Dorothy A. Leonard

William J. Abernathy Professor of Business Administration, Emerita

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Dorothy Leonard*, the William J. Abernathy Professor of Business Administration Emerita, joined the Harvard faculty in 1983 after teaching for three years at the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has taught MBA courses in managerial leadership, corporate capabilities, new product and process design, technology strategy and innovation management. At Harvard, M.I.T., and for corporations such as Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, and 3M, Professor Leonard has conducted executive courses on a wide range of innovation-related topics such as cross-functional coordination during new product development, technology transfer and knowledge management. She has initiated and served as faculty chair for executive education programs such as Leveraging Knowledge for the 21st Century, Leading Product Development, and Enhancing Corporate Creativity. She also served as a Director of Research for the Harvard Business School and Director of Research and Knowledge Programs for Harvard Business School's non-profit organization, HBS Interactive.

Professor Leonard's major research interests and consulting expertise relate to managing knowledge for innovation and stimulating creativity in group settings. She has consulted with and taught about these topics for governments (e.g., Sweden, Jamaica) and major corporations (e.g., IBM, Kodak). She served on the corporate Board of Directors for American Management Systems for twelve years and for Guy Gannett Communications for three years in both cases until the company was merged or acquired.

Her numerous writings appear in academic journals (e.g., "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities in New Product Development" awarded Best Paper by Strategic Management Journal for sustained impact on the profession), practitioner journals (e.g., "Deep Smarts" in Harvard Business Review) and books on technology management (e.g., "Guiding Visions" in The Perpetual Enterprise Machine). In addition, Professor Leonard has written dozens of field-based cases used in business school classrooms around the world. Her book, Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation, was published in hardback in 1995 by Harvard Business School Publishing, reissued in paperback in 1998, and has been translated into numerous languages. Professor Leonard's book, When Sparks Fly: Igniting Group Creativity, (co-authored with Walter Swap) was published September, 1999 by Harvard Business School Press. Also widely translated, it has been reissued in paperback in 2005 and was awarded Best Book on Creativity by the European Association for Creativity and Innovation. Her latest book (with Walter Swap) is: Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer Enduring Business Wisdom, published in January, 2005. Before obtaining her Ph.D. from Stanford University, she worked in Southeast Asia for ten years.

*formerly Dorothy Leonard-Barton

For more information please go to Professor Leonard's Webpage

Publications

Books

Journal Articles

  1. The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation

    D. A. Leonard and S. Sensiper

    Keywords: Knowledge; Groups and Teams; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Leonard, D. A., and S. Sensiper. "The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation." California Management Review 40, no. 3 (spring 1998): 112–132. (Reprint #CMR111.) (Reprinted with new introduction in Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge, eds. C. W. Choo and N. Bontis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.) View Details
  2. The Role of Process Innovation and Adaptation in Attaining Strategic Technological Capability

    D. A. Leonard-Barton

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Strategy; Technology; Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, D. A. "The Role of Process Innovation and Adaptation in Attaining Strategic Technological Capability." Special Issue on Decision Making and Cognitive Science. International Journal of Technology Management 6, nos. 3-4 (1991): 303–320. View Details
  3. Review of Implementing New Technologies: Choice, Decision and Change in Manufacturing, edited by E. Rhodes and D. Wield

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    Keywords: Technology; Decision Choices and Conditions; Change; Production;

Book Chapters

  1. Tacit Knowledge, Unarticulated Needs, and Empathic Design in New Product Development

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    Keywords: Product Development; Product Design; Knowledge; Human Needs; Demand and Consumers;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Tacit Knowledge, Unarticulated Needs, and Empathic Design in New Product Development." Chap. 9 in Knowledge Management Classic and Contemporary Works, edited by Mark T. Maybury, Daryl Morey, and Bhavani M. Thuraisingham, 223–237. Boston: MIT Press, 2001. View Details
  2. Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work

    D. A. Leonard

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Competency and Skills; Business or Company Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, D. A. "Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work." In Delivering Results: A New Mandate for Human Resource Professionals. Edited by David Ulrich.Harvard Business Review Book Series. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  3. Virtual Teams: Using Communications Technology to Manage Geographically Dispersed Development Groups

