Janice H. Hammond

Jesse Philips Professor of Manufacturing

Unit: Technology and Operations Management

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(617) 495-6620

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Janice H. Hammond is the Jesse Philips Professor of Manufacturing at Harvard Business School. She currently teaches Technology and Operations Management in the HBS MBA program.  She also serves faculty chair for the HBS MBA Pre-matriculation Analytics Program; and program chair for the HBS Executive Education International Women’s Foundation and Women’s Leadership Programs.

Professor Hammond has previously taught courses in Supply Chain Management, Business Logistics and After-Sales Service, Decision Support Systems, Quantitative Methods, and Managerial Economics in the MBA program, and has taught in several of the HBS Executive Education courses for general managers, including Managing the Supply Chain; Manufacturing in Corporate Strategy; Retailing; and Managing Orders, Vendors, & Customers.  She has previously served as Senior Associate Dean, Director of Faculty Planning; Unit Head for the Technology and Operations Management Unit; Course Head for the Required Technology and Operations Management Course; and as Faculty Chair of the January Cohort of the Harvard MBA Program.

Professor Hammond's current research focuses on speed and flexibility in manufacturing and logistics systems: specifically, how these systems develop the attributes necessary to respond quickly and efficiently to changing customer demand. An important component examines how coordinating mechanisms within organizations and along supply channels affect those channels' ability to compete. In particular, much of her work focuses on the interface between manufacturing and retail organizations. A portion of this research has been conducted in the textile and apparel industries under an industrial competitiveness grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. She is co-author with Fred Abernathy, John Dunlop, and David Weil of A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of Manufacturing -- Lessons from the Textile and Apparel Industries, published by Oxford University Press.

Professor Hammond has an active interest in the field of e-learning. She has completed two on-line learning courses: a global supply chain management simulation and a twenty-hour on-line quantities analysis course.

Professor Hammond holds an Sc.B. degree in Applied Mathematics from Brown University and a Ph.D. in Operations Research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Professor Hammond has published widely on the topics of logistics and channel coordination. She consults and teaches at several major multi-national corporations.


Click here for Teaching Cases and Harvard Business Review articles authored by Professor Hammond.

    Publications

    Books

    1. A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of Manufacturing -- Lessons from the Textile and Apparel Industries

      Keywords: Transformation; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

      Citation:

      Dunlop, J. T., J. H. Hammond, F A Abernathy, and D. Weil. A Stitch in Time: Lean Retailing and the Transformation of Manufacturing -- Lessons from the Textile and Apparel Industries. Oxford University Press, 1999.
    2. Logistics and Strategy

      Keywords: Logistics; Strategy;

      Citation:

      Ferrozi, C., J. H. Hammond, and R. D. Shapiro. Logistics and Strategy. Turin: Istituto editoriale internazionale (ISEDI), 1993, Italian ed.

    Journal Articles

    1. Control Your Inventory in a World of Lean Retailing

      Keywords: Assets; Sales;

      Citation:

      Abernathy, F.H., J.T. Dunlop, J. Hammond, and D. Weil. "Control Your Inventory in a World of Lean Retailing." Harvard Business Review 78, no. 6 (November–December 2000): 169–176.
    2. Retailing and Supply Chains in the Information World

      Keywords: Supply Chain; Information;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J. H., F.A. Abernathy, J.T. Dunlop, and D. Weil. "Retailing and Supply Chains in the Information World." Technology in Society 22, no. 1 (January 2000): 5–31.
    3. Configuring a Supply Chain to Reduce the Cost of Demand Uncertainty

      Keywords: Supply Chain; Cost; Risk and Uncertainty;

      Citation:

      Raman, A., M. Fisher, J. Hammond, and W. Obermeyer. "Configuring a Supply Chain to Reduce the Cost of Demand Uncertainty." Production and Operations Management 6, no. 3 (fall 1997): 211–225.
    4. Reengineering Channel Reordering Processes to Improve Total Supply-Chain Performance

      Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Performance;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and T. H. Clark. "Reengineering Channel Reordering Processes to Improve Total Supply-Chain Performance." Production and Operations Management 6, no. 3 (fall 1997): 248–265.
    5. Making Supply Meet Demand in an Uncertain World

      Keywords: Supply and Industry;

      Citation:

      Fisher, M., J. Hammond, W. Obermeyer, and A. Raman. "Making Supply Meet Demand in an Uncertain World." Harvard Business Review 72, no. 3 (May–June 1994): 83–92.
    6. Accurate Response: The Key to Profiting from Quick Response

      Keywords: Profit;

      Citation:

      Raman, A., M. Fisher, J. Hammond, and W. Obermeyer. "Accurate Response: The Key to Profiting from Quick Response." Bobbin (February 1994).

