Rosabeth M. Kanter

Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor of Business Administration

Unit: General Management

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Rosabeth Moss Kanter holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship at Harvard Business School, where she specializes in strategy, innovation, and leadership for change. She is also Chair and Director of the Harvard University Advanced Leadership Initiative, an innovation that helps successful leaders at the top of their professions apply their skills to national and global challenges in their next life stage. A collaboration across all of Harvard, the Advanced Leadership Initiative aims to build a new leadership force for the world. Her latest book, MOVE: Putting America's Infrastructure Back in the Lead, a New York Times’ Book review Editor’s Choice, is a sweeping look across industries and technologies shaping the future of mobility and the leadership required for transformation. 

Her strategic and practical insights guide leaders of large and small organizations worldwide, through her teaching, writing, and direct consultation to major corporations and governments. The former chief Editor of Harvard Business Review, Professor Kanter has been repeatedly named to lists of the “50 most powerful women in the world” (Times of London), and the “50 most influential business thinkers in the world” (Thinkers 50). She has received 24 honorary doctoral degrees, as well as numerous leadership awards, lifetime achievement awards, and prizes. These include the Academy of Management’s Distinguished Career Award for scholarly contributions to management knowledge; the World Teleport Association's “Intelligent Community Visionary of the Year” award; the International Leadership Award from the Association of Leadership Professionals; and the Warren Bennis Award for Leadership Excellence.

She is the author or coauthor of 19 books. Her book The Change Masters was named one of the most influential business books of the 20th century (Financial Times). SuperCorp: How Vanguard Companies Create Innovation, Profits, Growth, and Social Good, a manifesto for leadership of sustainable enterprises, was named one of the ten best business books of 2009 by Amazon.com. A related article, "How Great Companies Think Differently," received Harvard Business Review's 2011 McKinsey Award for the year's two best articles.Confidence: How Winning Streaks & Losing Streaks Begin & End (a New York Times business bestseller and #1 Business Week bestseller), describes the culture of high-performance organizations compared with those in decline and shows how to lead turnarounds, whether in businesses, schools, sports teams, or countries. Men & Women of the Corporation, winner of the C. Wright Mills award for the best book on social issues and called a classic, offers insight into the individual and organizational factors that promote success or perpetuate disadvantage; a spin-off video, A Tale of ‘O’: On Being Different, is a widely-used tool for diversity training. A related book, Work & Family in the United States, set a policy agenda; later, a coalition of university centers created in her honor the Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for the best research on work/family issues. Another award-winning book, When Giants Learn to Dance, showed how to master the new terms of competition at the dawn of the global information age.World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy identified the rise of new business networks and dilemmas of globalization, a theme she continues to pursue in her new book MOVE and the Harvard Business School U.S. Competitiveness Project.

Through her consulting arm, Goodmeasure Inc., she advises numerous CEOs and has partnered with IBM on applying her leadership tools from business to other sectors as a Senior Advisor for IBM’s Global Citizenship portfolio. She has served on many business and non-profit boards, such as City Year, the urban “Peace Corps” addressing the school dropout crisis through national service, and on a variety of national or regional commissions including the Governor’s Council of Economic Advisors. She speaks widely, often sharing the platform with Presidents, Prime Ministers, and CEOs at national and international events, such as the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Before joining the Harvard Business School faculty, she held tenured professorships at Yale University and Brandeis University and was a Fellow at Harvard Law School, simultaneously holding a Guggenheim Fellowship. Her Ph.D. is from the University of Michigan.

Featured Work

Publications

Books

  1. MOVE: Putting America's Infrastructure Back in the Lead

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Americans are stuck. We live with travel delays on congested roads; shipping delays on clogged railways; and delays on repairs, project approvals, and funding due to gridlocked leadership. These delays affect us all, whether you are a daily commuter, a frequent flyer, an entrepreneur, an online shopper, a job seeker, or a community leader. If people can't move, if goods are delayed, and if information networks can't connect, then economic opportunity deteriorates and social inequity grows. We have been stuck for too long, writes Harvard Business School professor and bestselling author Rosabeth Moss Kanter. In Move, Kanter visits cities and states across the country to tackle our challenges—and reveal solutions—on the roads and rails and in our cities, skies, and the halls of Washington D.C. We meet a visionary engineer and public servant spearheading an underwater tunnel in Miami to streamline port operations and redirect constant traffic from the city center. We see mayors partnering with large corporations and nimble entrepreneurs to unveil parking apps, bike-sharing programs, and seamless wifi networks in greener, more vibrant, more connected cities. And we learn about much-needed efforts—such as dynamic tolls on highways and fees based on vehicle miles traveled—to reduce our dependence on the outmoded gasoline tax in our new electric-car age. It all adds up to a new vision for American mobility, where local leaders shape initiatives without waiting for Congress to act, and ambitious companies partner with governments to tackle projects that serve the public good, create jobs, and improve quality of life while providing healthy sources of investment.

    Keywords: transportation; infrastructure; United States; railroad history; airlines; airline industry; air transportation; passenger transportation; cities; urban planning; freighting; Change; change management; leadership; public policy; entrepreneurship; technological innovation; change leadership; public finance; Transportation Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. MOVE: Putting America's Infrastructure Back in the Lead. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015. View Details
  2. Supercorp: How Vanguard Companies Create Opportunity, Profits, Growth, and Social Good

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Supercorp is based on a 3-year study involving more than 350 interviews in 20 countries to identify the leadership practices and operating methods of major companies seeking profitable growth through innovation that benefits society. For example, when the tsunami and earthquake struck India in 2006, IBM did not just write a check. It used its core competence-expertise in technology-and its skilled people to accomplish what government and relief agencies could not: an information system and supply chain that tracked and managed the flow of relief supplies. Its efforts were crucial in avoiding the all-too-familiar problem in disaster relief-chaos and mobs of desperate people. IBM's actions, as well as many others reported on by Rosabeth Moss Kanter, capture the emerging zeitgeist of business: the vanguard company simultaneously pursuing-and creating synergy between-opportunity, growth, profit, humanistic values and social good. Vanguard companies have a sense of mission enabling them to deliver what their customers want in a way that is significantly better than the competition. As a formula for the future it brings together the necessity of financial success shareholders demand and the social conscience demanded from the new generation moving up the corporate ranks.

    Keywords: Profit; Leadership; Mission and Purpose; Opportunities; Welfare or Wellbeing;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. Supercorp: How Vanguard Companies Create Opportunity, Profits, Growth, and Social Good. New York: Crown Business, 2009. View Details
  3. America the Principled: 6 Opportunities for Becoming a Can-Do Nation Once Again

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    This book draws on the author's multiple research projects and field observations to analyze problems facing the United States in recent years and to create an agenda for renewing American strengths through returning to core American principles—but in new ways suitable to 21st century conditions. On the agenda are six opportunities for action by citizens and policy-makers alike: (1) securing the future through innovation strategies suitable for an emerging "white coat economy" that is discovery-based; (2) pursuing happiness by addressing the connection between work and family life and reinventing work to help women in particular use their talents flexibly; (3) encouraging the growth of good companies that can replace imperial excess with values-based capitalism; (4) restoring respect for government by ending decades of contempt for the public sector and ensuring competence in that vital sector; (5) connecting with the world in a way that fits the new realities of the global economy, fosters leadership, and uses citizen-diplomats to befriend moderates in troubled regions and business networks to ensure success in the major emerging economies; and (6) building community by stressing national and community service for all age groups to bridge social divides and unite citizens in a sense of common purpose. The book offers examples of solutions to address each opportunity and concludes with a call to action.

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Policy; Leadership; Civil Society or Community; Cooperation; United States;

  4. Confidence: How Winning Streaks and Losing Streaks Begin and End

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Is success simply a matter of money and talent? Or is there another reason why some people and organizations always land on their feet, while others, equally talented, stumble again and again? There's a fundamental principle at work—confidence—that makes the difference between winning and losing in any competition. Based on investigation of success and failure in companies such as Continental Airlines and Verizon and sports teams such as the New England Patriots and Philadelphia Eagles, as well as the arenas of education, health care, and politics, Kanter expores a new theory and pracice of success and provides people in leadership postiions with a prescriptive program for maintaining a winning streak or turning around a downward spiral.

    Keywords: Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. Confidence: How Winning Streaks and Losing Streaks Begin and End. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006. (Paperback edition with new Foreword, Epilogue, and Appendix.) View Details
  5. Confidence: How Winning and Losing Streaks Begin and End

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. Confidence: How Winning and Losing Streaks Begin and End. New York: Crown; London: Random House, 2004. (September) (Also audio-book edition from Random House, e-book editions, and foreign translations: Chinese from Commonwealth; Hebrew from Pecker Publishing; Indonesian from Binarupa; Italian from Guerini; Japanese from Kobunsha; Korean from Golden Bough; Mandarin from Citic; Polish from MT Biznes; Russian from Olymp Business Press; Turkish from BZD Yayincilik; and Spanish from Editorial Norma.) View Details
  6. Evolve!: Succeeding in the Digital Culture of Tomorrow

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Information Technology; Success;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. Evolve!: Succeeding in the Digital Culture of Tomorrow. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001. (Also audio-book edition and e-book editions. Foreign Translations include Chinese (Complex Characters) Yuan-Lio Publishing Company, Taiwan); Chinese (Simplified characters) (China Machine Press, China); Danish: Borsens Forlag; Dutch: Scriptum Books; German: Financial Times/Prentice Hall Germany; Italian: ETAS Libri; Japanese: Shoeisha Co.: Korean: Sejong Books; Spanish: Ediciones Deusto, SA (Spain; worldwide Spanish); Turkish: BZD YAYINCiLIK.) View Details
  7. Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the Frontiers of Management

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the Frontiers of Management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997. (Spanish, Ediciones Paidos Iberica s.a.; German, Carl Hanser Verlag; Dutch, Uitgeverij Contact; Polish, Business Press Sp. ZO.o, Warsaw; Russian, State University of Management in Moscow. Reprinted as Ch. 25 in The Futurist, June 1998.) View Details
  8. The Challenge of Organizational Change: How Companies Experience It and Leaders Guide It

    R. M. Kanter, B. Stein and T. D. Jick

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M., B. Stein, and T. D. Jick. The Challenge of Organizational Change: How Companies Experience It and Leaders Guide It. New York: Free Press, 1992. (Dutch, Scriptum Books; French, Editions Dunod; Italian, Edizioni Olivares. Selections in Sources: Notable Selections in Sociology, edited by K. Finsterbusch and J.S. Schwartz, Dushkin Publishing, 1995. Other reprinting information available from the publisher.) View Details
  9. When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management, and Careers in the 1990s

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Business History;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management, and Careers in the 1990s. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. (Dutch, Swedish, French, Italian, Spanish, Finnish, Korean, Japanese, Portuguese, Norwegian. Chapters 3 & 4 in Strategic Synergy, edited by S.L. Yeung. London: Butterworth Heinemann, 1982. Chapters 5 & 6 in Planning Review.) View Details
  10. The Change Masters: Innovation for Productivity in the American Corporation

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Innovation and Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. The Change Masters: Innovation for Productivity in the American Corporation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. (Translated in Japanese. Reprintings include Chapter 10 in The Political Environment of Public Management, edited by Pollins, 1993. Chapter 9 in Quality and Productivity Management vol. 9, no. 4, 1992, pp. 33-59. Chapter 10 in Contemporary Ideas on Management, edited by J.W. Newstrom and J.L. Pierce. Duluth: University of Minnesota, 1985. Chapter 9 in Readings in Human Resource Management, edited by M. Beer and B. Spector. New York: Free Press, 1985. Chapter 10 in Organizations Close Up, edited by J.L. Gibson, J.M. Ivancevich, and J.H. Donnelly. Plano, TX: Business Publications, Inc., 1985. Chapter 2 in The Handbook of Research on Educational Administration, edited by D. Griffiths. 1985. Chapters 2 and 6 in The Leader Manager, edited by J. Williamson. Eden Prairie, MN: Wilson Learning Corporation, 1984. Portions of Ch. 12 in Directors and Boards, 1984. Ch. 10 in Management Review.) View Details
  11. Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Civil Society or Community; Happiness; Science; Perspective;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972. (Reprintings: chapter 2 in The Meaning of Sociology, edited by J.M Charn. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield, 1985; portions in Small Groups and Social Interaction, edited by H.H. Blumberg et al., vol. 2. London: Wiley, 1983; portions in Sociology, edited by R. Perrucci. Minneapolis: Wets, 1983; chapter 3 in Perspectives on the American Community, edited by Roland Warren. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973 and 1976; chapter 1 in The Family: Its Structure and Functions, edited by Rose Coser. New York: St. Martin's, 1974; chapter 1 in Sociology, Society, and People, edited by R.M. Koss. C.V. Mosby, 1975; and selections in Community and Education, edited by Donald Oliver. San Francisco, 1976.) View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Evolve (Again)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Frenzy over social networks and interactive media can produce equally overhyped predictions that everything will change, not to mention money-losing investments in silly ventures. Separating enduring strategic lessons from the hype can help avoid a new crash. Hint: the lessons don't include rushing to fund start-ups on the basis of back-of-the-envelope calculations. The tools are changing, but not the rules about change. Encouraging self-organizing networks to let them investigate whatever they want to through company channels can produce new business ideas, as IBM found in the early days of virtualization. When talented employees leave to start ventures, smart companies keep them in the family through seed-capital investments or alumni groups. Experiments with other models, whether internal or with partners, provide experience and readiness for future change. Learning from partners, or from corporate venture capital investments, is a strategic capability.

    Keywords: Business Startups; Venture Capital; Investment; Technological Innovation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Partners and Partnerships;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Evolve (Again)." Harvard Business Review 89, nos. 7-8 (July–August 2011): 36. View Details
  2. Enriching the Ecosystem

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    To remain a leader in innovation, the United States needs the support of foundational institutions that help seed, grow, and renew enterprises. Historically, these institutions-such as universities, venture creators, labor markets, and job-training programs-have tended to operate in silos. But they are far more effective when they're networked. By collaborating to bridge the gaps between them, business, academic, and policy leaders can help generate more ideas, start-ups, company growth, global competitors, and prosperity. In this article, I outline an agenda for strengthening the links between key institutions. Leaders, I argue, should focus on four goals: 1) linking knowledge creation to venture creation to speed the conversion of ideas into market-ready enterprises; 2) linking small and large enterprises to promote the growth of younger companies and revitalize large corporations through partnerships with innovative SMEs; 3) improving the match between education and employment opportunities, through apprenticeship programs and other education-industry links; and 4) linking leaders across sectors to develop regional strategies and produce scalable models. In all four of these areas, promising models have already begun to emerge. By highlighting the most successful institutions and what can be learned from them, I show how America can create a richer, more competitive business ecosystem.

