Dorothy A. Leonard

William J. Abernathy Professor of Business Administration, Emerita

Contact:

(617) 495-6637

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Dorothy Leonard*, the William J. Abernathy Professor of Business Administration Emerita, joined the Harvard faculty in 1983 after teaching for three years at the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has taught MBA courses in managerial leadership, corporate capabilities, new product and process design, technology strategy and innovation management. At Harvard, M.I.T., and for corporations such as Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, and 3M, Professor Leonard has conducted executive courses on a wide range of innovation-related topics such as cross-functional coordination during new product development, technology transfer and knowledge management. She has initiated and served as faculty chair for executive education programs such as Leveraging Knowledge for the 21st Century, Leading Product Development, and Enhancing Corporate Creativity. She also served as a Director of Research for the Harvard Business School and Director of Research and Knowledge Programs for Harvard Business School's non-profit organization, HBS Interactive.

Professor Leonard's major research interests and consulting expertise relate to managing knowledge for innovation and stimulating creativity in group settings. She has consulted with and taught about these topics for governments (e.g., Sweden, Jamaica) and major corporations (e.g., IBM, Kodak). She served on the corporate Board of Directors for American Management Systems for twelve years and for Guy Gannett Communications for three years in both cases until the company was merged or acquired.

Her numerous writings appear in academic journals (e.g., "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities in New Product Development" awarded Best Paper by Strategic Management Journal for sustained impact on the profession), practitioner journals (e.g., "Deep Smarts" in Harvard Business Review) and books on technology management (e.g., "Guiding Visions" in The Perpetual Enterprise Machine). In addition, Professor Leonard has written dozens of field-based cases used in business school classrooms around the world. Her book, Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation, was published in hardback in 1995 by Harvard Business School Publishing, reissued in paperback in 1998, and has been translated into numerous languages. Professor Leonard's book, When Sparks Fly: Igniting Group Creativity, (co-authored with Walter Swap) was published September, 1999 by Harvard Business School Press. Also widely translated, it has been reissued in paperback in 2005 and was awarded Best Book on Creativity by the European Association for Creativity and Innovation. Her latest book (with Walter Swap) is: Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer Enduring Business Wisdom, published in January, 2005. Before obtaining her Ph.D. from Stanford University, she worked in Southeast Asia for ten years.

*formerly Dorothy Leonard-Barton

For more information please go to Professor Leonard's Webpage

    Publications

    Books

    1. Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer Business Wisdom

      Keywords: Information; Knowledge Dissemination;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D., and Walter Swap. Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer Business Wisdom. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
    2. When Sparks Fly: Harnessing the Power of Group Creativity

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, and Walter Swap. When Sparks Fly: Harnessing the Power of Group Creativity. Paperback ed. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
    3. When Sparks Fly: Igniting Creativity in Groups

      Keywords: Creativity; Groups and Teams;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, and Walter Swap. When Sparks Fly: Igniting Creativity in Groups. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.
    4. Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation

      Keywords: Knowledge;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation. Paperback ed. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
    5. Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation

      Keywords: Knowledge;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.

    Journal Articles

    1. Deep Smarts

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, and Walter Swap. "Deep Smarts." Harvard Business Review 82, no. 9 (September 2004).
    2. Using Mentoring and Storytelling to Transfer Knowledge in the Workplace

      Keywords: Teaching; Knowledge; Communication;

      Citation:

      Swap, Walter C., Dorothy A. Leonard, Mary Shields, and Lisa Abrams. "Using Mentoring and Storytelling to Transfer Knowledge in the Workplace." Journal of Management Information Systems 18, no. 1 (summer 2001).
    3. Gurus in the Garage

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, and Walter C. Swap. "Gurus in the Garage." #R00609. Harvard Business Review 78, no. 6 (November–December 2000): 71–82.
    4. The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation

      Keywords: Knowledge; Groups and Teams; Innovation and Invention;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and S. Sensiper. "The Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation." California Management Review 40, no. 3 (spring 1998): 112–132. (Reprint #CMR111.) (Reprinted with new introduction in Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge, eds. C. W. Choo and N. Bontis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.)
    5. Spark Innovation Through Empathic Design

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Design;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and Jeffrey Rayport. "Spark Innovation Through Empathic Design." Harvard Business Review 75, no. 6 (November–December 1997): 102–113. (HBS Working Paper No. 97-606.)
    6. Mining Knowledge Assets for Innovation

      Keywords: Knowledge Acquisition; Innovation and Invention;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Mining Knowledge Assets for Innovation." Knowledge Management 1, no. 1 (August–September 1997): 11–13.
    7. Putting your Company's Whole Brain to Work

      Keywords: Business Ventures;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and S. Straus. "Putting your Company's Whole Brain to Work." #97407. Harvard Business Review 75, no. 4 (July–August 1997): 110–122.
    8. How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise

      Keywords: Integration;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D., H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. "How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise." #94502. Harvard Business Review 72, no. 5 (September–October 1994): 121–130.
    9. 'Is It Too Late for Pacer to Change Course?' A Response to 'When New Products and Customer Loyalty Collide'

      Keywords: Change; Product;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "'Is It Too Late for Pacer to Change Course?' A Response to 'When New Products and Customer Loyalty Collide'." Harvard Business Review 71, no. 6 (November–December 1993): 25–28.
    10. Developer-user Interaction and User Satisfaction in Internal Technology Transfer

      Keywords: Relationships; Technology; Communication; Customer Satisfaction;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A., and D. Sinha. "Developer-user Interaction and User Satisfaction in Internal Technology Transfer." Academy of Management Journal 36, no. 5 (October 1993): 1125–1139.
    11. Management of Technology and Moose on Tables