    Book Chapters

    1. Globalization in the Apparel and Textile Industries: What Is New and What Is Not?

      Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

      Citation:

      Abernathy, Frederick H., John T. Dunlop, Janice H. Hammond, and David Weil. "Globalization in the Apparel and Textile Industries: What Is New and What Is Not?" In Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by Martin Kenney and Richard Florida. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.
    2. E-Commerce in the Textile and Apparel Industries

      Keywords: Business Ventures; Web Sites; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Kristin M Kohler. "E-Commerce in the Textile and Apparel Industries." In Tracking a Transformation: E-commerce and the Terms of Competition in Industries, edited by Berkeley, The BRIE-IGCC Economy Project. Brookings Institution Press, 2001.
    3. Configuring a Supply Chain to Reduce the Cost of Demand Uncertainty

      Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Cost Management; Demand and Consumers; Risk Management; Risk and Uncertainty;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J. H., Marshall L. Fisher, Walter Obermeyer, and A. Raman. "Configuring a Supply Chain to Reduce the Cost of Demand Uncertainty." In Global Supply Chain and Technology Management. Vol. 1, edited by Hau Lee and Shu Ming Ng, 76–90. POMS Series in Technology and Operations Management. Miami: Production and Operations Management Society (POMS), 1998.
    4. Reengineering Channel Reordering Processes to Improve Total Supply-Chain Performance

      Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Performance Improvement; Distribution Channels; Management Practices and Processes;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J., and Theodore H. Clark. "Reengineering Channel Reordering Processes to Improve Total Supply-Chain Performance." In Global Supply Chain and Technology Management. Vol. 1, edited by Hau Lee and Shu Ming Ng. POMS Series in Technology and Operations Management. Miami: Production and Operations Management Society (POMS), 1998.
    5. The Information-integrated Channel: A Study of the U.S. Apparel Industry in Transition

      Keywords: Transition; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Dunlop, J. T., J. H. Hammond, F A Abernathy, and D. Weil. "The Information-integrated Channel: A Study of the U.S. Apparel Industry in Transition." In Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Micro Economics 1995, edited by M. N. Baily, P.C. Reiss, and C. Winston. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1995.
    6. Quick Response in Manufacturing-retail Channels

      Keywords: Performance Efficiency; Manufacturing Industry; Retail Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J. H. "Quick Response in Manufacturing-retail Channels." In Globalization, Technology, and Competition: The Fusion of Computers and Telecommunications in the 1990s, edited by S. P. Bradley, J. A. Hausman, and R. L. Nolan. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993, Korean ed.

    Cases and Teaching Materials

    1. Dore-Dore

      Dore-Dore, a French manufacturer of socks and children's knitwear, has just converted a portion of its knitwear operations to a flexible modular system to allow faster response and greater flexibility. The case provides an opportunity to assess the changes in knitwear operations, and to evaluate whether a similar conversion to modular is appropriate for socks. Other opportunities for lead-time reduction can also be examined. Can be used to illustrate the impact of changing from a traditional linear batch operation to manufacturing cells and the impact of operating system design and lot size on through-put time, quality, productivity, etc. In addition, provides an opportunity to discuss channel lead time reduction.

      Keywords: Order Taking and Fulfillment; Logistics; Production; Performance Productivity; Apparel and Accessories Industry; France;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Audris Wong. "Dore-Dore." Harvard Business School Case 692-028, September 1991. (Revised September 2010.)
    2. Fabritek, 1992

      Describes a large-volume automotive parts contract in a high-quality machine work company. Quality and delivery problems arise when one of the four men on the job is replaced with a high producer who cannot earn a substantial bonus because of machine interference.

      Keywords: Machinery and Machining; Compensation and Benefits; Selection and Staffing; Production; Quality; Manufacturing Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Fabritek, 1992." Harvard Business School Case 698-014, August 1997. (Revised February 2009.)
    3. Barilla SpA (A)

      Barilla SpA, an Italian manufacturer that sells to its retailers largely through third-party distributors, experienced widely fluctuating demand patterns from its distributors during the late 1980s. This case describes a proposal to address the problem by implementing a continuous replenishment program, under which the responsibility for determining shipment quantities to the distributors would shift from the distributors to Barilla. Describes support and resistance within Barilla's different functional areas and within the distributors Barilla approached with the proposal.

