David B. Yoffie

Max and Doris Starr Professor of International Business Administration

Unit: Strategy

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Professor David B. Yoffie is the Max and Doris Starr Professor of International Business Administration at Harvard Business School. A member of the HBS faculty since 1981, Professor Yoffie received his Bachelor's degree summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Brandeis University and his Master's and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford. Over the last two decades, Professor Yoffie has chaired the HBS Strategy department, the Advanced Management Program, Harvard's Young Presidents' Organization program, and now chairs Harvard’s World Presidents’ Organization program. From 2006-2012, he served as Senior Associate Dean and Chair of the HBS executive education programs. During his tenure, executive education revenues grew almost 75 percent, classrooms were opened in Shanghai and Mumbai, a new executive education building complex was launched, and HBS emerged the highest rated and largest business school in executive education in the world. He currently teaches competitive and corporate strategy in the Owner/President Management Program.

Professor Yoffie's research and consulting have focused on competitive strategy, technology, and international competition. Outside of HBS, Professor Yoffie's activities include being on the Board of Directors of Intel Corporation, HTC Corporation, Financial Engines Inc., TiVo Inc., and the National Bureau of Economic Research. When appointed to Intel's board in 1989, he was the youngest outside director of America's largest 150 industrial corporations. Over the last decade, Professor Yoffie served as lead independent director of Intel, and on the boards of numerous companies, including Charles Schwab, Spotfire, and E Ink. Professor Yoffie has also lectured and consulted in more than 30 countries around the world. In addition, he has served as a member of the U.S. Department of Justice's commission on international anti-trust.

Professor Yoffie's writings on business strategy and technology have been widely published. Professor Yoffie is the author or editor of nine books, including Strategy Rules:  Five Timeless Lessons from Bill Gates, Andy Grove, and Steve Jobs (Harper Business, Forthcoming 2015), co-authored with MIT Professor Michael Cusumano and Judo Strategy (Harvard Business School Press, 2001), co-authored with Mary Kwak. Judo Strategy has been translated into ten languages and explores strategic techniques for turning your competitors' strengths to your advantage. His other books include Competing in the Age of Digital Convergence (Harvard Business School Press, 1997), and Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape and Its Battle with Microsoft (Free Press, 1998, also co-authored with MIT Professor Michael Cusumano). BusinessWeek and Amazon.com named Competing on Internet Time as one of the top 10 business books of 1998. Professor Yoffie has written extensively for the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Harvard Business Review, as well as numerous scholarly and managerial articles on international trade, firm strategy, and global competition in high technology industries. Professor Yoffie has published more than 100 case studies on business strategy and international management issues, which have sold more than 3,000,000 copies.

Featured Work

Publications

Books

  1. Strategy Rules: Five Timeless Lessons from Bill Gates, Andy Grove, and Steve Jobs

    David B. Yoffie and Michael A. Cusumano

    The authors of the bestselling Competing on Internet Time (a Business Week top 10 book) analyze the strategies, principles, and skills of three of the most successful and influential figures in business—Bill Gates, Andy Grove, and Steve Jobs—offering lessons for all managers and entrepreneurs on leadership, strategy, and execution.
    In less than a decade, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Andy Grove founded three companies that would define the world of technology and transform our lives. At their peaks, Microsoft, Apple, and Intel were collectively worth some $1.5 trillion. Strategy Rules examines these three individuals collectively for the first time—their successes and failures, commonalities, and differences—revealing the business strategies and practices they pioneered while building their firms.
    David B. Yoffie and Michael A. Cusumano have studied these three leaders and their companies for more than thirty years, while teaching business strategy, innovation, and entrepreneurship at Harvard and MIT. In this enlightening guide, they show how Gates, Grove, and Jobs approached strategy and execution in remarkably similar ways—yet markedly differently from their erstwhile competitors—keeping their focus on five strategic rules. Strategy Rules brings together the best practices in strategic management and high-tech entrepreneurship from three path-breaking entrepreneurs who emerged as CEOs of huge global companies. Their approaches to formulating strategy and building organizations offer unique insights for start-up executives as well as the heads of modern multinationals.

    Keywords: Management; Strategy; Leadership; Information Technology; Entrepreneurship; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael A. Cusumano. Strategy Rules: Five Timeless Lessons from Bill Gates, Andy Grove, and Steve Jobs. New York: HarperBusiness, forthcoming. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. The New Patent Intermediaries: Platforms, Defensive Aggregators and Super-Aggregators

    Andrei Hagiu and David B. Yoffie

    The patent market consists mainly of privately negotiated, bilateral transactions, either sales or cross-licenses, between large companies. There is no eBay, Amazon, New York Stock Exchange, or Kelley's Blue Book equivalent for patents, and when buyers and sellers do manage to find each other, they usually negotiate under enormous uncertainty: prices of similar patents vary widely from transaction to transaction, and the terms of the transactions (including prices) are often secret and confidential. Inefficient and illiquid markets, such as the one for patents, generally create profit opportunities for intermediaries. We begin with an overview of the problems that arise in patent markets, and how traditional institutions like patent brokers, patent pools, and standard-setting organizations have sought to address them. During the last decade, a variety of novel patent intermediaries have emerged. We discuss how several online platforms have started services for buying and selling patents but have failed to gain meaningful traction. And new intermediaries that we call defensive patent aggregators and super-aggregators have become quite influential and controversial in the technology industries they touch. The goal of this paper is to shed light on the role and efficiency tradeoffs of these new patent intermediaries. Finally, we offer a provisional assessment of how the new patent intermediary institutions affect economic welfare.

    Keywords: intellectual property; patents; platforms; intermediaries; aggregator; Patents; Market Platforms; Marketplace Matching; Distribution Channels;

    Citation:

    Hagiu, Andrei, and David B. Yoffie. "The New Patent Intermediaries: Platforms, Defensive Aggregators and Super-Aggregators." Journal of Economic Perspectives 27, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 45–66. View Details
  2. Wintel: Cooperation and Conflict

    Ramon Casadesus-Masanell and David B. Yoffie

    We study competitive interactions between Intel and Microsoft, two producers of complementary products. In a system of complements, like the PC, the value of the final product depends on how well the different components work together. This, in turn, depends on the firms' investment in complementary R&D. We ask whether Intel and Microsoft will want to cooperate and make the final product as valuable as possible. Contrary to the popular view that two tight complements will generally have well aligned incentives, we demonstrate that natural conflicts emerge over pricing, the timing of new product releases, and who captures the greatest value at different phases of product generations.

    Keywords: Conflict and Resolution; Competition; Cooperation; Value; Performance Effectiveness; Research and Development; Motivation and Incentives; Investment; Price; Product Launch; Product;

    Citation:

    Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, and David B. Yoffie. "Wintel: Cooperation and Conflict." Management Science 53, no. 4 (April 2007): pp. 584–598. View Details
  3. Software Development Strategy for the Internet Age: Lessons from Netscape's Cross-platform Development Strategy

    M. A. Cusumano and D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: Software; Research and Development; Strategy; Online Technology; Learning; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Cusumano, M. A., and D. B. Yoffie. "Software Development Strategy for the Internet Age: Lessons from Netscape's Cross-platform Development Strategy." Jōhō shori [Journal of the Information Processing Society of Japan] 40, no. 4 (April 1999): 418–423. View Details
  4. Strategic Trade Policies in a Tripolar World

    Kenneth A. Froot and D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: International trade; international finance; International Finance; Trade;

    Citation:

    Froot, Kenneth A., and D. B. Yoffie. "Strategic Trade Policies in a Tripolar World." International Spectator 26, no. 3 (July–September 1991): 3–28. (Reprinted in The Political Economy of International Cooperation, NIRA Research Output, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1992.) View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Network Effects

    Andrei Hagiu and David B. Yoffie

    Network effects are a key economic and strategic phenomenon in 'new economy' industries. They can, but do not necessarily, lead to market tipping, unless they outweigh customers' benefits from differentiation and are accompanied by high switching and multi-homing costs. Network effects create the possibility for multiple equilibrium market configurations, which are crucially determined by market participants' EXPECTATIONS. While in some markets network effects are exogenously given, in other markets their existence and magnitude is endogenously determined by firms' strategic choices.

    Keywords: Network Effects;

    Citation:

    Hagiu, Andrei, and David B. Yoffie. "Network Effects." In The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management, edited by Mie Augier and David J. Teece. Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming. (Published online October 2013.) View Details
  2. Telecommunications: Deregulation and Globalization

    R. H.K. Vietor and D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Government and Politics; Policy; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Vietor, R. H.K., and D. B. Yoffie. "Telecommunications: Deregulation and Globalization." In Beyond Free Trade: Firms, Governments, and Global Competition, edited by D. B. Yoffie. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1993. View Details
  3. Trading Blocs and the Incentive to Protect: Implications for Japan and East Asia

    K. A. Froot and D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: International trade; international finance; International Finance; Trade;

    Citation:

    Froot, K. A., and D. B. Yoffie. "Trading Blocs and the Incentive to Protect: Implications for Japan and East Asia." In Regionalism and Rivalry: Japan and the United States in Pacific Asia, edited by J. Frankel and M. Kahler, 125–156. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993. View Details
  4. Technology Challenges to Trade Policy

    D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: Technology; Problems and Challenges; Trade; Policy; Government and Politics; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, D. B. "Technology Challenges to Trade Policy." In Linking Trade and Technology Policies: An International Comparison of the Policies of Industrialized Nations, edited by M. C. Harris and G. E. Moore, 103–115. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992. View Details
  5. Institutional Incentives for Protection: The American Use of Voluntary Export Restraints

    J. J. Coleman and D. B. Yoffie

    Keywords: Trade; Motivation and Incentives; United States;

    Citation:

    Coleman, J. J., and D. B. Yoffie. "Institutional Incentives for Protection: The American Use of Voluntary Export Restraints." In International Trade: The Changing Role of the United States, edited by F. J. Macchiarola, 137–150. New York: American Academy of Political Science, 1990. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Competing Complements

    Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, Barry Nalebuff and David B. Yoffie

    In Cournot's model of complements, the producers of A and B are both monopolists. This paper extends Cournot's model to allow for competition between complements on one side of the market. Consider two complements, A and B, where the A + B bundle is valuable only when purchased together. Good A is supplied by a monopolist (e.g., Microsoft) and there is competition in the B goods from vertically differentiated suppliers (e.g., Intel and AMD). In this simple game, there may not be a pure-strategy equilibrium. With constant marginal costs, there is never a pure-strategy solution where the lower-quality B firm obtains positive market share. We also consider the case where A obtains revenue from follow-on sales, as might arise when A expects to make upgrade sales to an installed base. If profits from the installed base are sufficiently large, a pure-strategy equilibrium exists where both B firms are active in the market. Although there is competition in the complement market, the monopoly Firm A may earn lower profits in this environment. Consequently, A may prefer to accept lower future profits in order to interact with a monopolist complement in B.

    Keywords: Profit; Revenue; Monopoly; Game Theory; Competition;

    Citation:

    Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, Barry Nalebuff, and David B. Yoffie. "Competing Complements." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-009, July 2008. (Revised March 2010.) View Details
  2. Wintel: Cooperation or Conflict

    Ramon Casadesus-Masanell and David B. Yoffie

    We study the incentives of complementors (producers of complementary products) to cooperate vs. compete and how these interact. In a system of complements, like the PC, the value of the final product depends on how well the different components work together. This, in turn, depends on the firms' investment in complementary R&D. We ask whether profit maximizing complementors will fully cooperate to make the final product as valuable as possible. Contrary to the popular view that two tight complements will generally have well aligned incentives, we demonstrate that natural conflicts emerge over pricing, the timing of investments, and who captures the greatest value at different phases of product generations.