    Dorothy A. Leonard, P. A. Brands, Amy Edmondson and Justine Fenwick

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Communication Technology; Information Technology; Networks; Management; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., P. A. Brands, Amy Edmondson, and Justine Fenwick. "Virtual Teams: Using Communications Technology to Manage Geographically Dispersed Development Groups." In Sense and Respond: Capturing Value in the Network Era, edited by Stephen P. Bradley and Richard L. Nolan, 285–98. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998. View Details
  4. Commercial Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs

    D. A. Leonard and J. Doyle

    Keywords: Technology; Service Delivery; Consumer Behavior; Perception; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Leonard, D. A., and J. Doyle. "Commercial Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs." In Engines of Innovation: U.S. Industrial Research at the End of an Era, edited by Richard S. Rosenbloom and William J. Spencer. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. View Details
  5. How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise

    D. A. Leonard, H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. Holloway and S. C. Wheelwright

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Performance Improvement;

    Citation:

    Leonard, D. A., H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. "How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise." In The Product Development Challenge: Competing Through Speed, Quality, and Creativity, edited by K. B. Clark and S. C. Wheelwright. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995. View Details
  6. Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities

    D. A. Leonard-Barton

    Keywords: Core Relationships; Organizational Design; Performance Capacity;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities." In The Perpetual Enterprise Machine: Seven Keys to Corporate Renewal through Successful Product and Process Development, edited by H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. H. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. View Details
  7. Guiding Visions

    D. A. Leonard-Barton

    Keywords: Perception;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Guiding Visions." In The Perpetual Enterprise Machine: Seven Keys to Corporate Renewal through Successful Product and Process Development, edited by H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. H. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. View Details
  8. Implementing New Production Technologies: Exercises in Corporate Learning

    D. A. Leonard-Barton

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Innovation and Management; Production; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business Ventures; Technology Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Implementing New Production Technologies: Exercises in Corporate Learning." In Managing Complexity in High Technology Organizations, edited by M. A. Von Glinow and S. Mohrman, 160–87. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. View Details

Working Papers

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Bella Healthcare India

    Dorothy Leonard and Sunru Yong

    Bella Healthcare India was originally established in Bangalore as a low-cost manufacturing facility for a U.S.-based cardiology equipment developer. Under country manager Joseph Cherian it evolved considerably, developing its own research and development capabilities. Strengthened by investment in technical training and a shift in culture and mindset, the India team developed and launched its first successful product in 2005 under the guidance of Cherian and American Jeremy Manning, the Bella India director of R&D. Their success led them to a joint product development venture with the parent company, but organizational, technical, and cultural issues resulted in its cancellation. After this disappointing failure, is Bella India ready to lead a new product development project? If so, is the new project proposed by Cherian the right one to recover with?

    Keywords: india; productivity; organizational development; international business; R&D; cross-cultural relations; strategy; product development; medical equipment & devices; Joint Ventures; Medical Specialties; Research and Development; Product Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Health Care and Treatment; Product Launch; Failure; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; Bangalore;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy, and Sunru Yong. "Bella Healthcare India." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-440, April 2012. View Details
  2. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (A)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    A relatively inexperienced professor struggles with managing a case discussion in a class based on numeric analysis. The class is lethargic and time is tight; she considers both a number of possible reasons for their disinterest and different teaching strategies to stimulate discussion and learning.

    Keywords: Education; Teaching; Strategy; Communication Strategy; Training; Leadership Style; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (A)." Harvard Business School Case 911-404, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.) View Details
  3. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (B)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    A professor teaching a case discussion based on numeric analysis is pleased that a student finally "cracks" the case--but the numbers differ from her own. The instructor has to decide how to handle the discrepancy.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Teaching; Cases; Mathematical Methods; Conflict Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 911-405, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.) View Details
  4. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (C)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    A professor has an awkward exchange with a student who has prepared numeric analysis, but whose numbers do not agree with her own.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Learning; Teaching; Cases; Conflict Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 911-406, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.) View Details
  5. Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (A)

    Dorothy Leonard and Susan S. Harmeling

    Professor Gupta faces three major problems in teaching cases: 1) his students, accustomed to lectures, don't know how to conduct a case discussion; 2) the students are using the Internet to discover the outcome of managerial dilemmas posed in the case; 3) he wants to share the theory he learned as a doctoral student, but can't figure out the appropriate way to integrate theory into the case-based discussion. He seeks advice, particularly about the students' use of the Internet.

