David J. Collis

Adjunct Professor

Unit: Strategy

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(617) 495-6768

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For the past twenty-five years David J. Collis has been a professor at the Harvard Business School, where he is the Thomas Henry Carroll Ford Foundation Adjunct Professor of Business Administration within the Strategy Unit -- only the second full-time Adjunct Professor appointed at HBS. Previously, he was the MBA Class of 1958 Senior Lecturer and an Associate Professor in the Strategy group at the Harvard Business School, having also completed five years as the Frederick Frank adjunct Professor of International Business Administration at the Yale School of Management and two years as a professor at Columbia Business School. The winner of the 50th Anniversary McKinsey Award for the best article in the Harvard Business Review in 2008, and a Harvard Business Review best-selling author, he is an expert on corporate strategy and global competition, and is the author of the recent books Corporate Strategy (with Cynthia Montgomery) and Corporate Headquarters (with Michael Goold and David Young), and the forthcoming book International Strategy.  Professor Collis is on the faculty for several HBS Executive Education programs, including Global Strategic Management, Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, and chairs Corporate Level Strategy.  As the author of over twenty five articles and book chapters, his work has been frequently published in the Harvard Business Review, Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, and in many books including Managing the Multibusiness Company, International Competitiveness, and Beyond Free Trade. The more than fifty cases he has authored have sold over 1 million copies worldwide and his articles over a quarter of a million copies, with nearly 7,000 citations.

David Collis received an M.A. (1976) with a Double First from Cambridge University where he was the Wrenbury Scholar of the University. He graduated as a Baker Scholar from Harvard Business School, MBA (1978), and received a Ph.D. (1986) in Business Economics at Harvard University where he was a Dean's Doctoral Fellow. From 1978 to 1982 he worked for the Boston Consulting Group in London. He is currently a consultant to several major U.S. corporations, and on the Board of Trustees of the Hult International Business School, and the Advisory Boards of Vivaldi Partners, Folderwave and formerly of PICIS, Ocean Spray, and WebCT. He is also the cofounder of the elearning company E-Edge, and the advisory firm Ludlow Partners.

Publications

Books

  1. International Strategy: Context, Concepts and Implications

    This book is designed for every student who will be involved in managing and advising companies that compete internationally or face international competitors. Designed around the course at Harvard Business School, Collis' new text takes the firm that operates across borders as a unit of analysis and the senior manager in a multinational as the typical decision maker. Illustrated with examples from companies of all sizes from around the globe, this text provides students with the means to navigate their way through the decisions they will face and formulate an effective business strategy. This is a much-needed guide to the common strategic issues that arise when firms compete internationally.

    Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Global Strategy; Globalized Economies and Regions; Globalized Firms and Management; Multinational Firms and Management; Globalized Markets and Industries; Alignment; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Horizontal Integration; Vertical Integration;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. International Strategy: Context, Concepts and Implications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. The Size and Composition of Corporate Headquarters in Multinational Companies: Empirical Evidence

    Based on a six-country survey of nearly 250 multinationals (MNCs), this paper is the first empirical analysis to describe the size and composition of MNC headquarters and to account for differences among them. Findings are as follows: MNC corporate headquarters are more involved in "obligatory" and value creating and control functions than in operational activities; there are no systematic differences in the determinants of the size and composition of corporate headquarters between MNCs and purely domestic companies; and as the geographic scope of an MNC increases, two offsetting phenomena occur—headquarters decrease their influence over operational units that, ceteris paribus, reduces the size of headquarters, but the relative size of obligatory functions at headquarters increases with increased country heterogeneity. The net effect is that the size of corporate headquarters expands as MNC geographic scope increases. The notion of "administrative heritage" is validated as MNCs from different countries have substantially different corporate headquarters—U.S. headquarters are large (255 median staff for a 20,000 FTE MNC) and European headquarters smaller (124). Implications are drawn that countries will lose activities if domestic firms are acquired by foreign MNCs, and that MNCs need to allow more subsidiary autonomy as their geographic scope increases.

    Keywords: headquarters; subsidiaries; multinational corporations; organization design; administrative heritage; international strategy; Business Subsidiaries; Organizational Design; Multinational Firms and Management; Size; Business Headquarters; Global Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., David Young, and Michael Goold. "The Size and Composition of Corporate Headquarters in Multinational Companies: Empirical Evidence." Journal of International Management 18, no. 3 (September 2012): 260–275. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. The Paradox of Scope: A Challenge to the Governance of Higher Education

    Keywords: Governance; Higher Education; Non-Governmental Organizations; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "The Paradox of Scope: A Challenge to the Governance of Higher Education." In Competing Conceptions of Academic Governance: Negotiating the Perfect Storm, edited by William G. Tierney. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. View Details
  2. The Converging Worlds of Telecommunications, Computing and Entertainment

    Keywords: Communication Technology; Information Technology; Entertainment; Telecommunications Industry; Computer Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., Stephen P. Bradley, and P. William Bane Jr. "The Converging Worlds of Telecommunications, Computing and Entertainment." In Sense and Respond: Capturing Value in the Network Era, edited by Stephen P. Bradley and Richard L. Nolan, 31–62. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  3. Winners and Losers--Industry Structure in the Converging World of Telecommunications, Computing, and Entertainment

    Keywords: Supply and Industry; Communication; Information Technology; Entertainment; Competition; Conflict and Resolution; Telecommunications Industry; Information Technology Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, D. J., P. W. Bane, and S. P. Bradley. "Winners and Losers--Industry Structure in the Converging World of Telecommunications, Computing, and Entertainment." In Competing in the Age of Digital Convergence, edited by D. B. Yoffie. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997. View Details

Working Papers

  1. What Do We Know About Corporate Headquarters? A Review, Integration, and Research Agenda

    During the past five decades, scholars have studied the corporate headquarters (CHQ)—the multidivisional firm's central organizational unit. The purpose of this article is to review the diverse and fragmented literature on the CHQ and to identify the variables of interest, the dominant relationships, and the contributions. We integrate, for the first time, the existing knowledge of the CHQ into an organizing framework. Based on a synthesis of the literature, we identify major shortcomings and gaps and present an agenda for future research that contributes to our understanding of the CHQ and the multidivisional firm.