    Keywords: Investment; Price; Time Management; Product; Product Development; Research and Development; Conflict and Resolution; Motivation and Incentives; Value;

    Citation:

    Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, and David B. Yoffie. "Wintel: Cooperation or Conflict." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-083, July 2005. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Mobileye: The Future of Driverless Cars

    David B. Yoffie

    Mobileye was an Israeli company, officially headquartered in The Netherlands, which was a Tier 2 supplier to the global automobile industry. After 15 years of building a leading technology for autonomous driving systems, Mobileye emerged in 2014 as one of the most exciting companies in the race for the driverless car. After going public in August 2014, which made its founders—Amnon Shashua and Ziv Aviram—billionaires, the company looked set to become the de facto standard for vision-based autonomous and ultimately self-driving cars. This case explores the company's competitive position, the challenges of sustaining its advantages in a highly competitive industry, and how it should work with Google, the publicly perceived leader in the self-driving revolution.

    Keywords: strategy; driverless car; technology; Competitive Advantage; Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Technology; Auto Industry; Semiconductor Industry; Technology Industry; Israel;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Mobileye: The Future of Driverless Cars." Harvard Business School Case 715-421, October 2014. (Revised November 2014.) View Details
  2. Taking Dell Private

    David J. Collis, David B. Yoffie and Matthew Shaffer

    In July 2012, Michael Dell, CEO and founder of Dell, Inc., met with a representative of Silver Lake Partners to explore taking his company private. The company, which he had founded in his dorm room as a college freshman and which had made him the youngest Fortune 500 CEO in history, had been the market leader in PC sales in the early 2000s. In recent years, however, the company had been surpassed by competitors and, worse, the PC market was becoming less lucrative, due to overseas competition, longer turnover rates on PCs, and the rise of tablets and smartphones. Michael Dell hoped to respond by shifting the company from its core to a "new Dell" based around "Enterprise Solutions and Software" (such as servers, consulting, and software-as-a-service) and now claimed he needed to take the company private to do so. By the summer of 2013, the Dell board and its shareholders would have to decide whether to accept his offer to take the company private for $13.65 a share. Meanwhile, Carl Icahn bought a large stake in Dell Inc., accused Dell of trying to steal the company, and urged shareholders to rebel and demand a "leveraged recapitalization" instead. This case presents the information the Dell board worked with as it debated its decision.

    Keywords: strategy; private equity; going private; the PC market; market for corporate control; corporate strategy; Leveraged Buyouts; Change Management; Private Equity; Market Entry and Exit; Private Ownership; Hardware; Software; Online Technology; Computer Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Collis, David J., David B. Yoffie, and Matthew Shaffer. "Taking Dell Private." Harvard Business School Case 714-421, August 2013. (Revised November 2013.) View Details
  3. Coffee Wars in India: Café Coffee Day Takes On the Global Brands

    David B. Yoffie and Tanya Bijlani

    Café Coffee Day (CCD) is contemplating how to respond to the entry of Starbucks into the Indian coffee chain market. The case study describes the emergence of CCD as the leading coffee chain in India, with over 1,400 cafes in India. In early 2013, Starbucks, the world's leading coffee chain company, opened its first 11 outlets in India's metropolitan cities with local giant, Tata, and promises of a national roll out. CCD management debated whether there was plenty of room for both Starbucks and CCD in India's large growing market, or whether Starbucks' entry required CCD to respond more assertively.

    Keywords: strategy; competition; competitors; Retail Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Tanya Bijlani. "Coffee Wars in India: Café Coffee Day Takes On the Global Brands." Harvard Business School Case 714-409, August 2013. View Details
  4. LinkedIn Corporation, 2012

    David Yoffie and Liz Kind

    Since its inception in 2003, LinkedIn had become a leading Silicon Valley institution with a brand name that was recognizable throughout the U.S. and in many countries overseas. As of March 2012, LinkedIn was the world's largest professional network on the Internet with $522.2 million in revenue in 2011 and more than 150 million members in over 200 countries. Unlike other major social networking sites, LinkedIn focused exclusively on fostering connections within the professional market. As LinkedIn's CEO thought about the future, he recognized the challenges in continuing to massively scale the company. At the same time, he focused on how LinkedIn could continue to use its vast amount of data to provide additional products and services for its members and customers.

    Keywords: social networking; media; technology; strategy; Growth Management; Internet; Corporate Strategy; Social and Collaborative Networks; Brands and Branding; Service Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David, and Liz Kind. "LinkedIn Corporation, 2012 ." Harvard Business School Case 713-420, August 2012. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  5. Coca-Cola in 2011: In Search of a New Model

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    Muhtar Kent, CEO of the Coca-Cola Company, faced a critical decision in 2011 after closing a $12 billion deal to buy its troubled North America bottling operations from its biggest bottler, Coca-Cola Enterprises. The decision was prompted by several changes in the U.S. market, including the bottler's inability to make crucial investments, the growth of alternative, non-sparkling drinks, and the growing power of national accounts, such as Wal-Mart. Now that Coke owned most of its North American bottling network, Kent had to decide whether keeping the labor and capital-intensive side of the bottling business was in Coke's long-term strategic interest. If not, should he re-franchise the bottling business, again, as Coke had done in the past? Or was there a third path? For one of the most successful companies in the world over the last 100 years, Kent's answers to these questions had the potential to redefine Coke's business model for the next century.

    Keywords: competitive strategy; beverage industry; strategic positioning; Vertical Integration; mergers and acquisitions; competition; corporate strategy; Business Model; Vertical Integration; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Franchise Ownership; Investment; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "Coca-Cola in 2011: In Search of a New Model." Harvard Business School Case 711-504, June 2011. (Revised August 2012.) View Details
  6. Apple Inc. in 2012

    David B. Yoffie and Penelope Rossano

    On October 5, 2011, Steve Jobs tragically died of cancer. The recently retired CEO of Apple Inc. was a legend: he had changed Apple from a company near bankruptcy to one of the largest and most profitable companies in the world. Moreover, he had revolutionized several industries in the process, including music, phones, and computer tablets. This case explores Steve Jobs' successes and the challenges facing his successor, Tim Cook. Could Cook continue to revitalize the Macintosh? With iPod sales declining for four straight years, would Cook be able to continue the iPhone's dominance of smartphones in the face of growing competition from companies such as Google and Samsung? Would Apple's newest creation, the iPad, continue to dominate the tablet market, or would new competitors, ranging from Amazon to Samsung, steal share and drive down profits? And could Apple thrive with Tim Cook rather than Steve Jobs at the helm?

    Keywords: competition; market positioning; strategic planning; technology; computer industry; strategy implementation; consumer electronics; telecommunications; Hardware; Innovation and Invention; Competitive Strategy; Leadership; Product Positioning; Telecommunications Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Penelope Rossano. "Apple Inc. in 2012." Harvard Business School Case 712-490, May 2012. (Revised August 2012.) View Details
  7. HTC Corp. in 2012

    David B. Yoffie, Juan Alcacer and Renee Kim

    After 15 years of remarkable achievements, Taiwan-based HTC Corp. faced difficult times by 2012. CEO Peter Chou, who drove HTC's transformation from an unknown manufacturer of PDAs for other companies to a well-known global player in smartphones, faced an uncertain and complex environment. Apple's lead in the smartphone and tablet markets, the acquisition of Motorola by Google, the Microsoft-Nokia alliance, the rise of Samsung, and the extensive patent wars - each raised questions about how HTC could continue its upward trajectory. In a rapidly evolving and increasingly competitive market, what would a sustainable differentiation strategy look like for HTC? How could HTC, a historically innovative company, compete in the tablet market? And how could it weather - and mitigate - the patent wars?

    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; telecommunications; technological innovation; brand management; economies of scale and scope; market positioning; intellectual property management; Technological Innovation; Hardware; Competitive Strategy; Innovation and Invention; Patents; Product Positioning; Telecommunications Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Juan Alcacer, and Renee Kim. "HTC Corp. in 2012." Harvard Business School Case 712-423, May 2012. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  8. Brightcove, Inc. in 2007

    Andrei Hagiu and David B. Yoffie

    Brightcove, a technology and services provider to content owners in the Internet television field, aimed to become a media distribution company in its own right. On October 30, 2006, it relaunched its Website—and, in effect, its business. With its new, consumer-facing home page, and with new offerings for advertisers and affiliates as well as video publishers, Brightcove sought to build a four-sided business (or "platform") around the rapidly expanding online video industry. Simultaneously, CEO Jeremy Allaire was completing a major funding round that would enable the company to make strategic investments in some or all of several categories: technology, media distribution infrastructure, international expansion, and acquisitions. As Allaire and his fellow executives weighed those options, they confronted competitive threats in multiple quarters, but particularly from YouTube, a hugely popular video-sharing site that online search giant Google had recently acquired. Covers Brightcove's vision for its multi-sided business, its technology offering and early business model, its efforts to shift to a new model based on media distribution, and its chief competitors in that market space.

    Keywords: Competition; Entrepreneurship; Investment; Diversification; Multi-Sided Platforms; Business Strategy; Internet; Business Model; Distribution; Media and Broadcasting Industry; Motion Pictures and Video Industry;

    Citation:

    Hagiu, Andrei, and David B. Yoffie. "Brightcove, Inc. in 2007." Harvard Business School Case 712-424, September 2011. (Revised March 2014.) View Details
  9. Wal-Mart Update, 2011

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    In 2011, Wal-Mart was the world's largest company with $420 billion in sales and operations in 14 countries. Yet it found itself searching for the right growth strategy moving forward. U.S. same-store sales had declined for eight consecutive quarters and Wal-Mart was increasingly becoming dependent on international sales. Meanwhile, intense competition came from various players, ranging from general discounters to dollar stores to online retailers. What should Wal-Mart do as its traditional markets and core competencies no longer ensured the kind of growth that it had enjoyed for decades in the past?

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Global Range; Business Strategy; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "Wal-Mart Update, 2011." Harvard Business School Case 711-546, June 2011. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  10. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    Examines the industry structure and competitive strategy of Coca-Cola and Pepsi over 100 years of rivalry. The most intense battles of the cola wars were fought over the $74 billion CSD industry in the United States, where the average American consumes 46 gallons of CSD per year. In a "carefully waged competitive struggle," from 1975 to the mid-1990s, both Coke and Pepsi had achieved average annual growth of around 10%, as both U.S. and worldwide CSD consumption consistently rose. However, starting in the late 1990s, U.S. CSD consumption started to decline and new non-sparkling beverages become popular, threatening to alter the companies' brand, bottling, and pricing strategies. The case considers what has to be done for Coke and Pepsi to ensure sustainable growth and profitability. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Profit; Growth and Development Strategy; Industry Structures; Competitive Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010." Harvard Business School Case 711-462, December 2010. (Revised May 2011.) View Details
  11. Qualcomm Incorporated 2009

    David B. Yoffie, Andrei Hagiu and Elizabeth A. Kind

    Paul Jacobs, chairman and CEO of Qualcomm Incorporated, smiled as he reflected on the success of Qualcomm's code division multiple access (CDMA) technology. By the summer of 2009, CDMA was the basis for all third generation technologies available for cellular transmissions. However, while Qualcomm seemed poised for growth, Jacobs wondered how successful the company's contributions to new generation technologies would be and if they should aggressively develop their new service offerings into profitable business units.

