Anat Keinan

Jakurski Family Associate Professor of Business Administration

Unit: Marketing


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Anat Keinan is an Associate Professor of Business Administration in the Marketing Unit at Harvard Business School. She received her Ph.D. in Marketing, with distinction, from Columbia Business School. Professor Keinan is the winner of the 2011 JCR Ferber Award. Her work has been chosen by the New York Times as one of the "Best Ideas of 2006," and as a finalist for the Journal of Consumer Research 2009 and 2014 best paper awards. Her research on consumer behavior has been published in the leading marketing, psychology, and managerial journals, and featured in hundreds of media outlets, including NPR, CNN, FOX, CBS, NBC, ABC, The Wall Street JournalThe New YorkerThe Economist, Scientific American,BusinessWeekFinancial TimesForbes, TIME, Boston GlobeWashington PostSlate MagazineWired Magazine, Fast Company, Associated Press, and United Press International. She was named a Marketing Science Institute Young Scholar in 2013, and serves on the Editorial Review Board of JCR. In 2015 Professor Keinan was ranked by the American Marketing Association as one of the Top 50 most productive Scholars in the premier marketing journals in the past 5 years (2010-2014). In 2016 she was again ranked as one of the top 50 most productive marketing scholars. Her research was recently selected for the JCR Research Curation on “Products as Signals” and the Research Curation on “Meaningful Choice". At HBS, she teaches a new elective MBA course on Luxury Marketing.

Professor Keinan’s research interests include Branding, Luxury Marketing, Symbolic Consumption, Consumer self-Control, Regret, Fairness and Ethics in Marketing, and the Consumption of Experiences. One stream of research examines consumer's regrets and shows that in the long run, choosing work over play leads to regrets about having missed out on the pleasures of life. Her research demonstrates that while in the short-term it appears preferable to act responsibly and choose virtue over vice, over time such righteous behavior generates increasing regret. Her research further demonstrates that anticipating distant-future regret may help individuals who chronically deprive themselves of hedonism to realize and remedy this tendency.

Professor Keinan has also examined why consumers desire unusual and extreme consumption experiences that may actually be unpleasant and even aversive. Examples include consumers who voluntarily stay at ice hotels, where they sleep on beds made of ice in freezing temperatures, and consumers who eat at restaurants serving peculiar foods, such as bacon ice cream and chocolate truffles with vinegar and anchovies. Her research demonstrates that such preferences represent a broader phenomenon, whereby consumers derive utility from collecting memorable experiences, "checking off" items on their "experiential check list," and building their "experiential CV."

A native of Israel, she received a B.A. in Economics and Communication and an MBA (Dean's List and Magna cum Laude) from Tel-Aviv University.  In addition to her academic background, Anat has served in the Intelligence Corps within the IDF, worked as an advertising manager for an Israeli financial services corporation, and served on the Board of Directors for an employment placement agency in Israel.

Featured Work


Journal Articles

  1. Luxury Branding Research: New Perspectives and Future Priorities

    Anat Keinan, Sandrine Crener-Ricard and Silvia Bellezza

    Several major trends have changed the landscape for luxury brands. These shifts include the increasing role of technology (digital and mobile) as well as the use by consumers of alternative signals of status, such as wearing less prominently branded apparel, being less conformist (e.g., entering a luxury store in a casual outfit), consuming leisure time in a conspicuous way or, conversely, the flaunting of a busy life and a dearth of leisure time. In addition, people’s relative interest in buying luxury experiences versus luxury products is increasing. Technology has introduced new business models, such as collaborative consumption in a sharing economy (e.g., Onefinestay, Rent the Runway, Sentient Jet), and there is a more explicit focus on sustainability (e.g., Stella McCartney). Luxury brands need to consider the increasing global connectedness, particularly the importance of the Chinese market for luxury companies, as well as customers’ changing expectations for the brands. Companies can leverage storytelling to build their brands, and careful brand extensions can grow the business as long as they do not alienate core loyalists. Other potentially risky opportunities to weigh carefully are moving production from the original country of origin, letting the merchandise design be guided too much by customers’ wants and needs, using off-price distribution channels, and partnering with a mass merchant on a shared collection (e.g., Target and H&M collaborations).


    Keinan, Anat, Sandrine Crener-Ricard, and Silvia Bellezza. "Luxury Branding Research: New Perspectives and Future Priorities." In Online Luxury Retailing: Leveraging Digital Opportunities: Research, Industry Practice, and Open Questions. Philadelphia: Wharton School, Baker Retailing Center, 2016. View Details
  2. The Functional Alibi

    Anat Keinan, Ran Kivetz and Oded Netzer

    Spending money on hedonic luxuries often seems wasteful, irrational, and even immoral. We propose that adding a small utilitarian feature to a luxury product can serve as a functional alibi, justifying the indulgent purchase and reducing indulgence guilt. We demonstrate that consumers tend to inflate the value, and usage frequency, of utilitarian features when they are attached to hedonic luxuries. Using a mixed-method approach, combining archival data (an analysis of over 1,000 online reviews of handbags) with studies conducted in the field and laboratory, we establish the functional alibi effect and show that it is mediated by guilt and more likely to occur when the luxury purchase is perceived as frivolous and expensive, and when the purchase is for oneself rather than a gift. We explore the effect of adding a functional alibi in a variety of marketing contexts, and we examine various consumer populations representing diverse demographics.


