Willis M. Emmons

Senior Lecturer of Business Administration
Director, C. Roland Christensen Center for Teaching and Learning

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WILLIAM (WILLIS) EMMONS is Senior Lecturer and Director of the C. Roland Christensen Center for Teaching and Learning at Harvard Business School, a position he has held since 2004.  As Director of the Christensen Center, Emmons oversees programs to promote and support teaching excellence and innovation within Harvard Business School and to provide leadership and expertise about case method teaching and participant-centered learning for instructors at other institutions in the United States and abroad.

From 1999-2004, Emmons was Associate Professor at Georgetown University's McDonough School of Business in the area of Strategy, Economics, Ethics and Policy, where he received the Graduate Teaching Award (2003). At Georgetown he taught courses on strategic management and international business. Emmons was a member of the Harvard Business School faculty from 1989-1999 where, as part of the Business, Government, and the International Economy (BGIE) unit, he taught courses in the M.B.A. and executive education programs. He also has taught extensively in corporate executive development programs and has consulted to corporations and governments on domestic and international issues relating to business strategy and government policy.

Emmons received the A.B. cum laude in Government (Phi Beta Kappa), the M.B.A. with high distinction (Baker Scholar), and the Ph.D. in Business Economics, all from Harvard University. His book, The Evolving Bargain: Strategic Implications of Deregulation and Privatization. (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000), winner of the 2001 Alpha Sigma Nu Book Award, is based on extensive international research and offers a practical framework for understanding the challenges and potential rewards for established and new ventures in the face of domestic and international market liberalization. Emmons has published articles in a number of scholarly journals, including The RAND Journal of Economics, The Review of Economics and Statistics, and The Journal of Economic History. He is also the author of over thirty Harvard Business School case studies and conceptual notes in the field of business, government, and competition.

Publications

Journal Articles

  1. Review of Power Loss: The Origins of Deregulation and Restructuring in the American Electric Utility System, by Richard F. Hirsh

    Willis Emmons

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Energy; Energy Industry; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis. "Review of Power Loss: The Origins of Deregulation and Restructuring in the American Electric Utility System, by Richard F. Hirsh." Journal of Economic Literature 39, no. 3 (September 2001): 941–943. View Details
  2. Implications of Ownership, Regulation, and Market Structure for Performance: Evidence from the U.S. Electric Utility Industry Before and After the New Deal

    Willis Emmons

    Keywords: Markets; Performance; Ownership; Energy Industry;

  3. The Effects of Market Structure and Ownership on Prices and Service Offerings in the Cable Television Industry

    Willis Emmons and Robin A. Prager

    Keywords: Markets; Ownership; Price; Service Delivery; Entertainment; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis, and Robin A. Prager. "The Effects of Market Structure and Ownership on Prices and Service Offerings in the Cable Television Industry." RAND Journal of Economics 28, no. 4 (winter 1997): 732–750. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. The Mexican Toll Roads Program

    Willis Emmons

    Keywords: Infrastructure; Transportation; Taxation; Programs; Transportation Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis. "The Mexican Toll Roads Program." In Privatizing Monopolies: Lessons from the Telecommunications and Transport Sectors in Latin America, edited by Ravi Ramamurti. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. MassMEDIC: The Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council

    Willis M. Emmons III, Michael E. Porter and Spencer Wallace

    Set in 2004, as Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council (MassMEDIC) President Tom Sommer contemplates the future direction of a successful medical device cluster association. Focuses on the formation of cluster organizations and their roles and effectiveness, highlighting the importance of these organizations in enabling cross-cluster collaboration between firms, universities, regulators and other government officials, and other institutions. Details the events that led to the formation of MassMEDIC and the initial challenges the organization faced. Discusses the evolution of MassMEDIC's activities, from its formation in 1996 through 2004, and the views of different MassMEDIC stakeholders on the future direction of the organization. Provides detailed data about MassMEDIC and the Massachusetts medical device cluster to enable an evaluation of results and inform future direction.