      Keywords: Order Taking and Fulfillment; Logistics; Supply Chain; Technology; Food and Beverage Industry; Manufacturing Industry; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Barilla SpA (A)." Harvard Business School Case 694-046, May 1994. (Revised March 2008.)
    4. Toshiba: Ome Works

      In 1995, Toshiba was the market leader in portable computer sales worldwide. This case describes the assembly of portable notebook computers in Toshiba's Ome factory in Ome, Japan, providing insights into some of the reasons for Toshiba's success. In addition to describing production techniques such as dynamic line balancing, this case probes the nature of the Japanese workforce and the unique problems faced by Japanese businesses.

      Keywords: Factories, Labs, and Plants; Employees; Job Design and Levels; Production; Hardware; Japan;

      Citation:

      Bowen, H. Kent, Janice H. Hammond, Sylvie Ryckebusch, and Hiroshi Uchikoga. "Toshiba: Ome Works." Harvard Business School Case 696-059, February 1996. (Revised February 2008.)
    5. ChemBright, Inc.

      ChemBright is a small start-up company that manufactures private-label household chemicals. The company sells its products to grocery chains in the New England area. Its strategy is based on a significant logistics-based cost advantage. The primary case decisions are 1) how the company should respond to a price war initiated by a strong competitor, and 2) how the company can continue to exploit its logistics advantages as it pursues different growth alternatives. Acts as an effective introduction to logistics, and, in particular, to the fact that logistics is not a purely tactical function, but can be used as a powerful competitive weapon.

      Keywords: Price; Growth and Development Strategy; Logistics; Competition; Competitive Advantage; Chemical Industry; New England;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "ChemBright, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 693-026, August 1992. (Revised July 2013.)
    6. Kristen's Cookie Company (A) (Abridged)

      The student is starting his or her own business, baking make-to-order cookies. Basic times of each operation are laid out and the student is asked to determine the consequences for the operating system. Serves as an exercise and review of concepts such as capacity, bottlenecks, and throughput times. Students should be able to make several useful suggestions for improving the system.

      Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Growth Management; SWOT Analysis; Operations; Outcome or Result; Performance Capacity;

      Citation:

      Bohn, Roger E., and Janice H. Hammond. "Kristen's Cookie Company (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 608-037, July 2007.
    7. Sport Obermeyer Ltd.

      The case describes operations at a skiwear design and merchandising company and its supply partner. Introduces production planning for short-life-cycle products with uncertain demand and allows students to analyze a reduced version of the company's production planning problem. In addition, it provides details about information and material flows that allow students to make recommendations for operational improvements, including comparisons between sourcing products in Hong Kong and China.

      Keywords: Product; Supply Chain; Demand and Consumers; Production; Planning; Globalized Markets and Industries; Forecasting and Prediction; Industry Growth; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Sports Industry; United States; Hong Kong;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Ananth Raman. "Sport Obermeyer Ltd." Harvard Business School Case 695-022, October 1994. (Revised August 2006.)
    8. Barilla SpA (B)

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Production; Distribution; Sales; Demand and Consumers; Programs; Food and Beverage Industry; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Barilla SpA (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 695-064, June 1995. (Revised July 2006.)
    9. Barilla SpA (C)

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Distribution; Production; Sales; Demand and Consumers; Problems and Challenges; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Barilla SpA (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 695-065, June 1995. (Revised July 2006.)
    10. Barilla SpA (D): JITD Problem Resolution

      Supplements the (A) case.

      Keywords: Distribution; Sales; Demand and Consumers; Fluctuation; Problems and Challenges;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Barilla SpA (D): JITD Problem Resolution." Harvard Business School Supplement 695-066, June 1995. (Revised July 2006.)
    11. Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Backhaul Decision (TN)

      Teaching Note for (9-688-104).

      Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Backhaul Decision (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 690-076, March 1990. (Revised October 2005.)
    12. Amazon.com's European Distribution Strategy

      Describes how Amazon's distribution system evolved from the company's inception. In 2003, Amazon Europe must decide how to reconfigure its distribution network in light of expected growth, products proliferation, and geographical expansion in Europe. Examines how characteristics of suppliers and customers differ across the markets Amazon serves in Europe. The protagonist must consider the degree of centralization appropriate for the European network, where inventory should be held, what fulfillment models should be used, and how to manage risks of supply disruption.