      Keywords: Technology; Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Management of Technology and Moose on Tables." Organization Science 3, no. 4 (November 1992): 556–558.
    12. The Factory as a Learning Laboratory

      Keywords: Learning;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "The Factory as a Learning Laboratory." MIT Sloan Management Review 34, no. 1 (fall 1992): 23–28.
    13. Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New Product Development

      Keywords: Product; Research and Development;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New Product Development." Strategic Management Journal 13 (summer 1992): 111–125.
    14. Inanimate Integrators: A Block of Wood Speaks

      Keywords: Integration;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Inanimate Integrators: A Block of Wood Speaks." Design Management Journal 2, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 61–67.
    15. Beating Murphy's Law

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A., W. B. Chew, and R. Bohn. "Beating Murphy's Law." MIT Sloan Management Review 32, no. 3 (spring 1991): 5–16.
    16. The Role of Process Innovation and Adaptation in Attaining Strategic Technological Capability

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Strategy; Technology; Adaptation;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "The Role of Process Innovation and Adaptation in Attaining Strategic Technological Capability." Special Issue on Decision Making and Cognitive Science. International Journal of Technology Management 6, nos. 3-4 (1991): 303–320.
    17. A Dual Methodology for Case Studies: Synergistic Use of a Longitudinal Single Site with Replicated Multiple Sites

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "A Dual Methodology for Case Studies: Synergistic Use of a Longitudinal Single Site with Replicated Multiple Sites." Organization Science 1, no. 3 (August 1990): 1–19.
    18. Managerial Influences in the Implementation of a New Technology

      Keywords: Management; Leadership; Technology;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and I. Deschamps. "Managerial Influences in the Implementation of a New Technology." Management Science 34, no. 10 (October 1988): 1–13.
    19. Implementation as Mutual Adaptation of Technology and Organization

      Keywords: Technology;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Implementation as Mutual Adaptation of Technology and Organization." Research Policy 17, no. 5 (October 1988).
    20. Implementation Characteristics in Organizational Innovations

      Keywords: Organizations; Innovation and Invention;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Implementation Characteristics in Organizational Innovations." Communication Research 15, no. 5 (October 1988).
    21. Putting Expert Systems to Work

      Keywords: System;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and J. Sviokla. "Putting Expert Systems to Work." #88207. Harvard Business Review 66, no. 2 (March–April 1988): 91–98.
    22. The Case for Integrative Innovation: An Expert System at Digital

      Keywords: System;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "The Case for Integrative Innovation: An Expert System at Digital." MIT Sloan Management Review 29, no. 1 (fall 1987): 7–19.
    23. Review of Implementing New Technologies: Choice, Decision and Change in Manufacturing, edited by E. Rhodes and D. Wield

      Keywords: Technology; Decision Choices and Conditions; Change; Production;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Review of Implementing New Technologies: Choice, Decision and Change in Manufacturing, edited by E. Rhodes and D. Wield." Administrative Science Quarterly (September 1987).
    24. Implementing Structured Software Methodologies: A Case of Innovation in Process

      Keywords: Software; Innovation and Invention; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Implementing Structured Software Methodologies: A Case of Innovation in Process." Interfaces 17, no. 3 (May–June 1987): 6–17.
    25. The Implementation of New Technologies

      Keywords: Technology;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and W. Kraus. "The Implementation of New Technologies." Harvard Business Review 63, no. 6 (November–December 1985).
    26. Experts as Negative Opinion Leaders in the Diffusion of a Technical Innovation

      Keywords: Leadership; Technology; Innovation and Invention; Change;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Experts as Negative Opinion Leaders in the Diffusion of a Technical Innovation." Journal of Consumer Research 11, no. 4 (March 1985).
    27. Diffusing Innovations When the Users are not the Choosers: The Case of Dentists

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Decision Choices and Conditions; Health;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Diffusing Innovations When the Users are not the Choosers: The Case of Dentists." Knowledge 6, no. 1 (September 1984): 89–111.
    28. Swedish Entrepreneurs in Manufacturing Firms and Their Sources of Information

      Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Business Ventures; Information; Manufacturing Industry; Sweden;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Swedish Entrepreneurs in Manufacturing Firms and Their Sources of Information." Research Policy 13 (April 1984): 101–114.
    29. Review of Innovation Diffusion: A New Perspective, by L. Brown

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Perspective;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Review of Innovation Diffusion: A New Perspective, by L. Brown." Environment and Behavior (September 1982): 616–19.
    30. Voluntary Simplicity Lifestyles and Energy Conservation

      Keywords: Environmental Sustainability;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Voluntary Simplicity Lifestyles and Energy Conservation." Journal of Consumer Research 8 (December 1981).
    31. Testing Social Theories in Marketing Settings

      Keywords: Theory; Marketing; Society;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and E. M. Rogers. "Testing Social Theories in Marketing Settings." American Behavioral Scientist 21, no. 4 (March–April 1978).