    Keywords: corporate headquarters; corporate parent; corporate center; corporate strategy; multidivisional firm; multibusiness firm; multinational corporation; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Business Divisions; Business Headquarters;

    Citation:

    Menz, Markus, Sven Kunisch, and David J. Collis. "What Do We Know About Corporate Headquarters? A Review, Integration, and Research Agenda." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-016, August 2013. View Details
  2. International Differences in the Size and Roles of Corporate Headquarters: An Empirical Examination

    This paper examines differences in the size and roles of corporate headquarters around the world. Based on a survey of over 600 multibusiness corporations in seven countries (France, Germany, Holland, UK, Japan, US, and Chile) the paper describes the differences among countries, and then applies a model of the factors determining the size of corporate headquarters (Young, Collis, and Goold, 2003) to systematically examine those differences. The data shows that there are significant differences among countries in the size and role of corporate headquarters, and strongly suggests the existence of a developing country model, a European model, a US model, and a Japanese model of corporate headquarters. Contrary to popular expectations, corporate headquarters in the US are about twice the size of European counterparts. Headquarters there exert a higher level of functional influence and have larger staffs in certain key areas, such as IT and R&D. US managers are generally more satisfied than their European counterparts with their larger more powerful headquarters which suggests that, at least in the US context, large corporate headquarters can create value. Japanese headquarters, as might have been expected, are substantially larger than elsewhere - a factor of four times larger than in Europe. However, those headquarters are becoming smaller because of dissatisfaction with their performance. It is clear that having headquarters the size of the Japanese firms in the survey is not conducive to value creation. More specifically, the evidence cannot refute a hypothesis that the slope of the relationship between firm size and the size of corporate headquarters is the same across all countries, but that there are significant differences in the intercept for Chile, the US, Japan, and the European countries. What the data indicates is that at a firm employing 20,000, a European corporate headquarters would on average employ 124 individuals, a US headquarters would have 255 employees, and Japan 467 employees. The paper also examines differences between countries in the extent to which they perform the two key corporate tasks of control and coordination. The US and Chile chose to be somewhat more interventionist in the traditional tools and processes used to monitor and control business units - setting strategy, budgets, and administering capital budgets. However, there was a significant difference in the degree of influence in operational affairs between countries. The US and Japan exerted far more influence than the other countries over every activity from IT and purchasing, to marketing, R&D and HR issues. The US was also found to have significantly larger legal, tax, and treasury functions than the common European model, perhaps reflecting a more legalistic institutional structure. Japan also has significantly larger tax, treasury, and corporate management functions, but overall was not that much larger than the common European model. While the causes of these observed differences cannot be directly determined from the research, suggestions are made that the institutional infrastructure, the size and homogeneity of the domestic market, and cultural factors within countries are important underlying drivers.

    Keywords: Business Headquarters; Size; Organizational Structure; Culture; Japan; France; Germany; Netherlands; United Kingdom; United States; Chile;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., David Young, and Michael Goold. "International Differences in the Size and Roles of Corporate Headquarters: An Empirical Examination." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 10-044, December 2009. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. edX: Strategies for Higher Education

    In May 2012, Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) founded edX, a new non-profit joint venture that would provide a platform for massive open online courses (MOOCs). edX did not produce original courses or instructional content—it made a web platform through which Harvard and MIT, and subsequently dozens more "partner" universities, could offer their lecture courses as MOOCs.
    While the future role of MOOCs in higher education remained a topic of public debate, edX needed to answer concrete managerial and strategic questions. For example, what should edX's scope be? Should edX try to develop a consumer brand of its own, or rely on the brands of its partners? And how could edX monetize its services to recoup Harvard and MIT's investments and reward participating universities? This case presented the history of edX and the online education market as background for a discussion about edX's strategic choices.

    Keywords: MOOCS; edX; online platforms; online education; Harvard University; MIT; Execution; monetization; brand management; Higher Education; Technology; Strategy; Disruptive Innovation; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David, Matthew Shaffer, and Ashley Hartman. "edX: Strategies for Higher Education." Harvard Business School Case 715-413, September 2014. View Details
  2. Taking Dell Private

    In July 2012, Michael Dell, CEO and founder of Dell, Inc., met with a representative of Silver Lake Partners to explore taking his company private. The company, which he had founded in his dorm room as a college freshman and which had made him the youngest Fortune 500 CEO in history, had been the market leader in PC sales in the early 2000s. In recent years, however, the company had been surpassed by competitors and, worse, the PC market was becoming less lucrative, due to overseas competition, longer turnover rates on PCs, and the rise of tablets and smartphones. Michael Dell hoped to respond by shifting the company from its core to a "new Dell" based around "Enterprise Solutions and Software" (such as servers, consulting, and software-as-a-service) and now claimed he needed to take the company private to do so. By the summer of 2013, the Dell board and its shareholders would have to decide whether to accept his offer to take the company private for $13.65 a share. Meanwhile, Carl Icahn bought a large stake in Dell Inc., accused Dell of trying to steal the company, and urged shareholders to rebel and demand a "leveraged recapitalization" instead. This case presents the information the Dell board worked with as it debated its decision.