    Keywords: Business Units; Diversification; Wireless Technology; Growth and Development Strategy; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Andrei Hagiu, and Elizabeth A. Kind. "Qualcomm Incorporated 2009." Harvard Business School Case 710-433, October 2009. (Revised March 2011.) View Details
  12. Apple Inc. in 2010

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    On April 4, 2010, Apple Inc. launched the iPad, the company's third major innovation released over the last decade under its iconic CEO Steve Jobs. Apple's strategy of shifting its business into non-PC products had thrived so far, driven by the smashing success of the iPod and the iPhone. Yet challenges abounded. Macintosh sales in the worldwide PC market still languished below 5%. Growth in iPod sales was slowing down. iPhone faced increasing competition in the smartphone industry. And would Apple's latest creation, the iPad, take the company to the next level?

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Product Launch; Product Positioning; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Computer Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "Apple Inc. in 2010." Harvard Business School Case 710-467, April 2010. (Revised March 2011.) View Details
  13. Intellectual Ventures

    Andrei Hagiu, David B. Yoffie and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld

    Intellectual Ventures creates and acquires intellectual property, which it then seeks to monetize through non-exclusive licensing. In early 2009, as an increasing number of companies were trying to position themselves as leading intermediaries in the market for intellectual property, IV was looking for the best business model to become such a leading intermediary. Its model was predicated on making it easy for small inventors to monetize their inventions and IP (by selling it to IV) and then using its scale and aggregate IP portfolio to extract revenues from potential licensees (usually technology companies).

    Keywords: Business Model; Innovation and Invention; Intellectual Property; Rights; Service Operations; Research and Development; Technology; Service Industry;

    Citation:

    Hagiu, Andrei, David B. Yoffie, and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld. "Intellectual Ventures." Harvard Business School Case 710-423, September 2009. (Revised February 2011.) View Details
  14. Qualcomm Incorporated 2011 Update

    David B. Yoffie

    Qualcomm in 2009 and 2010 experienced both the worst of times and the best of times. During the "great recession" of 2009, smartphones growth stalled, stalling Qualcomm's revenue, but in 2010 growth surged again, and was predicted to continue its upward trajectory in 2011. This brief case updates Qualcomm's struggles with FLO TV and BREW, while outlining the new opportunities for Qualcomm in emerging categories such as tablet computers, displays, and new operating systems for smartphones.

    Keywords: Television Entertainment; Growth and Development Strategy; Opportunities; Mobile Technology; Wireless Technology; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Qualcomm Incorporated 2011 Update." Harvard Business School Supplement 711-463, December 2010. (Revised January 2011.) View Details
  15. HTC Corp. in 2009

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    Taiwan-based HTC Corp. had emerged as the world's fourth largest smartphone manufacturer by 2009. CEO Peter Chou was extremely proud of the remarkable achievements his company had made over the last 12 years since starting off as an unknown manufacturer of PDAs for other companies. Yet Chou faced several decisions in order to move his company forward. Competition for high-end, sophisticated mobile devices was intensifying as HTC faced big name players such as Nokia, Apple, and Samsung Electronics. Many companies were offering their own application stores. What did HTC have to do to become a more powerful global brand? Where should HTC participate in the value chain in one of the most exciting, innovative product categories in the technology world?

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Brands and Branding; Product Positioning; Competitive Advantage; Mobile Technology; Telecommunications Industry; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "HTC Corp. in 2009." Harvard Business School Case 709-466, June 2009. (Revised November 2010.) View Details
  16. Intel Corporation: 1968-2003; Intel Corporation: 2005 (TN)

    Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, David B. Yoffie and Sasha Mattu

    Teaching Note to (9-703-427).

    Keywords: Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, David B. Yoffie, and Sasha Mattu. "Intel Corporation: 1968-2003; Intel Corporation: 2005 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 704-465, January 2004. (Revised March 2010.) View Details
  17. Gucci Group in 2009

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    The Gucci Group had transformed itself into the world's third largest luxury retailer with multiple brands. The company had performed well even after the departure of star designer Tom Ford and former CEO Domenico De Sole. However, the challenging global economic times in 2009 raised the question whether it was time, again, to re-adjust Gucci's portfolio, especially as YSL continued to lose money.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Brands and Branding; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Luxury; Corporate Strategy; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "Gucci Group in 2009." Harvard Business School Case 709-459, January 2009. (Revised February 2010.) View Details
  18. Intel Corporation: 1968-2003

    Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, David B. Yoffie and Sasha Mattu

    Describes three stages in Intel's history: the initial success and then collapse in DRAMs and EPROMs, its transition to and dominance in microprocessors, and its move to become the main supplier of the building blocks for the Internet economy. Allows a rich discussion of industry structure and transformation in DRAMs and microprocessors, creation of competitive advantage and value capture, and sustainability.

    Keywords: History; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Internet; Information Technology; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Industry Structures; Information Technology Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, David B. Yoffie, and Sasha Mattu. "Intel Corporation: 1968-2003." Harvard Business School Case 703-427, November 2002. (Revised February 2010.) View Details
  19. VMware, Inc., 2008

    David B. Yoffie, Andrei Hagiu and Michael Slind

    Paul Maritz took the helm of VMware in July 2008, just as the company confronted a radically new competitive environment. Since its founding in 1998, VMware had been the leading provider of virtualization software. Now it faced the kind of threat that every software company dreaded most: Microsoft, the world's largest software maker, was taking direct aim at its core market. As of June 2008, buyers of Microsoft's Windows Server 2008 operating system received a free, bundled version of Hyper-V, an advanced virtualization platform product. Looming over the impending competition between these two companies was the story of the "browser wars," in which Microsoft overwhelmed browser maker Netscape Communications by bundling the Internet Explorer browser with the Windows operating system. Did a similar fate await VMware? Maritz moved quickly and boldly to respond to the Microsoft threat-by deciding to offer a version of VMware's own virtualization platform product for free. But he still had to determine whether VMware's overall strategy was the right one. The case offers an overview of virtualization technology, a brief history of VMware, including descriptions of its acquisition by computer storage giant EMC, its August 2007 IPO, and Maritz's arrival as CEO; a summary of its product lines; a discussion of the ecosystem in which the company operates; and a survey of key competitors, including not only Microsoft, but also Citrix Systems and other providers that use the Xen virtualization platform. Finally, the case offers a description and analysis of several strategic options available to VMware.

    Keywords: History; Technology Platform; Competition; Decision Choices and Conditions; Software; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Andrei Hagiu, and Michael Slind. "VMware, Inc., 2008." Harvard Business School Case 709-435, September 2008. (Revised August 2009.) View Details
  20. CF MotorFreight in 1992

    David B. Yoffie

    In June 1992, CFMF management finds that despite a number-two ranking nationwide among long-haul carriers, two smaller rivals are far more profitable for the year-ended 1991. Management confronts the issue of encroaching competition from the country's smaller regional and niche carriers. CFMF management is faced with a unionized labor force and a transcontinental network of consolidation centers in an industry moving toward non-union labor and regional networks connected by rail.

    Keywords: Labor Unions; Business or Company Management; Distribution; Competition; Consolidation; Truck Transportation;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "CF MotorFreight in 1992." Harvard Business School Case 793-100, March 1993. (Revised May 2009.) View Details
  21. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    Examines the industry structure and competitive strategy of Coca-Cola and Pepsi over 100 years of rivalry. New challenges in 2006 include boosting flagging carbonated soft drink (CSD) sales and finding new revenue streams. Both firms also began to modify their bottling, pricing, and brand strategies. They looked to emerging international markets to fuel growth and broaden their portfolios of alternate beverages like tea, juice, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola had vied for the "throat share" of the world's beverage market. The most intense battles of the cola wars were fought over the $66 billion CSD industry in the United States, where the average American consumes 52 gallons of CSD per year. In a "carefully waged competitive struggle," from 1975 to 1995, both Coke and Pepsi had achieved average annual growth of around 10%, as both U.S. and worldwide CSD consumption consistently rose. This cozy situation was threatened in the late 1990s, however, when U.S. CSD consumption declined slightly before reaching what appeared to be a plateau. Considers whether Coke's and Pepsi's era of sustained growth and profitability was coming to a close or whether this apparent slowdown was just another blip in the course of a century of enviable performance. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: History; Competitive Strategy; Industry Structures; Growth and Development Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006." Harvard Business School Case 706-447, May 2006. (Revised April 2009.) View Details
  22. E Ink in 2008

    David B. Yoffie and Renee Kim

    In the fall of 2008, E Ink had positioned itself as a leader in electronic ink technology thanks to the launch of several eBook devices such as Amazon's Kindle. Yet E Ink still faced the question of how to turn its technology into a profitable business amid competing technologies and financial challenges.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Profit; Product Positioning; Business Strategy; Competition; Hardware; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Renee Kim. "E Ink in 2008." Harvard Business School Case 709-443, November 2008. (Revised April 2009.) View Details
  23. Apple Inc., 2008

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    In January 2007, three decades after its incorporation, Apple Computer shed the second word in its name and became Apple Inc. With that move, the company signaled a fundamental shift away from its historic status as a vendor of the Macintosh personal computer (PC) line. Mac sales remained vital to Apple's future, but they now accounted for less than half of its total revenue. The company's line of iPod media players, its iTunes online content store and its newly launched iPhone mobile handset business made up increasingly large shares of its operations. In early 2008, on the strength of sky-rocketing sales in those areas and by resurgent sales of Macintosh products, Apple's revenues and its stock price reached record levels. The case explores the sustainability of Apple's current business model, one that positioned the company simultaneously in the PC industry and the consumer electronics industry. While Apple enjoyed a high market share in digital media players and in online music sales, it remained a niche player in the worldwide PC industry. The case examines the history of Apple's strategic moves under the leadership of CEOs Jobs, Sculley, Spindler, Amelio, and (again) Jobs; places those moves in the context of structural features of the evolving PC industry; and covers the iPod and iPhone businesses at considerable length.

    Keywords: Business Model; Leadership; Industry Growth; Corporate Strategy; Hardware; Online Technology; Consumer Products Industry; Electronics Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "Apple Inc., 2008." Harvard Business School Case 708-480, February 2008. (Revised September 2008.) View Details
  24. Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    Bharat N. Anand, Stephen P. Bradley, Pankaj Ghemawat, Tarun Khanna, Cynthia A. Montgomery, Michael E. Porter, Jan W. Rivkin, Michael G. Rukstad, John R. Wells and David B. Yoffie

    It's great to have a blockbuster quarter or a revolutionary product or service, but true business excellence demands sustainability. Maintaining your competitive advantage requires a strategy that makes your business unique and carries you forward as the world around you changes. What makes a winning, sustainable strategy? Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage is a multimedia resource developed by ten faculty members in the Strategy Department at Harvard Business School. Included in this resource are faculty presentation, animated frameworks, print- and video-based case studies, and workbooks to help business leaders formulate action plans specific to their own companies.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Anand, Bharat N., Stephen P. Bradley, Pankaj Ghemawat, Tarun Khanna, Cynthia A. Montgomery, Michael E. Porter, Jan W. Rivkin, Michael G. Rukstad, John R. Wells, and David B. Yoffie. "Strategy: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage." Harvard Business School Class Lecture 705-509, June 2005. (Revised September 2008.) View Details
  25. iPod vs. Cell Phone: A Mobile Music Revolution?