    Book Chapters

    1. The Value of 'Been There, Done That'

      Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Value;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Walter Swap. "The Value of 'Been There, Done That'." In Leading for Innovation: And Organizing for Results, edited by Frances Hesselbein, Marshall Goldsmith, and Iain Somerville. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
    2. Tacit Knowledge, Unarticulated Needs, and Empathic Design in New Product Development

      Keywords: Product Development; Product Design; Knowledge; Human Needs; Demand and Consumers;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Tacit Knowledge, Unarticulated Needs, and Empathic Design in New Product Development." Chap. 9 in Knowledge Management Classic and Contemporary Works, edited by Mark T. Maybury, Daryl Morey, and Bhavani M. Thuraisingham, 223–237. Boston: MIT Press, 2001.
    3. Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work

      Keywords: Business Ventures; Competency and Skills; Business or Company Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work." In Delivering Results: A New Mandate for Human Resource Professionals. Edited by David Ulrich.Harvard Business Review Book Series. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
    4. How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise

      Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Working Conditions;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise." In The Work of Teams, edited by Jon R. Katzenbach. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
    5. Virtual Teams: Using Communications Technology to Manage Geographically Dispersed Development Groups

      Keywords: Groups and Teams; Communication Technology; Information Technology; Networks; Management; Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., P. A. Brands, Amy Edmondson, and Justine Fenwick. "Virtual Teams: Using Communications Technology to Manage Geographically Dispersed Development Groups." In Sense and Respond: Capturing Value in the Network Era, edited by Stephen P. Bradley and Richard L. Nolan, 285–98. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
    6. Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work

      Keywords: Business Ventures; Competency and Skills; Business or Company Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Putting Your Company's Whole Brain to Work." In Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
    7. Alliance Clusters in Multimedia: Safety Net or Entanglement?

      Keywords: Alliances; Media; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and C. Gomes-Casseres. "Alliance Clusters in Multimedia: Safety Net or Entanglement?" In Competing in the Age of Digital Convergence, edited by D. B. Yoffie. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997.
    8. Core Capabilities

      Keywords: Competency and Skills;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Core Capabilities." In The Handbook for Technology Management, edited by Richard Dorf. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997.
    9. Commercial Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs

      Keywords: Technology; Service Delivery; Consumer Behavior; Perception; Business Ventures;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., and J. Doyle. "Commercial Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs." In Engines of Innovation: U.S. Industrial Research at the End of an Era, edited by Richard S. Rosenbloom and William J. Spencer. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
    10. Modes of Technology Transfer

      Keywords: Technology; Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Modes of Technology Transfer." In Technology Management and Corporate Strategies: A Tricontinental Perspective, edited by G. Pogorel and J. Allouche. Elsevier, 1995.
    11. How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise

      Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Performance Improvement;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A., H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. "How to Integrate Work and Deepen Expertise." In The Product Development Challenge: Competing Through Speed, Quality, and Creativity, edited by K. B. Clark and S. C. Wheelwright. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
    12. Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities

      Keywords: Core Relationships; Organizational Design; Performance Capacity;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities." In The Perpetual Enterprise Machine: Seven Keys to Corporate Renewal through Successful Product and Process Development, edited by H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. H. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    13. Guiding Visions

      Keywords: Perception;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Guiding Visions." In The Perpetual Enterprise Machine: Seven Keys to Corporate Renewal through Successful Product and Process Development, edited by H. K. Bowen, K. B. Clark, C. H. Holloway, and S. C. Wheelwright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    14. Developing New Process Capabilities

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Innovation and Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A., and W. Smith. "Developing New Process Capabilities." In Managing Technology and Innovation, edited by W. Souder and J.D. Sherman. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
    15. The Intra-organizational Environment

      Keywords: Organizational Design; Organizational Culture;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "The Intra-organizational Environment." In Technology Transfer: A Communication Perspective, edited by F. Williams and D. Gibson. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990.
    16. Implementing New Production Technologies: Exercises in Corporate Learning

      Keywords: Technological Innovation; Innovation and Management; Production; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business Ventures; Technology Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A. "Implementing New Production Technologies: Exercises in Corporate Learning." In Managing Complexity in High Technology Organizations, edited by M. A. Von Glinow and S. Mohrman, 160–87. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    17. Marketing Advanced Manufacturing Processes

      Keywords: Marketing; Production; Technological Innovation; Manufacturing Industry; Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, D. A., and J. Gogan. "Marketing Advanced Manufacturing Processes." In Implementing Advanced Technology, edited by D. Davis. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.
    18. Diffusion of Energy Conservation Technologies

      Keywords: Technology Adoption; Energy Conservation; Energy Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "Diffusion of Energy Conservation Technologies." In Consumers and Energy Conservation: International Perspectives on Research and Policy Options, edited by J. Claxton. New York: Praeger, 1981.
    19. The Diffusion of Residential Solar Equipment in California

      Keywords: Technology Adoption; Renewable Energy; Energy Industry; California;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D. A. "The Diffusion of Residential Solar Equipment in California." In Marketing Solar Energy Innovations, edited by A. Shama. New York: Praeger, 1981.

    Working Papers

    1. Designing Hybrid Online/In-Class Learning Programs for Adults

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian J. DeLacey. "Designing Hybrid Online/In-Class Learning Programs for Adults." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 03-036, December 2002.
    2. Exploratory Capacity and the Adaptive Organization

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, Walter Swap, and Georg von Krogh. "Exploratory Capacity and the Adaptive Organization." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 03-067, November 2002.
    3. Transferring Expertise in Startup Companies: Forlorn Hope?

      Citation:

      Swap, Walter C., and Dorothy A. Leonard. "Transferring Expertise in Startup Companies: Forlorn Hope?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 03-040, October 2002.
    4. Case Study on Technology and Distance in Education at the Harvard Business School

      Citation:

      DeLacey, Brian J., and Dorothy A. Leonard. "Case Study on Technology and Distance in Education at the Harvard Business School." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 02-026, November 2001.
    5. Technology and Mediated Learning at HBS: Dispersed Learning in Executive Education

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian J. DeLacey. "Technology and Mediated Learning at HBS: Dispersed Learning in Executive Education." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 02-017, September 2001.
    6. An Exploration of the Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Sylvia Sensiper. "An Exploration of the Role of Tacit Knowledge in Group Innovation." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-075, February 1998.