    Keywords: strategy; private equity; going private; the PC market; market for corporate control; corporate strategy; Leveraged Buyouts; Change Management; Private Equity; Market Entry and Exit; Private Ownership; Hardware; Software; Online Technology; Computer Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., David B. Yoffie, and Matthew Shaffer. "Taking Dell Private." Harvard Business School Case 714-421, August 2013. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  3. Edward Jones in 2006: Confronting Success

    When Jim Weddle took over as Managing Partner of Edward Jones in January 2006, the brokerage firm was at a critical juncture. The firm's distinctive strategy had enabled it to grow from its roots in small-town America to become the 4th largest broker in the U.S. Weddle was concerned, however, that the firm's success, and the changing landscape of the financial services industry, were challenging the core aspects of the strategy that had brought the firm so far. He knew that the impending strategic decisions would determine whether Edward Jones could sustain its extraordinary performance and achieve its goal of growing to 20,000 financial advisors by 2017.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Goals and Objectives; Growth and Development Strategy; Performance; Competitive Advantage; Financial Services Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Troy Smith. "Edward Jones in 2006: Confronting Success." Harvard Business School Case 707-497, March 2007. (Revised March 2012.) View Details
  4. Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (C)

    In late 2002, global confectionery and beverage maker Cadbury Schweppes needed to decide whether or not to make an acquisition bid for Adams, an underperforming gum company which had been put up for sale by pharmaceutical giant Pfizer. Examining the decision from a strategic perspective, the (A) case provides brief histories of the two companies; traces the global confectionery industry, focusing especially on chocolate and gum; and details the analysis of the merger decision. The (B) case explores the specific identified synergies in-depth and provides an opportunity to judge their viability. The (C) and (D) cases conclude the story and update the case with issues facing the global confectionery leader in 2008.

    Keywords: Food; Mergers and Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David, Toby Stuart, and Troy Smith. "Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 708-455, March 2008. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  5. Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (D)

    In late 2002, global confectionery and beverage maker Cadbury Schweppes needed to decide whether or not to make an acquisition bid for Adams, an underperforming gum company which had been put up for sale by pharmaceutical giant Pfizer. Examining the decision from a strategic perspective, the (A) case provides brief histories of the two companies; traces the global confectionery industry, focusing especially on chocolate and gum; and details the analysis of the merger decision. The (B) case explores the specific identified synergies in-depth and provides an opportunity to judge their viability. The (C) and (D) cases conclude the story and update the case with issues facing the global confectionery leader in 2008.

    Keywords: Food; Mergers and Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David, Toby Stuart, and Troy Smith. "Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (D)." Harvard Business School Supplement 708-491, March 2008. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  6. Strategic Decline

    This note first documents the facts around the sustainability of competitive advantage. It then observes that the demise of a previously successful strategy, in the first instance, often comes from some change in the external environment. It, therefore, characterizes the types of change that can lead to strategic decline. But external change alone should not mean the end of superior performance since the skilled strategist ought to be able to adapt to such changes. The final part of the note looks inside the firm to examine why managers often fail to respond adequately to external threats and explains why it is valuable to study the causes of strategic decline.?????

    Keywords: Strategy; Situation or Environment; Risk and Uncertainty; Change Management;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Jan W. Rivkin. "Strategic Decline." Harvard Business School Background Note 708-497, April 2008. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  7. Strategic Renewal

    While it is relatively easy to identify why strategies fail, it is much harder to explain how to fix a failing strategy or build an organization that can continuously renew its strategy. This note identifies some patterns that distinguish companies whose renewal efforts made headway from firms whose efforts fell flat.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Failure; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Jan W. Rivkin. "Strategic Renewal." Harvard Business School Module Note 708-503, April 2008. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  8. The Guardian: Transition to the Online World

    The Guardian had been an early innovator in online newspapers and had not only become the leading U.K. newspaper web site, but was making strides with audiences outside of the U.K. However, The Guardian had been losing money since 2000, and, in spite of the relative success of the website, online revenue remained less than 20% of the newspaper's total revenue. What changes would The Guardian have to make to sustain its mission of being "the world's leading liberal voice in perpetuity?"

    Keywords: Business Model; Revenue; Newspapers; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Risk and Uncertainty; Business Strategy; Online Technology; Journalism and News Industry; Publishing Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., Peter W. Olson, and Mary Furey. "The Guardian: Transition to the Online World." Harvard Business School Case 709-464, March 2009. (Revised June 2011.) View Details
  9. Danaher Corporation

    Between 1985 and 2007, Danaher has been one of the best-performing industrial conglomerates in the U.S. This case examines the corporate strategy of this diversified, global corporation. It describes the firm's portfolio strategy and the Danaher Business System—a systematic and wide-ranging set of organizational processes the firm has developed to drive growth and create value. In 2008, the firm confronts various challenges in sustaining its impressive historical performance. First, can it continue to balance organic and acquisition-led growth? Second, what will be the impact of increased competition from private equity players? Third, for how long can its strategy of "continuous improvement" continue?

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; Global Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Culture; Corporate Strategy; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Anand, Bharat N., David J. Collis, and Sophie Hood. "Danaher Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 708-445, February 2008. (Revised April 2011.) View Details
  10. Quantitative Analysis of Competitive Position: Customer Demand and Willingness to Pay

    This note is designed to provide strategists with tools to perform two critical customer-related analyses: determining willingness to pay — the estimation of how much a given customer would be willing to pay for a particular product or service; and demand estimation — predicting the overall size of the market or segment which a company chooses to serve.

    Keywords: Price; Demand and Consumers; Competitive Advantage; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Market Participation; Segmentation;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Quantitative Analysis of Competitive Position: Customer Demand and Willingness to Pay." Harvard Business School Module Note 711-495, March 2011. View Details
  11. Cree, Inc.: Which Bright Future?

    After its founding in the late 1980s, Cree Inc. quickly grew into a major player in the emerging LED market. By 2007, technological improvements in LEDs had made them suitable for TV, computer, and mobile "backlighting"; and concerns over global warning led to calls to shift to more energy-efficient sources of general lighting (which favored LEDs, as they were far more efficient than the traditionally-dominant incandescents). In this context, Cree faced a strategic conundrum: Should it focus on its historical expertise in manufacturing LED "chips" and components for use in other manufacturers' applications and screens, where LEDs now had established usage? Or should it instead attempt the risky venture of manufacturing its own LED light-bulbs for direct sale to consumers for general lighting? This case presents the history of Cree and information on the LED and general-lighting markets, as background for a debate on Cree's strategic choice.