    Keinan, Anat, Ran Kivetz, and Oded Netzer. "The Functional Alibi." Special Issue on the Science of Hedonistic Consumption. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research 1, no. 4 (October 2016): 479–496. (Lead Article.) View Details
  3. Consuming Brands

    Jill Avery and Anat Keinan

    Traditional definitions of branding often underestimate the value a brand has for infusing a choice situation with meaning. This chapter explores how people consume brands and presents three perspectives on the meaning of brands that have diverse theoretical roots in cognitive psychology, social psychology, and cultural sociology. Brands are important building blocks of the self and serve as relational partners, enabling people to build and enact meaningful lives. People consume brands to access the meaning contained within them and co-create that meaning through their consumption of and relationships with brands. Brands, thus, are meaning-based assets, so brand management, at its core, is a process of meaning management. Managerial questions related to how to build and extend brand meaning and how to change an existing brand's meaning over time are informed by the illumination of individual consumer and collective community meaning-making processes. The chapter concludes with thoughts about the challenges of studying brands and the importance of interdisciplinary multi-method branding research that aims to understand brands in social, cultural, and competitive context.


    Avery, Jill, and Anat Keinan. "Consuming Brands." Chap. 8 in The Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Psychology, edited by Michael I. Norton, Derek D. Rucker, and Cait Lamberton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. View Details
  4. The Upside to Large Competitors

    Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan and Jill Avery

    Large companies are often viewed as a major threat for startups and small companies; big companies have more financial resources and greater scale, market power, and brand awareness than small ones. However, our research finds that a smaller brand can actually benefit if consumers can see the competitive threat it faces from a larger organization.

    Keywords: brands and branding; brand management; marketing; marketing strategy; competition; Marketing; Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Retail Industry; United States;


    Paharia, Neeru, Anat Keinan, and Jill Avery. "The Upside to Large Competitors." MIT Sloan Management Review 56, no. 1 (Fall 2014). View Details
  5. How 'Brand Tourists' Can Grow Sales

    Silvia Bellezza and Anat Keinan

    The article discusses how exclusive brands can increase their sales by moving "downmarket" without diminishing their prestige or alienating existing customers. The authors suggest various ways to cater to new, non-core customers in a way that differentiates the newcomers from a brand's core clientele. Examples are cited for apparel-maker Lululemon, fashion label Prada, and jeweler Bulgari.


    Bellezza, Silvia, and Anat Keinan. "How 'Brand Tourists' Can Grow Sales." Harvard Business Review 92, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2014): 28. View Details
  6. Positioning Brands Against Large Competitors to Increase Sales

    Neeru Paharia, Jill Avery and Anat Keinan

    We explore the effect of having a large dominant competitor and show the conditions under which focusing on a competitive threat, rather than hiding it, can actually help a brand. We demonstrate through lab and field studies that highlighting a large competitor's size and close proximity can help smaller brands instead of harming them. We find that support for small brands goes up when faced with a competitive threat from large brands, versus when they are in competition with brands that are similar to them, or when consumers view them outside of a competitive context. This support translates into purchase intention, real purchase, and more favorable online reviews in a study of over 10,000 Yelp posts. We argue that this "framing the game effect" is mediated by consumers' motivation to express their views and have an impact on the marketplace through their purchasing.

    Keywords: marketing; Brands; brands and branding; brand management; brand positioning; competitive positioning; Brands and Branding; Marketing; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Retail Industry; Food and Beverage Industry; Air Transportation Industry; United States;


    Paharia, Neeru, Jill Avery, and Anat Keinan. "Positioning Brands Against Large Competitors to Increase Sales." Journal of Marketing Research (JMR) 51, no. 6 (December 2014): 647–656. (Lead article.) View Details
  7. Brand Tourists: How Non-Core Users Enhance the Brand Image by Eliciting Pride

    Silvia Bellezza and Anat Keinan

    This research examines how core consumers of selective brands react when non-core users obtain access to the brand. Contrary to the view that non-core users and downward brand extensions pose a threat to the brand, this work investigates the conditions under which these non-core users enhance rather than dilute the brand image. A distinction between two types of non-core users based on how they are perceived by current users of core products is introduced: "brand immigrants" who claim to be part of the in-group of core users of the brand and "brand tourists" who do not claim any membership status to the brand community. A series of studies shows that core consumers respond positively to non-core users when they are perceived as brand tourists. The brand tourism effect is mediated by core users' pride and moderated by brand patriotism and selectiveness of the brand.