    David B. Yoffie, Travis D. Merrill and Michael Slind

    In 2006, a nascent market for music-enabled mobile phones was emerging to challenge Apple Computer's dominant position in the digital music industry. Through its iPod line of portable digital music devices and its iTunes Music Store, Apple controlled more than half of the market for both music player hardware and online music sales. But the evolving ability to merge those devices with mobile phones, and to deliver music to mobile handsets (via streaming, side-loading content from a PC or downloading it wirelessly over the air), created a potentially market-changing opportunity for players in several industries. Examines the key players, including Apple; the major wireless service carriers, such as Cingular, Sprint-Nextel, and Verizon Wireless; technology and service vendors, such as RealNetworks and Microsoft; and mobile virtual network operators, such as Virgin Mobile. Covers the origins of the mobile music business, projections on its potential size, its technological building blocks (such as file formats, digital rights management systems, wireless network infrastructure, and handset capacity), and the key dynamics--music delivery method, pricing, mobile-PC integration--that characterize mobile music business models.

    Keywords: Communication Technology; Music Entertainment; Emerging Markets; Integration; Mobile Technology; Wireless Technology; Communications Industry; Music Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Travis D. Merrill, and Michael Slind. "iPod vs. Cell Phone: A Mobile Music Revolution?" Harvard Business School Case 707-419, August 2006. (Revised March 2008.) View Details
  26. TiVo 2007: DVRs and Beyond

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    Tom Rogers, CEO of TiVo, had placed multiple strategic bets on his company. In September 2007, that strategy was due for a major test. TiVo was a maker of digital video recorder (DVR) products and a distributor of DVR technology. Rogers believed that macro-trends in the home entertainment industry--the convergence of standard television with the delivery of video content via broadband Internet, and the related crisis faced by companies whose business models relied on TV advertising--played to TiVo's unique strengths. Leadership in DVR technology and a TV-centric user interface arguably positioned TiVo to become something more than a consumer electronics company. That was Roger's big bet. Implementing it required making six other bets: continuing to sell stand-alone DVRs in the retail market, despite rapidly eroding market share; distributing TiVo service in partnership with cable and satellite TV providers (which also functioned as TiVo's chief competitors in the DVR market); developing a platform for DVR-based advertising; entering the audience research business; leveraging TiVo's intellectual property both through litigation and in the marketplace; and expanding into non-U.S. markets. In late 2007, a pivotal new product, a major distribution deal with cable operator Comcast, and a key intellectual property lawsuit were all reaching points of critical impact.

    Keywords: Advertising; Business Model; Television Entertainment; Intellectual Property; Lawsuits and Litigation; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Distribution; Problems and Challenges; Partners and Partnerships; Research; Internet; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "TiVo 2007: DVRs and Beyond." Harvard Business School Case 708-401, October 2007. (Revised December 2007.) View Details
  27. EU Verdict Against Microsoft

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    In 2004, following an investigation that began in 1998, the European Commission (EC) issued an antitrust judgment against Microsoft Corp., levying a record fine of 497 million euros ($613 million) and mandating changes of commercial behavior and bundling of Windows Media Player with Microsoft's Windows operating system. Summarizes the EC's ruling and Microsoft's response to it, places that ruling in the context of U.S. Government antitrust action against Microsoft, and describes Microsoft's efforts to comply with the ruling. Also covers Microsoft's appeal of the ruling, which was heard in a European court in April 2006, and outlines further EC scrutiny of Microsoft.

    Keywords: Judgments; Governance Compliance; Lawsuits and Litigation; Monopoly; Business and Government Relations; Competitive Strategy; Software; European Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "EU Verdict Against Microsoft." Harvard Business School Case 706-503, May 2006. (Revised October 2007.) View Details
  28. iPhone vs. Cell Phone

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    The launch of Apple's iPhone marked a pivotal new chapter in the story of mobile music (the uniting of digital music players with mobile phones). The iPhone combined an iPod music player, a cell phone, and a mobile Internet device, along with a camera and other features. By September 2007, just 74 days after the June launch of the iPhone, Apple and its mobile carrier partner AT&T Mobility had sold one million units. When Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduced the product in January 2007, he said that the goal behind it was to "reinvent the phone." Yet both the device and the mobile service provided by AT&T involved limitations that could hinder the long-term prospects for the iPhone. At the same time, handset makers and other mobile carriers had brought, or would soon bring, various "iPhone killers" to the market.

    Keywords: Communication Technology; Music Entertainment; Product Launch; Partners and Partnerships; Mobile Technology; Wireless Technology; Communications Industry; Music Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "iPhone vs. Cell Phone." Harvard Business School Case 708-451, October 2007. View Details
  29. VMware, Inc. (A)

    David B. Yoffie, Ward Bullard, Nikhil Raj and Suja Vaidyanathan

    VMware, Inc., the first company to crack the software virtualization market, faces new challenges from competitors' plans to bundle free virtualization solutions in operating systems. VMware, acquired by data storage giant EMC Corp. in 2003, has delivered top-line growth from 2002 to 2005 that is comparable to the fastest-growing enterprise software companies in history. However, emerging competitive solutions from Microsoft and the open-source community threaten to hinder the company's long-term growth potential. Outlines virtualization technology and the dynamics that affect its market; covers the history of VMware; discusses key competitors; and analyzes potential strategic responses by VMware to emerging competitive threats.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Growth and Development Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Open Source Distribution; Competition;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Ward Bullard, Nikhil Raj, and Suja Vaidyanathan. "VMware, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 707-013, September 2006. (Revised September 2007.) View Details
  30. Wal-Mart, 2007

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    In 2007, Wal-Mart faced challenges to its historically high growth rate. Lagging same-store sales and setbacks overseas led the company to consider strategic shifts. Wal-Mart was the world's largest retailer, but competition had become particularly acute as the company expanded from rural markets, which it had long dominated, into urban and suburban areas. Covers developments in Wal-Mart's merchandising strategy and its approach to store formats; its sometimes controversial human resources practices; its efforts to improve its image through a public relations campaign; its aggressive, though occasionally problematic, move into international markets; and its leading competitors, especially Target. Exhibits provide data (current as of February 2007) on Wal-Mart's financial performance, its stock-price performance, its international operations, and its store formats, as well as on Target's financial performance.

    Keywords: Competition; Management Practices and Processes; Rural Scope; Human Resources; Problems and Challenges; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Globalized Firms and Management; Marketing Strategy; Growth Management; Urban Scope; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "Wal-Mart, 2007." Harvard Business School Case 707-517, March 2007. (Revised June 2007.) View Details
  31. Apple Computer, 2006

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    Apple has reaped the benefits of its innovative music player, the iPod. However, its PC and server business continue to hold small market share relative to the worldwide computer over the past few years. Will the iPod lure new users to the Mac? Will Apple be able to produce another cutting-edge device quickly?

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Product Positioning; Performance Evaluation; Hardware; Music Entertainment; Time Management; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "Apple Computer, 2006." Harvard Business School Case 706-496, April 2006. (Revised May 2007.) View Details
  32. Intel Capital, 2005 (A)

    David B. Yoffie, Barbara Mack, Adriana Boden and Lee Rand

    All companies in a technology-intensive industry must worry about the development of their ecosystems and, in particular, the availability and cost of complementary assets. One strategy for promoting complements is to invest in them directly. Explores Intel's strategy to invest in complements through Intel Capital, perhaps the largest corporate venture capitalist in the world. Compares Intel's approach to the approaches of Panasonic, Microsoft, and Texas Instruments and asks how Intel should address its emerging areas of concern in the digital home. To examine and evaluate different strategies for investing in complementary assets.

    Keywords: Technology; Venture Capital; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Investment; Assets; Corporate Finance; Semiconductor Industry; Computer Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Barbara Mack, Adriana Boden, and Lee Rand. "Intel Capital, 2005 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 705-408, August 2004. (Revised April 2007.) View Details
  33. iPod vs. Cell Phone: A Mobile Music Revolution? (TN)

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching note to 707419.

    Keywords: Music Entertainment; Emerging Markets; Brands and Branding; Sales; Opportunities; Price; Business Model; Wireless Technology; Technology Platform; Service Delivery; Music Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "iPod vs. Cell Phone: A Mobile Music Revolution? (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 707-548, April 2007. View Details
  34. DVD War

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    In 2006, the DVD was the most popular storage medium in the entertainment and computer industries. The development of high-definition (HD) technology created a need for a format with greater storage capacity. Instead of agreeing on a single standard for a new HD disc, however, key players had formed two rival camps. The Blu-ray and HD-DVD formats each had distinct technical advantages and enjoyed the support of different groups in the consumer electronics, personal computer, and entertainment industries. Set at a time when companies were starting to release products for each format, this case includes a brief history of the format war along with information on the rival camps and their product offerings. Also, covers factors that might affect the future course of this battle, such as the role of copy protection features in HD devices, the bundling of each format with video game consoles, and competing modes of delivering video content.

    Keywords: Disruption; Entertainment; Business History; Intellectual Property; Product; Competition; Technology Adoption; Electronics Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "DVD War." Harvard Business School Case 706-504, May 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  35. Oracle vs. salesforce.com

    David B. Yoffie and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld

    Explores the phenomenon of software becoming a service. Salesforce.com has catapulted into the lead for offering a customer relationship management (CRM) solution as a Web-based service. Siebel, the leader in CRM packaged software sales, has to devise a strategy to compete with salesforce.com

    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Competitive Advantage; Software; Web Services Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Alison Berkley Wagonfeld. "Oracle vs. salesforce.com." Harvard Business School Case 705-440, June 2005. (Revised September 2006.) View Details
  36. PalmSource 2005

    David B. Yoffie and Barbara Mack

    PalmSource is facing stiff competition from handheld, wireless handheld, and smart phone vendors in 2005. In addition, changes in leadership and corporate structure have altered its relationship with its leading customer--PalmOne. Although Palm renews its license with PalmSource in May 2005, the company must capture new markets to thrive. PalmSource is pursuing a new technology strategy with Linux. Will fresh alliances and a new development environment lead to new growth for this PDA pioneer?

    Keywords: Competition; Innovation Strategy; Alliances; Software; Market Participation; Wireless Technology; Trends; Working Conditions; Change Management; Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Barbara Mack. "PalmSource 2005." Harvard Business School Case 706-420, August 2005. (Revised August 2006.) View Details
  37. Note on the Convergence Between Genomics & Information Technology

    David B. Yoffie, Dharmesh M Mehta and Rachel Sha

    Focuses on the convergence between the genomics and semiconductor industries, in particular organ printing, DNA computing, biomolecular sensory networks, and DNA microarrays. Explains what this newly converged world looks like based on current research and findings in biotechnology and high technology, evaluating two areas in particular: organ printing and biomolecular computing. Also lays out the business model and underlying economics; evaluates the industry and competition; identifies technical, business, or regulatory challenges; and discusses the impact on the future. Considers business opportunities that arose from other major areas of convergence.