    Cases and Teaching Materials

    1. Bella Healthcare India

      Bella Healthcare India was originally established in Bangalore as a low-cost manufacturing facility for a U.S.-based cardiology equipment developer. Under country manager Joseph Cherian it evolved considerably, developing its own research and development capabilities. Strengthened by investment in technical training and a shift in culture and mindset, the India team developed and launched its first successful product in 2005 under the guidance of Cherian and American Jeremy Manning, the Bella India director of R&D. Their success led them to a joint product development venture with the parent company, but organizational, technical, and cultural issues resulted in its cancellation. After this disappointing failure, is Bella India ready to lead a new product development project? If so, is the new project proposed by Cherian the right one to recover with?

      Keywords: india; productivity; organizational development; international business; R&D; cross-cultural relations; strategy; product development; medical equipment & devices; Joint Ventures; Medical Specialties; Research and Development; Product Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Strategy; Decision Choices and Conditions; Health Care and Treatment; Product Launch; Failure; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry; Bangalore;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy, and Sunru Yong. "Bella Healthcare India." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-440, April 2012.
    2. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (A)

      A relatively inexperienced professor struggles with managing a case discussion in a class based on numeric analysis. The class is lethargic and time is tight; she considers both a number of possible reasons for their disinterest and different teaching strategies to stimulate discussion and learning.

      Keywords: Education; Teaching; Strategy; Communication Strategy; Training; Leadership Style; Education Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (A)." Harvard Business School Case 911-404, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.)
    3. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (B)

      A professor teaching a case discussion based on numeric analysis is pleased that a student finally "cracks" the case--but the numbers differ from her own. The instructor has to decide how to handle the discrepancy.

      Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Teaching; Cases; Mathematical Methods; Conflict Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 911-405, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.)
    4. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (C)

      A professor has an awkward exchange with a student who has prepared numeric analysis, but whose numbers do not agree with her own.

      Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Learning; Teaching; Cases; Conflict Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 911-406, July 2010. (Revised August 2012.)
    5. Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (A)

      Professor Gupta faces three major problems in teaching cases: 1) his students, accustomed to lectures, don't know how to conduct a case discussion; 2) the students are using the internet to discover the outcome of managerial dilemmas posed in the case; 3) he wants to share the theory he learned as a doctoral student, but can't figure out the appropriate way to integrate theory into the case-based discussion. He seeks advice, particularly about the students' use of the internet.

      Keywords: Business Education; Curriculum and Courses; Learning; Teaching; Cases; Outcome or Result; Internet; Web; Theory; Education Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy. "Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (A)." Harvard Business School Case 912-405, July 2011.
    6. Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (B)

      Professor Gupta has imposed two new policies on his class, midway through the term: 1) No use of Internet to locate additional information on the company in the case; 2) an increase in the percentage of grades attributed to class participation. He meets with rebellion from the class members.

      Keywords: Teaching; Learning; Internet; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Change; Education Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy. "Assistant Professor Gyan Gupta and the Wet Noodle Class (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 912-406, July 2011.
    7. Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (TN) (A), (B), (C)

      Teaching Note for 911404, 911405, and 911406.

      Keywords: Education Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Assistant Professor Jo Worthington (TN) (A), (B), (C)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 911-407, September 2010.
    8. Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin at Kodak

      Kodak must decide whether to make a major investment in a production facility designed around a new technique for producing the gelatin critical to so many film and paper products. Currently, gelatin making is an arcane art, unchanged in 150 years and heavily dependent upon the sensory skills of experienced foremen. The new process, in a pilot stage now, is a chemical reaction which reduces the process time for one step from 6 months to 48 hours and which is much more "scientific." However, the old plant is fully paid for, the new process is only one potential avenue for improvement, and demand for gelatin is falling.

      Keywords: Arts; Buildings and Facilities; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Experience and Expertise; Engineering; Investment; Time Management; Production; Research and Development; Semiconductor Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin at Kodak." Harvard Business School Case 687-020, September 1986. (Revised February 2007.)
    9. Change at Whirlpool Corporation (A)

      In 1998, the CEO of Whirlpool Corp. decides to change the company's strategy significantly to escape an increasingly unattractive "stalemate" in the appliance industry. The change he proposes involves a fundamental shift in the company's focus--from manufacturing to branding--and requires the development of altogether new organizational capabilities. Examines the full range of adjustments that the CEO must lead his management team to make throughout all the functions of Whirlpool. Distinguishes itself from other cases on strategic change by examining the challenge of change in a company that is not in crisis (yet).

      Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Change Management; Competitive Advantage; Strategic Planning; Production; Brands and Branding; Management Teams; Consumer Products Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Rivkin, Jan W., Dorothy A. Leonard, and Gary Hamel. "Change at Whirlpool Corporation (A)." Harvard Business School Case 705-462, April 2005. (Revised March 2006.)
    10. Change at Whirlpool Corporation (B)

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Change; Consumer Products Industry;

      Citation:

      Rivkin, Jan W., Dorothy A. Leonard, and Gary Hamel. "Change at Whirlpool Corporation (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 705-463, April 2005. (Revised March 2006.)
    11. Change at Whirlpool Corporation (C)

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Change; Consumer Products Industry;

      Citation:

      Rivkin, Jan W., Dorothy A. Leonard, and Gary Hamel. "Change at Whirlpool Corporation (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 705-464, April 2005. (Revised March 2006.)
    12. Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey

      The CEO of Best Buy, a hugely successful retailing company, has hired consulting firm Strategos to imbue the company with an improved innovative capability. The six-month program of experimental learning yields new business ideas and also trains Best Buy employees as innovation coaches. However, this kind of learning is expensive and time consuming. The case details the learning journey as experienced by Best Buy employees and raises the question of when such development programs are appropriate. Focuses on the learning process and stimulates debate about how people and organizations learn in general, as well as how an innovation capability can be fostered.