    Keywords: Consumer Behavior; Attitudes; Brands and Branding;


    Bellezza, Silvia, and Anat Keinan. "Brand Tourists: How Non-Core Users Enhance the Brand Image by Eliciting Pride." Journal of Consumer Research 41, no. 2 (August 2014): 397–417. View Details
  8. The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Nonconformity

    Silvia Bellezza, Francesca Gino and Anat Keinan

    We examine how people react to nonconforming behaviors, such as entering a luxury boutique wearing gym clothes rather than an elegant outfit or wearing red sneakers in a professional setting. Nonconforming behaviors, as costly and visible signals, can act as a particular form of conspicuous consumption and lead to positive inferences of status and competence in the eyes of others. A series of studies demonstrates that people confer higher status and competence to nonconforming rather than conforming individuals. These positive inferences derived from signals of nonconformity are mediated by perceived autonomy and moderated by individual differences in need for uniqueness in the observers. We identify boundary conditions and demonstrate that the positive inferences disappear when the observer is unfamiliar with the environment, when the nonconforming behavior is depicted as unintentional, and in the absence of expected norms and shared standards of formal conduct.

    Keywords: consumer behavior; marketing; Marketing; Consumer Behavior;


    Bellezza, Silvia, Francesca Gino, and Anat Keinan. "The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Nonconformity." Journal of Consumer Research 41, no. 1 (June 2014): 35–54. View Details
  9. Consumer Response to Versioning: How Brands' Production Methods Affect Perceptions of Unfairness

    Andrew Gershoff, Ran Kivetz and Anat Keinan

    Marketers often extend product lines by offering limited-capability models that are created by removing or degrading features in existing models. This production method, called versioning, has been lauded because of its ability to increase both consumer and firm welfare. According to rational utility models, consumers weigh benefits relative to their costs in evaluating a product. So the production method should not be relevant. Anecdotal evidence suggests otherwise. Six studies show how the production method of versioning may be perceived as unfair and unethical and lead to decreased purchase intentions for the brand. Building on prior work in fairness, the studies show that this effect is driven by violations of norms and the perceived similarity between the inferior, degraded version of a product and the full-featured model offered by the brand.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Production; Competency and Skills; Welfare or Wellbeing; Cost vs Benefits; Perception; Customers; Performance Evaluation; Fairness; Business Ventures;


    Gershoff, Andrew, Ran Kivetz, and Anat Keinan. "Consumer Response to Versioning: How Brands' Production Methods Affect Perceptions of Unfairness." Journal of Consumer Research 39, no. 2 (August 2012): 382–398. View Details
  10. Underdog Branding: Why Underdogs Win in Recessions

    Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan and Jill Avery

    Underdog stories about overcoming great odds through passion and determination are particularly resonant during difficult times as they inspire us and give us hope when the outlook we face is bleak. They promise that success is still possible, a much needed message in challenging social, political, and economic times. In the midst of the worst recession since the Great Depression, the economic challenges facing people have intensified due to the financial crisis of 2008, the collapse of the housing market, widespread job losses, rising health care costs, and crushing amounts of consumer debt. During recessionary time periods such as this, people feel increasingly disadvantaged, making them even more likely to identify with the struggles of underdogs. Firms can capitalize on this through the use of underdog brand biographies. Through the stories of brands ranging from Virgin, Lindt, and Adidas, we illustrate how effective underdog stories can catapult brands into the spotlight and sustain them as they grow.

    Keywords: marketing; brand building; brand management; brands and branding; brand positioning; competitive positioning; Brands and Branding; Economics; Marketing Communications; Marketing Strategy; Advertising Campaigns; Advertising Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Fashion Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;


    Paharia, Neeru, Anat Keinan, and Jill Avery. "Underdog Branding: Why Underdogs Win in Recessions." European Business Review (May 2011): 53–56. (Invited Article.) View Details
  11. Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences

    Anat Keinan and Ran Kivetz

    This research examines why consumers desire unusual and novel consumption experiences and voluntarily choose leisure activities, vacations, and celebrations that are predicted to be less pleasurable. For example, consumers sometimes choose to stay at freezing ice hotels and eat at restaurants serving peculiar foods, such as bacon ice cream. We propose that such choices are driven by consumers' continual striving to use time productively, make progress, and reach accomplishments (i.e., a productivity orientation). We argue that choices of collectable (unusual, novel, extreme) experiences lead consumers to feel productive even when they are engaging in leisure activities, as they "check off" items on an "experiential check list" and build their "experiential CV." A series of laboratory and field studies shows that the consumption of collectable experiences is driven and intensified by a (chronic or situational) productivity orientation.