      Keywords: Business Model; Decision Choices and Conditions; Growth and Development; Business or Company Management; Growth and Development Strategy; Supply and Industry; Distribution; Supply Chain; Risk and Uncertainty; Expansion; Web Services Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice, and Claire Chiron. "Amazon.com's European Distribution Strategy." Harvard Business School Case 605-002, June 2005. (Revised August 2013.)
    13. Handleman Company

      Describes the organization and operations of the Handleman Co., an intermediary in the music industry that buys recorded music and resells it to mass retailers such as Wal-Mart. The company provides distribution, inventory management, retail merchandising, and category management to its retail customers. It differentiates itself by keeping track of trends in the music industry and ensuring that the trends in music popularity translate to the appropriate assortments in each retail store. Recounts the changes that Handleman has made in organizational structure, processes, and system to support its business. Describes the challenges facing the president of the entertainment division in light of increasing product proliferation, price pressure, the need for growth, and the advent of online music.

      Keywords: Business Organization; Music Entertainment; Cost Management; Growth and Development; Business or Company Management; Distribution Channels; Problems and Challenges; Risk and Uncertainty; Online Technology; Value Creation; Music Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Kevin Dolan. "Handleman Company." Harvard Business School Case 605-024, April 2005.
    14. Quantitative Analysis: An Introductory Course (TN)

      Teaching Note to (9-604-702). A rewritten version of an earlier teaching note. Includes color exhibits.

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Quantitative Analysis: An Introductory Course (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 605-068, February 2005.
    15. HBS Quantitative Analysis Course

      Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. HBS Quantitative Analysis Course. Harvard Business School Tutorial 604-702, March 2004.
    16. Dynatrol Corporation: Andover Assembly Division

      While grappling with glitches in the design and operation of its production system, Andover Assembly must also launch a new sensor product line to meet ultimatums issued by frustrated Signatron vice presidents. The financial returns of the division are not meeting corporate's expectations and plant manager Jan Havel has been sent in to turn around the plant's operations under 2 (6- and 12-month) deadlines. To turn the unhappy customers into cooperating customers, the Andover division is faced with the challenge of reaching nearly 100% ontime delivery performance within weeks. The introduction of the new product line, which requires some of the same resources, compounds the team's problems.

      Keywords: Production; Product Development; Product; Performance Productivity; Problems and Challenges; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Manufacturing Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Bowen, H. Kent, Janice H. Hammond, and Ramchandran Jaikumar. "Dynatrol Corporation: Andover Assembly Division." Harvard Business School Case 603-050, October 2002. (Revised May 2003.)
    17. Luster Paint Corporation, The

      Describes a marketing director about to launch a new process for demand forecasting. Provides data that allow students to do a multivariable regression analysis. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

      Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Data and Data Sets; Management Practices and Processes; Demand and Consumers; Mathematical Methods;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Luster Paint Corporation, The." Harvard Business School Exercise 603-078, October 2002.
    18. Merloni Elettrodomestici SpA: The Transit Point Experiment

      Merloni Elettrodomestici is a leading Italian manufacturer of domestic appliances. In 1986, an exposition for Merloni customers is scheduled at its Milano regional warehouse. During the two-month period preceding the event, when the warehouse must be free of inventory, the company conducts a "transit point" experiment. Each day, a truckload of products from the company's central warehouse is sent to Milano, where it is immediately transferred to small trucks for local delivery. At the conclusion of the experiment, the company is considering the replacement of its 17 regional warehouses with transit points. Students are asked to evaluate this proposal and recommend a configuration for Merloni's distribution network. Issues to be considered in the analysis of the case include the impact of different network configurations on customer service and on inventory, labor, operating, and transport costs.

      Keywords: Logistics; Marketing Channels; Planning; Time Management; Distribution Channels; Competitive Advantage; Customer Relationship Management; Information Technology; Consumer Products Industry; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Maura G Kelly. "Merloni Elettrodomestici SpA: The Transit Point Experiment." Harvard Business School Case 690-003, February 1990. (Revised August 2001.)
    19. Note on the U.S. Freight Transportation Industry

      Describes the major modes of domestic freight transportation (motor carrier, rail, air, water, and pipelines). Examines the characteristics of the transportation service that each mode provides and discusses changes in the industry that have resulted from recent regulatory reform. Intended to provide background information for the transportation cases used in the Business Logistics course.

      Keywords: Change; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Industry Structures; Logistics; Service Operations; Transportation; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and John E. P. Morrison. "Note on the U.S. Freight Transportation Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 688-080, February 1988. (Revised August 2000.)
    20. Beer Game, The: Board Version

      The beer game is an exercise that demonstrates supply channel dynamics. Simulates the flow of material and information in a simplified channel of beer production and distribution, focusing on the linkages among a beer manufacturer, its distributors, a wholesaler, and a retailer. Students are organized into teams of four, each assigned to place orders and manage inventory for one firm in the channel. In this simplified channel, orders are the only information allowed to flow among channel participants. Despite the simplicity of the simulation, most teams find it extremely difficult to keep inventory and stockout costs low. The instructor can work with students to understand the nature of the problems they experience, identify the causes, and discuss possible remedies. The 90-minute exercise is played on game boards that are available from the Systems Dynamics Society (518-442-3865).