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Organizations; Research and Development; Social and Collaborative Networks; Growth and Development Strategy; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Enriching the Ecosystem." Harvard Business Review 90, no. 3 (March 2012). View Details
  3. How Great Companies Think Differently

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Corporate leaders have long subscribed to the belief that the sole purpose of business is to make money. That narrow view, deeply embedded in the American capitalist system, molds the actions of most corporations, constraining them to focus on maximizing short-term profits and returns to shareholders at the expense of worker safety and health, the environment, and society in general. In this article, I argue that a very different logic informs the practices of most high-performing and sustainable companies: institutional logic. These companies believe that they are more than money-making machines: they are a vehicle for advancing societal goals. They deliver more than just financial returns; they also build enduring institutions. At great companies researched for this article, institutional logic takes its place beside financial logic in managerial decision making. Six facets of institutional logic—a common purpose, a long-term focus, emotional engagement, partnering with the public, innovation, and self-organization—radically alter leadership and corporate behavior and form the building blocks of a more sustainable competitive advantage.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Profit; Leadership; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Shareholder Relations; Behavior; Social Issues; Competitive Advantage;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "How Great Companies Think Differently." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 11 (November 2011). View Details
  4. Zoom In, Zoom Out

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Zoom buttons on digital devices let us examine images from many viewpoints. They also provide an apt metaphor for modes of strategic thinking. Some people prefer to see things up close, others from afar. Both perspectives have virtues. But they should not be fixed positions, says Harvard Business School's Kanter. To get a complete picture, leaders need to zoom in and zoom out. A close-in perspective is often found in relationship-intensive settings. It brings details into sharp focus and makes opportunities look large and compelling. But it can have significant downsides. Leaders who prefer to zoom in tend to create policies and systems that depend too much on politics and favors. They can focus too closely on personal status and on turf protection. And they often miss the big picture. When leaders zoom out, they can see events in context and as examples of general trends. They are able to make decisions based on principles. Yet a far-out perspective also has traps. Leaders can be so high above the fray that they don't recognize emerging threats. Having zoomed out to examine all possible routes, they may fail to notice when the moment is right for action on one path. They may also seem too remote and aloof to their staffs. The best leaders can zoom in to examine problems and then zoom out to look for patterns and causes. They don't divide the world into extremes-idiosyncratic or structural, situational or strategic, emotional or contextual. The point is not to choose one over the other but to learn to move across a continuum of perspectives.

    Keywords: Strategy; Cognition and Thinking; Perspective; Leadership; Opportunities; Decisions;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Zoom In, Zoom Out." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 3 (March 2011). View Details
  5. Values, Purpose, Meaning, and Expectations: Why Culture and Context Matter

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    The "rational person" standard, based on assumptions of economic self-interest, has long prevailed in legal reasoning. But understanding of decision making, behavioral choices, and possibilities for action must be enlarged to include a variety of factors that give meaning to any circumstance and thus shape behavior: past experience, expectations about the future, group membership, and cultural values. This article opens with a series of thought experiments to explore the potential behavioral implications of a hypothetical $1,000 to introduce the idea that context, history, and values shape perceptions and expectations. These phenomena can propel behaviors that can lead to circumstances improving or deteriorating-upward or downward spirals, or winning and losing streaks. Empirical evidence is drawn from research on companies and teams that have sustained success or deteriorated in their performance, as well as research on the leadership and culture in organizations that endure over time. The focus is on complex interactions unfolding over time rather than the reasoning of particular individuals. But the article also shows how individuals behave in concert because of the self-fueling trajectory in which response provokes response, in either positive or negative directions, in what are more popularly termed winning streaks and losing streaks. Upward spirals produce confidence that motivates effort. Because the positive upward cycle is attributed to one's own actions, people begin to believe that it will never end: assertions are made that the laws of the universe have changed, that business cycles have disappeared, and that success is inevitable. Conversely, when things are going down, people start believing they will always go down. Success breeds success, and failure or loss breeds loss. The article argues for a broader explanation of behavior beyond economic instrumentality. It is time to turn again to psychology, sociology, and anthropology to explain and predict human behavior. Then we can understand that rationality also includes things that were once considered irrational, such as altruism or sacrifice in the interest of the greater good.

    Keywords: Standards; Interests; Decision Making; Behavior; Value; Groups and Teams; Performance Expectations; Organizational Culture; Leadership; Business Cycles; Forecasting and Prediction; Motivation and Incentives;

  6. Work Pray Love

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    This article identifies five problematic issues in the intersection of work and life that create human resource challenges for organizations and their employees. These include work overload, the slow pace of adopting telecommuting, gender-related pay gaps, a household division of labor that still saddles women with a disproportionate share of caretaking chores, and the question of religious expression in the workplace.

    Keywords: Wages; Work-Life Balance; Religion; Technology Adoption; Problems and Challenges; Human Resources; Gender;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Work Pray Love." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 12 (December 2010). View Details
  7. Powerlessness Corrupts

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Powerlessness damages organizations--especially in the middle ranks, says HBR columnist Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Hemmed in by rules and treated as unimportant, people get even with management by overcontrolling their own turf. Kanter urges leaders to give employees opportunities to make meaningful contributions, because small wins along those lines can propel big changes.

    Keywords: Employee Relationship Management; Opportunities; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Powerlessness Corrupts." Harvard Business Review 88, nos. 7-8 (July–August 2010). View Details
  8. Block-by-Blockbuster Innovation

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Executives often find themselves debating the merits of incremental innovations versus game-changers, but that's a false dichotomy, says HBR columnist Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Even if a company is lucky enough to come up with the next Kindle, Swiffer, or smartphone, blockbuster products don't spring to life or work in the marketplace without the many small changes that make breakthroughs possible, such as tweaks to processes and market development. Kanter proposes a systemic approach to generating all kinds and levels of innovation.

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Resource Allocation; Product; Business Processes; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Block-by-Blockbuster Innovation." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 5 (May 2010): 38. View Details
  9. What Would Peter Say?

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Heeding the wisdom of Peter Drucker might have helped us avoid - and will help us solve - numerous challenges, from restoring trust in business to tackling climate change. He issued early warnings about excessive executive pay, the auto industry's failure to adapt and innovate, competitive threats from emerging markets, and the perils of neglecting nonprofit organizations and other agents of societal reform. If he were still here, a century after his birth, what would he say about the path forward? The essential Drucker can be summarized in three themes: First, management should be a profession, and executives and managers should remember that their primary job is to look out for the long-term health of their organizations. That means taking responsibility for social well-being, not just wealth. Second, knowledge workers cannot be controlled; they must be motivated. Such employees must see a purpose more meaningful than personal profit. And third, nonprofits are necessary ingredients for producing a good society, one in which businesses can thrive. It is critical to invest in them. Drucker was not a revolutionary. He merely asked that we constantly challenge our assumptions. He preached steadiness and vision, recognizing that leading in turbulent times requires foresight about where things are heading as well as judgment about what not to change.

    Keywords: Judgments; Employee Relationship Management; Leadership; Goals and Objectives; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Business and Shareholder Relations;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "What Would Peter Say?" Harvard Business Review 87, no. 11 (November 2009). View Details
  10. Change is Everyone's Job: Managing the Extended Enterprise in a Globally-Connected World

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Change; Jobs and Positions; Management; Global Range; Business Ventures; Networks;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Change is Everyone's Job: Managing the Extended Enterprise in a Globally-Connected World." Organizational Dynamics 28, no. 1 (Summer 1999). (Reprintings include The Organizational Behavior Reader, edited by Osland, Kolb, and Rubin. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2000; Annual Editions: Entrepreneurship, Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000; Harvard-Deusto Business Review, spring 2000. (Spanish translation)) View Details
  11. From Spare Change to Real Change: The Social Sector as Beta Site for Business Innovation

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Change; Innovation and Invention; Society;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "From Spare Change to Real Change: The Social Sector as Beta Site for Business Innovation." Harvard Business Review 77, no. 3 (May–June 1999). (Reprinted in Harvard Business Review on Innovation, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.) View Details
  12. Global Strategy and Its Impact on Local Operations: Lessons from Gillette Singapore

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Thomas D. Dretler

    Keywords: Global Range; Strategy; Local Range; Operations; Learning; Production; Consumer Products Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Thomas D. Dretler. "Global Strategy and Its Impact on Local Operations: Lessons from Gillette Singapore." Academy of Management Executive 12, no. 4 (November 1998): 60–68. (Reprinted in Cross-Cultural Management, edited by R. Redding and B. Stening. Celtenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002.) View Details
  13. Do Cultural Differences Make a Business Difference? Contextual Factors Affecting Cross-cultural Relationship Success

    R. M. Kanter and R. I. Corn

    Keywords: Culture; Success;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M., and R. I. Corn. "Do Cultural Differences Make a Business Difference? Contextual Factors Affecting Cross-cultural Relationship Success." Journal of Management Development 13, no. 2 (1994): 5–23. (Reprintings include: Organizational Development and Organizational Learning for Global Business, edited by J.B. Keys and R.M. Fulmer. Binghamton, N.Y.: International Business Press, 1998; Executive Development and Organizational Learning for the Global Economy, edited by J.B. Keys and R.M. Fulmer. Haworth Press, 1995; Managerial Insights from Literature, edited by S. Puffer. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1996.) View Details
  14. Championing Change: An Interview with Bell Atlantic's CEO Raymond Smith

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Change; Information; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Championing Change: An Interview with Bell Atlantic's CEO Raymond Smith." Harvard Business Review 69, no. 1 (January–February 1991): 118–130. (Reprintings include Leaders on Leadership, edited by W. Bennis. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992; The Challenge of Organizational Change, edited by R.M. Kanter, B.A. Stein, and T.D. Jick. N.Y.: Free Press, 1992.) View Details
  15. Engines of Progress: Designing and Running Entrepreneurial Vehicles in Established Companies: Analog Devices Enterprises

    R. M. Kanter, J. North, A. P. Bernstein and A. Williamson

    Keywords: Design; Entrepreneurship; Business Ventures; Technology;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M., J. North, A. P. Bernstein, and A. Williamson. "Engines of Progress: Designing and Running Entrepreneurial Vehicles in Established Companies: Analog Devices Enterprises." Journal of Business Venturing 5 (November 1990): 415–427. View Details
  16. The New Managerial Work

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The New Managerial Work." Harvard Business Review 67, no. 6 (November–December 1989). (Reprintings include: Ultimate Rewards: What Really Motivates People to Achieve, edited by S. Kerr. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997; Managing People and Organizations, edited by J.J. Gabarro. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992.) View Details
  17. From Status to Contribution: Organizational Implications of the Changing Basis for Pay

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Change;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "From Status to Contribution: Organizational Implications of the Changing Basis for Pay." Personnel (January 1987). (Reprinted as "How the New Pay Plans Stack Up." Best of Business Quarterly (fall 1987). Reprintings inlcude: Selected Readings in Strategic Human Resources Management, edited by F.K. Foulkes Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1989; Current Approaches to Pay and Benefits, edited by J.N. Matzer Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association, 1988.) View Details
  18. The Middle Manager as Innovator

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Management; Innovation and Invention;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The Middle Manager as Innovator." Harvard Business Review 60, no. 4 (July–August 1982): 95–105. (Reprintings include: Entrepreneurship, Creativity, and Organization, edited by J. Kao. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989; Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation, edited by R. Burgelman and M. Maidique. Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, 1988; The Entrepreneur in Local Government, edited by B.H. Moore. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association, 1983; Trials and Rewards of the Entrepreneur. Boston: Harvard Business Review Reprint Series, 1983; Strategic Management, edited by Richard G. Hamermesh. N.Y.: Wiley, 1983.) View Details
  19. Power Failure in Management Circuits

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Power Failure in Management Circuits." Harvard Business Review 57, no. 4 (July–August 1979): 65–75. (Reprintings include Organization Theory: Selected Readings, edited by D.S. Pugh. London: Penguin, 1989; Classics of Organization Theory, edited by J.M. Shafritz. Chicago, Ill.: Dorsey Press, 1986; Harvard Business Review, The Executive Dilemma. N.Y.: Wiley, 1985; The Dynamics of Organization, edited by J.N. Yanouzas 1984; Readings in Organizational Behavior and Performance. Chicago: Scott-Foresman, 1983. Organizational Influence Processes, edited by Porter and Allen. Chicago: Scott-Foresman, 1983; Coping with Difficult Employees. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Review Reprint Series, 1983; Perspectives on Public Bureaucracy, edited by F.A. Kramer (Third edition). Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop, 1981; Executive Success, edited by E.G. Collins N.Y.: Wiley, 1983. McKinsey Award Winners, 1970-1980. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1982.) View Details
  20. Work in a New America

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Jobs and Positions;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Work in a New America." Daedalus 107 (winter 1978): 47–78. (Also in A New American?, edited by S. Graubard. N.Y.: Norton, 1980. Reprintings include: Essential Sociology, edited by R.L. Ellis and M.J. Lipetz. Chicago: Scott-Foresman, 1979; (Italian) Quaderni di Rassegna Syndicale, Journal of the Italian Confederation of Workers (CGIL), (excerpts); Sourcebook on Individual Rights in the Corporation, edited by A. Westin N.Y.: Educational Foundation on Individual Rights, 1979; Individual Rights in the Corporation, edited by A. Westin. N.Y.: Pantheon, 1980.) View Details
  21. Some Effects on Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Gender;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Some Effects on Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women." American Journal of Sociology 82 (March 1977): 965–90. (Reprintings include: Representative Bureaucracy, edited by J. Dolan and D. Rosenbloom. M.E. Sharpe, 2002; Readings in Sociology, edited by R. Curtis. Kendall-Hunt Publishing, 1988; Women and Symbolic Interaction, edited by M.J. Deegan and M. Hill. N.Y.: Allen Unwin, 1986; The Gender Gap and Psychotherapy, edited by E. Carmen and P. Ricker. N.Y.: Plenum, 1984; The Substance of Social Deviance, edited by R.A. Farrell and V.L. Swigert. Alfred Publishing, 1978; Sociological Inventory, Vol. 1, 1979; Reader in Complex Organizations, edited by A. Etzioni and E.W. Lehman. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1980; Sociology: Contemporary Introductory Readings, edited by J. And A. Stimson. Ithaca, N.Y.: Peacock, 1983.) View Details
  22. Comment VI: Research Styles and Intervention Strategies--An Argument for a Social Structural Model