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Innovation and Invention; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Performance Productivity;


    Keinan, Anat, and Ran Kivetz. "Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences." Journal of Consumer Research 37, no. 6 (April 2011). (Winner, 2011 Ferber Award. Finalist, 2014 Best Article Award for a paper published in JCR in 2011.) View Details
  12. The Underdog Effect: The Marketing of Disadvantage and Determination Through Brand Biography

    Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan, Jill Avery and Juliet B. Schor

    We introduce the concept of an underdog brand biography (UBB) to describe an emerging trend in branding in which firms author an historical account of their humble origins, lack of resources, and determined struggle against the odds. We identify two essential dimensions of an underdog biography: external disadvantage, and passion and determination. We demonstrate that a UBB can increase purchase intentions, real choice, and brand loyalty. We argue that UBBs are effective because consumers react positively when they see the underdog aspects of their own lives being reflected in branded products. Four studies demonstrate that the UBB effect is driven by identity mechanisms: we show that the effect is 1) mediated by consumers' identification with the brand, 2) greater for consumers who strongly self-identify as underdogs, 3) stronger when consumers are purchasing for themselves vs. others, and 4) stronger in cultures in which underdog narratives are part of the national identity.

    Keywords: marketing; brand management; Brands; brand building; brand positioning; competitive positioning; advertising; marketing communication; Biography; Brands and Branding; Product Marketing; Emerging Markets; Network Effects; Demand and Consumers; Marketing Communications; Cost vs Benefits; Perspective; Advertising Campaigns; Marketing Strategy; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Advertising Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Fashion Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;


    Paharia, Neeru, Anat Keinan, Jill Avery, and Juliet B. Schor. "The Underdog Effect: The Marketing of Disadvantage and Determination Through Brand Biography." Journal of Consumer Research 37, no. 5 (February 2011): 775–790. (Finalist, 2014 Best Article Award for a paper published in JCR in 2011.) View Details
  13. Capitalizing on the Underdog Effect

    Anat Keinan, Neeru Paharia and Jill Avery

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the use of the underdog effect in marketing. The idea of triumphing over disadvantages by impassioned determination is said to be a powerfully positive image, which can lead consumers to choose a brand over its larger rivals. The results of research on this effect are presented, and exceptions to the rule are noted.

    Keywords: marketing; brand management; Brands; brands and branding; brand positioning; competitive positioning; Competition; Brands and Branding; Advertising Campaigns; Marketing Communications; Marketing Strategy; Advertising Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Fashion Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, Neeru Paharia, and Jill Avery. "Capitalizing on the Underdog Effect." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 11 (November 2010): 32. View Details
  14. The Strategic Use of Brand Biographies

    Jill Avery, Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan and Juliet Schor

    We introduce the concept of a brand biography to describe an emerging trend in branding in which firms author a dynamic, historical account of the events that have shaped the brand over time. Using a particular type of brand biography, "the underdog," we empirically show how managers can strategically use brand biographies in brand positioning, in this case to mitigate the curse of success. As brands grow and become successful, they are often marked by the negative stigma associated with size and power, which elicits anticorporate sentiment from consumers. An underdog brand biography can be strategically wielded to prevent or offset anticorporate backlash stemming from consumers' negative perceptions of firms' size and/or market power.

    Keywords: marketing; Brands; brand management; brand building; brand positioning; competitive positioning; marketing strategy; Brands and Branding; Managerial Roles; Strategy; Product Positioning; Consumer Behavior; Biography; Success; Perception; Markets; Power and Influence; Consumer Products Industry; Beauty and Cosmetics Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Auto Industry; Fashion Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;


    Avery, Jill, Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan, and Juliet Schor. "The Strategic Use of Brand Biographies." Research in Consumer Behavior 12 (2010): 213–230. View Details
  15. When Virtue Is a Vice

    Anat Keinan and Ran Kivetz

    Choosing duty over pleasure today can cause regret down the road—whereas regret over the reverse is fleeting. Marketers of luxury products and services should consider prompting customers to predict their future feelings about choices made now.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Forecasting and Prediction; Moral Sensibility; Marketing Strategy; Consumer Behavior; Emotions; Luxury;


    Keinan, Anat, and Ran Kivetz. "When Virtue Is a Vice." HBS Centennial Issue Harvard Business Review 86, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2008): 22. View Details
  16. Aspects of Endowment: A Query Theory of Value Construction

    Eric Johnson, Gerald Haubl and Anat Keinan

    How do people judge the monetary value of objects? One clue is provided by the typical endowment study (D. Kahneman, J. L. Knetsch, & R. H. Thaler, 1991), in which participants are randomly given either a good, such as a coffee mug, that they may later sell ("sellers") or a choice between the good and amounts of cash ("choosers"). Sellers typically demand at least twice as much as choosers, inconsistent with economic theory. This result is usually explained by an increased weighting of losses, or loss aversion. The authors provide a memory-based account of endowment, suggesting that people construct values by posing a series of queries whose order differs for sellers and choosers. Because of output interference, these queries retrieve different aspects of the object and the medium of exchange, producing different valuations. The authors show that the content and structure of the recalled aspects differ for selling and choosing and that these aspects predict valuations. Merely altering the order in which queries are posed can eliminate the endowment effect, and changing the order of queries can produce endowment-like effects without ownership.