      Keywords: Cost Management; Information; Distribution Channels; Production; Supply Chain Management; Problems and Challenges;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Beer Game, The: Board Version." Harvard Business School Background Note 694-104, June 1994. (Revised October 1999.)
    21. Dore-Dore TN

      Teaching Note for (9-692-028).

      Keywords: Performance Productivity; System; Design; Quality; Apparel and Accessories Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Ananth Raman. "Dore-Dore TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 696-045, July 1995. (Revised August 1999.)
    22. Process Flow Design Exercise (C)

      Provides detailed instructions for auditors to help them prepare for the factory demonstration day. Each audit position is described and a time line outlining responsibilities for the four phases of the simulation is provided.

      Keywords: Business Processes;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Process Flow Design Exercise (C)." Harvard Business School Exercise 696-085, February 1996. (Revised August 1998.)
    23. Birman Industrial Products Corporation

      Keywords: Product Design; Strategic Planning; Industrial Products Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Birman Industrial Products Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 698-048, December 1997.
    24. Wriston Manufacturing Corporation

      Wriston Manufacturing is a broad-line maker of components for the automotive industry. It has developed a network of nine plants as its product line has grown. Newer, higher-volume products tend to be made in newer, focused, high-volume plants, while older product lines tend to be assigned to the Detroit plant, the oldest one in the system. Because Detroit produces such a wide variety of products, its overhead costs are very high. Management needs to decide whether to close the Detroit plant or find a way to make it profitable. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

      Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Cost Management; Business or Company Management; Production; Performance Efficiency; Auto Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Wriston Manufacturing Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 698-049, December 1997.
    25. Executive Shirt Company, Inc.

      The Executive Shirt Co. is contemplating a move into custom-made shirts. The company's general manager has charged two of his managers to come up with plans for incorporating production of custom shirts into the existing manufacturing process.

      Keywords: Change Management; Production; Strategic Planning; Expansion; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Sylvie Ryckebusch. "Executive Shirt Company, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 696-071, October 1995. (Revised March 1996.)
    26. Executive Shirt Company, Inc.: Analysis

      Presents a follow-up.

      Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Executive Shirt Company, Inc.: Analysis." Harvard Business School Supplement 696-093, March 1996.
    27. Polaroid Corporation: European Distribution System TN

      Teaching Note for (9-695-038).

      Keywords: Consumer Products Industry; Europe; European Union; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Afroze A Mohammed. "Polaroid Corporation: European Distribution System TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 696-044, August 1995.
    28. IBM After-Sales Service TN

      Teaching Note for (9-693-001).

      Keywords: Computer Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "IBM After-Sales Service TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 696-046, August 1995.
    29. Merloni Elettrodomestici SpA: The Transit Point Experiment TN

      Teaching Note for (9-690-003).

      Keywords: Consumer Products Industry; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Merloni Elettrodomestici SpA: The Transit Point Experiment TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 696-047, July 1995.
    30. Sport Obermeyer, Ltd. TN

      Teaching Note for (9-695-022).

      Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry; Sports Industry; United States; Hong Kong;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Ananth Raman. "Sport Obermeyer, Ltd. TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 696-012, July 1995.
    31. Logistics and Supply Channel Coordination, Course Overview Note

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Logistics and Supply Channel Coordination, Course Overview Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 695-062, June 1995.
    32. Barilla SpA (A-D) TN

      Teaching Note for (9-694-046), (9-695-064), (9-695-065), and (9-695-066).

      Keywords: Sales; Distribution; Demand and Consumers; Italy;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Barilla SpA (A-D) TN." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 695-063, June 1995.
    33. Polaroid Corporation: European Distribution System

      Describes distribution operations in Polaroid Europe. In the late 1980s, Polaroid senior management in the United States proposed moving from a system of 12 decentralized warehouses to a centralized distribution system in which all inventory for European retailers would be held in Polaroid's Dutch distribution center. Most subsidiary general managers opposed the proposal, as did Polaroid's European marketing organization. Describes several distribution alternatives Polaroid considered in 1990 including: 1) direct distribution to retailers through Europe from the Dutch distribution center, 2) hiring a third-party logistics organization to take over all of Polaroid's European distribution activities, and 3) establishing regional satellite distribution centers. Provides an overview of changes in the European retailing and distribution industries at the beginning of the 1990s, with a specific focus on the diverse service expectations of retailers in different European countries and of different retail segments.

