Alison Wood Brooks

Assistant Professor of Business Administration

Unit: Negotiation, Organizations & Markets


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Alison Wood Brooks is an assistant professor of business administration in the Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit at Harvard Business School. She teaches Negotiation in the MBA elective curriculum, Micro Organizational Behavior in the PhD curriculum, and is affiliated with the Behavioral Insights Group at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Center for Public Leadership.

In her research, Professor Brooks focuses on how emotions influence cognition and behavior, particularly in the workplace. Much of her work examines the behavioral consequences of anxiety, and how individuals can regulate their anxious feelings. Her research has been published in leading academic journals, including the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Psychological Science, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and has been featured in media outlets such as The New York Times, The Economic Times, Harvard Business Review, and Scientific American.

Professor Brooks holds a Ph.D. in decision processes from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and a bachelor's degree in psychology and finance from Princeton University.

Featured Work


Journal Articles

  1. Emotion and the Art of Negotiation: How to Use Your Feelings to Your Advantage

    Alison Wood Brooks

    Negotiations can be fraught with emotion, but it's only recently that researchers have examined how particular feelings influence what happens during deal making. Here the author shares some key findings and advice. Anxiety leads to poor outcomes. You will be less nervous about negotiating, however, if you repeatedly practice and rehearse. You can also avoid anxiety by asking an outside expert to represent you at the bargaining table. Anger is a double-edged sword. In some cases, it intimidates the other parties and helps you strike a better deal, but in other situations, particularly those involving long-term relationships, it damages trust and goodwill and makes an impasse more likely. To avoid or defuse anger, take a break to cool off or try expressing sadness and a desire to compromise. Disappointment can be channeled to reach a more satisfactory outcome. Before disappointment becomes regret, ask plenty of questions to assure yourself that you've explored all options. And don't close the deal too early; you might find ways to sweeten it if you keep talking. Excitement isn't always a good thing. Getting excited too early can lead you to act rashly and gloating about the final terms can alienate your counterparts. But if feelings of excitement, like other emotions, are well managed, everyone can feel like a winner.


    Brooks, Alison Wood. "Emotion and the Art of Negotiation: How to Use Your Feelings to Your Advantage." Harvard Business Review 93, no. 12 (December 2015): 56–64. View Details
  2. Compared to Men, Women View Professional Advancement as Equally Attainable, but Less Desirable

    Francesca Gino, Caroline Ashley Wilmuth and Alison Wood Brooks

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. While a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research, we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views impact their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In Studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In Studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In Studies 5–7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from school, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige, money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict, tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in Studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies.

    Keywords: Personal Development and Career; Gender;


    Gino, Francesca, Caroline Ashley Wilmuth, and Alison Wood Brooks. "Compared to Men, Women View Professional Advancement as Equally Attainable, but Less Desirable." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (in press). View Details
  3. The Organizational Apology: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Maurice E. Schweitzer, Alison Wood Brooks and Adam D. Galinsky

    At some point, every company makes a mistake that requires an apology—to an individual; a group of customers, employees, or business partners; or the public at large. And more often than not, companies and their leaders fail to apologize effectively, if at all, which can severely damage their reputations and their relationships with stakeholders. Companies need clearer guidelines for determining whether a mistake merits an apology and, when it does, for crafting and delivering an effective message. In this article, the authors present their framework—the apology formula—to help companies navigate the tricky terrain. Leaders should ask themselves four questions: Was there a violation? Was it core to our promise or mission? How will the public react? Are we committed to change? As a general rule, the more central to the mission of the company the violation is and the more people it affects, the more important it is that the apology be pitch-perfect. Once a company decides that an apology is necessary, it needs to carefully consider the who, what, where, when, and how of executing it. For core violations, the "who" has to be senior leaders, the "what" has to show a tremendous commitment to change, the "where" has to be high profile, the "when" has to be fast, and the "how" must be deeply sincere and demonstrate empathy.

    Keywords: Corporate Accountability; Marketing; Organizations;


    Schweitzer, Maurice E., Alison Wood Brooks, and Adam D. Galinsky. "The Organizational Apology: A Step-by-Step Guide." Harvard Business Review 93, no. 9 (September 2015): 44–52. View Details
  4. Anxious and Egocentric: How Specific Emotions Influence Perspective Taking

    Andrew R. Todd, Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer, Alison Wood Brooks and Adam D. Galinsky

    People frequently feel anxious. Although prior research has extensively studied how feeling anxious shapes intrapsychic aspects of cognition, much less is known about how anxiety affects interpersonal aspects of cognition. Here, we examine the influence of incidental experiences of anxiety on perceptual and conceptual forms of perspective taking. Compared with participants experiencing other negative, high-arousal emotions (i.e., anger or disgust) or neutral feelings, anxious participants displayed greater egocentrism in their mental-state reasoning: They were more likely to describe an object using their own spatial perspective, had more difficulty resisting egocentric interference when identifying an object from others' spatial perspectives, and relied more heavily on privileged knowledge when inferring others' beliefs. Using both experimental-causal-chain and measurement-of-mediation approaches, we found that these effects were explained, in part, by uncertainty appraisal tendencies. Further supporting the role of uncertainty, a positive emotion associated with uncertainty (i.e., surprise) produced increases in egocentrism that were similar to anxiety. Collectively, the results suggest that incidentally experiencing emotions associated with uncertainty increase reliance on one's own egocentric perspective when reasoning about the mental states of others.