    Keywords: Profit; Forecasting and Prediction; Theory; Valuation; Loss; Ownership; Decision Choices and Conditions;


    Johnson, Eric, Gerald Haubl, and Anat Keinan. "Aspects of Endowment: A Query Theory of Value Construction." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 33, no. 3 (May 2007): 461–474. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Framing the Game: How Brands' Relationships with Their Competitors Affect Consumer Preference

    Neeru Paharia, Jill Avery and Anat Keinan

    In this chapter, we explore how brands' relationships with their competitors affect consumers' preferences. Through a series of experiments, we show that the competitive context in which a brand operates can affect consumers' purchase interest and purchase frequency. We show that brand positioning statements that communicate that brands are in direct competition with each other elicit size effects: consumers like small brands more when they compete with big brands and like big brands less when they compete with small brands. We further explore the relationships between brand size and competition and show that while large brands are punished for being a competitive aggressor, small brands are rewarded when they compete aggressively. Our findings illuminate how small brands can benefit from the presence of a large competitor and provide a process understanding of how consumers assess and relate to brands not in isolation, but as part of a competitive system.

    Keywords: marketing; brands and branding; brand management; CRM; customer relationship management; competition; marketing strategy; Marketing; Brands and Branding; Customer Focus and Relationships; Competition; Consumer Products Industry;


    Paharia, Neeru, Jill Avery, and Anat Keinan. "Framing the Game: How Brands' Relationships with Their Competitors Affect Consumer Preference." Chap. 2 in Strong Brands, Strong Relationships, edited by Susan Fournier, Michael Breazeale, and Jill Avery. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2015. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. C.W. Dixey & Son

    Anat Keinan and Michael B. Beverland

    C.W. Dixey & Son is about to be re-launched as a luxury eyewear brand after a fifty-year absence from the marketplace. This case focuses on reviving a dormant brand with a 200-year plus heritage of innovation, craft excellence, and luxury. Drawing on extensive historical research, brand owner Dr. Simon Palmer believes that the brand’s authenticity is perfect for wealthy customers looking for refinement and inconspicuous luxury in an age of ostentatious logo-centric branding. Drawing upon the brand’s extensive associations with previous users, most notably Sir Winston Churchill, Palmer is ready to re-launch the brand into a crowded market full of well-resourced luxury brand names with high brand awareness. Palmer needs to consider a range of positioning driven decisions in order to ensure C.W. Dixey & Son is re-launched successfully.

    Keywords: luxury branding; Authenticity; inconspicuous consumption; brand positioning; brand revitalization; eyeyewear; Market Entry and Exit; Luxury; Market Participation; Brands and Branding; Consumer Products Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, and Michael B. Beverland. "C.W. Dixey & Son." Harvard Business School Case 517-019, August 2016. View Details
  2. La Martina: Leveraging Polo's Luxury Lifestyle

    Anat Keinan, Maria Fernanda Miguel and Sandrine Crener

    Founded in 1984 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, La Martina has grown from a high-end polo equipment company into a global fashion brand with operations in 56 countries. Polo, which is not only a sport but also a way of life, is at the core of the brand DNA. Polo is a unique sport with a long history and strong culture that the brand intends to protect, preserve, and share with as many people as possible. The world of polo has traditionally conjured up images of exclusivity, sophistication, and elegance, attracting a wealthy crowd of royals, movie stars, and successful business entrepreneurs. It has naturally developed into a suitable environment for luxury brand sponsorship, co-branding, and partnership opportunities. At the same time, polo is a "niche" sport with limited expansion opportunities. Could La Martina continue to grow within the polo world boundaries? Should La Martina diversify into other sports? What impact would a departure from its polo roots have on the brand identity and authenticity? As a global fashion retailer, La Martina was also confronted with a new set of challenges driven by changes in technology, e-commerce, social media, consumer preferences, and shopping behaviors. In 2015, in a fast-paced, globalized, and ultra-competitive environment, La Martina needed to reconsider its business model and decide on its next strategic move.