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Research; Strategy; Society;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Comment VI: Research Styles and Intervention Strategies--An Argument for a Social Structural Model." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2 (spring 1976): 282–91. (Also in Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation, edited by M. Blazall and B. Reagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.) View Details
  23. Women and the Structure of Organizations: Explorations in Theory and Behavior

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Behavior; Organizations; Theory; Gender;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Women and the Structure of Organizations: Explorations in Theory and Behavior." Sociological Inquiry 45, nos. 2-3 (1975). (Also in Another Voice, edited by M. Millman and R.M. Kanter. N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1975; Reprintings include: The Management of Libraries: Basic Readings, edited by B.P. Lynch. Neil Schuman, 1985; The Sociology of Organizations: Basic Studies, edited by O. Grusky and G.A. Miller (Rev. ed.) N.Y.: Free Press, 1980;.) View Details
  24. Communes

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Relationships;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Communes." Psychology Today (July 1970). (Reprintings: Psychologie (France); The Nuclear Family in Crisis, by M. Gordon. N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1972; Readings in Society Today, CRM Books; Sociology and Youth, by P.K. Manning and M. Truzzi. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1972; Japanese Psychology Today; SIMSOC: A Manual for Participants, by W.A. Gamson. Second Edition. N.Y.: Free Press.) View Details
  25. Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizations; Society;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities." American Sociological Review 35 (August 1968): 499–517. (Sociology: Students and Society, by J. Rabow. Los Angeles: Goodyear, 1972; Currents of Unrest: An Introduction to Collective Behavior, by O.E. Klapp. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall (Tables); Social Psychology for Sociologists, by D. Field. London: Nelson, 1974; The Sociology of Religion, by S. Bruce. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar, 1994.) View Details

Book Chapters

  1. How Leaders Use Values-based Guidance Systems to Create Dynamic Capabilities

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Matthew Bird, Ethan Bernstein and Ryan Raffaelli

    How do strategic leaders create change-adept organizations? Based on qualitative field research, this chapter argues that well-defined institutionalized purpose, values, and principles act as an organizational guidance system that integrates and strengthens the micromechanisms that enable leaders to build dynamic capabilities and, therefore, change-adept organizations. From empirical case studies, we distill micromechanisms through which organizational guidance systems create fertile soil for dynamic capabilities. The five micromechanisms are values-based decision heuristics; intrinsic motivation with positive emotions; an organizational control system based on entrepreneurial self-organization, self-management, and peer regulation; an organizational identity that (a) fosters a longer-term perspective and (b) widens the firm's scope; and ecosystem creation. While much of the dynamic capabilities literature has focused on testing causal relationships between key performance variables and constructs, our goal here is to "open up" the regression model, provide a closer qualitative inspection of the "how-to" micromechanisms, and thereby advance a multidisciplinary research agenda.

    Keywords: Change; dynamic capabilities; field research; intrinsic motivation; organizational identity; ecosystem; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Mission and Purpose; Motivation and Incentives; Research; Management Systems; Change;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Matthew Bird, Ethan Bernstein, and Ryan Raffaelli. "How Leaders Use Values-based Guidance Systems to Create Dynamic Capabilities." Chap. 2 in The Oxford Handbook of Dynamic Capabilities, edited by David J. Teece and Sohvi Leih. Oxford University Press, forthcoming. View Details
  2. How Purpose-based Companies Master Change for Sustainability: A Systemic Approach to Global Social Change

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "How Purpose-based Companies Master Change for Sustainability: A Systemic Approach to Global Social Change." Chap. 5 in Leading Sustainable Change: An Organizational Perspective, edited by Rebecca Henderson, Ranjay Gulati, and Michael Tushman. Oxford University Press, 2015. View Details
  3. The Institutional Logic of Great Global Firms

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: management; change management; global organizations; Management; Globalized Firms and Management; Change Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "The Institutional Logic of Great Global Firms." Chap. 3 in Towards a New Theory of the Firm: Humanizing the Firm and the Management Profession, edited by Joan Enric Ricart Costa and Josep Maria Rosanas Marti, 84–108. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2012. View Details
  4. Re-Developing Leaders: The Harvard Advanced Leadership Experiment in Even Higher Education

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Higher Education; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Re-Developing Leaders: The Harvard Advanced Leadership Experiment in Even Higher Education." In The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being, edited by Scott Snook, Nitin Nohria, and Rakesh Khurana, 507–524. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2011. View Details
  5. Leadership in a Globalizing World

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    In this chapter, world-renowned business expert, author, and Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter asks the question, "Is leadership different in a globalizing world--one of broadening horizons and burgeoning sources of ideas and supplies--than in other contexts?" The answer is a resounding yes. Kanter identifies three aspects of globalization--increased uncertainty, complexity, and diversity--that fundamentally reshape the work leaders must perform. Based on field observations of leaders in large global firms, she finds that these forces shape the context of three distinctive tasks leaders face as they guide their organizations and influence the constituencies that surround them: 1) institutional work to deal with uncertainty, 2) integrative work to deal with complexity, and 3) identity work to deal with diversity. With compelling examples of global leadership within international companies such as IBM, Cemex, Procter & Gamble, and Paris-based advertising and communications giant Publicis Groupe, Kanter builds a strong case for making these organizations and their leaders the focus of further research and study.

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Globalized Firms and Management; Leadership; Research; Complexity; Diversity;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Leadership in a Globalizing World." Chap. 20 in Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice, edited by Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana. Harvard Business Press, 2010. View Details
  6. Creating Common Ground: Propositions about Effective Intergroup Leadership

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Leadership; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Creating Common Ground: Propositions about Effective Intergroup Leadership." In Crossing the Divide: Intergroup Leadership in a World of Difference, edited by T. Pittinsky. Harvard Business Press, 2009. View Details
  7. Position and Emotion: The Significance of Georg Simmel's Structural Theories for Leadership and Organizational Behavior

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Rakesh Khurana

    Keywords: Leadership; Rank and Position; Status and Position; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Rakesh Khurana. "Position and Emotion: The Significance of Georg Simmel's Structural Theories for Leadership and Organizational Behavior." In Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies, edited by Paul S. Adler. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2009. View Details
  8. The Corporate Conduct Continuum: From 'Do No Harm' to 'Do Lots of Good'

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "The Corporate Conduct Continuum: From 'Do No Harm' to 'Do Lots of Good'." Chap. 14 in The Virtuous Organization: Insights from Some of the World's Leading Management Thinkers, edited by Charles C. Manz, Kim S. Cameron, Karen P. Manz, and Robert D. Marx, 279–286. Singapore, New Jersey, and London: World Scientific, 2008. View Details
  9. Getting the Best from Best Practices

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Management Practices and Processes; Practice; Performance Effectiveness;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "Getting the Best from Best Practices." Introduction to Best Practice: Ideas and Insights from the World's Foremost Business Thinkers, edited by Tom Brown and Robert Heller. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2003. View Details
  10. The Politicization of Organizational Life

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The Politicization of Organizational Life." In Organization Development Classics: The Practice and Theory of Change, edited by D. F. Van Eynde, J. C. Hoy, and C. D. VanEynde. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997. View Details
  11. The Imagination to Innovate, the Professionalism to Perform, and the Openness to Collaborate: The Leading the Change-Adept Organization

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Keywords: Creativity; Innovation and Invention; Performance Expectations; Cooperation; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "The Imagination to Innovate, the Professionalism to Perform, and the Openness to Collaborate: The Leading the Change-Adept Organization." In Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the Frontiers of Management, by R. M. Kanter. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997. View Details
  12. Preface

    R. M. Kanter

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Preface." Preface to Mary Parker Follett--Prophet of Management: A Celebration of Writings from the 1920s , edited by Pauline Graham. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995. View Details
  13. U.S. Competitiveness and the Aging Workforce: Toward Organizational and Institutional Change

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Human Capital; Age; Competition; Trade; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "U.S. Competitiveness and the Aging Workforce: Toward Organizational and Institutional Change." In Aging and Competition: Rebuilding the U.S. Workforce, edited by J. A. Auerbach and J.C. Welch. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association, 1994. View Details
  14. Foreword

    R. M. Kanter

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Foreword." Reach for the Top: Women and the Changing Facts of Work Life, edited by Nancy Nichols. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994. View Details
  15. Comprehensive Change Strategies: Beyond Piecemeal Projects

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Change Management; Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Comprehensive Change Strategies: Beyond Piecemeal Projects." In Manufacturing Europe 1994: The International Review of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Management, edited by Peter Dempsey, 167–69. London: Sterling Publications, 1993. View Details
  16. The View from the 1990s: How the Global Economy is Reshaping Corporate Power and Careers

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Globalized Economies and Regions; Personal Development and Career; Transformation; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The View from the 1990s: How the Global Economy is Reshaping Corporate Power and Careers." In Men and Women of the Corporation, by R. M. Kanter. New York: Basic Books, 1977. View Details
  17. The Future of Bureaucracy and Hierarchy in Organizational Theory: A Report from the Field

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Rank and Position;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The Future of Bureaucracy and Hierarchy in Organizational Theory: A Report from the Field." In Social Theory for a Changing Society, edited by P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991. (University of Chicago/Russell Sage Foundation Conference on "Social Theory and Emerging Issues for a Changing Society," April 1989.) View Details
  18. Improving the Acceptance and Use of New Technology: Organizational and Inter-organizational Challenges

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Technology Adoption; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Improving the Acceptance and Use of New Technology: Organizational and Inter-organizational Challenges." In Designing for Technological Change, edited by B. Guile, E. Laumann, and G. Nadler. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 1991. View Details
  19. Banc One Corporation, 1989

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Banking Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Banc One Corporation, 1989." In The Service Management Course, by C. Hart, J. Heskett, and W. E. Sasser Jr.. NY: Free Press, 1990. (Reprintings include Leaders on Leadership, edited by W. Bennis. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992; The Challenge of Organizational Change, edited by R.M. Kanter, B.A. Stein, and T.D. Jick. N.Y.: Free Press, 1992.) View Details
  20. Inter-organizational Bonds and Intra-organizational Behavior: How Alliances and Partnerships Change the Organizations Forming Them

    R. M. Kanter and P. S. Myers

    Keywords: Alliances; Partners and Partnerships; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M., and P. S. Myers. "Inter-organizational Bonds and Intra-organizational Behavior: How Alliances and Partnerships Change the Organizations Forming Them." In Socio-Economics: Toward a New Synthesis, edited by P. R. Lawrence and A. Etzione. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991. View Details
  21. Managing Change in Innovative Organizations

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Managing Change in Innovative Organizations." In Productivity and Quality Through Science and Technology, edited by Y. K. Shetty and V. M. Buehler. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1988. (Reprinted in The Quest for Competitiveness, edited by Y.K. Shetty and V.M. Buehler. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1991.) View Details
  22. When a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Structural, Collective, and Social Conditions for Innovation in Organizations

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "When a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Structural, Collective, and Social Conditions for Innovation in Organizations." In Research in Organizational Behavior. Vol. 22, edited by B. Staw and R. Sutton. Elsevier Science, 2000. (Reprintings include: The Evolution and Adaptation of Organizations, edited by B. Staw and L.L. Cummings. Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1990; Knowledge Management and Organizational Design, edited by P.S. Myers. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996, pp. 93-132; Entrepreneurship: The Social Science View, edited by R. Swedberg. Oxford University Press, 2000.) View Details
  23. Encouraging Innovation and Entrepreneurs in Bureaucratic Companies

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Encouraging Innovation and Entrepreneurs in Bureaucratic Companies." In Handbook for Creative and Innovative Managers, edited by R. L. Kuhn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. View Details
  24. Doing Well While Doing Good: Dilemmas of Performance Measurement in Nonprofit Organizations and the Need for a Multiple Constituency Approach

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Nonprofit Organizations; Performance Evaluation; Performance Productivity;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Doing Well While Doing Good: Dilemmas of Performance Measurement in Nonprofit Organizations and the Need for a Multiple Constituency Approach." In Handbook of Nonprofit Organizations, edited by W. Powell and P. DiMaggio. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. View Details
  25. Providing the Corporate Environment to Foster Innovation

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Innovation and Management; Organizational Design; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Providing the Corporate Environment to Foster Innovation." In How to Compete beyond the 1980's: Perspectives from High Performance Companies. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1985. (edited by the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.) View Details
  26. Stimulating and Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Auto Industry Connection

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Business or Company Management; Auto Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Stimulating and Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Auto Industry Connection." In Entrepreneurship in a "Mature Industry", edited by J. Campbell.Michigan Papers in Japanese Studies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Japanese Studies, 1985. (Keynote address for the U.S.-Japan Auto Industry Conference.) View Details
  27. Variations in Managerial Career Structures in High Technology Firms: The Impact of Organizational Characteristics on Internal Labor Market Patterns

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Personal Development and Career; Organizational Design; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Variations in Managerial Career Structures in High Technology Firms: The Impact of Organizational Characteristics on Internal Labor Market Patterns." In International Labor Markets, edited by P. Osterman. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984. View Details
  28. Managing Transitions in Organizational Culture: The Case of Participative Management at Honeywell

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Change Management; Transition;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Managing Transitions in Organizational Culture: The Case of Participative Management at Honeywell." In New Futures: The Challenge of Managing Corporate Transitions, edited by J. Kimberly and R. Quinn. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1984. View Details
  29. Power and Enterprise in Action: Corporate Middle Managers as Entrepreneurs

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Power and Influence; Business or Company Management;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Power and Enterprise in Action: Corporate Middle Managers as Entrepreneurs." In Work and Occupations: Autonomy, Power and Control, edited by M. Cantor and P. Steward. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 1982. View Details
  30. Dilemmas of Participation: Issues in Organization Design and Management

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Design; Management Systems; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Dilemmas of Participation: Issues in Organization Design and Management." In Proceedings of the Second National Seminar on Individual Rights in the Corporation, edited by Alan F. Westin and Stephan Salisbury. New York: Educational Fund for Individual Rights, 1979. (Also in National Forum, spring 1982.) View Details
  31. Changing Organizational Constraints: Toward Promoting Equal Opportunity and Treatment for Women in Public Service Systems

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Equality and Inequality; Public Sector; Service Operations; Gender;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "Changing Organizational Constraints: Toward Promoting Equal Opportunity and Treatment for Women in Public Service Systems." In The United Nations and Decision-Making: The Role of Women. Vol. 2, edited by D. Nicol and M. Croke. New York: United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), 1978. View Details
  32. The Context for the Individual Rights Issues: Labor Force Trends and Their Implication

    R. M. Kanter

    Keywords: Rights; Labor and Management Relations; Trends;

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M. "The Context for the Individual Rights Issues: Labor Force Trends and Their Implication." In Proceedings of the First National Seminar on Individual Rights in the Corporation, edited by Alan F. Westin and Stephan Salisbury. New York: Educational Fund for Individual Rights, 1978. View Details

Working Papers

  1. The Institutional Logic of Great Global Firms

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Theories of the firm have been dominated by a legacy of ideas from early industrialization that pose zero-sum opposition between capital and labor (or capital and nearly everything else), differentiating the economy from society and often posing irreconcilable conflicts. The search for mathematical models has turned the negotiated order of organizational activities, which necessarily include particularistic elements, into abstract generalizations that favor quantifiable variables. This paper offers another logic, a social or institutional logic, to let practice provoke the creation of new theory. It provides examples that show how social logic guides the practices of widely admired, high-performing companies, and why people and society are not an after-thought to be used or discarded, but core to the purpose and definition of the firm. It builds on in-depth, ongoing global field research on admired companies from four continents, followed in over 20 countries, to derive six propositions about the role of humanistic institutional logic.