    Keywords: Anxiety; Egocentrism; Emotion; Perspective Taking; Risk and Uncertainty; Perspective; Emotions;


    Todd, Andrew R., Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer, Alison Wood Brooks, and Adam D. Galinsky. "Anxious and Egocentric: How Specific Emotions Influence Perspective Taking." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144, no. 2 (April 2015): 374–391. View Details
  5. Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence

    A.W. Brooks, F. Gino and M.E. Schweitzer

    Although individuals can derive substantial benefits from exchanging information and ideas, many individuals are reluctant to seek advice from others. We find that people are reticent to seek advice for fear of appearing incompetent. This fear, however, is misplaced. We demonstrate that individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent than those who do not seek advice. This effect is moderated by task difficulty, advisor egocentrism, and advisor expertise. Individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent when the task is difficult than when it is easy, when people seek advice from them personally than when they seek advice from others, and when people seek advice from experts than from non-experts or not at all.

    Keywords: Behavior; Cognition and Thinking;


    Brooks, A.W., F. Gino, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence." Management Science 61, no. 6 (June 2015): 1421–1435. View Details
  6. A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery

    Ting Zhang, Tami Kim, Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino and Michael I. Norton

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we use a "time capsule" paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity-provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we find that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences compared to rediscovering extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer to rediscover those moments in the future. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten.

    Keywords: History; Information Management; Cognition and Thinking;


    Zhang, Ting, Tami Kim, Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino, and Michael I. Norton. "A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery." Psychological Science 25, no. 10 (October 2014): 1851–1860. View Details
  7. Investors Prefer Entrepreneurial Ventures Pitched by Attractive Men

    A.W. Brooks, L. Huang, S.W. Kearney and F. Murray

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Entrepreneurship; Investment; Gender;


    Brooks, A.W., L. Huang, S.W. Kearney, and F. Murray. "Investors Prefer Entrepreneurial Ventures Pitched by Attractive Men." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, no. 12 (March 25, 2014): 4427–4431. View Details
  8. Get Excited: Reappraising Pre-Performance Anxiety as Excitement

    A.W. Brooks

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared to those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mindset (as opposed to a threat mindset), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Attitudes; Performance;


    Brooks, A.W. "Get Excited: Reappraising Pre-Performance Anxiety as Excitement." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 3 (June 2014): 1144–1158. (Received Outstanding Dissertation Award by International Association for Conflict Management 2013.) View Details
  9. I'm Sorry About the Rain! Superfluous Apologies Demonstrate Empathic Concern and Increase Trust

    A.W. Brooks, H. Dai and M.E. Schweitzer

    Existing apology research has conceptualized apologies as a device to rebuild relationships following a transgression. As a result, apology research has failed to investigate the use of apologies for outcomes for which individuals are obviously not culpable (e.g., apologies for heavy traffic or bad weather). In this paper, we define superfluous apologies as expressions of regret for an undesirable circumstance for which the apologizer is clearly not responsible. Across four studies, we find that issuing a superfluous apology demonstrates empathic concern, which motivates an increase in trust and liking.

    Keywords: superfluous apology; apology; trust; benevolence-based trust; empathy; stochastic trust game; Trust; Emotions; Societal Protocols;


    Brooks, A.W., H. Dai, and M.E. Schweitzer. "I'm Sorry About the Rain! Superfluous Apologies Demonstrate Empathic Concern and Increase Trust." Social Psychological & Personality Science 5, no. 4 (May 2014): 467–474. View Details
  10. Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice

    F. Gino, A.W. Brooks and M.E. Schweitzer

    Across eight experiments, we describe the influence of anxiety on advice seeking and advice taking. We find that anxious individuals are more likely to seek and rely on advice than are those in a neutral emotional state (Experiment 1), but this pattern of results does not generalize to other negatively-valenced emotions (Experiment 2). The relationships between anxiety and advice seeking and anxiety and advice taking are mediated by self-confidence; anxiety lowers self-confidence, which increases advice seeking and reliance upon advice (Experiment 3). Though anxiety also impairs information processing, impaired information processing does not mediate the relationship between anxiety and advice taking (Experiment 4). Finally, we find that anxious individuals fail to discriminate between good and bad advice (Experiment 5a-c), and between advice from advisors with and without a conflict of interest (Experiment 6).