    Keywords: Business Education; Curriculum and Courses; Learning; Teaching; Cases; Outcome or Result; Internet; Web; Theory; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy, and Susan S. Harmeling. "Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (A)." Harvard Business School Case 912-405, July 2011. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  6. Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (B)

    Dorothy Leonard

    Professor Gupta has imposed two new policies on his class, midway through the term: 1) No use of Internet to locate additional information on the company in the case; 2) an increase in the percentage of grades attributed to class participation. He meets with rebellion from the class members.

    Keywords: Teaching; Learning; Internet; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Change; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy. "Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 912-406, July 2011. View Details
  7. Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin at Kodak

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Brian DeLacey

    Kodak must decide whether to make a major investment in a production facility designed around a new technique for producing the gelatin critical to so many film and paper products. Currently, gelatin making is an arcane art, unchanged in 150 years and heavily dependent upon the sensory skills of experienced foremen. The new process, in a pilot stage now, is a chemical reaction which reduces the process time for one step from 6 months to 48 hours and which is much more "scientific." However, the old plant is fully paid for, the new process is only one potential avenue for improvement, and demand for gelatin is falling.

    Keywords: Arts; Buildings and Facilities; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Experience and Expertise; Engineering; Investment; Time Management; Production; Research and Development; Semiconductor Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin at Kodak." Harvard Business School Case 687-020, September 1986. (Revised February 2007.) View Details
  8. Change at Whirlpool Corporation (A)

    Jan W. Rivkin, Dorothy A. Leonard and Gary Hamel

    In 1998, the CEO of Whirlpool Corp. decides to change the company's strategy significantly to escape an increasingly unattractive "stalemate" in the appliance industry. The change he proposes involves a fundamental shift in the company's focus--from manufacturing to branding--and requires the development of altogether new organizational capabilities. Examines the full range of adjustments that the CEO must lead his management team to make throughout all the functions of Whirlpool. Distinguishes itself from other cases on strategic change by examining the challenge of change in a company that is not in crisis (yet).

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Competitive Advantage; Strategic Planning; Production; Brands and Branding; Management Teams; Consumer Products Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Rivkin, Jan W., Dorothy A. Leonard, and Gary Hamel. "Change at Whirlpool Corporation (A)." Harvard Business School Case 705-462, April 2005. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  9. Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Brian DeLacey

    The CEO of Best Buy, a hugely successful retailing company, has hired consulting firm Strategos to imbue the company with an improved innovative capability. The six-month program of experimental learning yields new business ideas and also trains Best Buy employees as innovation coaches. However, this kind of learning is expensive and time consuming. The case details the learning journey as experienced by Best Buy employees and raises the question of when such development programs are appropriate. Focuses on the learning process and stimulates debate about how people and organizations learn in general, as well as how an innovation capability can be fostered.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Innovation Strategy; Management Teams; Creativity; Adoption; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Employees; Learning; Training; Programs; Retail Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey." Harvard Business School Case 604-043, September 2003. (Revised November 2005.) View Details
  10. Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Brian DeLacey

    The CEO of a two-year-old start-up must now decide whether to become a technology provider or a service agency. In a time of enormous uncertainty about the viability of various business models for Internet-delivered services and products, Collabrys has survived the burst Internet bubble by partnering with brand-name large companies and by responding to market feedback. This case traces the company from its earliest days and its original value proposition to a point at which the two very different future strategies appear feasible. Originally funded by venture capital, the company has changed key personnel, experimented with different distribution and partnering schemes, developed some sophisticated intellectual property, and raised a second round of funding.

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Internet; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Corporate Strategy; Technological Innovation; Cost vs Benefits; Partners and Partnerships; Business Growth and Maturation; Business Startups; Corporate Finance; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup." Harvard Business School Case 603-064, October 2002. (Revised December 2003.) View Details
  11. Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

    Dorothy A. Leonard and David Kiron

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) faces a serious loss of knowledge--both because of the "faster, better, cheaper" mandate for Mars missions and from the retirement of key personnel. An extensive knowledge management system for NASA/JPL includes formal knowledge-capture mechanisms such as Web pages and digitized manuals and such informal ones as storytelling. The former are much easier to get funded and to implement than the latter, but chief knowledge architect Jeanne Holm is concerned that technology cannot solve some of the most difficult issues she faces. This case focuses more on managing the tacit knowledge held in the heads of scientists and experienced project managers than on the information technology that Holm has put in place. The switch from expensive but infrequent Mars missions to 2 missions every 26 months propelled a number of junior managers into positions of responsibility and decision making for which they had inadequate experience. In the face of increasingly tight budgets, Holm must decide what kinds of knowledge management initiatives to back--and how to encourage the cultural change that is needed in the organization.