    Keywords: Economy; Capital; Globalized Firms and Management; Labor; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Practice; Conflict of Interests; Social Issues; Theory;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "The Institutional Logic of Great Global Firms." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-119, May 2011. View Details
  2. Informed and Interconnected: A Manifesto for Smarter Cities

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Stanley S. Litow

    The need for a fresh approach to U.S. communities is more urgent than ever because of the biggest global economic crisis since the Great Depression. Through examination of the barriers to solving urban problems (and the ways they reinforce each other), this paper offers a new approach to community transformation which calls for leaders to use technology to inform and connect people. We need to convert the social safety net into a social safety network through the creation of smarter communities that are information-rich, interconnected, and able to provide opportunities to all citizens. This process has already begun through such programs as Harlem Children's Zone, Baltimore's CitiStat, Elevate Miami, and others. And they can be replicated. But technology alone is not the answer. Realization of the vision requires leaders to invest in the tools, guide their use, and pave the way for transformation. Perhaps the urgency of the current economic crisis can provide the impetus to overcome resistance to change and turn problems into an opportunity to reduce costs, improve services to communities, and make our cities smarter.

    Keywords: Transformation; Investment; Urban Scope; Leadership; Safety; Civil Society or Community; Technology Networks; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Stanley S. Litow. "Informed and Interconnected: A Manifesto for Smarter Cities." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-141, June 2009. View Details
  3. Moving Higher Education to the Next Stage: A New Set of Societal Challenges, a New Stage of Life, and a Call to Action for Universities

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Rakesh Khurana and Nitin Nohria

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Rakesh Khurana, and Nitin Nohria. "Moving Higher Education to the Next Stage: A New Set of Societal Challenges, a New Stage of Life, and a Call to Action for Universities." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 06-021, November 2005. View Details
  4. Formal Systems of Appraisal of Individual Performance: Some Considerations, Critical Issues, and Applications to Non-Profit Organizations

    R. M. Kanter and D. Brinkerhoff

    Citation:

    Kanter, R. M., and D. Brinkerhoff. "Formal Systems of Appraisal of Individual Performance: Some Considerations, Critical Issues, and Applications to Non-Profit Organizations." PONPO Working Paper, No. 10, September 1979. (Yale University, Program on Non-Profit Organizations (PONPO), Institution for Social and Policy Studies.) View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Publicis Groupe 2016: Maurice and the Millennials

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Jonathan Cohen

    Having built Publicis Groupe through acquisitions maintained as separate brands, CEO Maurice Lévy wanted to transform the advertising and marketing firm to an integrated digitally-ready enterprise to address industry changes. In early 2016, following a reorganization, he faced questions of how to change the culture and use digital capabilities more effectively than competitors. Lévy turned to millennials within the Groupe and technology entrepreneurs outside the Groupe for innovations in order to create platforms for clients rather than simply react to existing social media platforms. As he increasingly focused on a new generation, questions remained about who would succeed this CEO of 31 years.

    Keywords: managing change; Transformations; digital; millennials; Change; innovation; Acquisitions; Merger; culture; advertising agency; marketing; reorganization; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Technology; Change Management; Restructuring; Management Succession; Marketing; Mergers and Acquisitions; Transformation; Innovation and Invention; Advertising Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Jonathan Cohen. "Publicis Groupe 2016: Maurice and the Millennials." Harvard Business School Case 316-127, June 2016. View Details
  2. IBM and the Reinvention of High School (C): Toward P-TECH's Rapid National Expansion

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Kelsi Stine-Rowe

    This teaching note accompanies the third case in a 3-case series on P-TECH and the Reinvention of High School. The case focuses on the development and early diffusion of organizational innovation—how to create pilot projects for significant innovation that are then replicated elsewhere to lay the groundwork for taking them to scale and changing the institutional context. The teaching note is designed to assist instructors when teaching the case in teaching students about leading complex institutional change using a cross-sector, multi-stakeholder approach, examine a new model for secondary education in the United States, scaling social ventures, analyze public sector innovation involving multiple partners, and how businesses can leverage core competencies to positively impact society.

    Keywords: IBM; P-TECH; Stanley Litow; Robin Wilner; Cuomo; Change; scaling; innovation; education; New York State; New York City; Business Model; Innovation Strategy; Innovation Leadership; Education; Business and Community Relations; Change; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Kelsi Stine-Rowe. "IBM and the Reinvention of High School (C): Toward P-TECH's Rapid National Expansion." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-172, April 2016. View Details
  3. Whither the Weather (Company): Forecasting 2016

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Jonathan Cohen

    This Note was created for the purpose of aiding classroom instructors in the use of the Harvard Business School case, "Whither the Weather (Company): Forecasting 2016." As chairman and CEO, David Kenny guided the Weather Company's transformation from a cable television company to a big data technology company from 2012 until January 2016, when IBM acquired the Weather Company's digital business. Within that context, instructors may use this Teaching Note to help students examine how to guide transformative strategies at an established company, including how to evaluate and adjust strategies to meet unexpected challenges encountered in the transformation process. It may also help instructors teach students how to effectively manage competing interests and tensions between mainstream and new stream segments of a company, the importance of having the right team and structures in place to execute a transformative strategy, and the potential benefits and costs of forming partnerships with other companies.

    Keywords: Weather Company; IBM; transformation; digital; technology; David Kenny; television; Weather Channel; legacy business; mainstream; newstream; reorganization; Acquisitions; consolidation; Transformation; Technology; Television Entertainment; Acquisition; Consolidation; Change; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Jonathan Cohen. "Whither the Weather (Company): Forecasting 2016." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-161, April 2016. View Details
  4. Advanced Leadership Pathways: General Gale Pollock and Services for the Vision Impaired

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Following a successful military career as an Army Nurse, achieving rank as Major General, becoming the first female Acting Surgeon General of the Army, and the 22nd Chief of the Army Nurse Corps, Pollock developed a vested interest in improving the lives of the visually impaired. Pollock learned that debilitating physical, occupational, and emotional effects often faced by visually impaired individuals were likely to occur more and more, due to aging and the increase of type-2 diabetes. She became further impassioned to develop an accessible system of support and education so that afflicted individuals were able to recognize their full human potential. As a 2011 Harvard Advanced Leadership Fellow, Pollock developed the concept behind Elevivo, a disease management software program specifically designed for visually impaired persons. This case provides an overview of Pollock's professional and personal experiences, and discusses how these experiences shaped the development of the Elevivo concept. This case may be used for courses related to change management, social enterprise, leadership, and entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: General Gale Pollock and Services for the Vision Impaired." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-036, February 2016. View Details
  5. Bridj and the Business of Urban Mobility: Developing a New Model

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Jonathan Cohen

    This note is for the purpose of aiding classroom instructors in the use of the Harvard Business School case "Bridj and the Business of Urban Mobility: Introducing a New Model." Instructors may use it to help students understand the challenges that come with disrupting an entrenched industry, stress the importance of identifying stakeholders and building a network from the start, offer strategies and tactics for dealing with resistance, and discuss the rationale for obeying current laws and regulations even when they don’t necessarily apply to disruptive startups for whom rules have not yet been written.

    Keywords: Startup; startup management; transportation; big data; smart transit; stakeholder engagement; stakeholder management; urban vehicle; entrepreneurship; technological innovation; mobility; mass transit; Uber; government relations; Transportation Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Jonathan Cohen. "Bridj and the Business of Urban Mobility: Developing a New Model." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-155, March 2016. View Details
  6. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Alberto Mora and the Costs and Consequences of Torture

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Benjamin Summers

    Alberto Mora's time as General Counsel of the Navy from 2001–2006 greatly influenced his mission to illuminate the policy consequences of torture. Mora's drive to restore the nation's awareness and conscience against torture was gaining traction. Prominent stakeholders, including leaders in the military, government, NGOs and academia, supported his project. Moving forward, Mora knew that he still faced a number of critical challenges. What vehicles could he use to increase the project's reach and restore the nation's understanding of the costs and consequences of torture? How could he ensure that his project would survive the fluidity of public opinion? Perhaps most challenging, he had to collect meaningful data, which meant soliciting politically sensitive information.

    Keywords: Leading Change; National Security; Public Opinion; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Benjamin Summers. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Alberto Mora and the Costs and Consequences of Torture." Harvard Business School Case 316-054, April 2016. View Details
  7. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Doug Rauch and the Daily Table

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Peter Zimmerman and Penelope Rossano

    Former Trader Joe’s President Doug Rauch developed an innovative idea to address the challenge of food insecurity, food waste, and nutrition. His concept was a new retail grocery model, offering nutritious affordable food to a food insecure population in the inner city using excess inventory. His path was not an easy one, but by April 2015, Rauch was celebrating the upcoming launch of his Boston pilot and flagship store, Daily Table. Daily Table would be able to test its operating model and impact, better understand its customer base, and establish community partnerships. After further expansion to other sites in Boston, Daily Table planned to expand nationally. But there were questions about whether acceptance by one community would transfer to others and what could Rauch do to prepare himself and his team.

    Keywords: Food; Social Entrepreneurship; Social Enterprise; Nonprofit Organizations;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Peter Zimmerman, and Penelope Rossano. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Doug Rauch and the Daily Table." Harvard Business School Case 316-105, March 2016. View Details
  8. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Shelly London and Ethics Education

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Following a successful career as a Senior Vice President, Vice President, and Chief Communications Officer at two large corporate companies, Shelly London became a Harvard Advanced Leadership Fellow. During her fellowship she set out to promote opportunities for young people to practice the ethical decision making that she had found integral for success in the corporate world. She developed a portfolio of initiatives that would expand opportunities for young people to be exposed to ethical dilemmas through familial interaction, computer games, and additional media outlets. This case provides an overview of London's process in exploring the topic, developing ideas for solutions, and successfully leading project development. This case may be used for courses related to change management, social enterprise, and leadership.

    Keywords: Ethics;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Shelly London and Ethics Education." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-043, February 2016. View Details
  9. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Junko Yoda and Her Collaboration to Address Sex Trafficking in Asia

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone and Tessa Natanay Hamilton

    Following a successful career as the first female Vice President of Goldman Sachs in Asia, Junko Yoda became a 2010 Advanced Leadership Fellow at Harvard University. During her fellowship, she set out to promote awareness, and prevent and alleviate the effects of human sex trafficking on women and children. Yoda launched CLinked, a venture that functioned "to reduce commercial exploitation of women and children by linking communities through education, health, and economic development partners to innovate local solutions." This case provides an overview of Yoda's professional experiences, exploration of the topic, and development and implementation of programs. This case may be used for courses related to social enterprise, change management, leadership, and entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Leadership; Change Management; Crime and Corruption; Social Entrepreneurship; Business and Community Relations; Gender; Asia;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone, and Tessa Natanay Hamilton. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Junko Yoda and Her Collaboration to Address Sex Trafficking in Asia." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-038, April 2016. View Details
  10. Advanced Leadership Pathways: David Weinstein and Write the World

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Following a successful career as a lawyer, Chief Administrative Officer of Fidelity Investments, and law school instructor, David Weinstein became a 2011 Advanced Leadership Fellow at Harvard University. During his Advanced Leadership Fellowship he conceived an idea to promote opportunities for students to engage in identity exploration and skill development through his venture, Write the World. This online platform provides opportunities for individuals to submit pieces of writing for evaluation and feedback from online reviewers. This case provides an overview of Weinstein's personal and professional experiences, his process in exploring the topic, developing ideas, and recruiting a team to contribute to the product's development. This case may be used for courses related to change management, leadership, social enterprise, and entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Education;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: David Weinstein and Write the World." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-037, February 2016. View Details
  11. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Raymond Jetson's MetroMorphosis and the Effort to Transform Baton Rouge

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Building on his successes as a politician and preacher in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Rev. Raymond Jetson sought to empower Baton Rouge citizens to innovate solutions for their community challenges. After stepping down as the head of the Louisiana Family Recovery Corps, Jetson became interested in the Advanced Leadership Initiative (ALI) at Harvard University. When his ALI cohort expressed interest in visiting his hometown of Baton Rouge, Jetson arranged an innovation summit that allowed his cohort members to engage in discussions with Baton Rouge citizens about the challenges facing the community and develop innovative solutions to address them. These conversations led to the establishment of an initiative called Better Baton Rouge, which later became part of a nonprofit organization called MetroMorphosis. This case provides an overview of Jetson's personal and professional experiences, how the surrounding environment shaped these experiences, and how Jetson's convening power transformed a community. This case may be used for courses related to change management, social enterprise, leadership, and entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Change Management; Social Entrepreneurship; Business and Community Relations; Louisiana;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Raymond Jetson's MetroMorphosis and the Effort to Transform Baton Rouge." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-033, February 2016. View Details
  12. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Richard Fahey and Robert Saudek – Lighting Liberia

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    After successful careers as lawyers and Fellows in Harvard's Advanced Leadership Initiative, Richard Fahey and Robert Saudek set out to tackle a large-scale infrastructure challenge in a complex environment by ultimately using advanced leadership skills to increase Liberian citizens' access to lighting solutions. They developed the Liberian Energy Network, which aimed to distribute solar light fixtures to citizens across the country, including some of the most remote regions. This case provides an overview of Fahey and Saudek's professional experiences, exploration of the topic, and development/implementation of a lighting distribution program. This case may be used for courses related to social enterprise, change management, leadership, and entrepreneurship.