      Keywords: Innovation and Management; Innovation Strategy; Management Teams; Creativity; Adoption; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Employees; Learning; Training; Programs; Retail Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey." Harvard Business School Case 604-043, September 2003. (Revised November 2005.)
    13. Best Buy (B): The Journey Accelerates

      Keywords: Electronics Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Best Buy (B): The Journey Accelerates." Harvard Business School Supplement 606-049, November 2005.
    14. Ceramics Process Systems Corp. (A), Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-691-028).

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Ceramics Process Systems Corp. (A), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-048, March 1992. (Revised August 2005.)
    15. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (A), Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-690-009).

      Keywords: Biotechnology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (A), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-045, March 1992. (Revised June 2005.)
    16. Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey

      Keywords: Retail Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Best Buy Co., Inc. (A): An Innovator's Journey." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 605-703, March 2005.
    17. Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup (TN)

      Teaching Note for (9-603-064).

      Keywords: Information Technology Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 604-067, December 2003.
    18. Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup

      The CEO of a two-year-old start-up must now decide whether to become a technology provider or a service agency. In a time of enormous uncertainty about the viability of various business models for Internet-delivered services and products, Collabrys has survived the burst Internet bubble by partnering with brand-name large companies and by responding to market feedback. This case traces the company from its earliest days and its original value proposition to a point at which the two very different future strategies appear feasible. Originally funded by venture capital, the company has changed key personnel, experimented with different distribution and partnering schemes, developed some sophisticated intellectual property, and raised a second round of funding.

      Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Internet; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Corporate Strategy; Technological Innovation; Cost vs Benefits; Partners and Partnerships; Business Growth and Maturation; Business Startups; Corporate Finance; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Collabrys, Inc. (A)-The Evolution of a Startup." Harvard Business School Case 603-064, October 2002. (Revised December 2003.)
    19. Knowledge Management at JPL

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Knowledge Management at JPL." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 604-801, July 2003.
    20. Retirement at JPL

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Retirement at JPL." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 603-802, June 2003.
    21. Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (TN)

      Teaching Note for (9-603-062).

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 603-095, February 2003.
    22. Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

      Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) faces a serious loss of knowledge--both because of the "faster, better, cheaper" mandate for Mars missions and from the retirement of key personnel. An extensive knowledge management system for NASA/JPL includes formal knowledge-capture mechanisms such as Web pages and digitized manuals and such informal ones as storytelling. The former are much easier to get funded and to implement than the latter, but chief knowledge architect Jeanne Holm is concerned that technology cannot solve some of the most difficult issues she faces. This case focuses more on managing the tacit knowledge held in the heads of scientists and experienced project managers than on the information technology that Holm has put in place. The switch from expensive but infrequent Mars missions to 2 missions every 26 months propelled a number of junior managers into positions of responsibility and decision making for which they had inadequate experience. In the face of increasingly tight budgets, Holm must decide what kinds of knowledge management initiatives to back--and how to encourage the cultural change that is needed in the organization.

      Keywords: Knowledge Management; Knowledge Dissemination; Leadership Development; Internet; Risk and Uncertainty; Organizational Culture; Retirement; Human Resources; Human Capital;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and David Kiron. "Managing Knowledge and Learning at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)." Harvard Business School Case 603-062, September 2002. (Revised October 2002.)
    23. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (D)

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Computer Industry; Singapore;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and David Kiron. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (D)." Harvard Business School Supplement 603-053, September 2002.
    24. Garage.com (A)

      Silicon Valley's Garage.com matches venture capital and corporate angel investors with high-tech start-ups that are looking for early stage funding. As a Web-based service, Garage.com fields inquiries from entrepreneurs and investors around the world, and is eager to expand its operations both in the United States and overseas.

      Keywords: Business Startups; Corporate Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Venture Capital; Investment; Internet; Expansion; Operations; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Global Strategy; Technological Innovation; Brands and Branding; Information Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Garage.com (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-064, October 2000. (Revised November 2001.)
    25. Garage.com (B): Garage Technology Ventures

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Garage.com (B): Garage Technology Ventures." Harvard Business School Case 602-093, October 2001.
    26. Zaplet, Inc. (A)TN

      Teaching Note for (9-601-165).

      Keywords: Information Technology Industry; California;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Zaplet, Inc. (A)TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 602-090, October 2001.
    27. Zaplet, Inc.

      Start-up Zaplet, Inc., has radical software, prestigious venture capital funding, and a multitude of business opportunities. New CEO Alan Baratz must select a strategy and redesign the organization to deliver. This case describes the roles and philosophies of the founders and the Kleiner, Perkins venture capitalist in building the company, the creation of the options for various business applications, and the process of selecting a business focus. Issues include the role of experimentation in selecting a market for new technology, the influence of venture capital, the importance of recruiting key employees, transitions for founders, and matching organizational form to strategy. The key decision is how to further focus the company.

      Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Information Technology; Organizational Design; Venture Capital; Valuation; Business Strategy; Restructuring; Expansion; Product Development; Innovation Strategy; Human Resources; Information Technology Industry; California;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. "Zaplet, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 601-165, April 2001. (Revised July 2001.)
    28. Verge Software (B) XMarkstheSpot

      Keywords: Software;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Verge Software (B) XMarkstheSpot." Harvard Business School Case 601-066, April 2001. (Revised July 2001.)
    29. Verge Software (A)

      Scott Rozic, CEO of start-up Verge Software, has just told his board that he is taking the company in a totally new direction, moving from enterprise knowledge management software to Internet direct marketing. This case covers the start-up of the business, and Rozic's mentoring by a key angel investor. It leaves open the question of whether this decision is wise or whether Rozic should go back to the enterprise business, now that venture capital funding preferences have shifted once again.