      Keywords: Distribution; Operations; Risk Management; Distribution Channels; Logistics; Transition; Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Industry Structures; Consumer Products Industry; Europe; European Union; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Afroze A Mohammed. "Polaroid Corporation: European Distribution System." Harvard Business School Case 695-038, June 1995.
    34. IBM After-Sales Service

      IBM has established a service delivery system to provide service and maintenance parts for its installed base of computers. The case outlines the competitive pressures IBM faces from alternative providers of maintenance services (e.g. other OEMs, third-party maintainers, and independent retailers) and describes the shifting service requirements of computer users. Describes a variety of programs that IBM has undertaken to improve its after-sales service operations, and proposes a variety of alternatives that IBM is considering implementing. Illustrates the value of communication and coordination between different functions within IBM (e.g., between maintenance, manufacturing, distribution, and marketing) to allow services to be provided in a competitive manner and to provide appropriate feedback from the field.

      Keywords: Service Delivery; Service Operations; Supply Chain; Supply Chain Management; Logistics; Operations; Distribution; Customer Focus and Relationships; Competitive Strategy; Computer Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "IBM After-Sales Service." Harvard Business School Case 693-001, March 1993. (Revised April 1995.)
    35. Colad Group

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Colad Group." Harvard Business School Case 694-068, June 1994.
    36. Applichem (A) (Abridged)

      Applichem manufactures the same chemical product in four plants, each of which is located in a different country. The company has completed a major study comparing the productivity and performance of these plants. Using the data from the study, students must decide which, if any, plants to close. The case requires students to think about the relevant metrics for comparing the performance of plants that operate very differently and in different countries. An important issue is the distinction between physical measures of productivity and financial measures of performance. Finally, the case allows students to think about what management might do to ensure that productivity improvements are shared across the plant network.

      Keywords: Business or Company Management; Management Practices and Processes; Performance Productivity; Performance Efficiency; Performance Evaluation; Strategy; Judgments; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Business Exit or Shutdown; Chemical Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Gary P. Pisano. "Applichem (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 694-030, August 1993.
    37. Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Backhaul Decision

      Prior to the Motor Carrier Act of 1980, companies with private trucking fleets were generally prohibited from selling transportation services to other companies. The deregulation of the trucking industry in 1980 allowed private carriers to offer for-hire transportation services. In 1983, as part of an effort to offset the rise in their distribution costs, Frito-Lay considers selling miles on its backhaul lanes to other companies. Frito-Lay management must consider whether the potential revenues from these services warrant the possible degradation of service to Frito-Lay's sales force. If the backhaul proposal is approved, a marketing plan for the transportation services must be developed.

      Keywords: Cost Management; Revenue; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Marketing Strategy; Distribution; Service Operations; Sales; Salesforce Management; Transportation; Food and Beverage Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Frito-Lay, Inc.: The Backhaul Decision." Harvard Business School Case 688-104, April 1988. (Revised September 1992.)
    38. Digital Equipment Corp.: Complex Order Management

      Describes the proposed creation of a low end 3000 configuration workstation using Digital's competitive advantage of offering a la carte configuration capability and ability to build different options for customers. Disadvantages of this 3000 configuration workstation include a high processing cost exceeding $500 per order and delays in customer orders using the complex order management process.

      Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Cost; Management Practices and Processes; Distribution; Competitive Advantage;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Digital Equipment Corp.: Complex Order Management." Harvard Business School Case 690-081, March 1990. (Revised July 1991.)
    39. Quick Response in the Apparel Industry

      It has been estimated that the U.S. apparel industry wastes over $25 billion annually due to inefficient practices, long lead times, and insufficient coordination between channel partners. In response to intense competition from off-shore producers, the industry has initiated efforts to reduce these losses and regain competitiveness. This note provides background information on the U.S. apparel industry and describes the concept of "Quick Response," a strategy that increases the competitiveness of domestic manufacturers by increasing their ability to quickly respond to shifting markets. Describes changes in technology, information systems, and channel relationships that are necessary to implement a Quick Response system.