    Keywords: Energy;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Richard Fahey and Robert Saudek – Lighting Liberia." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-034, March 2016. View Details
  13. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Laurent Adamowicz and Bon'App

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Tessa Natanay Hamilton and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    After a successful career as Chairman and CEO of Paris-based luxury food company, Fauchon, Laurent Adamowicz sought to provide a solution to a large scale complex problem. Ultimately, Adamowicz created a mobile application to provide consumers with more accessible and interpretable knowledge about the food they were eating to improve health outcomes. Adamowicz recognized that Harvard's Advanced Leadership Initiative would provide him with resources, industry connections, and interdisciplinary collaboration to make a product that could address and/or prevent the type of continued excess caloric consumption that had contributed to the American obesity crisis. Collaboration with Harvard students and other fellows motivated Adamowicz to pursue the creation and development of a best-in-class smart phone application. Despite Adamowicz's focus on promoting healthful and informed eating habits, many choices still lay ahead of him in deciding how to develop a platform and database, the type of business model that would best support his goals, and the types of collaboration and marketing techniques that would get his idea off the ground. This case may be used for courses on entrepreneurship, social enterprise, leadership, and change management.

    Keywords: Leadership; Change Management; Social Entrepreneurship; Nutrition; Business and Community Relations;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Tessa Natanay Hamilton, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Laurent Adamowicz and Bon'App." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-035, March 2016. View Details
  14. Akın Öngör's Journey

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    The case of Akın Öngör's Journey describes a highly successful former CEO with stellar leadership skills, who transformed a bank in Turkey into one of the world's best, steered it to contribute to his country's social agenda, influenced business practices of other companies, and became one of Turkey's most admired people. As part of his post-career activities, he has introduced new crops to a rural area where he also established a girls' industrial school (at his wife's urging). But Öngör has struggled with realizing a bigger dream: forming an international leadership institute for the Eastern Mediterranean that would help bring peace and prosperity to a conflict-ridden region. The institute idea seems a simple way to contribute to peace via educational workshops and relationship-building for a new generation of emerging leaders from many countries. But despite Öngör's impressive "social capital" (reputation and significant connections), he hits roadblocks and setbacks in the middle of the planning, for institutional as well as individual reasons. This case may be used for courses on leadership, social enterprise, and change management.

    Keywords: Leadership; Change Management; Social Entrepreneurship; Business and Community Relations; Turkey;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Akın Öngör's Journey." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-062, February 2016. View Details
  15. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Harvey Freishtat and Conversations about End-of-Life Care

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone and Oludamilola Aladesanmi

    Former law firm chairman/CEO Harvey Freishtat was actively involved in the formation of The Conversation Project, a national public engagement campaign to promote earlier end-of-life care discussions among loved ones and then with providers to ensure that end-of-life care wishes were both expressed and respected. The Conversation Project’s media campaign and three-pronged strategy of targeting people where they live, work, and pray, was beginning to yield results. However, questions still remained. Would the health care industry create the mechanisms needed to follow people’s end-of-life wishes? Was The Conversation Project taking the right steps to fulfill its mission of culture change?

    Keywords: leadership; social enterprise; Health; Health Care and Treatment;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone, and Oludamilola Aladesanmi. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Harvey Freishtat and Conversations about End-of-Life Care." Harvard Business School Case 316-050, March 2016. View Details
  16. IBM and the Reinvention of High School (C): Toward P-TECH's Rapid National Expansion

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Kelsi Stine-Rowe

    In early 2016, Stanley Litow, IBM's Vice President of Corporate Citizenship and Corporate Affairs and President of the IBM International Foundation, made his travel arrangements for still another flight from New York to discuss possibilities for application of a new model for high school called P-TECH, for Pathways in Technology Early College High School, the name of the first school in Brooklyn. In the past month alone, he had flown to Little Rock, Arkansas, to meet with Republican governor Asa Hutchinson and to Providence, Rhode Island, to meet with Democratic governor Gina Raimondo to discuss bringing a P-TECH model to their states.

    Keywords: IBM; P-TECH; Stanley Litow: Robin Willner; Cuomo; Change; scaling; innovation; education; New York State; New York City; Business Model; Innovation Strategy; Innovation Leadership; Education; Business and Community Relations; Change; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Kelsi Stine-Rowe. "IBM and the Reinvention of High School (C): Toward P-TECH's Rapid National Expansion." Harvard Business School Supplement 316-130, March 2016. View Details
  17. Whither the Weather (Company): Forecasting 2016

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Jonathan Cohen

    CEO David Kenny led the transformation of the Weather Company from a television business to a Big Data technology company from 2012 until 2016, when IBM acquired its digital assets. This case discusses major decisions taken by Kenny starting in 2014 as he sought to reorient the company amidst changes in media, digital, and mobile technologies. Kenny balances promoting new stream digital business growth with managing difficult legacy television industry realities. He faces key strategic decisions about whether to integrate businesses or separate them completely; whether to pursue business partners, and if so, what those partners should look like; and whether IBM, a large, established technology company, is the right partner for Weather Company. Finally, how would Weather Company’s fast, innovative culture fit at giant IBM?

    Keywords: Weather Company; IBM; transformation; digital; technology; David Kenny; television; Weather Channel; legacy business; mainstream; newstream; reorganization; Acquisitions; consolidation; Transformation; Technology; Television Entertainment; Acquisition; Consolidation; Change; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Jonathan Cohen. "Whither the Weather (Company): Forecasting 2016." Harvard Business School Case 316-143, January 2016. (Revised March 2016.) View Details
  18. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Torsten Thiele and the Global Ocean Trust

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Brian Hoffstein

    Following a successful career in finance, Torsten Thiele devoted himself full-time to the challenging cause of ocean conservation and stewardship. In August 2015, Thiele had already come a long way in spearheading initiatives towards the protection of the ocean: from building meaningful connections, to starting the non-profit Global Ocean Trust aiming to protect the ocean, and drafting a proposed system for a Global Ocean Bank for Sustainability and Development (OBSD). But Thiele still struggled to identify the best approach to advance the OBSD at the upcoming Conference of the Parties (COP21) meeting, where he could finally get closer toward a legally-binding universal agreement for countries to consciously protect the ocean.

    Keywords: environment; Natural Environment; Environmental Sustainability; Pollution and Pollutants; Science-Based Business; Weather and Climate Change; Situation or Environment; Social Enterprise;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Brian Hoffstein. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Torsten Thiele and the Global Ocean Trust." Harvard Business School Case 316-039, November 2015. View Details
  19. Bridj and the Business of Urban Mobility: Developing a New Model

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    Bridj, a Boston startup that provides Big Data-powered, "pop-up" bus routes that respond to transportation demand, has been in operation for a little over a year and has recently launched service in Washington, D.C., its second market. Despite media acclaim and positive relations with a wide range of stakeholders, Bridj faces challenges controlling costs, driving adoption, and improving its technology.

    Keywords: Startup; startup management; transportation; big data; smart transit; stakeholder engagement; stakeholder management; urban vehicle; entrepreneurship; technological innovation; mobility; mass transit; Uber; government relations; Transportation Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Bridj and the Business of Urban Mobility: Developing a New Model." Harvard Business School Case 316-025, August 2015. View Details
  20. Uber and Stakeholders: Managing a New Way of Riding

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    This case provides a vehicle to analyze stakeholder relations as a company grows, particularly in the context of new business models that challenge established industries. It introduces the dilemmas posed by rapid growth, new technologies, regulatory uncertainty, and the resistance of ecosystems that have developed around older industries. By following Uber's evolving relationships with various stakeholder groups, the case introduces questions about the short- and long-term wisdom of various stakeholder management strategies.

    Keywords: Business Model; Business or Company Management; Entrepreneurship; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Innovation and Invention; Transportation Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Uber and Stakeholders: Managing a New Way of Riding." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 316-004, July 2015. (Revised March 2016.) View Details
  21. The State of U.S. Public Health: Challenges and Trends

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Howard Koh and Pamela Yatsko

    The World Health Organization defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity." For many Americans, the World Health Organization's definition of true health seems unattainable, given the multitude of complex problems plaguing the U.S. health system. The United States over the last 50 years has focused most of its health resources on providing medical care for individuals after they fall ill. It has placed far less emphasis on the non-medical determinants of health and the prevention of disease for the lives of its citizens. The result: an infamously expensive "sick care system" that does not perform as well as other wealthy countries across key measures. Americans of all socioeconomic stripes experience poorer health outcomes than their rich country peers. Such trends undermine U.S. international competitiveness. This background note digs deeper into these trends and their origins, the barriers hindering change, and past and current reforms, including the 2010 Affordable Care Act. If fully implemented, the controversial act will help the United States push beyond its myopic sick care focus towards the WHO's true health vision by creating a health system that integrates medical care with public health and prevention for all Americans.

    Keywords: public health; Public Sector; Health Care and Treatment; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Howard Koh, and Pamela Yatsko. "The State of U.S. Public Health: Challenges and Trends." Harvard Business School Background Note 316-001, July 2015. View Details
  22. Uber and Stakeholders: Managing a New Way of Riding

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    By 2015, technological innovations—the smartphone and the advanced data connectivity that enabled it—created new opportunities for people to move around cities quickly and conveniently without owning a car, via car-sharing services like Zipcar or new ride-sharing services. Uber, a five-year-old startup, enabled users to order private rides via a smartphone app. In mid-2015, the company had achieved pre-IPO market valuation of $50 billion, with operations in 311 cities in 58 countries. Despite its scale and success, Uber often found itself embroiled in controversy, with resistance from a broad range of unhappy stakeholders—regulators, competitors, drivers, and even some customers and partners—across the U.S. and the world. Could Uber continue on this route?

    Keywords: Uber; Ride-sharing; sharing economy; Transportation Network Company; Leadership and Change Management; stakeholder management; managing change; leadership; regulation; Smartphones; Web-enabled application; disruptive technology; transportation; startup management; Transportation Industry; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Uber and Stakeholders: Managing a New Way of Riding." Harvard Business School Case 315-139, June 2015. (Revised March 2016.) View Details
  23. Transforming Verizon 2015: Going Above the Network

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    Teaching note for the Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox, "Transforming Verizon 2015: Going Above the Network," HBS No. 315-068, Feb. 2015.

    Keywords: general management; Leadership and Change Management; organizational change and transformation; reorganization; transformation; Wireless technologies; telecommunications; network organizations; innovation; product development strategy; Telecommunications Industry; Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Transforming Verizon 2015: Going Above the Network." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 315-115, April 2015. View Details
  24. Transforming Verizon 2015: Going Above the Network

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    In 2015, the Chairman and CEO of Verizon Communications reflects on his four years leading the company and considers strategic repositioning for the future. Meanwhile, a rising leader within the organization, Marni Walden, leads change with a new, company-wide product development organization. Walden's group holds promise but must overcome cultural, structural, and technical barriers to innovating in a giant telecom. In the midst of change, executives debate the wisdom of Verizon's push into developing products and services that leverage its dominance in connectivity. Should Verizon go "above the network"?

    Keywords: Verizon; Lowell McAdam; Marni Walden; Verizon Wireless; Innovation Leadership; telecommunications; wireless communications; organizational change and transformation; organizational culture; corporate strategy; corporate structure; reorganization; positioning; transformation; leadership; managing change; Telecommunications Industry; Technology Industry; Information Technology Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Transforming Verizon 2015: Going Above the Network." Harvard Business School Case 315-068, February 2015. View Details
  25. Troubled Marriages

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    Compilation of articles looking at merger integration strategies: "business marriages." Problems of culture, management style, and business goals are revealed.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Goals and Objectives; Management Style; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Culture; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Troubled Marriages." Harvard Business School Background Note 315-058, December 2014. View Details
  26. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Raymond Jetson's MetroMorphosis and the Effort to Transform Baton Rouge

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Rakesh Khurana and Daniel Penrice

    Raymond Jetson, an inner-city pastor, former Louisiana state legislator, and 2010 Harvard University Advanced Leadership Fellow, has embarked on a new career as a social entrepreneur. The case charts Jetson's career in public life and the ministry, his experience as an Advanced Leadership Fellow, and his efforts to establish and grow a nonprofit organization, MetroMorphosis, with a mission "to develop and mobilize a critical mass of citizens in inner-city neighborhoods to design and implement sustainable solutions to persistent community challenges." As he approaches 60 and contemplates his future and that of his organization, Jetson must consider how to position MetroMorphosis for maximum impact now and over the long term.

    Keywords: MetroMorphosis; Raymond Jetson; Advanced Leadership Initiative; ALI; social entrepreneurship; Louisiana; Baton Rouge; Social Entrepreneurship; Nonprofit Organizations; Louisiana; North America; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Rakesh Khurana, and Daniel Penrice. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Raymond Jetson's MetroMorphosis and the Effort to Transform Baton Rouge." Harvard Business School Case 315-057, December 2014. View Details
  27. Advanced Leadership in Public Education: Tools for Tackling Change from Outside the Building In

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Pamela Yatsko

    If you want to create change in public education but are not a school principal or other traditional public education leader, what do you need to do? This long, integrated background note examines the inspiring models and stories of individuals who are improving outcomes for low-income students through innovative social ventures. It shows how small innovations that start outside the traditional public education establishment get off the ground and overcome obstacles; how, if properly set up and tended, they can scale to multiple sites to move inside the "school building" for greater impact. They demonstrate the advanced leadership skills, tools, and principles that courageous education innovators everywhere can use to guide their thinking from outside the school building in.

    Keywords: education; education reform; social entrepreneurship; Advanced Leadership Initiative; Social Issues; Social Entrepreneurship; Education; Leadership; Education Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Pamela Yatsko. "Advanced Leadership in Public Education: Tools for Tackling Change from Outside the Building In." Harvard Business School Background Note 315-019, October 2014. (Revised January 2015.) View Details
  28. The Weather Company

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    New CEO David Kenny transformed The Weather Company in less than two years from a primary identity as a cable television channel to a multi-platform digital company innovating in the uses of weather data. He assesses progress and considers strategic choices and organizational challenges ahead. He created a new narrative for the company in the era of Big Data, putting science at the center (great forecasts) and stressing services, stories (the ability to communicate the data to users), and safety (preparation for severe weather, including using social media). Now he has questions about how much to invest in the declining but still important television business; how to build and hold audiences beyond severe weather events, when audiences spike; how to stay ahead of growth of digital platforms, especially mobile, when current partners (such as Google) could easily turn into competitors; and how to build organizational capabilities, culture, and talent to be ready for ongoing and future change, including global growth. Kenny grapples with a number of strategic tensions: between innovations and the traditional business, between global and local, and about increased partnering or proprietary advantages. He must continue to lead and develop the team to support a vision that is still unfolding.