    Keywords: Knowledge Management; Knowledge Dissemination; Leadership Development; Internet; Risk and Uncertainty; Organizational Culture; Retirement; Human Resources; Human Capital;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and David Kiron. "Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)." Harvard Business School Case 603-062, September 2002. (Revised October 2002.) View Details
  12. Garage.com (A)

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Elizabeth Kind

    Silicon Valley's Garage.com matches venture capital and corporate angel investors with high-tech start-ups that are looking for early stage funding. As a Web-based service, Garage.com fields inquiries from entrepreneurs and investors around the world, and is eager to expand its operations both in the United States and overseas.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Corporate Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Venture Capital; Investment; Internet; Expansion; Operations; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Global Strategy; Technological Innovation; Brands and Branding; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Garage.com (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-064, October 2000. (Revised November 2001.) View Details
  13. Zaplet, Inc.

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Brian DeLacey

    Start-up Zaplet, Inc., has radical software, prestigious venture capital funding, and a multitude of business opportunities. New CEO Alan Baratz must select a strategy and redesign the organization to deliver. This case describes the roles and philosophies of the founders and the Kleiner, Perkins venture capitalist in building the company, the creation of the options for various business applications, and the process of selecting a business focus. Issues include the role of experimentation in selecting a market for new technology, the influence of venture capital, the importance of recruiting key employees, transitions for founders, and matching organizational form to strategy. The key decision is how to further focus the company.

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Information Technology; Organizational Design; Venture Capital; Valuation; Business Strategy; Restructuring; Expansion; Product Development; Innovation Strategy; Human Resources; Information Technology Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Zaplet, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 601-165, April 2001. (Revised July 2001.) View Details
  14. Verge Software (A)

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Elizabeth Kind

    Scott Rozic, CEO of start-up Verge Software, has just told his board that he is taking the company in a totally new direction, moving from enterprise knowledge management software to Internet direct marketing. This case covers the start-up of the business, and Rozic's mentoring by a key angel investor. It leaves open the question of whether this decision is wise or whether Rozic should go back to the enterprise business, now that venture capital funding preferences have shifted once again.

    Keywords: Venture Capital; Investment; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Business Strategy; Technological Innovation; Software; Management Teams; Governing and Advisory Boards; Business Startups; Decision Choices and Conditions; Product Development; Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Verge Software (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-065, April 2001. (Revised July 2001.) View Details
  15. American Management Systems, Inc.: The Knowledge Centers

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Sylvia Sensiper

    Senior management at AMS, a business and information technology consulting company, is growing at 28% annually and assimilating 1,800 new hires a year. AMS has recently instituted a new knowledge management strategy, a group of six knowledge centers (virtual communities of experts) each concerned with one of the company's core disciplines. The initiative is intended to help AMS reach its goal of leadership, as well as to help assimilate the many new consultants. How well does the company's newest knowledge management infrastructure work? The case deals with crucial issues of knowledge transfer and knowledge organization, and innovations in the field of knowledge management.

    Keywords: Information Technology; Innovation and Management; Technological Innovation; Knowledge Management; Management Teams; Business Strategy; Consulting Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Sylvia Sensiper. "American Management Systems, Inc.: The Knowledge Centers." Harvard Business School Case 697-068, February 1997. (Revised September 1998.) View Details
  16. Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development

    Dorothy Leonard-Barton and Gil Preuss

    One of the nation's foremost mini-mills' core competence is the rapid realization of technology into products. This case describes the development of a highly innovative casting technique and features the role of the company's culture in achieving its goals. The company exemplifies a learning organization.