      Keywords: Venture Capital; Investment; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business or Company Management; Business Strategy; Technological Innovation; Software; Management Teams; Governing and Advisory Boards; Business Startups; Decision Choices and Conditions; Product Development; Information Technology Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Verge Software (A)." Harvard Business School Case 601-065, April 2001. (Revised July 2001.)
    30. Garage.com Video

      Features a ten-minute profiling of Garage.com's "Bootcamp for Startups."

      Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Elizabeth Kind. "Garage.com Video." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 601-801, February 2001.
    31. Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin, Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-687-020).

      Keywords: Semiconductor Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-060, March 1992. (Revised June 1999.)
    32. Knowledge Managment(Multimedia)

      Keywords: Knowledge Management;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Knowledge Managment(Multimedia)." Harvard Business School Video Case 699-132, February 1999.
    33. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (C)

      Supplements the (A) and (B) cases.

      Keywords: Plant-Based Agribusiness; Science-Based Business; Biotechnology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Robert Irwin. "Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (C)." Harvard Business School Case 699-021, September 1998.
    34. American Management Systems, Inc.: The Knowledge Centers

      Senior management at AMS, a business and information technology consulting company, is growing at 28% annually and assimilating 1,800 new hires a year. AMS has recently instituted a new knowledge management strategy, a group of six knowledge centers (virtual communities of experts) each concerned with one of the company's core disciplines. The initiative is intended to help AMS reach its goal of leadership, as well as to help assimilate the many new consultants. How well does the company's newest knowledge management infrastructure work? The case deals with crucial issues of knowledge transfer and knowledge organization, and innovations in the field of knowledge management.

      Keywords: Information Technology; Innovation and Management; Technological Innovation; Knowledge Management; Management Teams; Business Strategy; Consulting Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Sylvia Sensiper. "American Management Systems, Inc.: The Knowledge Centers." Harvard Business School Case 697-068, February 1997. (Revised September 1998.)
    35. Black Sun Interactive, Inc. (A)

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Sylvia Sensiper. "Black Sun Interactive, Inc. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 698-042, December 1997. (Revised February 1998.)
    36. Black Sun Interactive, Inc. (B)

      Keywords: Web Services Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Sylvia Sensiper. "Black Sun Interactive, Inc. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 698-043, December 1997. (Revised February 1998.)
    37. Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development

      One of the nation's foremost mini-mills' core competence is the rapid realization of technology into products. This case describes the development of a highly innovative casting technique and features the role of the company's culture in achieving its goals. The company exemplifies a learning organization.

      Keywords: Product Development; Innovation and Invention; Hardware; Product; Organizational Culture; Business Processes; Competency and Skills;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Gil Preuss. "Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development." Harvard Business School Case 692-018, September 1991. (Revised January 1998.)
    38. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (A): The Growth Initiative

      In late 1994, James Down, member of Mercer's Executive Committee, has to decide whether or not he should push ahead with the writing and publication of a book on growth--at a time when the more successful business publications focus on reengineering and cost cutting. He sees this as an opportunity to position Mercer in the consulting market and align the organization--itself a result of several mergers--around a common platform. He is facing resistance within the firm, however, especially from the firm's European offices, which see little need for this knowledge product. Proceeding without Europe could result in an incomplete product and a divided firm. If he waits, though, he may miss a critical market window. The case provides early versions of the growth framework. The product in this case is built from the firm's knowledge assets, and is very different from manufactured hardware or software.

      Keywords: Technological Innovation; Organizational Culture; Business Growth and Maturation; Knowledge Management; Product Development; Information Publishing; Books; Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (A): The Growth Initiative. Harvard Business School Case 697-084, April 1997. (Revised May 1997.)
    39. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (B): Going Ahead with the Book

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (B): Going Ahead with the Book. Harvard Business School Case 697-087, April 1997. (Revised May 1997.)
    40. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (C): The Book

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (C): The Book. Harvard Business School Case 697-088, April 1997. (Revised May 1997.)
    41. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (D): The Knowledge Management Framework

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Growth Management; Framework; Knowledge; Consulting Industry; Publishing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A., and Carin-Isabel Knoop. Mercer Management Consulting's "Grow to Be Great" (D): The Knowledge Management Framework. Harvard Business School Case 697-089, May 1997.
    42. Emerson Electric in China

      Keywords: Electronics Industry; China;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Thomas A Gerace. "Emerson Electric in China." Harvard Business School Case 694-064, March 1994. (Revised March 1995.)
    43. Commercializing Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs

      The transformation of technology into commercially successful products is a process fraught with risk and uncertainty, and increasing pressure on time to market is exacerbating the difficulties. This note first describes a study conducted by Hewlett-Packard to improve its product development process as an illustration of the increasing focus companies are placing on understanding user needs. A framework of different technology commercialization situations is proposed and the concept of empathic design introduced as a potent mechanism for anticipating user needs, especially under conditions of moderate technical and market uncertainty. Researchers often find traditional market research techniques incompatible with creatively understanding user needs. That is, in many situations, customers cannot ask for a new product (or even a new feature) because they do not know what is possible, technologically.

