel anxious. Instead, staying in a high-arousal state and reframing anxiety as excitement is much more effective for performing well on high-pressure performance tasks. Next, she finds that pre-performance rituals—once believed to be highly irrational—can actually reduce performance anxiety and improve subsequent performance. Finally, she finds that after an expression of distress (e.g., crying at work), people have tremendous control over how people perceive them. For example, saying “I’m passionate about this” rather than “I’m emotional about this” increases others’ perceptions of one’s competence and self-control. This work contributes to the emerging field of interpersonal emotion regulation—how we can exert control over others’ emotions and their perceptions of our emotions.

    Professor Brooks's interest in anxiety has expanded to include other emotions as well. For example, she has used large datasets from Facebook to show that higher amounts and higher diversity of emotional expression online increase happiness and life satisfaction at both the individual and national levels. Then, by studying time capsules, she finds that there is a unique, unanticipated joy associated with rediscovering mundane details from your past. And, finally, she finds that revealing personal failures (in addition to successes) reduces malicious envy felt by observers and increases benign envy, inspiring others to work hard to achieve the same success.

    Teaching

  1. FIELD Foundations

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    FIELD Foundations is a course for first-year MBA students in the Required Curriculum. As a complement to case method courses that students take in the first year of the MBA program, FIELD Foundations offers hands-on leadership practice and immersive team experiences. Students are divided into small teams to complete interactive workshops. These team simulations, feedback, and self-reflection exercises help them develop self-awareness and answer key questions like: How can you engage in difficult conversations? How self-aware are you about your own biases? How can you make diverse teams better? Can you be more emotionally intelligent? What kind of leader do you want to be?

    Taught alongside the case method, FIELD Foundations provides students with a more comprehensive cycle of learning by thinking, doing, and reflecting, and prepares them to take the FIELD Global Immersion course in the spring semester, when they will put their leadership ideas into practice in the real world.

  2. Negotiation

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Negotiation is an Elective Curriculum course for HBS MBA students. Success at work and at home requires the ability to negotiate. Whether you are forging an agreement with your suppliers, trying to ink a deal with potential customers, raising money from investors, managing a conflict inside your firm, resolving a dispute that is headed towards litigation, or interacting with friends, family members, or colleagues, your ability to negotiate will determine how well you perform.

    Because others do not have the same interests, perspectives, and values as you, the ability to negotiate is critical both professionally and personally. This course will help you to become a more effective negotiator.

  3. Micro Topics in Organizational Behavior

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Micro Topics in Organizational Behavior is a PhD seminar course exploring current and seminal research on individual, dyadic, small group, and intra-organizational behavior. Examples of topics at the individual level include emotions, cognition, and behavioral decision making. Examples at the dyadic level include social perception and bias. Group-level topics include teams and multiparty decision making. Topics at the intra-organizational level include culture and gender.

    The course readings are not exhaustive of the OB field—there are many other interesting micro topics—but they cover a wide range of emerging and foundational topics. Most class sessions will feature a discussion with a faculty member about his/her research topics and process (including a discussion of the review and publication process).

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