    Keywords: Product Development; Innovation and Invention; Hardware; Product; Organizational Culture; Business Processes; Competency and Skills;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Gil Preuss. "Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development." Harvard Business School Case 692-018, September 1991. (Revised January 1998.) View Details
  17. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (A): The Growth Initiative

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    In late 1994, James Down, member of Mercer's Executive Committee, has to decide whether or not he should push ahead with the writing and publication of a book on growth--at a time when the more successful business publications focus on reengineering and cost cutting. He sees this as an opportunity to position Mercer in the consulting market and align the organization--itself a result of several mergers--around a common platform. He is facing resistance within the firm, however, especially from the firm's European offices, which see little need for this knowledge product. Proceeding without Europe could result in an incomplete product and a divided firm. If he waits, though, he may miss a critical market window. The case provides early versions of the growth framework. The product in this case is built from the firm's knowledge assets, and is very different from manufactured hardware or software.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Organizational Culture; Business Growth and Maturation; Knowledge Management; Product Development; Information Publishing; Books; Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (A): The Growth Initiative. Harvard Business School Case 697-084, April 1997. (Revised May 1997.) View Details
  18. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (B): Going Ahead with the Book

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (B): Going Ahead with the Book. Harvard Business School Case 697-087, April 1997. (Revised May 1997.) View Details
  19. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (D): The Knowledge Management Framework

    Dorothy A. Leonard and Carin-Isabel Knoop

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Growth Management; Framework; Knowledge; Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (D): The Knowledge Management Framework. Harvard Business School Case 697-089, May 1997. View Details
  20. Commercializing Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    The transformation of technology into commercially successful products is a process fraught with risk and uncertainty, and increasing pressure on time to market is exacerbating the difficulties. This note first describes a study conducted by Hewlett-Packard to improve its product development process as an illustration of the increasing focus companies are placing on understanding user needs. A framework of different technology commercialization situations is proposed and the concept of empathic design introduced as a potent mechanism for anticipating user needs, especially under conditions of moderate technical and market uncertainty. Researchers often find traditional market research techniques incompatible with creatively understanding user needs. That is, in many situations, customers cannot ask for a new product (or even a new feature) because they do not know what is possible, technologically.

    Keywords: Transformation; Communication Strategy; Customers; Design; Marketing; Consumer Behavior; Product Development; Research; Risk and Uncertainty; Commercialization; Technology Adoption;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Commercializing Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs." Harvard Business School Background Note 694-102, June 1994. (Revised September 1994.) View Details
  21. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (B)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    Discusses the printer Hewlett-Packard has developed.

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Product Development; Research; Marketing; Market Entry and Exit; Computer Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-036, September 1993. (Revised June 1994.) View Details
  22. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (A)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    In the over 20 years since Hewlett-Packard (HP) set up a manufacturing site in Singapore to produce calculators, HP has invested managerial talent and resources in developing its licensor into a technology development partner. The case details the growth of high-volume manufacturing capabilities and the setting up of an R&D facility. Various projects are described in which Singapore contributed an increasing amount of skill, leading up to an abortive attempt to completely co-develop a new printer. Singapore now feels ready to develop a printer on its own for the Japanese market, and the case poses the question of whether or not it is ready to do so. There is also an issue of whether the developers understand the Japanese market well enough to proceed.

    Keywords: Technology; Multinational Firms and Management; Market Entry and Exit; Competency and Skills; Research and Development; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Product Development; Computer Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-035, September 1993. (Revised June 1994.) View Details
  23. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (A)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    ALZA, a company specializing in drug delivery systems such as transdermal patches, considers manufacturing its own products. Until now, the company has conducted research and development on its patented system but has then licensed the technology to client-partner companies, such as Ciba-Geigy, that produce the patches and slow-release pills. These client-partner companies always selected the drugs to be incorporated into the systems on the basis of their experience in pharmaceutical markets. Moreover, these partners had done all the manufacturing. Students are asked to consider the implications of ALZA taking responsibility for not only selecting drugs and markets on its own but also managing a high-volume manufacturing facility. The case focuses on a potentially risky venture requiring a whole set of new capabilities.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Technological Innovation; Innovation and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Production; Research and Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Pharmaceutical Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-019, September 1993. View Details
  24. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (B)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    ALZA, a drug delivery company, must decide what and for whom to manufacture. In the past, it has licensed to pharmaceutical companies its patented system for the slow release of drugs into the human system. Therefore the company has little experience in choice of drug and product.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Decision Choices and Conditions; Patents; Production; Pharmaceutical Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-020, September 1993. View Details
  25. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (C)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    ALZA, a drug delivery company, considers marketing its own and other companies' products. The primary issue is whether to build an internal sales force focused on a few niche markets, to finance a sales force through alliances, or to acquire a marketing company.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Product Marketing; Alliances; Research and Development; Salesforce Management; Business Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-021, September 1993. View Details
  26. Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation

    Dorothy Leonard-Barton and Geoffrey K. Gill

    Allegheny Ludlum's (AL) technical vice president, Jack Shilling faces the task of determining how to allocate engineering resources among five areas of technology. AL's technology organization has great strategic importance and has therefore been untouched by the company's headcount and overhead reduction policies. Shilling must anticipate and prepare to meet or explore competitive threats and market opportunities as he prepares to make his allocation decisions. Shilling also considers the following questions: What engineering skills should he look for in new hires? Is the current planning system optimal? What criteria should he use in judging projects? (Includes details of three project proposals which students are asked to evaluate). Under what conditions should AL undertake a development as a joint venture rather than keeping it entirely in-house? Teaching objectives include: 1) Analyze resource allocations to support/sustain technological capabilities and 2) Examine technology strategy formulation process.

    Keywords: Engineering; Resource Allocation; Technology; Policy; Leadership; Decisions; Competency and Skills; Projects; Joint Ventures; Strategy; Electronics Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Geoffrey K. Gill. "Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation." Harvard Business School Case 692-027, September 1991. (Revised January 1992.) View Details
  27. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B)

    Dorothy A. Leonard

    Monsanto has yet to receive FDA approval for BST, a growth hormone for cows. Anti-BST groups have successfully lobbied Wisconsin and Minnesota, major milk producing states, to ban milk from BST-injected cows; the FDA has charged Monsanto with improperly promoting BST before receiving approval and eventual consumer acceptance of BST generated produce is uncertain.

    Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Safety; Food; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Law Enforcement; Conflict and Resolution; Research and Development; Technology; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Minnesota; Wisconsin;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dorothy A. "Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B)." Harvard Business School Case 692-066, November 1991. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Modeling Technological Innovation in Private Firms: The Solar and Microprocessor Industries in Northern California

    E. M. Rogers, V. Walling, D. Gibson and D. A. Leonard-Barton

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Renewable Energy; Information Technology; Private Sector; Energy Industry; Computer Industry; California;

    Citation:

    Rogers, E. M., V. Walling, D. Gibson, and D. A. Leonard-Barton. "Modeling Technological Innovation in Private Firms: The Solar and Microprocessor Industries in Northern California." Report, National Science Foundation, January 1980. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. (formerly Leonard-Barton) Creating and Exploiting Knowledge-Based Assets

    by Dorothy A. Leonard

    For the past several years, Dorothy Leonard's research has focused on how companies develop and exploit strategically advantageous knowledge assets. In her 1995 book Wellsprings of Knowledge (HBS Press), she identified and described in depth, activities that create and channel technological knowledge to invent, import, integrate and commercialize technology. In current research, she is investigating how companies redirect their capabilities towards new markets.
  2. The Power of Tacit Knowledge

    by Dorothy A. Leonard

    Knowledge that is unlikely to be codified, but remains largely in peoples' heads, is often critically important to the innovation process. Dorothy Leonard is extending her prior work on knowledge assets to explore why, when and how tacit knowledge is shared during the early stages of new product development. The study includes investigation of barriers to sharing such knowledge (e.g., non-overlapping mental models) and conditions under which such sharing is imperative (e.g., when innovation is moving too swiftly to await codification, or when such knowledge is competitively sensitive.)
  3. Enhancing Group Creativity

    by Dorothy A. Leonard

    In Wellsprings of Knowledge, Dorothy Leonard discussed the importance of creative abrasion--the exploitation of intellectually diverse perspectives to foster innovation. Current work, which will be reported in a book to be published in 1999 (When Sparks Fly: Igniting Group Creativity), is based on the assumption that innovative products and services derive from the well-managed, dynamic interaction of individuals in groups--not just from the brains of individual "creatives." Research on the topic includes interviews with a cross-sectional sample of managers.