      Keywords: Information; Distribution Channels; Performance Efficiency; Partners and Partnerships; Adaptation; Business Strategy; System; Technology; Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Quick Response in the Apparel Industry." Harvard Business School Background Note 690-038, February 1990. (Revised April 1991.)
    40. Design and Management of Multi-Facility Logistics Networks, Note to Instructors

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Design and Management of Multi-Facility Logistics Networks, Note to Instructors." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 690-083, May 1990.
    41. Burlington Northern (A) and (B), Teaching Note

      Teaching Note for (9-689-081) and (9-689-083).

      Keywords: Rail Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Burlington Northern (A) and (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 690-077, April 1990.
    42. Curtis-Swann (A) and (B), Teaching Note

      Keywords: Teaching; Information;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Curtis-Swann (A) and (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 190-121, March 1990.
    43. Burlington Northern (B)

      Describes the experiences of a seasoned Burlington Northern (BN) sales representative after the introduction of ShipSmart, a decision support system developed by the BN to help its employees and customers analyze logistics problems. After a brief description of a logistics training program for sales representatives, the case describes an opportunity for new business for the BN (shipping beer from a brewery to beer distributors by rail, rather than truck) identified by the sales representative. Realizing the new business will require the coordination of logistics channel partners (the brewery, the distributors, and the railroad) as well as interfunctional coordination (between marketing, engineering, and operations) within the railroad. The sales representative weighs the complexities of the problem and considers the use of ShipSmart to demonstrate the value of switching to rail transport to the distributors and the brewery.

      Keywords: Change Management; Expansion; Rail Transportation; Logistics; Distribution Channels; Truck Transportation; Innovation and Invention; Sales; Rail Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Burlington Northern (B)." Harvard Business School Case 689-083, April 1989. (Revised March 1990.)
    44. Pfaltzgraff Co. (A) and (B), Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Pfaltzgraff Co. (A) and (B), Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 690-060, March 1990.
    45. Integer Programming Exercises

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Integer Programming Exercises." Harvard Business School Exercise 190-120, March 1990. (Revised March 1990.)
    46. Genco, Inc.

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Genco, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 190-145, March 1990.
    47. Quantum Semiconductor, Inc.

      Quantum is faced with a difficult ethical dilemma--industry studies provide evidence that chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing may cause women working in fabrication cleanrooms to suffer a higher likelihood of spontaneous abortions. The possibility of other reproductive health risks exist also. Barring all women of child-bearing age from fabrication areas may be viewed as sex discrimination and cause legal ramifications. Full automation is too costly for this small company. What should they do?

      Keywords: Safety; Prejudice and Bias; Law; Equality and Inequality; Cost; Production; Ethics; Health; Gender Characteristics; Semiconductor Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., and Roy D. Shapiro. "Quantum Semiconductor, Inc." Harvard Business School Case 690-059, February 1990. (Revised March 1990.)
    48. Pfaltzgraff Co. (A)

      Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Pfaltzgraff Co. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 689-085, May 1989. (Revised January 1990.)
    49. Curtis-Swann (B)

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Curtis-Swann (B)." Harvard Business School Case 189-175, April 1989. (Revised January 1990.)
    50. Genco, Inc., Teaching Note

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Genco, Inc., Teaching Note." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 190-146, January 1990.
    51. Note on Facility Location

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Note on Facility Location." Harvard Business School Background Note 689-059, January 1989. (Revised January 1990.)
    52. Curtis-Swann (A)

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Curtis-Swann (A)." Harvard Business School Case 189-174, April 1989. (Revised January 1990.)
    53. Pfaltzgraff Co. (B)

      Keywords: Consumer Products Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Pfaltzgraff Co. (B)." Harvard Business School Case 689-086, May 1989. (Revised January 1990.)
    54. Burlington Northern (A)

      Describes the forces that led to the development of a logistics analysis program by the Burlington Northern Railroad. The first half of the case describes changes in industrial structure, technology, demographics, shipper practices, and government regulation that led to the general decline of the railroad industry following World War II. The remainder contains the Burlington Northern's competitive response to its changing environment, including the company's decision to develop a logistics analysis program to improve their employees' and their customers' understanding of logistics. Also contains an example of logistics cost tradeoffs.

      Keywords: Change Management; Rail Transportation; Logistics; Rail Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Burlington Northern (A)." Harvard Business School Case 689-081, April 1989. (Revised August 1989.)
    55. Norton Auto Supply

      Describes a multiechelon distribution system for the distribution of automobile spare parts. An analyst has been hired by the Norton Auto Supply Co. to improve the company's inventory planning and control techniques. Includes demand, cost, weight, and supplier lead time information for a set of parts. Students are asked to devise an inventory control system that distinguishes between different parts based on relevant characteristics.