    Keywords: Economic Growth; Industry Clusters; Nonprofit Organizations; Social and Collaborative Networks; Cooperation; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, Michael E. Porter, and Spencer Wallace. "MassMEDIC: The Massachusetts Medical Device Industry Council." Harvard Business School Case 706-498, June 2006. (Revised July 2009.) View Details
  2. Clear Communications Ltd. vs. Telecom Corporation of New Zealand Ltd. (A)

    Willis M. Emmons III and Martin Calles

    Features the challenges facing an entrant in the New Zealand telecommunications market during the period 1989-1994. Clear Communications Ltd. (CCL), a joint venture owned by Bell Canada, MCI, New Zealand Television Corp., and Todd Companies, begins offering long distance service in May 1991. The firm is dependent on access to the network of the incumbent, Telecom Corp. of New Zealand, to offer most of its services. This dependence proves to be a significant obstacle to CCL's expansion into the local business call market, particularly given New Zealand's unique "light-handed" regulatory system. Clear ultimately spends millions of dollars in a failed four-year lawsuit to obtain better terms of interconnection. In October 1994, CEO Andrew Makin must decide the future strategic direction of the firm.

    Keywords: Market Entry and Exit; Competition; Emerging Markets; Privatization; Monopoly; Wireless Technology; Corporate Strategy; Business or Company Management; Expansion; Law; Telecommunications Industry; New Zealand;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, and Martin Calles. "Clear Communications Ltd. vs. Telecom Corporation of New Zealand Ltd. (A)." Harvard Business School Case 798-085, June 1998. (Revised December 2006.) View Details
  3. Asociacion Colombiana de Industrias Plasticas (Acoplasticos)

    Michael E. Porter and Willis M. Emmons III

    Acoplasticos was established in 1961 as a lobbying group for Colombia's major plastics manufacturing companies. In the early 1980s, the organization shifted its focus toward improving the productivity of the Colombian plastics and rubber cluster, which also included certain petrochemical, manmade fiber, paint, and ink industries. Over time, the organization's activities expanded to include cluster technology upgrading, training, trade fair production, joint procurement, and information collection and dissemination. Despite significant improvement in the performance of the Colombian plastics and rubber cluster during the 1990s, however, Executive Director Carlos Garay was concerned about the challenging economic and political environment in 2002.

    Keywords: Cooperation; Technology; Alliances; Research and Development; Business and Government Relations; Performance Productivity; Developing Countries and Economies; Manufacturing Industry; Chemical Industry; Colombia;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Willis M. Emmons III. "Asociacion Colombiana de Industrias Plasticas (Acoplasticos)." Harvard Business School Case 703-437, February 2003. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  4. Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM)

    Michael E. Porter, Willis M. Emmons III and Christian Fenner

    Le Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique S.A. (CSEM)--the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology--was a major nonprofit research institution located in Neuchatel, Switzerland, with roots in the Swiss watch industry. CSEM maintained close links to several Swiss universities, and over time, the center's activities expanded to include basic and applied research, contract production, and technology consulting. By the late 1990s, CSEM began spinning off promising commercial ventures and incorporating them as for-profit companies. In 2001, CEO Thomas Hinderling wondered whether any adjustments in CSEM's strategy were necessary or desirable going forward.

    Keywords: Cooperation; Technology; Alliances; Research and Development; Performance Productivity; Innovation and Invention; Nonprofit Organizations; Electronics Industry; Switzerland;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., Willis M. Emmons III, and Christian Fenner. "Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM)." Harvard Business School Case 703-438, February 2003. (Revised March 2006.) View Details
  5. Institutions for Collaboration: Overview

    Michael E. Porter and Willis M. Emmons III

    Provides an overview of the wide variety of organizations other than firms, government ministries and regulatory agencies, and universities that may have significant effects on competitiveness. These intermediary entities, referred to as institutions for collaboration (IFCs), include, for example, chambers of commerce, industry associations, professional associations, trade unions, technology transfer organizations, quality centers, think tanks, university alumni associations, and others.

    Keywords: Globalization; Labor Unions; Organizations; Competitive Strategy; Technology;

    Citation:

    Porter, Michael E., and Willis M. Emmons III. "Institutions for Collaboration: Overview." Harvard Business School Background Note 703-436, January 2003. View Details
  6. National Power and the Privatization of the British Power Generation Industry

    Willis M. Emmons III and Ed Simnett

    The British government privatized the nation's electric utility sector in 1991 through a complex process involving the restructuring of the industry as well as the creation of a new regulatory oversight body. National Power plc, the largest of the privatized power generators, has emerged as highly profitable under private ownership, yet faces challenges with respect to an increasingly hostile regulatory environment. In addition, the firm, under chairman John Baker, is debating whether to explore opportunities for expansion and diversification in foreign markets.