    Keywords: leadership; change management; strategic change; technology; digital; weather; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Technology Platform; Change Management; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Information Industry; Service Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "The Weather Company." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 314-125, March 2014. View Details
  29. The Information Superhighway Meets the Highway: Technology and Mobility Trends and Opportunities

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Kevin Rosier

    Technological innovation is considered a competitive strength for America, but the nation does not score as high in deploying its technology. U.S. transportation systems are in need of repair and renewal, and the sector is at the cusp of a technological revolution. The Information Superhighway could reinvent the highway—and airways, railroads, vehicles, and more—by making aspects of the system "smarter" and more connected, cost-effective, fuel-efficient, safer, and more convenient for consumers, businesses, and communities. This paper discusses five trends in technology-enabled transportation innovation: connected vehicles; connected roads; big data analytics in air transportation; Intelligent Transportation Systems; and innovation in information infrastructure.

    Keywords: technology; transportation; infrastructure; Technology; Infrastructure; Transportation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Kevin Rosier. "The Information Superhighway Meets the Highway: Technology and Mobility Trends and Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 314-093, February 2014. (Revised June 2014.) View Details
  30. Finding the Money: An Overview of Infrastructure Finance Challenges and Opportunities

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Daniel Fox

    This overview describes how the United States funds and finances infrastructure investment to maintain its economic competitiveness. It considers the roles of taxpayers, users, government allocators and lenders, and private investors in the infrastructure funding system and shows that there are creative tools that can be used. It focuses on five major areas: the problematic state of fuel taxes; the increasing promise of user fees; innovations in debt financing; the challenges of privatization; and the promise (and challenges) of public-private partnerships, with particular attention to a model project in Miami, the Port Tunnel. The overview concludes with a call for cross-sector coalitions to develop strategies with long-term impact goals and short-term visible improvements for users.

    Keywords: finance; infrastructure; technology; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Daniel Fox. "Finding the Money: An Overview of Infrastructure Finance Challenges and Opportunities." Harvard Business School Background Note 314-094, February 2014. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  31. Flying High, Landing Low: Strengths and Challenges for U.S. Air Transportation

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Aditi Jain and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    The U.S. air transportation system flies high on some indicators, mostly involving capacity to take to the air, but lands low on others, mostly involving ground facilities and processes. This note provides an overview of the history and current state of air transportation in the U.S., covering industry costs; types of airlines, including passenger and cargo (e.g., Delta, Southwest, Alaska, and Frontier); airport issues; and the role of technology. It reviews some opportunities for innovation that will solve the pain points and bottlenecks facing the system and outlines high-priority policy areas. It becomes clear that individual airlines have often been managed back to health and focus on innovation, but the overall system itself and its governmental connections need attention, including the desire for NextGen air traffic control and revisiting Open Skies agreements.

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Aditi Jain, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Flying High, Landing Low: Strengths and Challenges for U.S. Air Transportation." Harvard Business School Background Note 314-098, February 2014. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  32. Dr. Benjamin Hooks and Children's Health Forum

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Ai-Ling Malone

    The case includes law, business, and public health perspectives on an African American leader's social entrepreneurship and leadership in other social movements. Later in his life, Dr. Benjamin Hooks championed the eradication of lead poisoning. Prior to that Hooks travelled down several distinct career paths as a pioneering civil rights activist. His positions ranged from lawyer, judge, preacher, entrepreneur to the first African American commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to the co-founder of the non-profit Children's Health Forum (CHF). CHF's mission was to eradicate lead poisoning in children in the United States, which involved a complex web of interactions of different sectors and different interests including real estate developers, paint manufacturers, landlords, healthcare providers, and more. The case provides an overview of lead poisoning in the U.S., including how it is measured, its causes, and legislation enacted to prevent it. It reflects on Hooks' leadership and choices. It explores why Hooks, as a lawyer and judge, did not chose litigation as his vehicle to tackle the issue of lead poisoning and why he chose to get involved. This case may be used for courses related to leadership, management for change, and social enterprise.

    Keywords: Leading Change; Health Disorders; Social Entrepreneurship; Personal Development and Career; Social Issues; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Ai-Ling Malone. "Dr. Benjamin Hooks and Children's Health Forum." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 314-092, January 2014. View Details
  33. Rail Transportation in the United States

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Guilford

    In the 20th century, automobiles and airlines pushed rail into the background as an often-troubled and neglected mode. After a review of the long history of rail in the U.S., this paper examines the situation in the 21st century, including the rail market structure, and discusses key players like BNSF, CSX, and Norfolk Southern. Today, by most measures, freight rail is doing better than ever, while passenger rail faces significant challenges—though it is clear that numerous pain points and bottlenecks interfere with optimal use of rail to move both people and goods. This note offers a structured way of thinking through the issues facing rail transportation and discusses three recent freight rail infrastructure projects that hold promise for the future: the National Gateway, the Keystone Corridor, and the CREATE decongestion project in Chicago.

    Keywords: railroad history; History; Rail Transportation; Rail Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Guilford. "Rail Transportation in the United States." Harvard Business School Background Note 314-084, January 2014. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  34. The Weather Company

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    New CEO David Kenny transformed The Weather Company in less than two years from a primary identity as a cable television channel to a multi-platform digital company innovating in the uses of weather data. He assesses progress and considers strategic choices and organizational challenges ahead. He created a new narrative for the company in the era of Big Data, putting science at the center (great forecasts) and stressing services, stories (the ability to communicate the data to users), and safety (preparation for severe weather, including using social media). Now he has questions about how much to invest in the declining but still important television business; how to build and hold audiences beyond severe weather events, when audiences spike; how to stay ahead of growth of digital platforms, especially mobile, when current partners (such as Google) could easily turn into competitors; and how to build organizational capabilities, culture, and talent to be ready for ongoing and future change, including global growth. Kenny grapples with a number of strategic tensions: between innovations and the traditional business, between global and local, and about increased partnering or proprietary advantages. He must continue to lead and develop the team to support a vision that is still unfolding.

    Keywords: innovation; strategy; strategic change; change management; weather; Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "The Weather Company." Harvard Business School Case 314-083, January 2014. View Details
  35. Rethinking Cities: Chicago on the Move

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    It is impossible to discuss national competitiveness without considering cities and the regions they anchor. Cities are transportation hubs, centers of commercial exchange, and the locus of lives. They thrive by the ways they connect to the world. Demographic changes in recent years—such as the decreasing popularity of cars and increasing urban populations—have implications for 21st century transportation and infrastructure. This is apparent in the case of Chicago, a global city in the vanguard of change. This paper focuses on five major 21st century transportation and infrastructure projects in Chicago: rail decongestion; airport modernization; mass transit modernization; a complete streets plan; and an infrastructure trust as a financing innovation. It also discusses leadership by Mayor Rahm Emanuel to create an integrated strategy that includes technology and education, and how he executes on it.

    Keywords: innovation; management; strategy; infrastructure; Technology Industry; Transportation Industry; Chicago;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Rethinking Cities: Chicago on the Move." Harvard Business School Case 314-079, January 2014. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  36. Teaching Note IBM and the Reinvention of High School (B): Replicating & Scaling P-TECH and Partners

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Keywords: education; innovation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leading Change; Education; Innovation and Invention; Education Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Teaching Note IBM and the Reinvention of High School (B): Replicating & Scaling P-TECH and Partners." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 314-063, October 2013. View Details
  37. Teaching Note IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Keywords: innovation; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leading Change; Education; Innovation and Invention; Education Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Teaching Note IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 314-062, October 2013. View Details
  38. IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept Video Supplement

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Video supplement includes P-TECH principal, staff, a parent, and a student.

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept Video Supplement." Harvard Business School Video Supplement 314-702, October 2013. View Details
  39. IBM and the Reinvention of High School (B): Replicating & Scaling P-TECH and Partners

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    IBM's Corporate Citizenship office created an innovation in public education through a business-school partnership for widespread replication and diffusion. In 2012, while P-TECH (Pathways in Technology Early College High School) was still in its first year operating, Stanley Litow, IBM's Vice President of Corporate Citizenship and Corporate Affairs and President of the IBM International Foundation, found himself overwhelmed by interested parties who wanted to replicate the model. Chicago Mayor Emanuel, the J.A. and Kathryn Albertson Foundation in Idaho, the New York City Department of Education, and New York Governor Cuomo were all in various stages of implementing the concept. Chicago launched five schools in 2012 that were inspired by the P-TECH model, with IBM partnering with one school. New York City developed five more schools; two were scheduled to open in fall 2013 and three more in fall 2014. New York launched a Request for Proposal with plans to open 16 of these schools in fall 2014. Meanwhile IBM remained engaged at the federal level to help accelerate the replication through policy changes. This case explores the challenges and complications of replication.

    Keywords: leadership; social enterprise; partnerships; innovation; entrepreneurship; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Leadership; Partners and Partnerships; Social Entrepreneurship; Education; Business and Community Relations; Innovation and Invention; Chicago; Idaho;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "IBM and the Reinvention of High School (B): Replicating & Scaling P-TECH and Partners." Harvard Business School Supplement 314-050, September 2013. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  40. IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    IBM's Corporate Citizenship office created a social and organizational innovation in public education through a business-school partnership. IBM's Stanley Litow was the key architect in designing Pathways in Technology Early College High School, known as P-TECH. The open enrollment high school located in New York City's Brooklyn was launched in 2011 through a joint partnership between IBM, City University of New York (CUNY), and the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE). The innovative design incorporated Career and Technical Education (CTE), STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), and early college. Students could graduate with an associate's degree (essentially two free years of college) and be "first in line" for jobs at IBM. The school was already seeing remarkable results; one third of the inaugural class entered P-TECH below grade level and nearly all students were promoted to the 10th grade and more than half of them took college courses before the end of their sophomore year. This case explores the motivation behind P-TECH (a growing skills gap), how it was developed along with the challenges, and the attention generated by the unique school design.

    Keywords: leadership; education; innovation; partnerships; Leadership; Partners and Partnerships; Education; Business and Community Relations; Change; Innovation and Invention; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "IBM and the Reinvention of High School (A): Proving the P-TECH Concept." Harvard Business School Case 314-049, September 2013. (Revised May 2014.) View Details
  41. Advanced Leadership Pathways: David Weinstein and Write the World

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Juliane Calingo Schwetz and Patricia Bissett Higgins

    David Weinstein, a lawyer and former Chief Administrative Officer of mutual fund giant Fidelity Investments, launched Write the World, a proprietary online platform that included a writing curriculum, essay prompts in distinct subject matter, and access to expert reviewers. By July 2013, Weinstein had completed his first writing competition in partnership with a school, where students submitted essays through Write the World. While Weinstein was eager to host future competitions, he also considered a number of other models to expand the program.

    Keywords: Technology Platform; Online Technology; Expansion; Social Entrepreneurship; Education; Business Startups; Giving and Philanthropy;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Juliane Calingo Schwetz, and Patricia Bissett Higgins. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: David Weinstein and Write the World." Harvard Business School Case 314-030, September 2013. View Details
  42. Advanced Leadership Pathways: Gilberto Dimenstein and Community Empowerment in Brazil

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Alexandre Naghirniac, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone and Daniella Suarez

    In 2011, Gilberto Dimenstein, a well-known Brazilian journalist, created a new model that connected disparate resources to revitalize Sao Paulo. He wanted his model to expand across Brazil and the world. Dimenstein covered many of the social issues facing Brazil as a journalist and became determined to create solutions. Dimenstein started two social ventures, ANDI and Escola Aprendiz, before creating and developing Catraca Livre (meaning "open turnstile" in Portuguese) while he was an Advanced Leadership fellow at Harvard. Dimenstein pursued his idea of "learning neighborhoods", which meant a localized, low cost and effective way to leverage the existing available resources as educational opportunities. The resources were underutilized because of a lack of awareness. He believed that education should not be limited to the classroom and instead should be expanded to the entire city. Catraca Livre enabled Sao Paulo's residents to utilize untapped resources by aggregating all of the available resources and disseminating the information through multiple avenues including a website, subways, restaurants, workplaces, and more. This case shows how Dimenstein spearheads his solution to improve his city and offers a model for revitalizing cities around the world.

    Keywords: leadership; social change; social entrepreneurship; Leadership; Social Enterprise; Social Entrepreneurship; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Alexandre Naghirniac, Ai-Ling Jamila Malone, and Daniella Suarez. "Advanced Leadership Pathways: Gilberto Dimenstein and Community Empowerment in Brazil." Harvard Business School Case 313-116, April 2013. (Revised November 2015.) View Details
  43. Grupo ABC and Nizan Guanaes's Path from Brazil to the World

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Gustavo Herrero and Ricardo Reisen De Pinho

    Internationally recognized Brazilian Nizan Guanaes, co-founder of Grupo ABC, a rapidly growing global advertising firm ranked 18th in 2011, had aspirations to be in the top 10 by 2015. Grupo ABC thrived by identifying national (Brazilian) challenges and incorporating them in creative messages. Guanaes steered the group toward thinking big while acting locally, tackling societal challenges and building partnerships, as he entered the world stage; serving as an informal ambassador for Brazil; playing important roles in international forums as the Clinton Global Initiative, UNESCO, and the Cannes Lions Advertising Festival. Guanaes needed to determine the best growth strategy, how to seize opportunities, and/or how to adapt to meet his ambitious goal.

    Keywords: management; global business; advertising agency; Opportunities; Globalized Firms and Management; Advertising; Global Strategy; Business Strategy; Advertising Industry; Brazil;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Gustavo Herrero, and Ricardo Reisen De Pinho. "Grupo ABC and Nizan Guanaes's Path from Brazil to the World." Harvard Business School Case 313-095, March 2013. View Details
  44. Monique Leroux: Leading Change at Desjardins

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    Monique Leroux led a major transformation, overcoming resistance, at a large Canadian financial cooperative based in Quebec that competed with top Canadian banks. Leroux was elected in 2008 as Chairman, President, and CEO of Desjardins Group. In order to compete effectively in a demanding and changing financial services industry and survive the global financial crisis, Desjardins needed to integrate, consolidate, and determine how to preserve traditional values while preparing for the future and emerging as a less provincial financial group. In 2012 she reflected on the change efforts and the opportunities and challenges ahead.