    Keywords: Genetics; Technology; Business Model; Disruptive Innovation; Biotechnology Industry; Information Technology Industry; Semiconductor Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Dharmesh M Mehta, and Rachel Sha. "Note on the Convergence Between Genomics & Information Technology." Harvard Business School Background Note 705-500, June 2005. (Revised July 2006.) View Details
  38. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006 (TN)

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note to 706447.

    Keywords: Industry Structures; Competitive Strategy; Revenue; Price; Brands and Branding; Emerging Markets; Growth and Development; Profit; Performance; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006 (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 706-514, June 2006. View Details
  39. Rambus Inc., 2005

    David B. Yoffie

    Rambus is grappling with the ever-changing dynamics of the DRAM/semiconductor industry. The company is actively defending its patent portfolio through litigation and exploring both partnerships and industry standards for keys to future profitability and growth. How can Rambus best shape the direction of the DRAM market? Should it partner with Intel and, if so, how?

    Keywords: Competition; Partners and Partnerships; Lawsuits and Litigation; Growth and Development Strategy; Semiconductor Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Rambus Inc., 2005." Harvard Business School Case 706-416, August 2005. (Revised April 2006.) View Details
  40. Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2005

    David B. Yoffie, Pai-Ling Yin and Barbara Mack

    In the late 1990s, TiVo pioneered the digital video recorder (DVR), a new consumer electronics category. By 2005, the company was the clear leader in technology and installed base. It had also built extraordinary loyalty among its customers. However, TiVo lost a half billion dollars since its founding and was now facing new, fierce competition from satellite and cable providers. Explores the strategic challenges facing TiVo and the potential strategic options for fending off its competitive threats and reversing its financial fortunes.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Competition; Partners and Partnerships; Hardware; Television Entertainment; Brands and Branding; Consumer Products Industry; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Pai-Ling Yin, and Barbara Mack. "Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2005." Harvard Business School Case 706-421, October 2005. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  41. E Ink in 2005

    David B. Yoffie and Barbara Mack

    Explores the challenges of commercializing a bleeding-edge technology. After seven years, E Ink has spent more than $100 million to commercialize electronic ink. With business momentum picking up, but resources running out, the case examines the key trade-offs in bringing a new technology to market.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Commercialization; Mathematical Methods; Consumer Products Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Barbara Mack. "E Ink in 2005." Harvard Business School Case 705-506, June 2005. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  42. Microsoft in 2005

    David B. Yoffie, Darmesh M Mehta and Rudina I Seseri

    Focuses on Microsoft's strategy for sustaining competitive advantage in the global software industry. Also, explores Microsoft's history and its current position, as it tries to diversify its product and service revenue streams.

    Keywords: Diversification; Business History; Marketing Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Software; Globalized Markets and Industries; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Darmesh M Mehta, and Rudina I Seseri. "Microsoft in 2005." Harvard Business School Case 705-505, June 2005. (Revised January 2006.) View Details
  43. PalmSource, Inc.

    David B. Yoffie, Pai-Ling Yin and Christina L. Darwall

    PalmSource CEO David Nagel had grand ambitions. In this newly spun-off company, he wanted to create the next leading software platform for hand-held devices. Explores the strategic challenges of building a platform business.

    Keywords: Technology Platform; Software; Business Startups; Business Strategy; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Pai-Ling Yin, and Christina L. Darwall. "PalmSource, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 704-473, June 2004. (Revised November 2005.) View Details
  44. Wal-Mart in 2002

    David B. Yoffie and Yusi Wang

    In its first quarter of 2002, Wal-Mart became the largest company on the globe (by sales) and expanded into Japan. Was the giant retailer unstoppable? This case explores Wal-Mart's top issues in fueling top- and bottom-line growth: diversification into groceries, new retail channels such as the Neighborhood Markets, and continued international expansion.

    Keywords: Diversification; Expansion; Multinational Firms and Management; Corporate Strategy; Global Strategy; Retail Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Yusi Wang. "Wal-Mart in 2002." Harvard Business School Case 702-466, March 2002. (Revised October 2005.) View Details
  45. Apple Computer 2002

    David B. Yoffie and Yusi Wang

    In 1980, Apple was the leader of the personal computer industry, but by 2002 it had suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Wintel camp. This case examines Apple's strategic moves as the PC industry evolves in the 21st century and poses the question: Can Steve Jobs make Apple "insanely great" again?

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Leadership Style; Information Technology; Supply and Industry; Competitive Advantage; Computer Industry; Retail Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Yusi Wang. "Apple Computer 2002." Harvard Business School Case 702-469, March 2002. (Revised October 2005.) View Details
  46. Intel Corporation 2005

    David B. Yoffie and Michael Slind

    Buoyed by strong recent sales growth but humbled by failed strategic bets and other missteps, Intel in 2005 initiated a major reorganization. Under its new CEO, Paul Otellini, the company shifted toward a "platform" model, inspired by the success of its Centrino mobile-computing product. That model led Intel toward development of not just faster computer chips--the historic source of its dominance of the microprocessor industry--but also of products that bundled ingredients in ways that served specific usability needs. To support such products, Intel continued to invest heavily both in manufacturing capacity and new chip technologies. Meanwhile, the company faced strong challenges from competing chip makers, particularly Advanced Micro Devices. Outlines Intel's strategic reorientation, its competitive environment, and several of its key new initiatives. Covers Intel's Itanium server product, its new Viiv platform, its investment in WiMax, and its recent deal with Apple Computer.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Alignment; Business Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Michael Slind. "Intel Corporation 2005." Harvard Business School Case 706-437, October 2005. View Details
  47. Microsoft in 2002

    Michael G. Rukstad, David B. Yoffie, Carl Johnston and Tyrell Levine

    Examines Microsoft's strategy and competitive position as it prepares to launch Windows XP. The discussion explores how Microsoft builds and sustains its competitive edge.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Software; Product Launch; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., David B. Yoffie, Carl Johnston, and Tyrell Levine. "Microsoft in 2002." Harvard Business School Case 702-411, September 2001. (Revised August 2005.) View Details
  48. Apple Computer, 2005

    David B. Yoffie and Barbara Mack

    Apple has reaped the benefits of its innovative music player, the iPod. However, its PC and server business continue to hold small market share relative to the worldwide computer market over the past few years. Will the iPod lure new users to the Mac? Will Apple be able to produce another cutting-edge device quickly?

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Innovation Strategy; Hardware; Brands and Branding; Computer Industry; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Barbara Mack. "Apple Computer, 2005." Harvard Business School Case 705-469, January 2005. (Revised August 2005.) View Details
  49. QUALCOMM, Inc. 2004

    David B. Yoffie, Pai-Ling Yin and Elizabeth Kind

    QUALCOMM, Inc. had transitioned from a fledgling startup into a Fortune 500 wireless technology leader. Its CDMA technology was considered the preeminent technology and was the world's fastest growing wireless communications technology. CEO Irwin Jacobs had a number of concerns as he determined how to sustain the company's success. How should the company allocate its resources among products? How could QUALCOMM encourage other countries--China and India in particular--to move to CDMA-based systems? How should QUALCOMM defend its position against other new technologies?

    Keywords: Business Startups; Government and Politics; Leadership Style; Resource Allocation; Product Positioning; Problems and Challenges; Technology; Wireless Technology; China; India;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Pai-Ling Yin, and Elizabeth Kind. "QUALCOMM, Inc. 2004." Harvard Business School Case 705-401, September 2004. (Revised June 2005.) View Details
  50. Wal-Mart, 2005

    David B. Yoffie and Barbara Mack

    Wal-Mart has been expanding, both domestically and internationally. Covers recent developments at Wal-Mart, including new stores, new store formats, and international expansion.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Competition; Expansion; Innovation and Invention; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Barbara Mack. "Wal-Mart, 2005." Harvard Business School Case 705-460, January 2005. (Revised April 2005.) View Details
  51. Intellectual Property and Strategy

    David B. Yoffie and Deborah Freier

    Explores the role of intellectual property in firms' strategies. Explains the legal and strategic differences between patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets and explores the multiple ways firms use these different legal protections to gain competitive advantage in the marketplace.

    Keywords: Copyright; Patents; Trademarks; Competitive Advantage; Value;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Deborah Freier. "Intellectual Property and Strategy." Harvard Business School Background Note 704-493, May 2004. (Revised April 2005.) View Details
  52. Instant Messaging

    David B. Yoffie and Deborah Freier

    Explores the usage and technology of instant messaging (IM). IM enables two or more users to communicate almost instantaneously over the Internet with short, private text messages. Most IM service providers chose to remain proprietary and, therefore, a user of most IM services could not communicate with a user employing a different IM service: both users had to use the same service to communicate. Although AOL had dominated the consumer IM market since its launch in 1997, Microsoft and Yahoo! seemed to be closing in on AOL's lead. Consumers complained about the lack of interoperability between IM services. In addition to being used in the home, IM was becoming more common in the workplace. According to IDC, about 76.3 million people worldwide used IM at work in 2003. The majority of users (about 53.9 million) used the consumer IM services offered by AOL, Microsoft, and Yahoo! The other 22.4 million used services purchased by their employers. In 2004, there were two competing standards in the enterprise IM arena: Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) and the Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE).

    Keywords: Network Effects; Standards; Communication Technology; Mobile Technology; Internet; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Deborah Freier. "Instant Messaging." Harvard Business School Case 704-502, May 2004. (Revised March 2005.) View Details
  53. Music Downloads

    David B. Yoffie and Deborah Freier

    Examines the competition between competing music formats. In the '90s, the MP3 format challenged the traditional means of music distribution by allowing for storage of near CD-quality recordings at 1/10th of their previous size. The threat to traditional distribution was credible due to the proliferation of complementary technologies, such as online digital music players (e.g., Real Networks' RealPlayer, Microsoft's Windows Media Player, and Apple's iTunes) and MP3 players and other portable digital music players. File-sharing web sites like Napster made MP3 files available for free downloading, enraging the recording industry, which took legal action. Although Napster was driven out of business, piracy continued to threaten the industry as users continued to download more than a billion songs a week from similar file-sharing programs. Legal music download stores, which paid between $.65 and $.79 per song to music companies and sold music files in encrypted formats to prevent file swapping, were developed. Slowing the adoption of these services were competing digital music audio formats from Apple, Microsoft, and Real Networks.

    Keywords: Disruption; Music Entertainment; Legal Liability; Distribution; Competition; Online Technology; Technology Adoption; Technology Networks; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Music Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Deborah Freier. "Music Downloads." Harvard Business School Case 704-503, May 2004. (Revised March 2005.) View Details
  54. Rambus Inc., 2004

    David B. Yoffie and Deborah Freier

    Examines the role of technology licensing in strategies for high-technology companies. In the 1990s, Rambus developed a revolutionary memory technology that would improve the ability of DRAMs to keep pace with ever-faster microprocessors. To commercialize the technology, Rambus licensed the technology to several DRAM vendors, who had to agree to allow Rambus to cross-license any improvements a licensee made to all other licensees. In its attempt to set the standard for the industry, Rambus faced competition from higher frequency versions of standard DRAMs; a consortium of DRAM manufacturers and systems companies, known as the SyncLink Consortium; and an alternative DRAM technology known as Double Data Rate SDRAM. Rambus' relationship with Intel, the dominant producer of microprocessors, didn't prove as successful as either party would have liked. Even more devastating to Rambus was its litigation with several of its customers, the DRAM vendors, and a suit by the Federal Trade Commission. Although most of the lawsuits against Rambus had been dropped in 2004, Rambus needed a new strategy to rebuild its business for the future.