    Keywords: Restructuring; Trade; Energy Generation; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Markets; Monopoly; Privatization; Opportunities; Diversification; Expansion; Energy Industry; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, and Ed Simnett. "National Power and the Privatization of the British Power Generation Industry." Harvard Business School Case 796-066, November 1995. (Revised November 1999.) View Details
  7. GLSTN 1996

    James E. Austin, Willis M. Emmons III and David Maue

    The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Teachers Network (GLSTN), which aims to create respect for all within schools regardless of sexual orientation, faces significant challenges stemming from its rapid growth into a 30-chapter national organization. Issues include headquarters-chapter relations, financial sustainability, leadership, and governance.

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Problems and Challenges; Leadership; Networks; Policy; Change Management; Nonprofit Organizations; Leadership Development; Growth Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Willis M. Emmons III, and David Maue. "GLSTN 1996." Harvard Business School Case 797-038, September 1996. (Revised November 1999.) View Details
  8. "ACT UP": Peter Staley, An Interview with Professor Willis Emmons, November 17, 1995

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Provides excerpts from an interview with Peter Staley of Act Up reflecting on the Wall Street protest against Burroughs Wellcome in the fall of 1989 and on the role and impact of AIDS advocacy and activism in general.

    Keywords: Health Pandemics; Social Issues; Public Opinion; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "ACT UP": Peter Staley, An Interview with Professor Willis Emmons, November 17, 1995. Harvard Business School Video Supplement 700-501, November 1999. View Details
  9. New Zealand: The Wonder Down Under

    Willis M. Emmons III and Kevin W. W. Glasgow

    Long regarded as the most extensive welfare state among the world's industrialized nations, New Zealand embarked on a strategy of radical economic reform/liberalization following a severe foreign exchange crisis in 1984. This case examines the initial reform strategy under the Labour government (1984-1990) and the subsequent reforms under the National government (1991-1996). By late 1998, an unstable coalition government under Prime Minister Jenny Shipley faces a wide range of social, economic, and political pressures from both the right and left.

    Keywords: Strategy; Development Economics; New Zealand;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, and Kevin W. W. Glasgow. "New Zealand: The Wonder Down Under." Harvard Business School Case 700-022, September 1999. View Details
  10. 1-800 Buy Ireland

    Willis M. Emmons III, Adele S. Cooper and J. Richard Lenane

    After decades of poor economic performance, the Irish government adopted major changes in economic policy in 1987. By the end of the 1990s, Ireland's real GDP growth rate of almost 10% per year exceeds that of all member nations of the European Union (EU). A key component of Ireland's growth strategy has been the encouragement of foreign direct investment through low tax rates and financial and logistical support provided by the Irish Industrial Development Agency (IDA). In 1999, Ireland confronts the issue of sustainability of the "Irish miracle" in the face of diminishing access to EU subsidies, increasingly strained physical infrastructure, and questions of equity in the distribution of economic gains across the population. The case includes substantial material relating to the Irish political, social, and historical context in addition to traditional economic statistics.

    Keywords: Integration; Development Economics; Supply and Industry; Policy; Foreign Direct Investment; Growth and Development Strategy; Macroeconomics; Republic of Ireland;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, Adele S. Cooper, and J. Richard Lenane. "1-800 Buy Ireland." Harvard Business School Case 799-132, April 1999. (Revised June 1999.) View Details
  11. United States Financial Crisis of 1931, Note on Franklin D. Roosevelt, and A Keynesian Cure for The Depression,The Data Supplement

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Supplement to (9-384-115), (9-382-073), and (9-382-065).

    Keywords: Government and Politics; Economic Slowdown and Stagnation; Financial Crisis; Macroeconomics; United States;

  12. Paragould City Cable

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Unhappy with the prices provided by the local, privately owned cable television operator, the city of Paragould, Arkansas constructs a competing municipally owned cable system. Once in operation, Paragould City Cable faces vigorous competition from the incumbent private operator. In the fall of 1993, City Cable Manager Larry Watson must decide what strategic changes, if any, to make in light of the municipal system's persistent losses.

    Keywords: Business Strategy; Television Entertainment; Competitive Strategy; Distribution Channels; Media; Public Sector; Programs; Growth and Development Strategy; Cost; Performance Improvement; Entertainment and Recreation Industry; Arkansas;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Paragould City Cable." Harvard Business School Case 794-030, October 1993. (Revised October 1996.) View Details
  13. ENTel and the Privatization of Argentine Telecommunications

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Growing fiscal deficits, persistent economic recession, and underinvestment in the nation's telecommunications infrastructure lead the Argentine government to privatize its state-owned monopoly provider of telecommunications services, ENTel, in late 1990. The privatization process and the resulting ownership structure is complex, and the new regulatory framework appears to offer both significant opportunities and risks for investors.