    Keywords: change management; change barriers; leadership; women and leadership; Cooperatives; transformation; social enterprise; financial firms; communication; Communication strategy; Change Management; Transformation; Communication; Financial Services Industry; Canada;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Monique Leroux: Leading Change at Desjardins." Harvard Business School Case 313-107, February 2013. (Revised April 2013.) View Details
  45. Hillary Clinton & Partners: Leading Global Social Change from the U.S. State Department

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone

    As U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton acted on a long-standing interest in public-private partnerships to elevate and activate an Office of Global Partnerships reporting directly to her. One major initiative that also addressed her interest in women's empowerment was to create an alliance for clean cookstoves, a significant environmental and public health issue in developing countries. This case examines the change process within the State Department and across the federal government as well as the process of developing partnerships, and looks at what happens on the ground to deploy resources. It raises the question of whether the alliances are sustainable when Sec. Clinton leaves office.

    Keywords: leadership; collaboration; partnerships; global collaboration; innovation; Leadership; Leading Change;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ai-Ling Jamila Malone. "Hillary Clinton & Partners: Leading Global Social Change from the U.S. State Department." Harvard Business School Case 313-086, November 2012. View Details
  46. The Levees Repaired, a System Still Broken: Post Katrina Turnaround at the Orleans Public Defenders (B)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Olivia Leskinen

    Keywords: innovation; New Orleans;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Olivia Leskinen. "The Levees Repaired, a System Still Broken: Post Katrina Turnaround at the Orleans Public Defenders (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 313-027, November 2012. (Revised April 2013.) View Details
  47. The Levees Repaired, a System Still Broken: Post Katrina Turnaround at the Orleans Public Defenders (A)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Olivia Leskinen

    Law Professor Ronald Sullivan was asked to lead a turnaround of the Orleans Public Defenders as a one-year assignment following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The office was underfunded and had perverse incentives embedded throughout the system. Sullivan's new vision to rectify the challenges was not readily accepted by judges and lawyers who benefitted from the flawed system and put up resistance. The case follows Sullivan and his team in their efforts to bring about positive systemic change to the Orleans Public Defenders and at a minimum live up to the principles provided by the American Bar Association.

    Keywords: innovation; Management; New Orleans;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Olivia Leskinen. "The Levees Repaired, a System Still Broken: Post Katrina Turnaround at the Orleans Public Defenders (A)." Harvard Business School Case 313-026, November 2012. (Revised June 2013.) View Details
  48. Milwaukee (A): Making of a World Water Hub

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Starting in 2007 Milwaukee leaders from different areas (large established companies, civic organizations, public sector, academia, and entrepreneurs) negotiated a path for converting the region into a global water hub to address economic and environmental concerns. The leaders with various stakes in the change managed to work together to re-arrange and support existing pieces to maximize the collective potential. Their actions exemplified "advanced leadership" in a complex social system such as a community or region. There was no central leader; instead there was a collection of coalitions and collaborative activities that contributed to the end result.

    Keywords: Change Management; Growth Management; Business or Company Management; Leading Change; Wisconsin;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Milwaukee (A): Making of a World Water Hub." Harvard Business School Case 313-057, August 2012. (Revised May 2013.) View Details
  49. Evergreen Natural Markets 2012

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Paul S. Myers

    Evergreen Natural Markets is a successful food retailer located in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. Having grown through acquisition, it has a reputation for improving the companies it purchases while retaining previous management. This strategy has succeeded due to the Evergreen formula of community knowledge, common core values, carefully developed control measures, and consistent operating principles. In April 2012, Evergreen makes its first purchase outside its home territory: a seven-store natural foods chain in Las Vegas, Nevada. CEO Kathleen Norton wonders whether the model will remain effective outside the Evergreen base or if this newest acquisition will seriously test her leadership skills and, in particular, her ability to swiftly convert the new chains’ managers, employees, and systems to the Evergreen way.

    Keywords: United States; operating systems; organizational culture; business processes; Acquisitions; strategy; human resource management; consolidations; retail trade; food; Food; Growth Management; Organizational Culture; Consolidation; Acquisition; Business Processes; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Las Vegas; Western United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Paul S. Myers. "Evergreen Natural Markets 2012." Harvard Business School Brief Case 124-450, May 2012. View Details
  50. Pierre Frankel in Moscow (A): Unfreezing Change

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    A young and upcoming French executive in a global technology company is sent to Moscow as deputy managing director to turn around the Russia subsidiary. He must report to the subsidiary's managing director (a large reason for the organization's underperformance) and to corporate. In his first three months, he had taken steps to prepare the organization for change. Yet the lack of more tangible actions and results left him open to criticism from subsidiary employees and pressure from corporate executives. How could the young executive unfreeze the situation and get movement?

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Selection and Staffing; Change Management; Restructuring; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Moscow;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Pierre Frankel in Moscow (A): Unfreezing Change." Harvard Business School Case 312-070, December 2011. (Revised April 2012.) View Details
  51. Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places - in India and Beyond

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Anand Piramal and his team sought to "democratize healthcare" in India through the development of a new service delivery model. If Henry Ford could build and deliver cars to everyone in the United States, Piramal thought, then why can't India deliver healthcare to the 70% of its citizens who lack access to it? They began pilots in 2008 but soon ran into unexpected difficulties. After a second round of pilots in early 2010, they had to decide whether to proceed and if so how.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Service Delivery; Business Model; Health Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places - in India and Beyond." Harvard Business School Case 310-134, June 2010. (Revised May 2011.) View Details
  52. City Year: The Journey

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and James Weber

    Throughout its first two decades, City Year, a non-profit organization, was dedicated to recruiting young adults to give a year of public service. It had passed through several growth phases but by 2010 a new challenge, and opportunity, had arisen when City Year and its partners in a school turnaround collaboration – Diplomas Now – won a prestigious Department of Education Investing in Innovation grant. This accelerated City Year's role in turning around low performing schools, but added pressure on the organization. New systems and practices had been developed, but more needed to be done to ensure that City Year became efficient in deploying its limited resources, in maintaining its funding sources, and employing the right interventions in schools. In November 2011, Jim Balfanz, City Year President, and Michael Brown, CEO and co-founder, wondered what else the changes would mean for City Year.

    Keywords: Education; Service Operations; Nonprofit Organizations; Growth and Development Strategy; Performance Efficiency; Resource Allocation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and James Weber. "City Year: The Journey." Harvard Business School Case 311-080, April 2011. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  53. Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places - in India and Beyond (TN)

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for 311132.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Nonprofit Organizations; Change; India;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Piramal e-Swasthya: Attempting Big Changes for Small Places - in India and Beyond (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 311-132, May 2011. View Details
  54. Transforming Verizon: A Platform for Change

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    A new CEO steps into the shoes of his long-time predecessor who had created the U.S. telecommunications giant via a series of acquisitions and, before departing, had initiated the company's strategic repositioning. The new CEO reflected on Verizon's recent successes, some of which he led, and considered how to ensure the team would continue to rise to new challenges. He knew change was both energizing and difficult, and that every victory had to be followed by the next play. He paused in his New York City office to think about how his team had handled recent challenges and whether the culture was in place to continue Verizon's transformation from a traditional telecommunications provider to a global services and technology firm.

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Globalized Firms and Management; Groups and Teams; Telecommunications Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Transforming Verizon: A Platform for Change." Harvard Business School Case 312-082, December 2011. (Revised April 2012.) View Details
  55. PepsiCo Peru Foods: More than Small Potatoes

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal and Matthew Bird

    The regional head of supply chain for PepsiCo South America Foods and his team had worked for 10 years to realize their dream of creating an agricultural research center in Peru that could provide more productive and healthier varieties of potatoes for the Frito-Lay businesses not only in Peru but also throughout the tropical regions where much of its future growth would come. They were denied several times but kept the idea alive through other projects until conditions presented themselves, aligning their work with the company's "Performance with Purpose" growth strategy. But now that they had secured initial funding for the center, the hard work would begin. Was the project too long-term to succeed? How could they ensure success as the company faced shorter-term pressures?

    Keywords: Food; Supply Chain; Planning; Growth and Development Strategy; Leading Change; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry; Peru;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal, and Matthew Bird. "PepsiCo Peru Foods: More than Small Potatoes." Harvard Business School Case 311-083, February 2011. (Revised April 2012.) View Details
  56. PepsiCo, Performance with Purpose, Achieving the Right Global Balance

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal and Eric Baldwin

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Globalized Firms and Management; Strategic Planning; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal, and Eric Baldwin. "PepsiCo, Performance with Purpose, Achieving the Right Global Balance." Harvard Business School Case 412-079, October 2011. (Revised January 2012.) View Details
  57. Pierre Frankel in Moscow (B): Plowing Ahead

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    After several months into his turnaround of a global technology company's Russia subsidiary, a young and upcoming French executive reflected on how to institutionalize the subsidiary's transformation by further driving cultural change and breaking down internal silos. He realized that to complete the change he may need to continue into a second year. Yet the physical separation from his family had begun to take a toll. Had the executive done enough to institutionalize change or was it still too dependent on his personal relationships and the ability to build an internal coalition and exchange favors?

    Keywords: Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Organizational Structure; Business Subsidiaries; Leadership; Manufacturing Industry; Russia;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Pierre Frankel in Moscow (B): Plowing Ahead." Harvard Business School Supplement 312-071, December 2011. (Revised January 2012.) View Details
  58. Pierre Frankel in Moscow (C): Results

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    After 18 months as the deputy managing director of a global technology company's Russia subsidiary, a young and upcoming French executive prepared to hand over leadership. The executive reflected on what he had achieved and how as he considered next steps. He wanted to return to his native France, but the company requested that he go turn around another emerging market subsidiary. Should he go to India, ask for another assignment, or look at other opportunities outside the company?

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry; Moscow;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Pierre Frankel in Moscow (C): Results." Harvard Business School Supplement 312-072, December 2011. (Revised January 2012.) View Details
  59. Cancer Treatment Centers of America: Scaling the Mother Standard of Care

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Matthew Bird

    The CEO of a private and growing national network of specialty care hospitals focusing on advanced-stage and complex cancer treatments reflected on the firm's past phase of growth before meeting with the company's Chairman and founder to discuss how to further scale what they called the Mother Standard of Care and, in the process, change the face of cancer care.

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Business Growth and Maturation; Medical Specialties; Service Delivery; Innovation and Invention; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, and Matthew Bird. "Cancer Treatment Centers of America: Scaling the Mother Standard of Care." Harvard Business School Case 312-073, December 2011. (Revised December 2011.) View Details
  60. IBM Values and Corporate Citizenship

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    IBM's transformation into a globally integrated enterprise (GIE) began with a conviction about what should never change. Since its founding in 1911, the company operated under a set of principles articulated by founder Thomas Watson and became known for a strong culture and a commitment to fairness and social responsibility. As IBM entered its second century, it was appropriate to take a fresh look at its values while remaining unwavering in ethics, integrity, and-to use the twenty-first century word-the highest standards of corporate citizenship. All of this could be done with strategic use of IBM technology and innovation. Yet IBMers in a variety of businesses and geographies also wanted the company to do even more. Members of the fifth Integration and Values Team (IVT5) pondered this and other global citizenship possibilities, reviewing how people were developed and worked as the transition to the GIE was underway .

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Globalized Firms and Management; Technological Innovation; Leading Change; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Integration;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "IBM Values and Corporate Citizenship." Harvard Business School Case 308-106, March 2008. (Revised December 2011.) View Details
  61. IBM Values and Corporate Citizenship (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [308106].

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Transformation; Fairness; Innovation and Invention; Value; Global Range; Organizational Culture; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "IBM Values and Corporate Citizenship (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 310-007, September 2009. (Revised December 2011.) View Details
  62. PepsiCo India: Performance with Purpose

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal and Natalie Kindred

    In 2010, PepsiCo India's management is working to translate PepsiCo's new mission, "Performance with Purpose," into practice in the India market. The mission calls for continued financial performance and market leadership, as well as greater emphasis on healthy products, natural resource management, and employee empowerment. PepsiCo India and other regional PepsiCo business units have significant discretion over how to implement Performance with Purpose in their local markets. PepsiCo India has made progress under the mission but continues to be challenged by the inherent tension between short-term financial performance and long-term investments in socially responsible initiatives.

    Keywords: Corporate Strategy; Mission and Purpose; Food and Beverage Industry; India;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Rakesh Khurana, Rajiv Lal, and Natalie Kindred. "PepsiCo India: Performance with Purpose." Harvard Business School Case 512-041, December 2011. View Details
  63. Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (A)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Thomas Dretler

    The general manager of Gillette Singapore faces issues of managing change during the company's global integration with Parker Pen.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Change Management; Multinational Firms and Management; Integration; Retail Industry; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Thomas Dretler. "Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (A)." Harvard Business School Case 897-102, March 1997. (Revised April 2011.) View Details
  64. Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (B)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Thomas Dretler

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Change Management; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Problems and Challenges; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Thomas Dretler. "Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 897-116, March 1997. (Revised April 2011.) View Details
  65. Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (C)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Thomas Dretler

    Supplements the (A) case.

    Keywords: Globalization; Integration; Singapore;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Thomas Dretler. "Gillette Singapore: Managing Global Business Integration on the Ground (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 897-117, March 1997. (Revised April 2011.) View Details
  66. Advanced Leadership Note: An Institutional Perspective and Framework for Managing and Leading

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Rakesh Khurana

    Large-scale societal issues increasingly appear on the agenda of business leaders, including poverty, health, education, business-government relations, and the degradation of the environment. These problems are not entirely new, but the forces of globalization and the economic crisis have made them more visible and increase their urgency. They share several characteristics that signal the need for new kinds of societal leadership and academic scholarship. From the perspective of leadership, one common characteristic of these global problems is that they include both technical and political components. The political context surrounding any problem must be understood and managed, and a variety of institutions across sectors must be mobilized before technical solutions can be applied. Along similar lines, technical knowledge of solutions alone is not enough to scale successful demonstration projects that address these complex problems. That step involves resources and skills centered on forging appropriate systemic connections to effectively distribute solutions. Thus, these challenges cannot be dealt with by one profession or institution acting alone; indeed, effective action most often occurs at the intersections of professional and institutional fields. Holistic solutions, however, can be difficult to implement because of the complex interactions (or failures to interact) among many participants who deal with just one piece of an issue. Finally, solutions to these problems require concurrent actions at several system levels and/or among many stakeholders. This means that social capital as well as financial capital is required to forge relationships, influence opinion leaders and gatekeepers, and ensure cultural appropriateness. This note incorporates these concepts under the rubric of institutional leadership. This introductory note covers the following: (1) key dimensions of the institutional environment surrounding organizations, including the role of stakeholders and the need for new collaborations in creating new markets and solving critical societal problems; (2) the core assumptions of the institutional perspective on organizations and markets, especially in contrast to assumptions of neoclassical economics; and (3) managerial implications—analytics, skills, and success factors.