    Keywords: Innovation Strategy; Lawsuits and Litigation; Strategic Planning; Relationships; Commercialization; Competition; Technology Adoption; Value; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Deborah Freier. "Rambus Inc., 2004." Harvard Business School Case 704-500, June 2004. (Revised January 2005.) View Details
  55. Microsoft in 2004

    Michael G. Rukstad, David B. Yoffie, Brian DeLacey and Deborah Freier

    Surveys Microsoft's expansion into new businesses, such as mobile and embedded devices, home and entertainment, and business solutions, as it faces challenges due to size and maturity and outside threats from Linux and Google. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Software; Expansion; Growth and Development Strategy; Information Technology Industry; Washington (state, US);

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., David B. Yoffie, Brian DeLacey, and Deborah Freier. "Microsoft in 2004." Harvard Business School Case 704-508, June 2004. (Revised November 2004.) View Details
  56. 56K Modem Battle

    David B. Yoffie and Deborah Freier

    Examines the battle to set the standard for the 56K modem. Set in 1996, this case looks at how computers accessed the Internet via a telephone line, or dial-up connection, and a hardware modem. In 1995, there were 18.6 million total modem unit shipments, with market revenues of $5.8 billion. The dominant manufacturer of modems was U.S. Robotics, a company based in Skokie, Illinois with 20 years of experience in the modem business. In September 1996, U.S. Robotics announced x2--a new modem technology that could transmit data at twice the bit rate of a 28.8kbps modem. U.S. Robotics had control over the patents that were crucial to the 56K technology. Yet, a few weeks after U.S. Robotics' announcement, Rockwell and Lucent declared the near introduction of a similar 56K technology called "K56 Plus." Both x2 and K56Plus would be able to communicate with older modem standards, although not with each other.

    Keywords: Announcements; Revenue; Patents; Product Launch; Network Effects; Standards; Competition; Hardware; Internet; Technology Industry; Illinois;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Deborah Freier. "56K Modem Battle." Harvard Business School Background Note 704-501, May 2004. View Details
  57. Wintel (A): Cooperation or Conflict

    David B. Yoffie, Ramon Casadesus-Masanell and Sasha Mattu

    Examines the dynamic relationship between two complementors: Intel and Microsoft. Set in 1995, the case asks how Intel and Microsoft should solve a serious division between the two companies that threatens the health of the PC industry.

    Keywords: Conflict Management; Competition; Cooperation; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, and Sasha Mattu. "Wintel (A): Cooperation or Conflict." Harvard Business School Case 704-419, August 2003. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  58. Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2003 (A)

    David B. Yoffie, Pai-Ling Yin and Christina L. Darwall

    Mike Ramsey, TiVo's CEO, must decide on which direction to build the company. Facing an onslaught of new competitors, a huge opportunity in the cable industry, and the possibility of becoming the new "user interface" for TV entertainment, Ramsey must balance the demands for profitability with the hope of driving TiVo to mass adoption.

    Keywords: Television Entertainment; Profit; Product Positioning; Standards; Opportunities; Commercialization; Competition; Technology Adoption; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., Pai-Ling Yin, and Christina L. Darwall. "Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2003 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 704-425, October 2003. (Revised February 2004.) View Details
  59. Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century

    David B. Yoffie and Yusi Wang

    Examines the industry structure and competitive strategy of Coca-cola and Pepsi over 100 years of rivalry. New challenges of the 21st century included boosting flagging domestic cola sales and finding new revenue streams. Both firms also began to modify their bottling, pricing, and brand strategies. They looked to emerging international markets to fuel growth and broaden their brand portfolios to include noncarbonated beverages like tea, juice, sports drinks, and bottled water. For over a century, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola had vied for the "throat share" of the world's beverage market. The most intense battles of the cola wars were fought over the $60 billion industry in the United States, where the average American consumes 53 gallons of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) per year. In a "carefully waged competitive struggle," from 1975 to 1995 both Coke and Pepsi had achieved average annual growth of around 10% as both U.S. and worldwide CSD consumption consistently rose. This cozy situation was threatened in the late 1990s, however, when U.S. CSD consumption dropped for two consecutive years and worldwide shipments slowed for both Coke and Pepsi. The case considers whether Coke's and Pepsi's era of sustained growth and profitability was coming to a close or whether this apparent slowdown was just another blip in the course of a century of enviable performance. A rewritten version of an earlier case by Michael E. Porter and David B. Yoffie.

    Keywords: Price; Growth and Development; Brands and Branding; Emerging Markets; Industry Structures; Performance; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Yusi Wang. "Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century." Harvard Business School Case 702-442, January 2002. (Revised January 2004.) View Details
  60. Nokia and MIT's Project Oxygen (Abridged)

    David B. Yoffie and Rebecca Henderson

    Looks at how Nokia should respond to a future vision of computing and communications that was developed at MIT's Project Oxygen.

    Keywords: Mobile Technology; Adaptation; Strategic Planning; Telecommunications Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Rebecca Henderson. "Nokia and MIT's Project Oxygen (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 704-474, January 2004. View Details
  61. Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2003 (B)

    Christina Darwall, Pai-Ling Yin and David B. Yoffie

    Spreadsheet for use with case (9-704-429). Download Only. (Examines the possibility of TIVo being a content distributor).

    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Distribution Channels; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Darwall, Christina, Pai-Ling Yin, and David B. Yoffie. "Strategic Inflection: TiVo in 2003 (B)." Harvard Business School Spreadsheet Supplement 704-751, October 2003. View Details
  62. AOL Europe vs. Freeserve (A)

    David B. Yoffie and Mary Kwak

    AOL Europe must decide how to respond to Freeserve, a free Internet Service Provider (ISP) that has signed up 1.6 million British customers in its first six months. After becoming the leading ISP in the United States, AOL has formed a joint venture with Bertelsmann to expand into Europe. By early 1999, the new company, AOL Europe, has 2.6 million subscribers, but it has fallen behind the market leaders in Germany, France, and now, the United Kingdom. This case asks how AOL Europe should respond to the Freeserve challenge and provides information on the economics of ISPs, AOL, Europe's history and growth, and the U.K. regulatory environment to help students frame their responses. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Competition; Internet; Web Services Industry; Telecommunications Industry; France; Germany; United Kingdom; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Mary Kwak. "AOL Europe vs. Freeserve (A)." Harvard Business School Case 703-409, August 2002. (Revised December 2002.) View Details
  63. Gucci Group N.V. (A)

    David B. Yoffie and Mary Kwak

    Examines the turnaround of Gucci and its transition from a single brand to a multi-brand company. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Management Practices and Processes; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy; Diversification; Expansion; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Mary Kwak. "Gucci Group N.V. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 701-037, September 2000. (Revised May 2001.) View Details
  64. Browser Wars, 1994-1998, The

    David B. Yoffie and Mary Kwak

    Analyzes the competition between Netscape and Microsoft in the market for Web browsers and related products. Despite its first mover advantage, Netscape sees its market share fall once Microsoft becomes "hard-core" about the Internet. By the spring of 1998, the future of both companies is on the line.

    Keywords: Software; Internet; Innovation and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Competition; Supply and Industry; Web; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Mary Kwak. "Browser Wars, 1994-1998, The." Harvard Business School Case 798-094, June 1998. (Revised January 2001.) View Details
  65. Microsoft, 2000

    Michael G. Rukstad, David B. Yoffie and Carl Johnston

    Surveys five threats to the sustainability of Microsoft's strategy (imitation, substitution, hold-up, slack, and saturation) and examines Microsoft's response to these threats. Teaching purpose: To evaluate the sustainability of Microsoft's competitive advantage.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Growth Management; Planning; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Corporate Strategy; Information Technology; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Rukstad, Michael G., David B. Yoffie, and Carl Johnston. "Microsoft, 2000." Harvard Business School Case 700-071, February 2000. (Revised April 2000.) View Details
  66. Cola Wars Continue: Coke vs. Pepsi in the 1990s

    David B. Yoffie and Sharon Foley

    The competition between Coke and Pepsi is a classic corporate battle that began in America at the turn of the century and has expanded into worldwide competitive warfare in the 1990s. This case examines the economics of the soft drink and bottling industries, and describes the history and internationalization of the cola wars.

    Keywords: Globalization; Organizational Culture; Competition; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Food and Beverage Industry; North and Central America;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Sharon Foley. "Cola Wars Continue: Coke vs. Pepsi in the 1990s." Harvard Business School Case 794-055, March 1994. (Revised March 2000.) View Details
  67. Internationalizing the Cola Wars (B): The Battle for India

    David B. Yoffie and Richard Seet

    Analyzes the tactical battle of the cola giants in India.

    Keywords: Competition; Globalization; Food and Beverage Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Richard Seet. "Internationalizing the Cola Wars (B): The Battle for India." Harvard Business School Case 795-187, May 1995. (Revised August 1999.) View Details
  68. Apple Computer--1999

    David B. Yoffie and Mary Kwak

    In 1980, Apple was the leader of the PC industry, but by 1999, it had suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Wintel camp. This case examines Apple's efforts to create sustainable competitive advantage as the PC industry evolves. After discussing Apple's history and past strategic moves (1977-1999), the case poses the question: Can Steve Jobs make Apple "insanely great" again?

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage; Competitive Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Technological Innovation; Information Technology; Business or Company Management; Management Practices and Processes; Corporate Strategy; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Mary Kwak. "Apple Computer--1999." Harvard Business School Case 799-108, March 1999. (Revised May 1999.) View Details
  69. Broadband Race, The

    David B. Yoffie and Mary Kwak

    Surveys developments in broadband in the late 1990s, focusing on the rivalry between telecom companies deploying DSL and cable companies rolling out cable modem service. Reviews the major broadband technologies, examines the state of competition in the United States, and discusses broadband initiatives in Hong Kong and Singapore.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Internet; Competition; Telecommunications Industry; United States; Hong Kong; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Mary Kwak. "Broadband Race, The." Harvard Business School Background Note 799-106, May 1999. View Details
  70. NIKE (A) (Condensed)

    David B. Yoffie

    Describes the history of Nike, its strategy, and the industry in which it competes. The teaching objective is to ask the student to identify and evaluate Nike's economic/technical strategy.

    Keywords: Strategy; Economics; Consumer Products Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "NIKE (A) (Condensed)." Harvard Business School Case 391-238, May 1991. (Revised October 1998.) View Details
  71. Microsoft--1995 (Abridged)

    Tarun Khanna and David B. Yoffie

    Focuses on how Microsoft built one of the world's greatest franchises and poses questions about what, if anything, can stop the company. Teaching purpose: To teach building competitive advantage, the advantages of bundling, and the sustainability of competitive advantages over time.

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Business Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Horizontal Integration; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Khanna, Tarun, and David B. Yoffie. "Microsoft--1995 (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 799-003, July 1998. View Details
  72. Woolworths South Africa

    David B. Yoffie and Anthony St. George

    Woolworths South Africa is one of the most successful retail chains in the country, modeled on Marks and Spencer of the United Kingdom. This case focuses on the sources of Woolworth's competitive advantage within South Africa and the challenges of growth in the wake of saturation among South African whites and new limits by Marks and Spencer on Woolworths' growth outside of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Competitive Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Growth Management; Global Strategy; Industry Structures; Marketing Strategy; Strategy; Business or Company Management; Retail Industry; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Anthony St. George. "Woolworths South Africa." Harvard Business School Case 798-026, October 1997. (Revised June 1998.) View Details
  73. Kennedy and the Balance of Payments; Balance of Payments: Accounting and Presentation; Kennedy and the Balance of Payments, Exercise Worksheet; & Answers, Teaching Note

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note for (9-383-073), (9-384-005), (9-384-006), and (9-385-243).