    Keywords: Opportunities; Risk and Uncertainty; Communication Technology; Privatization; Wireless Technology; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Competition; Development Economics; Policy; Government and Politics; Performance Effectiveness; Telecommunications Industry; Argentina;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "ENTel and the Privatization of Argentine Telecommunications." Harvard Business School Case 796-065, November 1995. (Revised April 1996.) View Details
  14. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: General Background Information

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Designed to teach students about the trade-offs faced by firms exploring alternative approaches to complying with pollution control regulations. The setting is the U.S. electric utility industry in 1993. In accordance with the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act, coal-burning utilities must lower their emissions of SO2 (sulfur dioxide) significantly by 1995, and then reduce their emissions by an additional 50% by the year 2000. In this stylized negotiation each utility has the option of complying with the regulations through one of three methods: 1) by installing pollution control equipment ("scrubbers"); 2) by substituting high-sulfur coal; and/or 3) by purchasing tradeable SO2 allowances from other firms that overcomply with the emission control legislation. Not only must each utility reduce its emissions by a different amount, but the costs faced by each firm with respect to scrubbing and fuel switching differ as well. Also, assumptions relating to the state regulatory environment differ across negotiating groups. Negotiations take place in groups of four utilities, and separate scenarios are available for three distinct groups. (See Supplements.)

    Keywords: Negotiation; Pollution and Pollutants; Laws and Statutes; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Governance Compliance; Utilities Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: General Background Information." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-072, December 1992. (Revised September 1995.) View Details
  15. Public Policy and the Manager: Conceptual Framework

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Government intervention in markets may have significant effects--both positive and negative--on a firm's strategic options and its performance outcomes. Thus the ability to analyze the origins, implications, and dynamics of public policy is a critical managerial skill in today's market economies. This note provides managers with a framework for analyzing relationships between public policy, business strategy, and performance. Designed in particular for use in the Harvard MBA course Capitalism Constrained. The conceptual framework is applied to managerial settings in the environmental, energy, transportation, media and communications, financial services, and health and safety sectors.

    Keywords: Policy; Management Skills; Government and Politics; Adoption; Business Strategy; Performance Evaluation; Economic Systems;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Public Policy and the Manager: Conceptual Framework." Harvard Business School Background Note 794-028, September 1993. (Revised July 1995.) View Details
  16. Note on Product Liability

    Willis M. Emmons III, Monica Brand and Greg Keller

    This note provides an overview to the evolution and current state of product liability law in the United States.

    Keywords: Goods and Commodities; Legal Liability; Safety; Product Marketing; Business Strategy; Policy; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, Monica Brand, and Greg Keller. "Note on Product Liability." Harvard Business School Background Note 795-049, May 1995. View Details
  17. Dow Corning and the Breast Implant Controversy (A)

    Willis M. Emmons III, Monica Brand and Greg Keller

    In early 1994, Dow Corning Corp. debates whether to participate in a proposed $4.2 billion product liability settlement. Specifically, the firm must decide whether to contribute $2 billion to end a class action suit filed by women suffering from connective tissue diseases, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions, allegedly as a result of defective silicone breast implants. Although denying any impropriety, Dow Corning stands accused of intentionally withholding information on health risks associated with its implants over several decades.

    Keywords: Safety; Ethics; Health Disorders; Government Legislation; Crime and Corruption; Legal Liability; Risk and Uncertainty; Business Strategy; Communication Strategy; Lawsuits and Litigation; Health Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, Monica Brand, and Greg Keller. "Dow Corning and the Breast Implant Controversy (A)." Harvard Business School Case 795-047, November 1994. View Details
  18. Note on Pharmaceutical Industry Regulation

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Traces the evolution of U.S. regulatory policy towards the pharmaceutical industry over the course of the twentieth century. A major theme is the steady shift away from a policy of 'let the buyer beware' to the creation of a complex and time-consuming review process, administered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in which both the safety and efficacy of each new drug must be demonstrated prior to sale in the United States. The basic economics of the pharmaceutical business are covered as well, including the trend toward greater emphasis on both marketing and R&D over the course of the century. The controversial issues of drug pricing, patent policy, and access to experimental drugs in the age of AIDS are explored as well. Includes a number of statistical charts and graphs of key indicators relating to the pharmaceutical industry in the post-WWII era.