      Keywords: Business or Company Management; Operations; Distribution Channels; Management Practices and Processes; Management; Strategy; Industrial Products Industry; Auto Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Norton Auto Supply." Harvard Business School Case 689-084, April 1989.
    56. Truckload Dispatching Problem

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Truckload Dispatching Problem." Harvard Business School Background Note 689-080, April 1989.
    57. Reorder Point Based Inventory Control Systems

      Keywords: Logistics; Management;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H. "Reorder Point Based Inventory Control Systems." Harvard Business School Case 689-026, February 1989.

    Presentations

    1. Design and Scheduling of Apparel Manufacturing Systems with Both Slow and Quick Production Lines

      Keywords: Design; Planning; Production; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J. H., Z. B. Tang, and F. H. Abernathy. "Design and Scheduling of Apparel Manufacturing Systems with Both Slow and Quick Production Lines." Paper presented at the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE Computer Society Press, December 01, 1994.

    Other Publications and Materials

    1. Executive Summary of Preliminary Findings of the U.S. Apparel Industry

      Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry; United States;

      Citation:

      Hammond, Janice H., F.A. Abernathy, J.T. Dunlop, and D. Weil. "Executive Summary of Preliminary Findings of the U.S. Apparel Industry." Harvard Center for Textile and Apparel Research - Research Paper series, Harvard Center for Textile and Apparel Research, April 1995. (2d ed.)
    2. Improving the Performance of the Men's Dress Shirt Industry: A Channel Perspective

      Keywords: Performance Improvement; Marketing Channels; Fashion Industry;

      Citation:

      Hammond, J. H., J Dunlop, F A Abernathy, and D. Weil. "Improving the Performance of the Men's Dress Shirt Industry: A Channel Perspective." Harvard Center for Textile and Apparel Research, August 1991.

      Research Summary

    1. Competitive Dynamics of the Textile-Apparel-Retail Channel

      Janice H. Hammond established in 1991 (with Frederick H. Abernathy and John Dunlop of Harvard University and David Weil of Boston University) the Harvard Center for Textile and Apparel Research. Funding provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation has supported the Center's engagement in a host of research-including a major industry survey, industry workshops, field studies, computer modeling, and statistical analyses-into the competitive dynamics of the retail-apparel-textile channel in the United States and abroad. Specifically targeted by the research are technological innovations in the collection and dissemination of sales data that are transforming the way retailers plan and order merchandise and how these changes, in turn, affect the manner in which apparel and textile suppliers forecast demand, plan production, and manufacture and distribute apparel products.
    2. Managing the Manufacturer-Retailer Interface

      Janice H. Hammond is studying the impact of coordination on the performance of manufacturing and retail channels. The focus of her research is on the supply "channel", the set of firms that undertakes the chain of activities that begins with acquisition of raw materials and moves through logistics and manufacturing processes to the sale of the end product to consumers. Hammond is examining (1) the capabilities needed to achieve efficient, effective production and delivery of products, with an emphasis on how the speed and flexibility required to meet changing customer needs are best achieved at both the firm and channel levels, and (2) the types of coordinating mechanisms that can be established-among firms in a channel, among functions within firms, and among members of functional areas-in order to improve firm and channel performance.
    3. Performance Impact of Continuous Replenishment Systems

      Janice H. Hammond has conducted (with Ted Clark of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) a survey of U.S. retailers to determine how the implementation of continuous replenishment programs between manufacturers and retailers affects supply channel performance. The survey data and manufacturers' order databases are being statistically analyzed to establish the impact of continuous replenishment systems on retail distribution center inventory and stockout levels and to provide insight into the nature and extent of the learning that takes place following initial implementation of a continuous replenishment program.
    4. Innovations in Logistics: The Impact of Channel Coordination

      Roy D. Shapiro (with Janice H. Hammond and Marshall L. Fisher) is studying innovative systems and management approaches that integrate and coordinate material and information flows through the supply chain so as to reduce or eliminate the redundant activities that tend to characterize these channels. His research focuses on companies worldwide in two industries-packaged consumer goods and textiles/apparel-that have successfully integrated suppliers, producers, transporters, warehousers, distributors, and retailers into systems that can be managed as coherent units through which goods flow smoothly. Shapiro's research addresses (1) coordinating mechanisms (e.g., continuous product replenishment, made famous by Procter & Gamble and Wal-Mart and emulated by dozens of channel partners) that tie different corporate entities into the channel and how the attendant relationships are defined, forged, and managed, and (2) information flows among relationship partners (that identify what is critical) and how they are effectively generated, shared, and communicated.