    Keywords: Cree; LEDs; lighting market; clean tech; energy policy; semiconductors; North Carolina; Business Growth and Maturation; Forecasting and Prediction; Innovation and Management; Decision Choices and Conditions; Market Entry and Exit; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Technology Adoption; Electronics Industry; Green Technology Industry; Manufacturing Industry; United States; North Carolina; Raleigh;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., Mary Furey, and Matthew Shaffer. "Cree, Inc.: Which Bright Future?" Harvard Business School Case 711-457, March 2011. (Revised February 2014.) View Details
  12. Silver Lake

    Dave Roux, co-founder and chairman of Silver Lake, a private equity (PE) firm specializing in technology investments, was meeting with the firm's investment committee via video conference to discuss options for Silver Lake's future growth. While the private equity market had suffered since the economic crisis in the fall of 2008, Roux believed a number of opportunities still existed. There was significant interest within the firm to continue to offer new asset class investment products and to open additional outposts in foreign countries. Nonetheless, questions had risen internally regarding how much and in which directions to grow. Roux wondered how the firm could take advantage of the market potential while continuing to remain true to its original vision.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Private Equity; Investment; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Elizabeth A. Kind. "Silver Lake." Harvard Business School Case 711-420, December 2010. View Details
  13. The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire? TN

    Teaching Note for 709462 and 709489.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Decision Making; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Alcacer, Juan, and David J. Collis. "The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire? TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 711-451, November 2010. View Details
  14. The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire?

    Soon after Robert Iger took over as CEO of the Walt Disney Company in late 2005, he turned his attention toward Pixar, the animation studio with which Disney had worked since 1991 and was responsible for producing hits such as Toy Story and Finding Nemo. Disney's own animated film business had been in decline since Jeffrey Katzenberg left to establish rival studio Dreamworks and the business relied on revenue from its partnership with Pixar to maintain performance. With the Co- Production Agreement between the two studios coming to a close in 2006, Pixar was looking to negotiate better terms with another distribution partner. Could Disney risk losing them?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Animation Entertainment; Film Entertainment; Contracts; Distribution; Partners and Partnerships; Vertical Integration; Motion Pictures and Video Industry;

    Citation:

    Alcacer, Juan, David J. Collis, and Mary Furey. "The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire?" Harvard Business School Case 709-462, March 2009. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  15. The Newspaper Industry in Crisis

    This note is a primer on the newspaper industry, which has been in decline in the U.S. and Western Europe. The 19th century business model whereby news and editorial content was packaged and delivered to homes daily and paid for by national advertisers has been overturned by the Internet and the corresponding immediate access to global information. The note covers the history of newspapers, industry economics, current news consumption trends, the response of the newspapers to the threat of the Internet, and vignettes highlighting newspaper business models throughout the world.

    Keywords: Business Model; Business History; Newspapers; Disruptive Innovation; Consumer Behavior; Business Strategy; Internet; Journalism and News Industry; Publishing Industry; Europe; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., Peter W. Olson, and Mary Furey. "The Newspaper Industry in Crisis." Harvard Business School Background Note 709-463, March 2009. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  16. The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire? An Update

    This four-page update to the case, "The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire?" details the Walt Disney Company's acquisition of Pixar, including deal terms, executive appointments, and operating guidelines for the two studios.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Managerial Roles; Negotiation Deal; Operations; Motion Pictures and Video Industry;

    Citation:

    Alcacer, Juan, David J. Collis, and Mary Furey. "The Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire? An Update." Harvard Business School Supplement 709-489, March 2009. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  17. Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (B)

    In late 2002, global confectionery and beverage maker Cadbury Schweppes needed to decide whether or not to make an acquisition bid for Adams, an underperforming gum company which had been put up for sale by pharmaceutical giant Pfizer. Examining the decision from a strategic perspective, the (A) case provides brief histories of the two companies; traces the global confectionery industry, focusing especially on chocolate and gum; and details the analysis of the merger decision. The (B) case explores the specific identified synergies in-depth and provides an opportunity to judge their viability. The (C) and (D) cases conclude the story and update the case with issues facing the global confectionery leader in 2008.

    Keywords: Food; Mergers and Acquisitions; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David, Toby Stuart, and Troy Smith. "Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 708-454, March 2008. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  18. Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (A)

    In late 2002, global confectionery and beverage maker Cadbury Schweppes needed to decide whether or not to make an acquisition bid for Adams, an underperforming gum company which had been put up for sale by pharmaceutical giant Pfizer. Examining the decision from a strategic perspective, the (A) case provides brief histories of the two companies; traces the global confectionery industry, focusing especially on chocolate and gum; and details the analysis of the merger decision. The (B) case explores the specific identified synergies in-depth and provides an opportunity to judge their viability. The (C) and (D) cases conclude the story and update the case with issues facing the global confectionery leader in 2008.

    Keywords: History; Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Mergers and Acquisitions; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David, Toby Stuart, and Troy Smith. "Cadbury Schweppes: Capturing Confectionery (A)." Harvard Business School Case 708-453, March 2008. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  19. How to Crack a Strategy Case

    Addresses a common concern among strategy students: "How should I tackle this case?" Describes a process for diagnosing a strategic situation, then generating, evaluating, and choosing among strategic options.

    Keywords: Decisions; Management Practices and Processes; Situation or Environment; Strategy; Valuation;

    Citation:

    Bradley, Stephen P., David J. Collis, Kevin P. Coyne, Andrei Hagiu, Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, Jan W. Rivkin, and John R. Wells. "How to Crack a Strategy Case." Harvard Business School Background Note 707-549, March 2007. (Revised February 2009.) View Details
  20. Walt Disney Company, The: The Entertainment King

    The first ten pages of this case are comprised of the company's history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.