    Keywords: Safety; Industry Growth; Marketing; Research and Development; Health Testing and Trials; Economics; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Note on Pharmaceutical Industry Regulation." Harvard Business School Background Note 792-002, September 1991. (Revised August 1994.) View Details
  19. Note on Pricing and Public Policy

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Surveys a number of essential issues related to pricing and public policy in market economies. Begins with a brief review of the price-determination process in competitive markets, then examines a range of topics involving pricing and public policy in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Includes a number of graphs that illustrate the relationship between costs, demand, price, efficiency, and profitability under various market conditions.

    Keywords: Price; Business Strategy; Policy; Valuation; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Competition; Economic Systems; Monopoly; Duopoly and Oligopoly; Cost;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Note on Pricing and Public Policy." Harvard Business School Background Note 794-027, September 1993. (Revised December 1993.) View Details
  20. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #3

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #3 in negotiating Group C with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Negotiation Process; Pollution and Pollutants; Laws and Statutes; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Governance Compliance; Utilities Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #3." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-083, December 1992. (Revised November 1993.) View Details
  21. USSR--1990

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the political, economic, and social development of the USSR from 1921-90. Particular emphasis is placed on 1) institutional change, 2) the costs and benefits of central economic planning, and 3) the political economy of perestroika under Mikhail Gorbachev. Provides the opportunity for students to carry out a detailed country analysis of the Soviet Union--its goals, strategy, and performance over time. Set in March 1990 when the country is facing shortages of food and consumer goods, the Lithuanian secession, the introduction of multi-party democracy, and the legalization of some forms of private property. Students can thus evaluate the options available to Gorbachev for steering the nation through the greatest period of change since its founding.

    Keywords: Country; Strategy; Cost vs Benefits; Change; Government and Politics; Russia;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "USSR--1990." Harvard Business School Case 390-155, March 1990. (Revised May 1993.) View Details
  22. Note on Cable Television Regulation

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Examines the evolution of the U.S. cable television industry since its inception in the early 1950s. Particular emphasis is given to the roles played by technology, consumer demand, and regulation at both the local and federal level. Designed to facilitate a conceptual analysis of natural monopoly, market contestability, and intangible property rights. Financial statements from a major cable company are included to support a discussion of the basic economics of the cable television business. Focal points include legislative proposals to: 1) reregulate cable service rates, 2) allow local telephone companies to offer cable television service, and 3) to restrict the vertical integration of cable companies into programming. Updated through the passage of the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992.

    Keywords: Technology; Demand and Consumers; Government Legislation; Business Growth and Maturation; Monopoly; Television Entertainment; Telecommunications Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Note on Cable Television Regulation." Harvard Business School Background Note 391-022, October 1990. (Revised March 1993.) View Details
  23. Empresas ICA and the Mexican Road Privatization Program

    Willis M. Emmons III and Monica Brand

    Mexico's largest construction company, Empresas ICA, makes an initial public offering to international equity investors in April 1992 to help fund its participation in an ambitious new private-sector approach to highway development. Under the new program, launched by President Carlos Salinas de Gotari in 1989, the Mexican government offers concessions to private sector bidders for the construction and operation of toll roads along key transportation corridors. Winning bidders are required to take an equity stake in their communities and to raise debt capital outside of the public sector. The case allows students to explore the opportunities and risks offered to domestic and foreign firms by the privatization movement sweeping Latin America in the early 1990s.

    Keywords: Construction; Transportation Networks; Infrastructure; Privatization; Private Equity; Investment; Initial Public Offering; Private Sector; Government and Politics; Policy; Construction Industry; Mexico;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III, and Monica Brand. "Empresas ICA and the Mexican Road Privatization Program." Harvard Business School Case 793-028, September 1992. (Revised March 1993.) View Details
  24. USSR--1990, Supplement

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Provides an update of key social, political, and economic outcomes in the Soviet Union over the period April 1990 to February 1991.

    Keywords: Social Issues; Outcome or Result; Government and Politics; Economy; Transition; Soviet Union;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "USSR--1990, Supplement." Harvard Business School Supplement 391-161, February 1991. (Revised March 1993.) View Details
  25. Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (B)

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes Burroughs Wellcome's response to protests over the pricing of its AIDS drug AZT in September 1989. Also presents short-term reactions by government officials, AIDS activists, and investors to Burroughs Wellcome's strategy.