    Keywords: luxury; luxury brand; digital marketing; premium brands; fashion; leather goods; retail; globalization; diversification; brand positioning; brand extension; lifestyle brand; growth strategy; polo; entrepreneurship; family business; brand partnerships; Business Model; Product Positioning; Diversification; Luxury; Sports; Brands and Branding; Consumer Products Industry; Fashion Industry; Sports Industry; Buenos Aires;


    Keinan, Anat, Maria Fernanda Miguel, and Sandrine Crener. "La Martina: Leveraging Polo's Luxury Lifestyle." Harvard Business School Case 515-085, January 2015. (Revised February 2016.) View Details
  3. Sentient Jet: The Uber of Private Jets

    Anat Keinan and Sandrine Crener

    Founded in 1999 in the Boston area, Sentient Jet had become a leading private aviation company in the United States. Its success was built on the introduction of a groundbreaking membership program that offered business travelers the flexibility and convenience of flying private aircraft for their personal and business needs at an outstanding and unparalleled value. Sentient functioned differently and more efficiently than traditional charter companies: it used an open fleet model, renting jets from a pool of certified charter companies. Thanks to its innovative business model and proprietary technology platform, the firm was providing its clients with all the benefits of owning a fleet of aircraft with none of the associated costs and commitments. Its fares were typically 20% to 30% lower than those of its competitors. In a nutshell, Sentient Jet had invented the Uber of private jets before Uber even existed. With over 15 years of experience, the company was serving more than 5,000 cardholders, and Andrew Collins, president of Sentient Jet, was considering various strategies to double the company’s size in the next few years.

    Keywords: private jets; private aviation; luxury; luxury service; Uber; branding; growth strategy; client acquisition; innovative business model; disruptive innovation; collaborative consumption; disruption; disruptive business model; entrepreneurship; travel; reputation management; sharing economy; word of mouth; Customer Engagement; aircraft; membership programs; Loyalty program; brand positioning; brand building; brand differentiation; customer service; exceeding consumer expectations; 2-way business model; marketing partnerships; Netjet; Air Transportation; Entrepreneurship; Growth and Development Strategy; Air Transportation Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, and Sandrine Crener. "Sentient Jet: The Uber of Private Jets." Harvard Business School Case 516-066, January 2016. View Details
  4. Mauboussin

    Anat Keinan, Sandrine Crener and Audrey Azoulay

    Mauboussin is a French jewelry brand founded in 1827 in Paris. In the 1920s, the company earned a huge notoriety for capturing the aesthetic and emotional dimension of the Art Deco movement in its design and gained a worldwide reputation for innovation and expertise in the realm of colored stones. Known as the designer for royalty and Hollywood stars, Mauboussin was a legendary jeweler but became complacent and lost its clients. Taken over in 2001 by a new leadership team, Mauboussin engaged in a radically different strategy and abandoned its ultra-prestigious and exclusive positioning to embrace a more accessible and affordable approach. The brand experienced several years of phenomenal commercial success in France, Europe, and Japan, and in 2008, Mauboussin entered the U.S. market where the brand did not meet the expected success. It eventually closed its flagship store in NYC in 2014. Mauboussin's leadership is nonetheless eager to learn from this experience to relaunch successfully in the United States.

    Keywords: luxury; luxury brand; Luxury Goods; Jewelry; jewels; retail; brand repositioning; brand rejuventation; brand positioning; new market development; entry in the US market; American jewelry market; global brands; growth strategy; Mauboussin; entrepreneurship; failure; international marketing; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Wealth; Marketing Strategy; Expansion; Brands and Branding; Apparel and Accessories Industry; France;


    Keinan, Anat, Sandrine Crener, and Audrey Azoulay. "Mauboussin." Harvard Business School Case 515-076, January 2015. (Revised December 2015.) View Details
  5. The Blonde Salad

    Anat Keinan, Kristina Maslauskaite, Sandrine Crener and Vincent Dessain

    In 2014, Chiara Ferragni, a globe-trotting founder of the world's most popular fashion blog "The Blonde Salad," had to decide how to best monetize her blog as well as her shoe line called the "Chiara Ferragni Collection." A year earlier, Ferragni, together with her team, had already made a decision to transform her blog into an online lifestyle magazine and to build its positioning as a high-end brand. It meant that "The Blonde Salad" envisaged to only cooperate with a limited number of luxury fashion advertisers, inevitably reducing the blog's revenues. Ferragni considered changing the revenue-generating model by incorporating an online market place within "The Blonde Salad," but which strategy and timeline would she need to achieve her aim? Should Ferragni's shoe line, a separate company with a different ownership structure, be merged with "The Blonde Salad" or was it desirable to keep the two apart?

    Keywords: luxury; social media; digital influencers; fashion blogger; brand authenticity; digital marketing; Brands; entrepreneurship; start-up; fashion; shoe; Chiara Ferragni; celebrity endorsement; celebrity management; lifestyle brand; digital brand; new brand development; branding; Instagram; online followers; fashion blog; marketing partnerships; brand portfolio; luxury brand; Louis Vuitton; Dior; designer brands; Authenticity; Business Model; Blogs; Product Positioning; Commercialization; Consolidation; Luxury; Brands and Branding; Fashion Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Publishing Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, Kristina Maslauskaite, Sandrine Crener, and Vincent Dessain. "The Blonde Salad." Harvard Business School Case 515-074, January 2015. View Details
  6. Stella McCartney