      Keywords: Transformation; Communication Strategy; Customers; Design; Marketing; Consumer Behavior; Product Development; Research; Risk and Uncertainty; Commercialization; Technology Adoption;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Commercializing Technology: Imaginative Understanding of User Needs." Harvard Business School Background Note 694-102, June 1994. (Revised September 1994.)
    44. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (B)

      Discusses the printer Hewlett-Packard has developed.

      Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Product Development; Research; Marketing; Market Entry and Exit; Computer Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Singapore;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-036, September 1993. (Revised June 1994.)
    45. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (C)

      Discusses the printer Hewlett-Packard has developed.

      Keywords: Product Development; Computer Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Singapore;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-037, September 1993. (Revised June 1994.)
    46. Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (A)

      In the over 20 years since Hewlett-Packard (HP) set up a manufacturing site in Singapore to produce calculators, HP has invested managerial talent and resources in developing its licensor into a technology development partner. The case details the growth of high-volume manufacturing capabilities and the setting up of an R&D facility. Various projects are described in which Singapore contributed an increasing amount of skill, leading up to an abortive attempt to completely co-develop a new printer. Singapore now feels ready to develop a printer on its own for the Japanese market, and the case poses the question of whether or not it is ready to do so. There is also an issue of whether the developers understand the Japanese market well enough to proceed.

      Keywords: Technology; Multinational Firms and Management; Market Entry and Exit; Competency and Skills; Research and Development; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Product Development; Computer Industry; Singapore;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Hewlett-Packard: Singapore (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-035, September 1993. (Revised June 1994.)
    47. Skunkworks at Digital Equipment Corp.: The Tale of XCON

      Keywords: Information Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Skunkworks at Digital Equipment Corp.: The Tale of XCON." Harvard Business School Case 687-051, January 1987. (Revised October 1993.)
    48. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (A)

      ALZA, a company specializing in drug delivery systems such as transdermal patches, considers manufacturing its own products. Until now, the company has conducted research and development on its patented system but has then licensed the technology to client-partner companies, such as Ciba-Geigy, that produce the patches and slow-release pills. These client-partner companies always selected the drugs to be incorporated into the systems on the basis of their experience in pharmaceutical markets. Moreover, these partners had done all the manufacturing. Students are asked to consider the implications of ALZA taking responsibility for not only selecting drugs and markets on its own but also managing a high-volume manufacturing facility. The case focuses on a potentially risky venture requiring a whole set of new capabilities.

      Keywords: Business or Company Management; Technological Innovation; Innovation and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Production; Research and Development; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Pharmaceutical Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-019, September 1993.
    49. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (B)

      ALZA, a drug delivery company, must decide what and for whom to manufacture. In the past, it has licensed to pharmaceutical companies its patented system for the slow release of drugs into the human system. Therefore the company has little experience in choice of drug and product.

      Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Decision Choices and Conditions; Patents; Production; Pharmaceutical Industry; Medical Devices and Supplies Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-020, September 1993.
    50. Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (C)

      ALZA, a drug delivery company, considers marketing its own and other companies' products. The primary issue is whether to build an internal sales force focused on a few niche markets, to finance a sales force through alliances, or to acquire a marketing company.

      Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Product Marketing; Alliances; Research and Development; Salesforce Management; Business Strategy; Pharmaceutical Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Manufacturing at ALZA: The Right Prescription? (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 694-021, September 1993.
    51. MCC: The Packaging and Interconnect Program (A), Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "MCC: The Packaging and Interconnect Program (A), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-052, March 1992. (Revised April 1993.)
    52. Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Course Overview, Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Course Overview, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-079, March 1992. (Revised April 1993.)
    53. MCC: The Packaging and Interconnect Program (B)

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "MCC: The Packaging and Interconnect Program (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 693-066, January 1993.
    54. Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (A)

      Keywords: Learning; Computer Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Paul Sagawa. "Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 690-032, March 1990. (Revised December 1992.)
    55. The Carnegie Group

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Paul Sagawa. "The Carnegie Group." Harvard Business School Case 690-033, January 1990. (Revised November 1992.)
    56. Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Three: Acquiring Technology, Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Three: Acquiring Technology, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-064, March 1992. (Revised July 1992.)
    57. Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Four: Implementing New Technical Systs & Org Change, TN

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Four: Implementing New Technical Systs & Org Change, TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-065, March 1992. (Revised June 1992.)
    58. Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development, Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-692-018).

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Chaparral Steel: Rapid Product and Process Development, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-047, March 1992. (Revised June 1992.)
    59. Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module One: Formulating Technology Strategy, Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module One: Formulating Technology Strategy, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-062, March 1992. (Revised June 1992.)
    60. Skunkworks at Digital Equipment Corp.: The Tale of XCON, Teaching Note

      Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Electronics Industry; Computer Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Skunkworks at Digital Equipment Corp.: The Tale of XCON, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-046, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    61. Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation, Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-692-027).

      Keywords: Electronics Industry; Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-049, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    62. New Technology at World Aluminum Corp.: The Jumping Ring Circulator, Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "New Technology at World Aluminum Corp.: The Jumping Ring Circulator, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-053, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    63. Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (A), (B), and (C), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-059, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    64. The Carnegie Group, Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "The Carnegie Group, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-051, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    65. A New CAE System for Shield Electronics Engineers, Teaching Note

      Keywords: Engineering; Electronics Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "A New CAE System for Shield Electronics Engineers, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-055, March 1992. (Revised May 1992.)
    66. Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Two: Developing Technological Capabilities, Teaching Note

      Keywords: Strategy; Technology; Competency and Skills;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Developing Strategic Technological Competencies, Module Two: Developing Technological Capabilities, Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 692-063, March 1992.
    67. New Technology at World Aluminum Corp.: The Jumping Ring Circulator