    Keywords: History; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Managerial Roles; Creativity; Corporate Strategy; Boundaries; Brands and Branding; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., David J. Collis, and Tyrell Levine. "Walt Disney Company, The: The Entertainment King." Harvard Business School Case 701-035, March 2001. (Revised January 2009.) View Details
  21. Intel Corporation: 1968-1997

    Traces Intel's history and strategy from 1968 to 1997. Examines the company's decision to exit DRAMS and its entry into microprocessors. Focuses on how the company managed to achieve and sustain its competitive advantage in microprocessors, and the threats it faces in the future.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Hardware; Corporate Strategy; Industry Structures; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Pisano, Gary P., David J. Collis, and Peter K. Botticelli. "Intel Corporation: 1968-1997." Harvard Business School Case 797-137, May 1997. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  22. The Transformation of Thomson

    Thomson, a French multinational, went through a decade of dramatic change in the early years of the 21st century. From a state-owned enterprise earning 97% of its revenue from television sets and other analog consumer electronics, Thomson had become a publicly traded company providing digital video services and equipment to major movie studios, broadcast networks, and retailers, as well as satellite, cable, and telecom operators. The Group had just met its financial targets for 2006 and had achieved organic growth of 6% in the first half of 2007. Yet even as he reflected on these successes, CEO Frank Dangeard knew that much remained to be done to secure the company's leadership position against aggressive competition in a rapidly shifting and uncertain technological environment. Traces the evolution and transformation of the company and highlights the difficult choices Thomson faces in an ever-evolving high-tech industry.

    Keywords: Transformation; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Media and Broadcasting Industry; Technology Industry; France;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Troy Smith. "The Transformation of Thomson." Harvard Business School Case 708-428, October 2007. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  23. Strategy in the Twenty First Century Pharmaceutical Industry: Merck & Co. and Pfizer Inc.

    The global pharmaceutical industry has gone through substantial changes in the last few decades and pharmaceutical firms face major challenges including headline-grabbing litigation, imminent patent expirations, new technologies, rising drug development costs, generic drug substitution, international competitors, and complex public policy issues. This case describes the pharmaceutical industry in 2006 including: the drug development process; threats from biotech and generics competitors; pharmaceutical manufacturing, selling, and marketing; and pharmaceutical consumption in Europe, the third world, and the U.S. Merck and Pfizer are analyzed in-depth and a contrast between Merck as a research-based firm opposed to mergers and Pfizer as a marketing powerhouse growing through acquisitions is developed. Thirteen exhibits give concrete focus to the issues of the case.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Growth and Development Strategy; Product Development; Research and Development; Corporate Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Troy Smith. "Strategy in the Twenty First Century Pharmaceutical Industry: Merck & Co. and Pfizer Inc." Harvard Business School Case 707-509, November 2006. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  24. AOL/Time Warner: To Merge or Demerge?

    This is a compilation of four analyst reports about the AOL/Time Warner merger of 2001. The first half cites three reports released in 2000, around the time the merger was announced, which give the logic and justifications for the merger. The second half is taken from a report by Lazard Freres & Co., released in February 2006, which champions the break-up of Time Warner (formerly AOL/Time Warner) into four separate companies. Comparing and contrasting the different opinions of the analyst reports yields insights into both AOL and Time Warner, and leads to a better understanding of mergers and acquisitions more generally.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Reports; Business Divisions; Media and Broadcasting Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Troy Smith. "AOL/Time Warner: To Merge or Demerge?" Harvard Business School Compilation 707-556, April 2007. View Details
  25. Introduction to International Strategy

    Provides an overview framework for understanding international strategy. Observes that international strategy draws on much of the same theory as corporate strategy. The same tests that can be applied to justify expansion across businesses--the better off and ownership tests--also apply to expansion across borders. What is different about international strategy is that widening a firm's domain to the entire globe introduces substantively different degrees of heterogeneity, scale, and volatility across markets. These three factors create new opportunities and trade-offs for multinationals. Effective international strategy is based on a source of competitive advantage that capitalizes on one of these factors and aligns the configuration of all its activities in support of that advantage. Multinationals need to choose the products they offer, the countries in which they compete, the location of their activities, and their organizational design contingent on their international strategy.

    Keywords: international strategy; multinational corporations; Global Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Jordan I. Siegel. "Introduction to International Strategy." Harvard Business School Module Note 706-481, January 2006. (Revised December 2006.) View Details
  26. Ben & Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream, Inc.: A Period of Transition

    Bob Holland takes over as CEO of this iconoclastic ice cream company in February 1995 when it faces a major crisis. Holland must now develop a strategy that both adapts to the external environment and is consistent with the company's unique heritage.

    Keywords: Strategy; Business Strategy; Adaptation; Crisis Management; Organizational Culture; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Melinda B. Conrad. "Ben & Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream, Inc.: A Period of Transition." Harvard Business School Case 796-109, January 1996. (Revised May 2005.) View Details
  27. UNext: Business Education and e-Learning

    UNEXT has signed agreements with Columbia, Stanford, Chicago, Carnegie Mellon, and the London School of Economics to create online business courses. The company is backed by Michael Milken and Larry Ellison and has four Nobel laureates on its advisory board. Describes UNEXT's history, products, course development and delivery, marketing, costs, and revenues. Also, devotes seven pages to the business education industry and to the e-learning competitive landscape. There is a one-page appendix summarizing Harvard Business School's role in e-learning.

    Keywords: Business Education; Curriculum and Courses; Technological Innovation; Web; Competition; Disruptive Innovation; Performance Efficiency; Higher Education; Learning; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., David J. Collis, and Tyrell Levine. "UNext: Business Education and e-Learning." Harvard Business School Case 701-014, April 2001. (Revised August 2001.) View Details
  28. Newell Co.: Acquisition Strategy

    Newell is a $1.5 billion manufacturer and distributor of low-tech home and hardware products, geared to serve volume purchasers. In 1992, Newell is considering two approaches to expand its current product line with the acquisitions of Sanford Corp., a $140 million manufacturer and marketer of writing instruments and office supplies, and Levolor, a $180 million manufacturer of window blinds. The case focuses on Newell's enduring corporate strategy as a guide for selecting appropriate acquisitions to grow the company.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Marketing Channels; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Expansion; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Newell Co.: Acquisition Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 794-066, February 1994. (Revised August 1998.) View Details
  29. Walt Disney Company, 1994: A Tumultuous Year

    Focuses on a six-month period in 1994, during which the company experienced a series of dramatic upheavals. The events described include: 1) the sudden death of company president Frank Wells; 2) a health crisis facing Chairman Michael Eisner; 3) the "departure" of filmed entertainment division chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg; 4) the creation of a new corporate unit; 5) network acquisition rumors; and 6) the cancellation of plans for "Disney America."