    Keywords: United States;

  74. Lotus Development Corp.: Entering International Markets, Note on Comparative Advantage, & Note on Sources of Comparative Advantage, TN

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note for (9-387-034), (9-387-023), and (9-387-024).

    Keywords: Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Lotus Development Corp.: Entering International Markets, Note on Comparative Advantage, & Note on Sources of Comparative Advantage, TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 389-039, October 1988. (Revised May 1998.) View Details
  75. Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983 & United States Trade Law, Teaching Note

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note for (9-388-071) and (9-387-137).

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; United States; Japan; Germany;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983 & United States Trade Law, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 389-059, November 1988. (Revised May 1998.) View Details
  76. Collision Course in Commercial Aircraft: Boeing-Airbus-McDonnell Douglas--1991 (A) & New Theories of International Trade, Teaching Note

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note for (9-391-106) and (9-390-001).

    Keywords: Air Transportation Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Collision Course in Commercial Aircraft: Boeing-Airbus-McDonnell Douglas--1991 (A) & New Theories of International Trade, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 390-073, October 1989. (Revised May 1998.) View Details
  77. Internationalizing the Cola Wars (A): The Battle for China and Asian Markets & (B): The Battle for India TN

    David B. Yoffie

    Teaching Note for (9-795-186) and (9-795-187).

    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry; China; Asia;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Internationalizing the Cola Wars (A): The Battle for China and Asian Markets & (B): The Battle for India TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 798-105, May 1998. View Details
  78. Microsoft Goes Online: MSN 1996

    David B. Yoffie

    Explores Microsoft's decision to enter the online services industry in the light of its competition and the growing importance of the Internet. Significant issues include the cost and availability of content, telecomm/Internet access costs, competition with the World Wide Web, and the issue of X.25 protocols vs. TCP/IP protocols. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Cost Management; Growth and Development; Market Entry and Exit; Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Web; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Microsoft Goes Online: MSN 1996." Harvard Business School Case 798-019, November 1997. View Details
  79. Internationalizing the Cola Wars (A): The Battle for China and Asian Markets

    David B. Yoffie

    Analyzes the strategies pursued by Coke and Pepsi in the emerging Asian soft drink market. Analyzes the tactical battle of the cola giants in China specifically.

    Keywords: Trade; Emerging Markets; Corporate Strategy; Competition; Globalized Firms and Management; Food and Beverage Industry; China; Asia;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Internationalizing the Cola Wars (A): The Battle for China and Asian Markets." Harvard Business School Case 795-186, May 1995. (Revised September 1997.) View Details
  80. Microsoft, 1995

    Tarun Khanna, David B. Yoffie and Israel Yellen Ganot

    Explores Microsoft's core desktop computing software business and its newer endeavors in 1995. Designed to explore the sustainability of its phenomenal success, and to examine the logic behind its renewed emphasis on some areas, particularly the home computing software market. Permits a discussion of the internal and external drivers and limitations of Microsoft's product scope expansion.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Corporate Strategy; Expansion; Software; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Khanna, Tarun, David B. Yoffie, and Israel Yellen Ganot. "Microsoft, 1995." Harvard Business School Case 795-147, April 1995. (Revised July 1996.) View Details
  81. Wal-Mart in East Asia

    David B. Yoffie and Richard Seet

    Discusses Wal-Mart's entry strategy in East Asia, specifically Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and China.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Trade; Expansion; Retail Industry; East Asia; Singapore; Japan; Hong Kong; China;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Richard Seet. "Wal-Mart in East Asia." Harvard Business School Case 795-188, June 1995. (Revised July 1995.) View Details
  82. Apple Computer 1995 (A)

    David B. Yoffie and Takia Mahmood

    Updates Apple Computer--1992. Summarizes the key strategic actions from 1992 to 1995 regarding PCs, the PowerMac, multimedia, OS licensing, and alliances with IBM.

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Hardware; Alliances; Rights; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Takia Mahmood. "Apple Computer 1995 (A)." Harvard Business School Supplement 795-061, January 1995. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  83. Swissair's Alliances (A)

    David B. Yoffie

    Swissair established two alliance networks in 1989 in order to improve its competitiveness. In order to evaluate the benefits of the alliances, Swissair's history, products, and cost structure are described, as is the international airline industry and the major players. The challenge for Swissair is how to gain further economies of scale in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

    Keywords: Alliances; Competitive Strategy; Globalization; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Swissair's Alliances (A)." Harvard Business School Case 794-152, June 1994. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  84. Swissair's Alliances (B)--1991-94

    David B. Yoffie

    Updates the company's progress in increasing cooperation with its partners in the European Quality Alliance and Global Excellence Alliance. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement.

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Alliances; Globalization; Air Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Swissair's Alliances (B)--1991-94." Harvard Business School Supplement 794-153, June 1994. (Revised March 1995.) View Details
  85. Apple Computer 1995 (B): Competitor Updates

    David B. Yoffie and Takia Mahmood

    Updates Apple Computer--1992. Summarizes the key strategic actions of Compaq, Intel, and Microsoft.

    Keywords: Competition; Competitive Strategy; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Takia Mahmood. "Apple Computer 1995 (B): Competitor Updates." Harvard Business School Supplement 795-073, January 1995. (Revised February 1995.) View Details
  86. Apple Computer--1992

    David B. Yoffie

    In 1992, Apple received the only profitable standard other than IBM/Microsoft/Intel in the PC industry. The case examines Apple's dilemma of how to retain its profitability as the structure of the industry deteriorates. Apple's CEO poses the critical question: Can Apple shape the PC industry for the 1990s?

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Industry Structures; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Apple Computer--1992." Harvard Business School Case 792-081, April 1992. (Revised August 1994.) View Details
  87. Note on the PC Network Software Industry--1990

    David B. Yoffie

    Examines the economics, technology, customer segments, and competitors of the PC networking software industry.

    Keywords: Customers; Economics; Competition; Software; Technology Adoption; Technology Networks;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Note on the PC Network Software Industry--1990." Harvard Business School Background Note 792-022, September 1991. (Revised May 1994.) View Details
  88. Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992

    David B. Yoffie

    Examines John Sculley's approach toward transforming Apple Computer. Focuses on Sculley's management style, his creation of a new management team, and his efforts to create a professional management system inside Apple.

    Keywords: Management Style; Transformation; Management Teams; Management Systems; Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Reshaping Apple Computer's Destiny 1992." Harvard Business School Case 393-011, September 1992. (Revised January 1994.) View Details
  89. Collision Course in Commercial Aircraft: Boeing-Airbus-McDonnell Douglas--1991 (A)

    David B. Yoffie

    Describes the competitive situation that has arisen in the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry since Airbus entered in 1970. Having overtaken McDonnell Douglas for second place, Airbus announces plans to challenge market leader Boeing's last pocket of dominance. Industry and government officials have long complained about assistance that Airbus receives from its governments, and this new challenge threatens to spark a new battle between the governments. Pushes students to examine issues facing industry players--high risk, long-term investments; technological change; intense selling competition--and issues facing their national governments--fair vs. unfair trade; important national industries--in a highly visible time frame for players and governments.

    Keywords: Transition; Trade; Ethics; Investment; Problems and Challenges; Business and Government Relations; Risk and Uncertainty; Sales; Competitive Strategy; Technology Adoption; Air Transportation Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Collision Course in Commercial Aircraft: Boeing-Airbus-McDonnell Douglas--1991 (A)." Harvard Business School Case 391-106, May 1991. (Revised October 1993.) View Details
  90. Retail in Mexico 1993

    David B. Yoffie and Charles McHugh LaFollette

    In the wake of NAFTA, U.S. retail firms begin to see Mexico as an attractive market for international expansion. This case examines the structure of Mexico's volume retail (grocery, discount, warehouse club, hypermarket) industry, the joint ventures between U.S. and Mexican firms, and the prospects for the future.

    Keywords: Expansion; Global Strategy; Joint Ventures; Industry Structures; Trade; Retail Industry; United States; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Charles McHugh LaFollette. "Retail in Mexico 1993." Harvard Business School Case 793-144, June 1993. (Revised September 1993.) View Details
  91. Global Semiconductor Industry--1987

    David B. Yoffie

    In 1987, the global semiconductor industry was coming out of the deepest recession in its 40 year history. The note examines the competitive dynamics of this industry over time, the nature of its technology, and the sources of competitive advantage. The role of buyer power and competitive interaction are explored in some depth.

    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Globalization; Crisis Management; Consumer Behavior; Competitive Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Technology; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Global Semiconductor Industry--1987." Harvard Business School Background Note 388-052, November 1987. (Revised March 1993.) View Details
  92. Apple Computer--John Sculley, Chairman & CEO--Presentation to ISMP Participants - 7/6/92 Videotape

    David B. Yoffie

    John Sculley describes his thoughts on Apple's future as well as his retrospective view about what he would have done differently.

    Keywords: Strategy; Perspective; Decision Making; Computer Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Apple Computer--John Sculley, Chairman & CEO--Presentation to ISMP Participants - 7/6/92 Videotape." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 793-507, December 1992. View Details
  93. Wal-Mart Ventures into Mexico

    David B. Yoffie and Jonathan Ginns

    Introduces Wal-Mart's initial plans to enter the Mexican retail market. Designed for use with Wal-Mart Stores' Discount Operations.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Globalization; Retail Industry; United States; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Jonathan Ginns. "Wal-Mart Ventures into Mexico." Harvard Business School Supplement 793-071, December 1992. View Details
  94. Motorola and Japan (A)

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    In 1981, Motorola was reevaluating its strategy towards Japan. The firm had been successful in penetrating the Japanese market, and it was confronting increased Japanese competition at home. How it should respond and with what kind of organization were the central questions confronting management.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Standards; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Telecommunications Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Motorola and Japan (A)." Harvard Business School Case 388-056, October 1987. (Revised February 1992.) View Details
  95. Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (C), The

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Keywords: Trade; Competition; Semiconductor Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (C), The." Harvard Business School Case 388-049, September 1987. (Revised January 1992.) View Details
  96. Intel Corp.--1988

    David B. Yoffie

    In 1988, Intel had a spectacular year. However, Andy Grove, Intel's CEO, wanted to reevaluate the company's position in "systems"--Intel's OEM PC, boards, and supercomputer businesses. This case explores Intel's position in both the semiconductor industry and its growing competition with its customers in systems.