    Keywords: Ethics; Health Pandemics; Multinational Firms and Management; Price; Crime and Corruption; Risk and Uncertainty; Business Strategy; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Business and Shareholder Relations; Pharmaceutical Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 793-114, March 1993. View Details
  26. Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (C)

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes key developments relating to Burroughs Wellcome, AZT and other AIDS drugs, and the AIDS issue in general from late 1989 through 1992. Includes excerpts from Wellcome PLC's financial statements and updated statistics on AIDS in the United States.

    Keywords: Health Pandemics; Multinational Firms and Management; Financial Statements; Pharmaceutical Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 793-115, March 1993. View Details
  27. Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (A)

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Burroughs Wellcome Co., developer of AZT, the first drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), finds itself under siege in September 1989 by AIDS activists and various segments of the U.S. government. In spite of repeated demands over the previous two years to lower the price of AZT (trademarked Retrovie), Burroughs Wellcome and its parent company, London-based Wellcome PLC, have refused, claiming that the $6,300 annual (wholesale) cost of the drug per person is justified, based on high research, development, production, and other costs associated with the drug. The firm's opponents accuse it of using an existing chemical compound, ample government research assistance, and a cooperative regulatory system to gain a monopoly on the only approved treatment available for people with AIDS. The case gives students the opportunity to explore the economics and regulation of the pharmaceutical industry, wrestle with the ethics of drug pricing, and analyze the formulation of public relations strategies on the part of both private companies and activist groups in the age of AIDS.

    Keywords: Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Ethics; Business and Government Relations; Communication Strategy; Health Care and Treatment; Monopoly; Intellectual Property; Research and Development; Price; Pharmaceutical Industry; London;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Burroughs Wellcome and AZT (A)." Harvard Business School Case 792-004, September 1991. (Revised February 1993.) View Details
  28. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #1

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #1 in negotiating Group A with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Negotiation Participants; Negotiation Process; Pollution and Pollutants; Laws and Statutes; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Governance Compliance; Utilities Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #1." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-073, December 1992. View Details
  29. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #2

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #2 in negotiating Group A with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #2." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-074, December 1992. View Details
  30. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #3

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #3 in negotiating Group A with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #3." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-075, December 1992. View Details
  31. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #4

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #4 in negotiating Group A with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group A, Utility #4." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-076, December 1992. View Details
  32. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #1

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #1 in negotiating Group B with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Governance Compliance; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Government Legislation; Negotiation; Pollution and Pollutants; Strategy; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #1." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-077, December 1992. View Details
  33. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #2

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #2 in negotiating Group B with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #2." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-078, December 1992. View Details
  34. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #3

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #3 in negotiating Group B with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #3." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-079, December 1992. View Details
  35. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #4

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #4 in negotiating Group B with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group B, Utility #4." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-080, December 1992. View Details
  36. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #1

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #1 in negotiating Group C with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #1." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-081, December 1992. View Details
  37. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #2

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #2 in negotiating Group C with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #2." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-082, December 1992. View Details
  38. Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #4

    Willis M. Emmons III

    Describes the position of Utility #4 in negotiating Group C with respect to 1) its SO emissions reduction requirements; 2) the costs of its alternative compliance strategies; and 3) the nature of its state regulatory environment.

    Keywords: Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Emmons, Willis M., III. "Negotiation Exercise on Tradeable Pollution Allowances: Group C, Utility #4." Harvard Business School Exercise 793-084, December 1992. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Public Policy and Markets

    by Willis M. Emmons

    William (Willis) M. Emmons III is investigating the interaction of public policy, markets, business strategy, and performance at the levels of firm, industry, and society. Emmons' approach draws heavily on economic theories of industrial organization, market failure, and property rights, which he applies to the behavior of firms and managers operating in environments shaped significantly by public policy. His research to date has focused on a number of industries that are typically subject to government intervention, including public utilities, telecommunications and the media, transportation, natural resources, and health care. Emmons' findings, which have been reported in a number of scholarly publications, including The RAND Journal of Economics,The Review of Economics and Statistics, and The Journal of Economic History, form the basis of the elective course, Capitalism Constrained: Public Policy and the Manager. Emmons is currently completing a book on the managerial challenges of deregulation and privatization based on extensive field research in the United States, Europe, Latin America, and Asia.