    Keywords: Business Divisions; Business Exit or Shutdown; Business Startups; Resignation and Termination; Crisis Management; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Elizabeth Wynne Johnson. "Walt Disney Company, 1994: A Tumultuous Year." Harvard Business School Case 395-109, January 1995. (Revised June 1997.) View Details
  30. Managing the Multibusiness Corporation

    Lays out some ideas on how to restructure a multibusiness corporation. Identifies sixteen elements of organization design, and then applies contingency theory to argue that these elements need to be aligned with the tasks the corporation uses to create value across its multiple business. The emphasis throughout is on applying recent developments in organizational economics to the design of a corporation's structure, systems, and procedures.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Alignment; Corporate Strategy; Theory; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Managing the Multibusiness Corporation." Harvard Business School Background Note 391-286, June 1991. (Revised April 1997.) View Details
  31. Beatrice Companies--1985

    Describes the history of Beatrice Companies from its beginning as a dairy in 1891 to 1985, when the company was a $12 billion conglomerate. Focuses on the corporate strategies that Beatrice followed under each of its CEOs and concentrates on the company's strategic change in the early 1980s, which was introduced by James Dutt.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Change; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Beatrice Companies--1985." Harvard Business School Case 391-191, April 1991. (Revised January 1997.) View Details
  32. Birds Eye and the U.K. Frozen Food Industry (B)

    Describes the change in strategy Birds Eye adopted in the 1980s in the face of declining profitability and eroding market share. Updates the (A) case.

    Keywords: Stock Shares; Adoption; Business Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Vertical Integration; Food and Beverage Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Birds Eye and the U.K. Frozen Food Industry (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 792-078, February 1992. (Revised January 1996.) View Details
  33. Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (A), (B), (C), and (D), Teaching Note

    Teaching Note for (9-391-189), (9-391-195), (9-391-196), and (9-391-197).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (A), (B), (C), and (D), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 391-276, June 1991. (Revised December 1995.) View Details
  34. EnClean: Malcolm Waddell, CEO, Video

    Presents Malcolm Waddell in a question-and-answer session (the actual questions do not appear on the tape) with HBS MBA students following a class in which the case is discussed.

    Keywords: Diversification; Restructuring; Corporate Strategy; Going Public; Decision Making; Acquisition; Interactive Communication;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "EnClean: Malcolm Waddell, CEO, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 796-508, December 1995. View Details
  35. Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (B)

    Describes the contest for the takeover of Anderson Clayton as industry players compete for one of the seven major dog food makers.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Bids and Bidding; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 391-195, April 1991. (Revised August 1995.) View Details
  36. Portfolio Planning at CIBA-GEIGY and the Newport Investment Proposal

    Covers the history of portfolio planning at CIBA-GEIGY, a leading Swiss chemical and pharmaceutical company, beginning with the introduction of the process in the mid-1980s. The discussion extends to the application of portfolio planning techniques to a specific investment proposal: the comprehensive modernization of a plant dedicated to the production of high-quality specialty pigments.

    Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Chemicals; Investment Portfolio; Corporate Strategy; Chemical Industry; Pharmaceutical Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Elizabeth Wynne Johnson. "Portfolio Planning at CIBA-GEIGY and the Newport Investment Proposal." Harvard Business School Case 795-040, January 1995. (Revised June 1995.) View Details
  37. Kraft General Foods: The Merger (A)

    Describes Philip Morris' acquisitions of General Foods in 1985 and Kraft, Inc. in 1989, focusing on the integration of Kraft and General Foods that forms a $30 billion food subsidiary. Details the steps required to merge these two large companies, emphasizing the managerial, organizational, administrative, and strategic issues engendered by the integration of Kraft and General Foods.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Business Subsidiaries; Business or Company Management; Managerial Roles; Business Processes; Cooperation; Integration; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Kraft General Foods: The Merger (A)." Harvard Business School Case 391-139, March 1991. (Revised May 1995.) View Details
  38. Kraft General Foods: The Merger (B)

    Discusses the recent decision to blend the previously separate Kraft and General Foods units into one operating company with a focus on the creation of a single massive sales force.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Salesforce Management; Corporate Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Elizabeth Wynne Johnson. "Kraft General Foods: The Merger (B)." Harvard Business School Case 795-153, April 1995. (Revised May 1995.) View Details
  39. Scope of the Corporation, The

    Describes analyses that determine the appropriate limit to the scope of the firm. Examines both the production cost justification for firm diversification--economies of scope and shared resources, and the governance cost justification for including transactions inside the hierarchy rather than contracting for them on the market--transaction costs and agency theory. Concludes by identifying the line between corporate strategy and firm scope.

    Keywords: Cost; Agency Theory; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Expansion;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Scope of the Corporation, The ." Harvard Business School Background Note 795-139, March 1995. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  40. Cooper Industries' Corporate Strategy (A)

    Describes the development of a successful corporate strategy based on the acquisition and subsequent consolidation of low-technology manufacturing companies. Starting with a company history and discussion of current business segments, the case goes on to detail the innovation of corporate headquarters in strategy formulation and operations. Highlights the synergistic possibilities in alike acquisitions and addresses the issue of long-term value creation in acquisition-oriented firms. Emphasis is placed on the systems and procedures installed to implement the corporate strategy.

    Keywords: Value Creation; Corporate Strategy; Acquisition; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cooper Industries' Corporate Strategy (A)." Harvard Business School Case 391-095, January 1991. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  41. Corporate Strategy: A Conceptual Framework

    Provides a conceptual framework for the study of corporate strategy. First describes previous perspectives on corporate strategy and then develops a framework of four elements: resources, tasks, structure, and industries. This framework can be used to explain the value corporations add to their businesses, how they should be organized, and the limit to the scope of the firm. Finally, describes four steps involved in the formulation of a corporate strategy.