    Anat Keinan and Sandrine Crener

    Stella McCartney launched her own fashion house under her name in a partnership with the luxury conglomerate Kering as a 50/50 joint venture in 2001. A lifelong vegetarian, Stella McCartney does not use any leather or fur in her collections, which include women's ready-to-wear, handbags, shoes, lingerie, eyewear, fragrance, and a kids line. Stella McCartney's achievement in fashion and social awareness has been recognized on many occasions, and her commitment to sustainability is present throughout all her collections and numerous environmental and charitable initiatives. As climate change is becoming a more pressing issue, companies are pressured to embrace a more sustainable approach to their business. With fashion and luxury industries progressively rising to this challenge, what does it mean for Stella McCartney's brand's ethos to be a responsible, honest, and modern company? Is it possible that Stella McCartney's environmentally friendly positioning will not be as differentiating as before as more fashion and luxury brands are becoming environmentally conscious and starting to develop sustainable initiatives? Similarly, how are Stella McCartney's partnerships to develop ethical fashion items impacting the brand's luxury positioning and appeal?

    Keywords: luxury; luxury brand; luxury fashion; fashion; sustainability; social corporate responsibility; marketing partnerships; entrepreneurship; cause marketing; ethical marketing; charity goods; sustainable fashion; ethical fashion; designer brand; Stella McCartney; brand positioning; growth strategy; brand extension; brand communication; Kering Group; H&M; Adidas; Product Positioning; Business Conglomerates; Competitive Advantage; Environmental Sustainability; Brands and Branding; Fashion Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, and Sandrine Crener. "Stella McCartney." Harvard Business School Case 515-075, January 2015. (Revised December 2015.) View Details
  7. Jimmy Choo

    Anat Keinan and Sandrine Crener

    Jimmy Choo is a British luxury accessories brand, specializing in shoes, handbags, accessories, and fragrances. Founded in 1996 in London by couture shoe designer Jimmy Choo and Vogue accessories editor Tamara Mellon OBE, the brand enjoyed immediate success and rapidly acquired a sophisticated clientele. The brand's reputation as a celebrity favorite helped fuel its rapid international expansion and in the early 2010s Jimmy Choo had a store network encompassing 150+ stores in 30+ countries and was present in the most prestigious department and specialty stores worldwide, except for mainland China. Appointed as Chief Executive Officer in July 2012, Pierre Denis, an experienced executive from LVMH, developed a new vision for the brand and made the entry into the Chinese market one of his top priorities. The case describes how Jimmy Choo's leadership team analyzed the Chinese luxury market and designed an entry strategy into China. The case explores the challenges and opportunities for foreign luxury brands like Jimmy Choo to launch in China and contemplates different marketing mix possibilities.

    Keywords: luxury; luxury brand; fashion; designer brand; shoe; fashion accessories; retail; entrepreneurship; branding; brand positioning; new market development; entry into China; luxury Chinese market; global brands; growth strategy; Jimmy Choo; Christian Louboutin; China; Globalized Firms and Management; Marketing Strategy; Market Entry and Exit; Luxury; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Brands and Branding; Fashion Industry; Apparel and Accessories Industry; China; Great Britain;


    Keinan, Anat, and Sandrine Crener. "Jimmy Choo." Harvard Business School Case 515-073, January 2015. (Revised July 2015.) View Details
  8. onefinestay

    Jill Avery, Anat Keinan and Liz Kind

    Miranda Cresswell, marketing director, and Greg Marsh, founder and CEO of onefinestay, were grappling with branding and positioning dilemmas. onefinestay offered high-end home rentals to travelers who sought a more authentic and local experience than a typical upscale hotel might provide. onefinestay's brand had been "hacked" together quickly during the company's early years. After five years of rapid growth, Marsh brought Cresswell on board to do a comprehensive analysis of the company's brand and its positioning in the marketplace. Cresswell had spent several months gathering data and insights, and was starting to experiment with use case scenarios that took a crack at segmenting the company's customers. The preliminary results were interesting, but raised more questions than they answered, and Cresswell wondered if this was the best way to segment the market. While segmenting in this way was intriguing, it led to a branding challenge—as a start-up, it was difficult for onefinestay to have the resources to support multiple brand messages in the marketplace and different segments wanted different things from their travel experience. She pondered whether there were other ways to group customers that would allow for a more universal positioning for the brand or whether the company needed to focus on one or two segments to serve. Positioning the fledgling brand was a challenge. Who was the company competing against and how could it carve out a unique value proposition that would appeal to travelers and be differentiated from what was offered by other hospitality options? Was its current moniker "the unhotel" working for or against it?