      Keywords: Operations; Management; Technology; Innovation and Invention;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "New Technology at World Aluminum Corp.: The Jumping Ring Circulator." Harvard Business School Case 687-050, January 1987. (Revised February 1992.)
    68. U.S. Biotechnology Industry in 1987 (Abridged)

      Keywords: Biotechnology Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "U.S. Biotechnology Industry in 1987 (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 792-077, February 1992.
    69. Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (B)

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Paul Sagawa. "Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 690-054, February 1990. (Revised February 1992.)
    70. Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (C)

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and paul Sagawa. "Manufacturing Learning Laboratory at Digital Equipment Corp. (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 690-055, February 1990. (Revised February 1992.)
    71. Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation

      Allegheny Ludlum's (AL) technical vice president, Jack Shilling faces the task of determining how to allocate engineering resources among five areas of technology. AL's technology organization has great strategic importance and has therefore been untouched by the company's headcount and overhead reduction policies. Shilling must anticipate and prepare to meet or explore competitive threats and market opportunities as he prepares to make his allocation decisions. Shilling also considers the following questions: What engineering skills should he look for in new hires? Is the current planning system optimal? What criteria should he use in judging projects? (Includes details of three project proposals which students are asked to evaluate). Under what conditions should AL undertake a development as a joint venture rather than keeping it entirely in-house? Teaching objectives include: 1) Analyze resource allocations to support/sustain technological capabilities and 2) Examine technology strategy formulation process.

      Keywords: Engineering; Resource Allocation; Technology; Policy; Leadership; Decisions; Competency and Skills; Projects; Joint Ventures; Strategy; Electronics Industry; Technology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Geoffrey K. Gill. "Allegheny Ludlum: Research and Engineering Resource Allocation." Harvard Business School Case 692-027, September 1991. (Revised January 1992.)
    72. A New CAE System for Shield Electronics Engineers

      Keywords: Engineering; Electronics Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "A New CAE System for Shield Electronics Engineers." Harvard Business School Case 687-081, March 1987. (Revised January 1992.)
    73. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B)

      Monsanto has yet to receive FDA approval for BST, a growth hormone for cows. Anti-BST groups have successfully lobbied Wisconsin and Minnesota, major milk producing states, to ban milk from BST-injected cows; the FDA has charged Monsanto with improperly promoting BST before receiving approval and eventual consumer acceptance of BST generated produce is uncertain.

      Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Safety; Food; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Law Enforcement; Conflict and Resolution; Research and Development; Technology; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Biotechnology Industry; Minnesota; Wisconsin;

      Citation:

      Leonard, Dorothy A. "Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B)." Harvard Business School Case 692-066, November 1991.
    74. Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B) (Abridged)

      Keywords: Biotechnology Industry;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, and Alistair D. Williamson. "Monsanto's March into Biotechnology (B) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 692-067, November 1991.
    75. Smartwave (B): Implementing an Expert System at Digital Equipment Corp., Teaching Note

      Keywords: Technology Adoption;

      Citation:

      Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. "Smartwave (B): Implementing an Expert System at Digital Equipment Corp., Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 189-052, September 1988. (Revised May 1990.)
    76. Western Electric at Merrimack Valley

      Keywords: Utilities Industry;

      Citation:

      Sasser, W. Earl, and Dorothy Leonard-Barton. "Western Electric at Merrimack Valley." Harvard Business School Case 684-072, May 1984. (Revised December 1984.)

    Other Publications and Materials

    1. The Potential Market for Solar Equipment among California Homeowners

      Keywords: Renewable Energy; Markets; Energy Industry; California;

      Citation:

      Leonard, D., E. M. Rogers, T Avi-Itzhak, and I Patel. "The Potential Market for Solar Equipment among California Homeowners." Report, California Energy Commission, January 1980.
    2. Modeling Technological Innovation in Private Firms: The Solar and Microprocessor Industries in Northern California

      Keywords: Technological Innovation; Renewable Energy; Information Technology; Private Sector; Energy Industry; Computer Industry; California;

      Citation:

      Rogers, E. M., V. Walling, D. Gibson, and D. A. Leonard-Barton. "Modeling Technological Innovation in Private Firms: The Solar and Microprocessor Industries in Northern California." Report, National Science Foundation, January 1980.

      Research Summary

    1. (formerly Leonard-Barton) Creating and Exploiting Knowledge-Based Assets

      For the past several years, Dorothy Leonard's research has focused on how companies develop and exploit strategically advantageous knowledge assets. In her 1995 book Wellsprings of Knowledge (HBS Press), she identified and described in depth, activities that create and channel technological knowledge to invent, import, integrate and commercialize technology. In current research, she is investigating how companies redirect their capabilities towards new markets.
    2. The Power of Tacit Knowledge

      Knowledge that is unlikely to be codified, but remains largely in peoples' heads, is often critically important to the innovation process. Dorothy Leonard is extending her prior work on knowledge assets to explore why, when and how tacit knowledge is shared during the early stages of new product development. The study includes investigation of barriers to sharing such knowledge (e.g., non-overlapping mental models) and conditions under which such sharing is imperative (e.g., when innovation is moving too swiftly to await codification, or when such knowledge is competitively sensitive.)
    3. Enhancing Group Creativity

      In Wellsprings of Knowledge, Dorothy Leonard discussed the importance of creative abrasion--the exploitation of intellectually diverse perspectives to foster innovation. Current work, which will be reported in a book to be published in 1999 (When Sparks Fly: Igniting Group Creativity), is based on the assumption that innovative products and services derive from the well-managed, dynamic interaction of individuals in groups--not just from the brains of individual "creatives." Research on the topic includes interviews with a cross-sectional sample of managers.