    Keywords: Resource Allocation; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Value;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Corporate Strategy: A Conceptual Framework." Harvard Business School Background Note 391-284, June 1991. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  42. Asahi Glass Co.: Diversification Strategy

    Describes the history and diversification strategy of the Japanese manufacturer Asahi Glass Co. The company has diversified through internal growth, acquisition, and joint ventures from its origin in flat glass to a broad glass-materials, chemical, and electronics manufacturer. It has also vertically integrated and expanded internally to become the leading global glass manufacturer. In 1993, Asahi Glass is reviewing its future direction, particularly whether it should divest its electronics business.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Joint Ventures; Diversification; Expansion; Vertical Integration; Manufacturing Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Asahi Glass Co.: Diversification Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 794-113, February 1994. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  43. IBP and the U.S. Meat Industry

    IBP, the largest U.S. beef and pork processor, is facing deteriorating earnings and undertakes a fundamental strategic review in 1990. Having grown from its founding in 1961 to its current position as a low cost, innovative producer of boxed beef, and more recently pork, IBP's competitors have pursued very different corporate strategies that appear to be more successful. IBP must reevaluate its own corporate strategy and decide whether its distinctive competence is still relevant, and where it should be active in the three dimensions of product, geography, and vertical integration.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Product; Competition; Business Earnings; Geography; Vertical Integration; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Nancy Donohue. "IBP and the U.S. Meat Industry." Harvard Business School Case 391-006, March 1991. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  44. Saatchi & Saatchi Co. PLC: Corporate Strategy

    Saatchi & Saatchi, founded in 1970, became the world's largest advertising agency in 1986. It then diversified into consulting and other managerial areas before crashing in 1989. Under a new CEO, the company restructured and refocused on its advertising agencies.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Globalized Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Advertising Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Saatchi & Saatchi Co. PLC: Corporate Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 792-056, March 1992. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  45. Sharp Corporation: Technology Strategy

    Teaches the evolution of the corporate strategy of Sharp Corp., Japan. Sharp Corp., a second-tier assembler of TV sets and home appliances, gradually and consistently improved performance by developing expertise in electronic device technologies such as specialized ICs and LCDs and used these technologies to develop innovative end products. As a result, the company was regarded as a world leader in opto-electronics and was becoming a premier comprehensive electronics company. Teaching Objectives: Explores how the company identified, developed, and leveraged its lay technologies. Also discusses how the company coordinated across multiple businesses, and its organizational capabilities.

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Leadership; Performance Improvement; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Technology Adoption; Electronics Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Tomo Noda. "Sharp Corporation: Technology Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 793-064, February 1993. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  46. EnClean: Malcolm Waddell's Story (A)

    Describes, in the words of its cofounder, the history of EnClean, an industrial and environmental services company, from its origins in 1984. The company grew rapidly and diversified into new businesses and new geographies both through acquisition and internally. It went public in 1989 but then suffered major losses in 1992 and 1993. The founder must now decide how to respond to a secret board ultimatum.

    Keywords: Diversification; Expansion; Restructuring; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "EnClean: Malcolm Waddell's Story (A)." Harvard Business School Case 794-115, March 1994. (Revised April 1995.) View Details
  47. Smashing the Cube: Corporate Transformation at CIBA-GEIGY Ltd.

    CIBA-GEIGY is a large, diversified multinational corporation that transforms itself in the 1990s through a massive structural and cultural change. The case describes the changes implemented and the processes used to effect change in portfolio, people, and structures. By the middle of 1994 CIBA is assessing how effective the transformation has been and whether it has gone too far, or not far enough.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Change Management; Transformation; Investment Portfolio; Multinational Firms and Management; Organizational Culture; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Elizabeth Wynne Johnson. "Smashing the Cube: Corporate Transformation at CIBA-GEIGY Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 795-041, March 1995. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  48. Major Home Appliance Industry in 1984 (Revised) and Maytag in 1984, Teaching Note

    Teaching Note for (9-386-115) and (9-389-055).

    Keywords: Consumer Products Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Major Home Appliance Industry in 1984 (Revised) and Maytag in 1984, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 391-272, June 1991. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  49. Major Home Appliance Industry in 1988

    Updates developments in the industry. Included among these are GE's reinvestment program, GE and Whirlpool's bidding war for Roper, Sears' expansion into selling brand names, Whirlpool's expansion into the European markets, and a number of other examples of this kind of consolidation, globalization, and expansion. May be used with Maytag in 1984.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Investment; Globalization; Brands and Branding; Bids and Bidding; Expansion; Europe;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Nancy Donohue. "Major Home Appliance Industry in 1988." Harvard Business School Supplement 389-056, October 1988. (Revised December 1994.) View Details
  50. Maytag in 1984

    Highlights Maytag's unique position in the industry in 1984. Maytag, a much smaller player than its competitors has prior to 1984 been successful in producing high quality merchandise and charging a premium for it. By 1984 Maytag is also attempting expansion. Traditionally a producer of laundry equipment, Maytag has made two key acquisitions--expanding its product line to include kitchen appliances. Reviews this situation an also discusses its two closest competitors, GE and Whirlpool. Provides a follow-up to Major Home Appliance Industry in 1984 (Revised) and its Supplement, Major Home Appliance Industry in 1988.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Business or Company Management; Production; Quality; Rank and Position; Competition; Expansion; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Nancy Donohue. "Maytag in 1984." Harvard Business School Case 389-055, October 1988. (Revised December 1994.) View Details
  51. Birds Eye and the U.K. Frozen Food Industry (A)

    Describes the forty-year evolution of the U.K. frozen food industry, and traces the emergence, dominance, and the decline of Birds Eye. Its success is as a vertically integrated producer, distributor, and marketer of frozen foods that pioneers the industry in the U.K. Its decline as other firms enter all stages of the value chain is seen as a result of its earlier success that yields it an unsustainable strategic position. Examines vertical integration as a strategy, the analytic rationale to be vertically integrated, and the disadvantages of vertical integration.