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives;


    Gino, F., A.W. Brooks, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 3 (March 2012): 497–512. View Details
  11. Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators to Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, and Earn Less Profit

    A.W. Brooks and M.E. Schweitzer

    Negotiations trigger anxiety. Across four studies, we demonstrate that anxiety is harmful to negotiator performance. In our experiments, we induced either anxiety or neutral feelings and studied behavior in negotiation and continuous shrinking-pie tasks. Compared to negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel anxious expect lower outcomes, make lower first offers, respond more quickly to offers, exit bargaining situations earlier, and ultimately obtain worse outcomes. The relationship between anxiety and negotiator behavior is moderated by negotiator self-efficacy; high self-efficacy mitigates the harmful effects of anxiety.

    Keywords: Behavior; Negotiation Participants; Outcome or Result; Emotions;


    Brooks, A.W., and M.E. Schweitzer. "Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators to Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, and Earn Less Profit." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 115, no. 1 (May 2011): 43–54. (Awarded Best Paper with a Student as First Author by the International Association for Conflict Management, 2010.) View Details
  12. How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery

    M. Haselhuhn, M.E. Schweitzer and A. Wood

    After a trust violation, some people are quick to forgive, whereas others never trust again. In this report, we identify a key characteristic that moderates trust recovery: implicit beliefs of moral character. Individuals who believe that moral character can change over time (incremental beliefs) are more likely to trust their counterpart following an apology and trustworthy behavior than are individuals who believe that moral character cannot change (entity beliefs).We demonstrate that a simple but powerful message can induce either entity or incremental beliefs about moral character.

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Trust;


    Haselhuhn, M., M.E. Schweitzer, and A. Wood. "How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery." Psychological Science 21, no. 5 (May 2010): 645–648. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Overview

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Professor Brooks studies topics at the intersection of emotion, cognition, and behavior. Much of her research has focused on anxiety, one of the most pervasive emotions experienced in the workplace. Professor Brooks’ work on anxiety — and other emotions such as excitement, anger, calmness, envy, and admiration — has led her to examine how individuals navigate interpersonal interaction in the workplace more broadly. For example, she also studies interpersonal topics such as trust, humor, authenticity, advice seeking, and question asking. Her work highlights how people can regulate their emotions and interact with others to make themselves and their organizations more effective.

    Keywords: Anxiety; Emotion; Emotion Regulation; Reappraisal; negotiation; trust; Performance;


  1. Negotiation

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Negotiation is an Elective Curriculum course for HBS MBA students. Success at work and at home requires the ability to negotiate. Whether you are forging an agreement with your suppliers, trying to ink a deal with potential customers, raising money from investors, managing a conflict inside your firm, resolving a dispute that is headed towards litigation, or interacting with friends, family members, or colleagues, your ability to negotiate will determine how well you perform.

    Because others do not have the same interests, perspectives, and values as you, the ability to negotiate is critical both professionally and personally. This course will help you to become a more effective negotiator.

  2. Micro Topics in Organizational Behavior

    by Alison Wood Brooks

    Micro Topics in Organizational Behavior is a PhD seminar course exploring current and seminal research on individual, dyadic, small group, and intra-organizational behavior. Examples of topics at the individual level include emotions, cognition, and behavioral decision making. Examples at the dyadic level include social perception and bias. Group-level topics include teams and multiparty decision making. Topics at the intra-organizational level include culture and gender.

    The course readings are not exhaustive of the OB field—there are many other interesting micro topics—but they cover a wide range of emerging and foundational topics. Most class sessions will feature a discussion with a faculty member about his/her research topics and process (including a discussion of the review and publication process). 

    This course will expose you to many topics in Organizational Behavior, a range of research approaches and methodologies, and will introduce you to many of the HBS faculty (and some non-HBS faculty) studying micro OB topics. We hope this broad exposure will inform your choices about which topics to pursue in your own research, and how and with whom to study those topics. 

    18 Nov 2015
    Harvard Business Review
    03 Nov 2015
    Scientific American
    23 Sep 2015
    Harvard Business Review
    23 Sep 2015
    HBS Working Knowledge
    24 Sep 2015
    03 Sep 2015
    Harvard Business Review
    12 Aug 2015
    Harvard Business Review
    22 Jul 2015
    Huffington Post
    20 Jul 2015
    New York Magazine
    16 Jun 2015
    Scientific American
    15 May 2015
    Wall Street Journal
    12 Feb 2015
    Scientific American
    18 Dec 2014
    Scientific American
    14 Nov 2014
    World Economic Forum
    07 Oct 2014
    Scientific American
    10 Jun 2014
    We're Only Human blog (Association for Psychological Science)
    30 Apr 2014
    HBS Working Knowledge
    14 Apr 2014
    Harvard Magazine
    03 Jan 2014
    Men's Health
    10 Nov 2013
    New York Times
    01 Nov 2013
    CBS: Money Watch
    21 Oct 2013
    Men's Health