    Keywords: Competition; Hardware; Customers; Performance Evaluation; System; Rank and Position; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Intel Corp.--1988." Harvard Business School Case 389-063, February 1989. (Revised December 1991.) View Details
  97. The Transformation of IBM

    Andrall E. Pearson and David B. Yoffie

    John Akers, IBM's chairman, must confront how to transform a $60 billion, full line, global computer company that is the leader in every market it serves, yet losing share across the board. The case explores senior management's perspective on the process of organization change.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Transformation; Corporate Strategy; Adoption; Management Teams; Hardware; Information Technology; Multinational Firms and Management; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Pearson, Andrall E., and David B. Yoffie. "The Transformation of IBM." Harvard Business School Case 391-073, November 1990. (Revised September 1991.) View Details
  98. Zenith and High-Definition Television--1990

    Benjamin Gomes-Casseres, David B. Yoffie and Heather A. Hazard

    Describes Zenith's strategy in HDTV and high resolution monitors. Includes overview of HDTV industry with profiles of major competitors worldwide and policies of U.S., Japanese, and European governments. Focuses on competition over standards setting, industrial policy, and Zenith's strategy in components production.

    Keywords: Corporate Governance; Standards; Production; Corporate Strategy; Customization and Personalization; Electronics Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, David B. Yoffie, and Heather A. Hazard. "Zenith and High-Definition Television--1990." Harvard Business School Case 391-084, February 1991. (Revised April 1991.) View Details
  99. Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (A), The

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Keywords: Trade; Competition; Semiconductor Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (A), The." Harvard Business School Case 387-205, June 1987. (Revised March 1991.) View Details
  100. Zenith and High-Definition Television--1990, Video

    Benjamin Gomes-Casseres and David B. Yoffie

    Records a visit by Jerry Pearlman, Zenith CEO, to an MBA classroom. He is shown commenting on Zenith strategy and industrial policy issues and fielding student questions.

    Keywords: Management Teams; Business Strategy; Policy; Trade; Competition; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, and David B. Yoffie. "Zenith and High-Definition Television--1990, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 891-513, March 1991. View Details
  101. Motorola and Japan (B)

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Updates Motorola and Japan (A) and Motorola and Japan (A), Supplement. A rewrite of two earlier supplements.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Standards; Competition; Corporate Strategy; Telecommunications Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Motorola and Japan (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 389-172, May 1989. (Revised February 1991.) View Details
  102. Textiles and the Multi-Fiber Arrangement

    David B. Yoffie

    What happens to an industry with millions of employees that loses its comparative advantage? This note examines this question by looking at the global textile and apparel industry. With the Multi-Fiber Arrangement coming up for renewal in December 1981, the United States, Europe, and the developing world must decide how to divide the international textile market in the 1980s. The debate focuses on who wins and who loses from protectionism, and the advantages and disadvantages of free trade.

    Keywords: Trade; Cost vs Benefits; Developing Countries and Economies; Manufacturing Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States; Europe;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Textiles and the Multi-Fiber Arrangement." Harvard Business School Background Note 383-164, April 1983. (Revised October 1990.) View Details
  103. New Theories of International Trade

    David B. Yoffie and Heather A. Hazard

    Explores the "new" theories of international trade--also called strategic trade policy--which were developed in the 1980s. Examines why economists and policy makers thought new approaches were necessary to explain international trade, the contributions of industrial organization to these theories, and the implications of these theories for firm strategies and government policies.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Theory; Policy; Trade;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and Heather A. Hazard. "New Theories of International Trade." Harvard Business School Background Note 390-001, July 1989. (Revised August 1990.) View Details
  104. The World VCR Industry

    David B. Yoffie

    In the 1980s Japan dominated the world industry for video cassette recorders. This case looks at the evolution of the technology and competition in VCRs, the battles between VHS and Beta, and the emerging threats to Japanese dominance.

    Keywords: Technology; Competition; Technology Industry; Electronics Industry; Japan;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "The World VCR Industry." Harvard Business School Case 387-098, January 1987. (Revised January 1990.) View Details
  105. United States Trade Law

    David B. Yoffie

    Examines the manner in which U.S. trade law and policy has evolved, with emphasis on trade in manufactured goods and services as well as the relationship between the executive and the legislature. The structure and content of U.S. trade law is discussed including a description of how U.S. firms are affected by the law and the actions they need to take to invoke specific sections of U.S. trade legislation. May be used with Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983.

    Keywords: Trade; Machinery and Machining; Policy; Law Enforcement; Outcome or Result; Business and Government Relations; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "United States Trade Law." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-137, February 1987. (Revised August 1989.) View Details
  106. Note on Sources of Comparative Advantage

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    After Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin's propositions about the sources of comparative advantage were empirically challenged by Wassily Leontief, scholars set out to explain the "Leontief paradox" by developing alternative theories on the sources of comparative advantage. This note explores several of these alternative approaches, including the skilled-labor hypothesis, product life cycle theories, the rise of intra-industry trade, and the questioning of the very usefulness of the concept of comparative advantage.

    Keywords: Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Note on Sources of Comparative Advantage." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-024, July 1986. (Revised April 1989.) View Details
  107. Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan, The: Harris Corp. Profile, Supplement

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan, The: Harris Corp. Profile, Supplement." Harvard Business School Supplement 387-194, June 1987. (Revised February 1989.) View Details
  108. B-W Footwear

    David B. Yoffie

    As import penetration into the American footwear market reached 81% in 1986, B-W Footwear, along with all of its American competitors, was struggling. Supply lines were deteriorating, retailers and importers were gaining power, and the government had rejected two consecutive petitions for protection. Like all industries faced with comparative cost disadvantages in international competition, footwear firms such as B-W have to find new ways to compete. This case explores different survival strategies for managing comparative disadvantage.

    Keywords: Competitive Strategy; Management; Globalization; Government and Politics; Business Strategy; Trade; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "B-W Footwear." Harvard Business School Case 387-022, October 1986. (Revised November 1988.) View Details
  109. Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983

    David B. Yoffie

    In 1983 the National Machine Tools Builder Association was predicting a declining market for the United States and rising imports. Machine tool manufacturers had to decide if they should ask the U.S. government for help, and if they did, which administrative channels offered the most promise. This case examines the competitive position of the U.S. industry in 1983 compared to Japan, Germany, and the newly industrialized countries; and, in conjunction with United States Trade Law, explores some of the governmental options that were available.

    Keywords: Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Machinery and Machining; Government and Politics; Law; Production; Business and Government Relations; Competition; Manufacturing Industry; Japan; Germany; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Searching for Trade Remedies: The U.S. Machine Tool Industry--1983." Harvard Business School Case 388-071, November 1987. (Revised March 1988.) View Details
  110. Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (B), The

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Keywords: Trade; Competition; Semiconductor Industry; Japan; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan (B), The." Harvard Business School Case 387-195, June 1987. (Revised February 1988.) View Details
  111. Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan, The: Texas Instruments Profile, Supplement

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Semiconductor Industry Association and the Trade Dispute with Japan, The: Texas Instruments Profile, Supplement." Harvard Business School Supplement 387-192, June 1987. (Revised October 1987.) View Details
  112. Note on Comparative Advantage

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Discusses David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage and the refinement of his model developed by Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin. Presents several criticisms of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, including Wassily Leontief's empirical demonstration that the nature of U.S. imports and exports were exactly contrary to the predictions of the theory.

    Keywords: Business Model; Forecasting and Prediction; Macroeconomics; Trade; Theory;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Note on Comparative Advantage." Harvard Business School Background Note 387-023, July 1986. (Revised August 1987.) View Details
  113. B-W Footwear: Interview with Robert Siff, President, and Lawrence Siff, Video

    David B. Yoffie

    B-W Footwear's CEO and his son discuss questions of management succession and recent moves to bolster their profitability.

    Keywords: Profit; Management Succession; Corporate Strategy;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "B-W Footwear: Interview with Robert Siff, President, and Lawrence Siff, Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 887-549, June 1987. View Details
  114. Lotus Development Corporation: Entering International Markets

    David B. Yoffie and John J. Coleman

    Lotus 1-2-3 exploded on the American market in the spring of 1983. Nine months later Jim Manzi, vice president of marketing, hired Chuck Digate to develop an international strategy for Lotus. Case explores Lotus' rapid rise to the top of the software market in the United States and looks at the considerations surrounding its initial efforts to sell abroad. Can be taught with Note on Comparative Advantage.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Software; Global Strategy; Management Teams; Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B., and John J. Coleman. "Lotus Development Corporation: Entering International Markets." Harvard Business School Case 387-034, August 1986. (Revised June 1987.) View Details
  115. Kennedy and the Balance of Payments

    David B. Yoffie

    In 1960, the United States was facing a balance of payments problem. Gold reserves were being drained, American products were losing competitiveness, and the dollar was under attack. This case analyzes the roots of this problem, provides an opportunity to discuss in depth balance of payments accounting, and allows students to explore various solutions to balance of payments difficulties.

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Accounting; Macroeconomics; Money; Currency; Trade; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Kennedy and the Balance of Payments." Harvard Business School Case 383-073, December 1982. (Revised July 1985.) View Details
  116. Export Controls

    David B. Yoffie

    Explores the problems and opportunities associated with export controls--one of the most widely used tools of international trade policy in the 1970s and early 1980s; and the role of the United States and Soviet Union as major players in the international economy. Briefly reviews examples of government-initiated export controls--their purposes and methods--from the 1930s through 1983.

    Keywords: Macroeconomics; Trade; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Policy; Problems and Challenges; Opportunities; Soviet Union; United States;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Export Controls." Harvard Business School Background Note 384-008, April 1984. View Details
  117. Balance of Payments: Accounting and Presentation

    David B. Yoffie

    Provides an overview of balance of payments accounting and analytical presentation of balance of payments data. Includes sample transactions to illustrate the application of the basic accounting principles and definitions of the standard balances.

    Keywords: Accounting; Data and Data Sets; Management; Standards; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Yoffie, David B. "Balance of Payments: Accounting and Presentation." Harvard Business School Background Note 384-005, August 1983. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Strategy and Technology

    by David B. Yoffie

    Professor Yoffie’s research examines different aspects of strategy and technology. His most recent research has focused on three areas. The first research topic looks at the dynamics of cooperation and competition among “complements.” In a number of articles and cases, this project has looked at how companies such as Microsoft and Intel work together as well compete to grow the economic pie as well as divide industry profits. This research has been conducted with HBS Professor Ramon Casadesus-Masanell and Professor Barry Nalebuff from the Yale School of Management. Working with HBS Associate Professor Andrei Hagiu, a second stream of work is focused on multi-sided platforms (such as Google, which connects consumers to advertisers). A third stream, also with Professor Hagiu, is examining intermediation in intellectual property. This research explores why two-sided platforms have failed to gain traction in the intellectual property market, while new intermediaries, which we call “super aggregators” and “defensive aggregators,” are reshaping the market for I.P.

  2. Masters of Strategy

    by David B. Yoffie

    Over the last two decades, Professor Yoffie has written numerous cases on Intel, Microsoft, and Apple. In a new research project with Professor Michael Cusumano of MIT, the authors are examining what made Andy Grove of Intel, Bill Gates of Microsoft, and Steve Jobs of Apple three of the greatest strategists of modern times. This book-length project will explore the characteristics of great strategists, their common pitfalls, and generalize broader lessons for CEOs in any industry.

    1. Elected 2013 Fellow of The International Academy of Management due to outstanding contribution to science and management.

    2. Overall winner of the 2011 European Case Clearing House (ecch) Awards for “Apple Inc. in 2010” with Renee Kim (HBS Case 710-467).

    3. Won the 2010-2011 Charles M. Williams Award for Teaching Excellence.

    4. Winner of the 2008-2009 Robert F. Greenhill Award for Outstanding Service to the HBS Community.

    5. Won the 2000-2001 Harvard Business School Apgar Award for Innovation in Teaching.

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