    Keywords: Business Growth and Maturation; Industry Growth; Vertical Integration; Food and Beverage Industry; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Birds Eye and the U.K. Frozen Food Industry (A)." Harvard Business School Case 792-074, February 1992. (Revised December 1994.) View Details
  52. Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (D)

    Describes important developments in the pet food industry in 1989, 1990, and 1991, focusing on competitive dynamics among the industry's major players.

    Keywords: Competition; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (D)." Harvard Business School Supplement 391-197, April 1991. (Revised November 1993.) View Details
  53. Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (A)

    Describes the pet food industry in the mid-eighties prior to the breakout of a major competitive battle as manufacturers fight for share. Illustrates how when there are benefits to play in multiple markets, competitors will take action in one market to preserve their position in other markets. An example of multimarket competitive interaction. Covers competitor analysis and prediction, and economies of scope.

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Forecasting and Prediction; Financial Markets; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Ownership Stake; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (A)." Harvard Business School Case 391-189, April 1991. (Revised October 1993.) View Details
  54. Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (C)

    Describes significant developments in the pet food industry in 1987 and 1988, focusing on the competitive interactions among the industry's major players.

    Keywords: Competition; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cat Fight in the Pet Food Industry (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 391-196, April 1991. (Revised October 1993.) View Details
  55. Cooper Industries Video

    Bob Gigile, Chairman and CEO of Cooper Industries, describes the company's philosophy behind acquisitions and his corporate strategy. He then answers questions raised by the case discussion.

    Keywords: Acquisition; Management Style; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Cooper Industries Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 793-504, October 1992. View Details
  56. Time Inc. and New Magazine Development

    Looks at the magazine development at Time Inc. in light of the growing dominance of the video group and the modern management of the 1980s. Highlights the firm's magazine development during 1989.

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Management; Product; Segmentation; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Nancy Donohue. "Time Inc. and New Magazine Development." Harvard Business School Case 391-110, November 1990. (Revised November 1991.) View Details
  57. Corporate Advantage: Identifying and Exploiting Resources

    Describes the economic theory that was behind the view that resources are central to the creation of value in multibusiness corporations and identifies tests that resources must pass to become part of a firm's "distinctive competence". Describes how those resources can be leveraged, built, or altered.

    Keywords: Business Conglomerates; Business or Company Management; Resource Allocation; Competitive Strategy; Theory; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J. "Corporate Advantage: Identifying and Exploiting Resources." Harvard Business School Background Note 391-285, June 1991. View Details
  58. General Electric: Consumer Electronics Group

    Highlights the General Electric takeover of RCA and the consolidation of the two companies' consumer electronic groups. Starting first with a history of the television industry in the United States, Europe, and Japan, and then a brief discussion of the main competitors from each of these areas, the case goes on to describe the strategy the new group pursued in terms of sourcing, manufacturing, distributing, and overall technology changes. Highlights the concept of scope advantage--the advantage you get by competing in many different markets (in this case many different geographic markets).

    Keywords: Competition; Markets; Business Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., and Nancy Donohue. "General Electric: Consumer Electronics Group." Harvard Business School Case 389-048, October 1988. (Revised May 1989.) View Details
  59. Chain Saw Industry in 1978

    For use on the second day of a two-day sequence on the U.S. chain saw industry. Describes the evolution of the industry since 1974. Illustrates issues in industry evolution, the forces causing evolution, and the strategic issues raised by evolution. The discussion can center around understanding the 1974-78 time period, and then on an analysis of the future. The class can be asked to take the perspective of different major competitors.

    Keywords: Competition; Industry Growth; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and David J. Collis. "Chain Saw Industry in 1978." Harvard Business School Case 379-176, April 1979. (Revised June 1988.) View Details
  60. The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)

    The first ten pages of this case are comprised of the company's history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Vertical Integration; Corporate Strategy; Boundaries; Brands and Branding; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., and David J. Collis. "The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 713-475, April 2013. View Details
  61. The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)

    The first ten pages of this case are comprised of the company's history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Vertical Integration; Corporate Strategy; Boundaries; Brands and Branding; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., and David J. Collis. "The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 713-475, April 2013. View Details
  62. The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)

    The first ten pages of this case are comprised of the company's history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Vertical Integration; Corporate Strategy; Boundaries; Brands and Branding; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., and David J. Collis. "The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 713-475, April 2013. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. corporate strategy, international strategy, strategy process

    David Collis' research is primarily concerned with how companies create value across markets, whether those markets are different businesses (corporate strategy), or different countries (international strategy). Additionally, he is interested in how strategies are developed and new initiatives and companies launched, whether within large corporations or as entrepreneurial ventures. 
    1. “Can You Say What Your Strategy Is?” (with Michael G. Rukstad, April 2008) was selected by the editors at Harvard Business Review for the 2013 HBR OnPoint issue entitled, “Turn Smart Strategy into Winning Performance,” due to the article’s timely relevance in today’s workplace.

    2. Elected a fellow of The International Academy of Management in 2013 in recognition of an outstanding international contribution to the science and art of management.

    3. In 2012, Harvard Business Review ranked “Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s” (with Cynthia Montgomery) as one of the top twenty-five most cited articles of all time.

    4. Harvard Business Review Best Selling Author in 2010 with over one quarter of a million reprints sold.

    5. Named first-place co-winner of the 50th Anniversary McKinsey Award for the best article in Harvard Business Review during 2008 for the paper (with the late Michael G. Rukstad) "Can You Say What Your Strategy Is?"

    6. Selected as the Outstanding Reviewer for Business Policy and Strategy Division of the Academy of Management in 2008.

    7. Named 1986 Dean's Doctoral Fellow at Harvard Business School.

    8. Selected as a 1978 Baker Scholar at Harvard Business School.

    9. Named the 1976 Wrenbury Scholar at University of Cambridge (top academic economist of the class).

    10. Selected as a 1976 Downing Scholar at University of Cambridge.