    Keywords: Change Management; Framework; Global Range; Leadership; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Social Enterprise; Social Issues; Complexity;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Rakesh Khurana. "Advanced Leadership Note: An Institutional Perspective and Framework for Managing and Leading." Harvard Business School Background Note 410-076, January 2010. (Revised August 2010.) View Details
  67. IBM: The Corporate Service Corps

    Christopher Marquis and Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Describes the conception, development, and implementation of the Corporate Services Corps (CSC), an international community service assignment for high-potential IBM employees. The year 2008 was the pilot year of the CSC program, and 100 of IBM's best global employees were deployed to work for local partners, frequently non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in locations such as Ghana, Tanzania, Romania, Philippines, and Vietnam. The case provides data for students to assess the first year of operation and recommend what changes IBM should make to the program moving forward. Also considered is how the CSC fits into IBM's broader corporate citizenship portfolio and IBM's globalization strategy.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Global Strategy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Structure; Partners and Partnerships; Non-Governmental Organizations;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Rosabeth M. Kanter. "IBM: The Corporate Service Corps." Harvard Business School Case 409-106, March 2009. (Revised July 2010.) View Details
  68. Diageo and East African Breweries Ltd.: Tapping New Markets for Social Good

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    James Musyoki, Lemmy Mutahi, and Ken Kariuki, all from East African Breweries Limited (EABL), a subsidiary of London-based Diageo, heard the disheartening news in the first week of December 2008. For the second time in six months, the Kenyan Finance Ministry had raised excise taxes on alcoholic beverages in an effort to plug the country's budget deficit; the bill was awaiting the President's signature. The price increase would put EABL's Allsops, Citizen, and President Beers out of the reach of their target markets, and Musyoki, Kariuki, and Mutahi hoped that the increase would not affect the excise-exempt Senator Keg lager - a lower-income brew which had created significant social and economic gains in Kenya since its launch in 2004. What would it take to save Senator Beer?

    Keywords: Change Management; Innovation and Management; Emerging Markets; Taxation; Price; Food and Beverage Industry; Kenya; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Diageo and East African Breweries Ltd.: Tapping New Markets for Social Good." Harvard Business School Case 310-010, July 2009. (Revised December 2009.) View Details
  69. IBM in the 21st Century: The Coming of the Globally Integrated Enterprise

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    Members of IBM's fifth Integration and Values Team (IVT5) were close to finishing their deliberations. Convened by Sam Palmisano, Chairman and CEO, and sponsored by Jon Iwata, Senior VP of Corporate Communications and Marketing, and John E. Kelly III, Senior VP and Director of Research, the IVT5's focus was on "the global IBMer"—define and develop global leaders; make the "globally integrated enterprise" relevant to all employees through corporate citizenship initiatives reflective of the company's values; and help IBM compete globally by ensuring market access. The scope was all 170 countries in which IBM operated. As leaders who had risen to their positions as systems thinkers committed to innovation, the team knew it was necessary to stand back and look at the big picture—to see how IBM worked now and operate at its best in order to understand the gaps, dilemmas, and opportunities.

    Keywords: Global Strategy; Multinational Firms and Management; Innovation and Management; Leadership Development; Management Teams; Organizational Culture; Integration;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "IBM in the 21st Century: The Coming of the Globally Integrated Enterprise." Harvard Business School Case 308-105, March 2008. (Revised October 2009.) View Details
  70. IBM in the 21st Century: The Coming of the Globally Integrated Enterprise (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [308105].

    Keywords: Opportunities; Value; Competition; System; Innovation and Invention; Multinational Firms and Management; Leadership Development; Information Technology Industry; Computer Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "IBM in the 21st Century: The Coming of the Globally Integrated Enterprise (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 310-006, September 2009. View Details
  71. CEMEX (A): Building the Global Framework (1985-2004)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Pamela Yatsko and Ryan Raffaelli

    CEMEX grew through acquisitions from a Latin American to a global company under the leadership of a CEO who believed in the importance of a "one enterprise" culture and benchmarking against world standards. As the CEO ponders an acquisition that would double the company's size and take it to new geographies, he wonders if the right capabilities are in place for what should be changed to manage the integration process effectively.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Competency and Skills; Globalized Firms and Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Integration; Latin America;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Pamela Yatsko, and Ryan Raffaelli. "CEMEX (A): Building the Global Framework (1985-2004)." Harvard Business School Case 308-022, July 2007. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  72. CEMEX's Foundations for Sustainability

    Rosabeth M. Kanter, Pamela Yatsko and Ryan Raffaelli

    Keywords: Multinational Firms and Management; Competitive Strategy; Change Management; Emerging Markets; Construction Industry; Mexico; Egypt; United States;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., Pamela Yatsko, and Ryan Raffaelli. "CEMEX's Foundations for Sustainability." Harvard Business School Case 308-024, July 2007. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  73. IBM's Dynamic Workplace

    Rosabeth M. Kanter

    IBM already competed for talent by being a best workplace. It was one of the first companies to provide paid vacations, health insurance, sick leave, job sharing, and domestic partner benefits. Its human resources portfolio included a full array of progressive policies and programs. There was increasing flexibility in how people were employed, including alumni. But in its quest to become a globally integrated enterprise, IBM needed to continue to develop new ways of working. The company's response to the Asian Tsunami showed it at its best-values-driven, self-organizing, able to move at lightning speed connecting global and local resources. This was the kind of global leadership and citizenship the fifth Integration and Values Team (IVT5) was charged with enhancing. But how could IBM provide a tsunami-relief-like experience to everyone, without a disaster?

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Globalized Firms and Management; Leading Change; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Culture; Social Enterprise;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M. "IBM's Dynamic Workplace." Harvard Business School Case 308-107, May 2008. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  74. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Since the 1980s, Procter & Gamble had leveraged its purpose, values, and principles (PVP) to create a global company. When P&G faced difficult times in 2000, the new CEO, A.G. Lafley, leveraged the PVP to drive P&G's turnaround, integrate global operations, and guide decision making in all facets of the business. But the Gillette acquisition posed a new challenge.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Values and Beliefs; Globalized Firms and Management; Leading Change; Growth Management; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global." Harvard Business School Case 309-030, October 2008. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  75. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    A.G. Lafley and P&G leaders decided to approach the Gillette integration differently from previous mergers. Using P&G's purpose, values, and principles (PVP) it treated the acquisition as a merger that sought to take the "best of both" from each company. In the integration's first phase, prior to the change of control, the strategy achieved successes while creating some unexpected challenges. How should the integration leaders address these challenges moving forward?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Change Management; Decision Choices and Conditions; Management Skills; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Integration;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette." Harvard Business School Supplement 309-031, October 2008. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  76. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (C): Integrating Gillette

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    P&G had used its purpose, values, and principles (PVP) to prepare for the physical integration of Gillette prior to the change of control. The execution of these plans posed numerous challenges in global business units as well as in individual country organizations. While managers sought to maintain business momentum during the transition, corporate leaders were intent on continuing to use Gillette as a catalyst of change.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Change Management; Globalized Firms and Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Conflict and Resolution; Business Strategy; Corporate Strategy; Integration;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (C): Integrating Gillette." Harvard Business School Supplement 309-032, October 2008. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  77. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [309030].

    Keywords: Mission and Purpose; Value; Multinational Firms and Management; Change Management; Mergers and Acquisitions; Problems and Challenges; Decision Making; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (A): Becoming Truly Global (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 310-009, August 2009. View Details
  78. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (C): Integrating Gillette (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [309032].

    Keywords: Integration; Mission and Purpose; Value; Problems and Challenges; Transition; Business Units; Governance Controls; Multinational Firms and Management; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (C): Integrating Gillette (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 310-019, August 2009. View Details
  79. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [309031].

    Keywords: Leadership Style; Mergers and Acquisitions; Mission and Purpose; Value; Problems and Challenges; Integration; Success; Governance Controls; Consumer Products Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 310-018, August 2009. View Details
  80. Dr. Benjamin Hooks and Children's Health Forum

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Charles J. Ogletree Jr, Howard Koh, Abbye Atkinson, Carmel Salhi and Aldo Sesia

    "Dr. Benjamin Hooks and Children's Health Forum" charts the many different career paths of Hooks, a civil rights activist and pioneer. Hooks' positions ranged from lawyer, judge, preacher, entrepreneur to the first African American commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and to the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to the co-founder of the non-profit Children's Health Forum (CHF). CHF's mission was to eradicate lead poisoning in children in the United States. The case provides an overview of lead poisoning in the U.S., including how it is measured, its causes, and legislation enacted to prevent it. The case asks students to reflect on Hooks' leadership choices and his decision to launch CHF. How would they assess Hooks as a leader? What made him a strong leader? Given Hooks' past experiences, do they think that Hooks made the right decision to focus on lead poisoning after leaving the NAACP? Is this an area where he could have the most impact?

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Health Care and Treatment; Leadership; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Personal Development and Career; Nonprofit Organizations; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Charles J. Ogletree Jr, Howard Koh, Abbye Atkinson, Carmel Salhi, and Aldo Sesia. "Dr. Benjamin Hooks and Children's Health Forum." Harvard Business School Case 309-111, April 2009. (Revised January 2015.) View Details
  81. Publicis Groupe 2009: Toward a Digital Transformation

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    After a series of acquisitions, Maurice Levy, the Chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, had created the fourth largest marketing and communications company in the world. His next major challenge was managing the firm's digital transformation. In December 2006, the company acquired Boston-based Digitas, a leading digital agency headed by David Kenny. After the initial merger, which included the unbundling of Digitas capabilities and the global expansion of its agency network, Publicis Groupe launched VivaKi, a new company-wide digital platform, to spearhead the firm's total transformation. But since the June 2008 launch, the global economy had taken a turn for the worse. Could Levy, Kenny, and other leaders change the holding company quickly and effectively enough to make the new model work?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Transformation; Financial Crisis; Globalized Firms and Management; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Expansion; Information Technology; Advertising Industry; Communications Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Publicis Groupe 2009: Toward a Digital Transformation." Harvard Business School Case 309-085, February 2009. (Revised March 2009.) View Details
  82. Publicis Groupe 2009: Toward a Digital Transformation (TN)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    Teaching Note for [309085].

    Keywords: Transition; Mergers and Acquisitions; Problems and Challenges; Globalization; Expansion; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business Model; Advertising Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Publicis Groupe 2009: Toward a Digital Transformation (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 309-099, March 2009. View Details
  83. Omron: Sensing Society

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ethan S Bernstein

    "Leading profitable growth is only part of the goal. We cannot live without breathing, but we do not live in order to take a breath,” said Omron's President and CEO, Hisao Sakuta, in 2008. Omron, a $7B global supplier of sensors, control system components, advanced electronics, and related services, had thrived on its ability to spot social needs and innovate. By May 10, 2008 (Omron's 75th Anniversary), Sakuta had led Omron out of a difficult time and into 6 years of consistently strong results, on the foundation of Omron's unique, socially-focused values: "At work for a better life, a better world for all." His goal now was “continuing to lead profitable, globally-distributed growth” in spite of major shifts in Omron's markets: from components to systems; from products to solutions; from standardized to ‘mass customized' products; from longer-cycle to shorter-cycle technologies; from home-country dominated innovation to distributed innovation mediated by the center; and from ‘quality' meaning producing a quality input for the next step of the value chain to being held responsible for the quality of the final product (end-to-end responsibility). In each case, management believed customers no longer felt that they were just buying a product. Rather, they were buying expectations of Omron's commitment to solving their problems. In part, they were buying Omron's philosophy. And, Sakuta reflected, “As the company grows larger with a larger number of employees on a global scale, people tend to have more tenuous recognition of who Omron is or why Omron exists.” On Omron's 75th anniversary, Sakuta celebrated Omron's past, but also recognized that successfully addressing Omron's next challenges involved a further journey along Omron's current path of change. How could Omron maintain the core Principles of the past while making them applicable to the glob

    Keywords: Change Management; Transformation; Competitive Advantage; Leadership; Goals and Objectives; Globalized Firms and Management; Innovation and Invention; Values and Beliefs; Mission and Purpose; Electronics Industry;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ethan S Bernstein. "Omron: Sensing Society." Harvard Business School Case 309-066, November 2008. (Revised February 2009.) View Details
  84. Publicis Groupe: Leading Creative Acquisitions

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Ryan Raffaelli

    The CEO of a French-based advertising agency network led a series of high-profile acquisitions that created the world's 4th largest global communications company, after a failed strategic alliance taught him lessons about leadership and business relationships.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Leadership; Management Succession; Partners and Partnerships; Cooperation; Integration; France;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Ryan Raffaelli. "Publicis Groupe: Leading Creative Acquisitions." Harvard Business School Case 506-010, November 2005. (Revised February 2009.) View Details
  85. Gillette Company (E): Procter & Gamble

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    After arriving in 2001 as the first outsider Chairman and CEO in Gillette history, Jim Kilts led a remarkable turnaround. But by late 2004 he had to make a difficult decision. To better position the 104-year-old, Boston-based company, he opted to sell it to Cincinnati-based Procter & Gamble. How should Kilts lead the transition?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Decision Choices and Conditions; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Managerial Roles; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Gillette Company (E): Procter & Gamble." Harvard Business School Supplement 309-033, October 2008. (Revised December 2008.) View Details
  86. Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette (Abridged)

    Rosabeth M. Kanter and Matthew Bird

    A.G. Lafley and P&G leaders decided to approach the Gillette integration differently from previous mergers. Using P&G's purpose, values, and principles (PVP) it treated the acquisition as a merger which sought to take the "best of both" from each company. In the integration's first phase, prior to the change of control, the strategy achieved successes while creating some unexpected challenges. How should the integration leaders address these challenges moving forward?

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Integration; Mission and Purpose; Values and Beliefs; Change Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation;

    Citation:

    Kanter, Rosabeth M., and Matthew Bird. "Procter & Gamble in the 21st Century (B): Welcoming Gillette (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Supplement 309-084, December 2008. View Details