    Keywords: Luxury Goods; brand building; brand management; brands and branding; marketing; marketing strategy; hospitality; hotels; digital marketing; e-commerce; brand positioning; luxury service; Airbnb; sharing economy; collaborative consumption; disruption; disruptive business model; entrepreneurship; travel; alternatives to hotel; branding; customer service; exceeding consumer expectations; client acquisition; reputation management; word of mouth; 2-way business model; Marketing; Marketing Strategy; Brands and Branding; Accommodations Industry; Tourism Industry; Travel Industry; United Kingdom;


    Avery, Jill, Anat Keinan, and Liz Kind. "onefinestay." Harvard Business School Case 515-072, January 2015. View Details
  9. Monte-Carlo Weddings

    Anat Keinan and Sandrine Crener

    Monte-Carlo Weddings, established by Frank Damgaard in 2005, is the most respectable and exclusive wedding planning business in the South of France. Frank has organized the largest, most expensive and luxurious weddings in Europe, serving celebrities, CEOs, and other high-net-worth individuals from around the world. After 10 years in operation, constantly innovating and pushing the bar higher, Frank is wondering what is next for him and his company. Could he further elevate a wedding experience and exceed his demanding clients' expectations? Is it possible or even desirable to grow his high-touch, fully customized service provider business? How can he leverage his brand, reputation, and success in the French Riviera to build a larger business and stronger brand? What should he do next? Is he ready for another change?

    Keywords: luxury; luxury brand; luxury service; luxury consumers; exceeding consumer expectations; wedding planner; destination wedding; event planner; event management; entrepreneurship; growth strategy; Monaco; Monte-Carlo; brand building; reputation management; word of mouth; customer satisfaction; client acquisition; diversification; Wealth; Marketing Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Service Delivery; Luxury; Brands and Branding; Growth and Development Strategy; Service Industry; France;


    Keinan, Anat, and Sandrine Crener. "Monte-Carlo Weddings." Harvard Business School Case 515-071, January 2015. View Details
  10. Gastón Acurio: A Recipe for Success

    Anat Keinan, Michael Norton, German Echecopar and Cintra Scott

    Gastón Acurio, star chef and restaurateur from Peru, must decide whether and how to adapt his signature Peruvian cuisine to local tastes as he opens restaurants in new countries.


    Keinan, Anat, Michael Norton, German Echecopar, and Cintra Scott. "Gastón Acurio: A Recipe for Success." Harvard Business School Case 514-014, May 2014. (Revised January 2015.) View Details
  11. EILEEN FISHER: Repositioning the Brand

    Anat Keinan, Jill Avery, Fiona Wilson and Michael Norton

    Well-established fashion brand Eileen Fisher has traditionally appealed to older women. However, to drive growth, Eileen Fisher's management team wants to target a younger demographic and has revamped its Fall product line to offer more fashionable styles to appeal to younger women. But, repositioning the brand has proven to be harder than expected. This case explores the challenges of appealing to new target markets, without alienating existing customers. The case follows Eileen Fisher's initial forays into social media as they chase a younger demographic, and demonstrates the opportunities and pitfalls that await big brands when they enter the world of Web 2.0.

    Keywords: marketing; brand management; brand positioning; market segmentation and target market selection; retailing; fashion; corporate social responsibility; social media; Brands and Branding; Product Positioning; Segmentation; Social and Collaborative Networks; Growth and Development Strategy; Retail Industry; Fashion Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, Jill Avery, Fiona Wilson, and Michael Norton. "EILEEN FISHER: Repositioning the Brand." Harvard Business School Case 512-085, April 2012. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  12. Introducing iSnack 2.0: The New Vegemite

    Anat Keinan, Francis Farrelly and Michael Beverland

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian breakfast spread and is often seen as a quintessential Australian product. This case focuses on Kraft's decision to revitalize brand performance through the introduction of a brand extension. Drawing on extensive social media analysis of brand image, the brand team led by Simon Talbot identified a gap in the market for a line extension involving a blend of Vegemite and Kraft's other iconic brand, Philadelphia Cream Cheese. Following a high profile campaign involving a competition to name the new extension Talbot's team chose the name iSnack 2.0 for the new product. The case starts two days after the public unveiling of this name and subsequent nationwide backlash against it. Talbot needs to consider whether to continue with the brand name or change it in light of the public outcry.

    Keywords: Food; Product Launch; Conflict and Resolution; Brands and Branding; Consumer Products Industry; Food and Beverage Industry;


    Keinan, Anat, Francis Farrelly, and Michael Beverland. "Introducing iSnack 2.0: The New Vegemite." Harvard Business School Case 512-020, April 2012. View Details
  13. The U.S. Military Academy at West Point

    Anat Keinan

    The case examines an iconic institution's decision on whether or not to undertake a branding initiative. Founded in 1802, West Point has played a key role in America's history. It is one of the nation's oldest institutions of higher learning and is well known for producing prominent military, political and business leaders. In the increasingly competitive environment of higher education, the Director of Strategic Communications at the US Military Academy is faced with a decision on whether or not to invest resources in a rebranding effort. Over the course of the school's history, several distinct logos have come into existence and little uniformity or guidance for use exists. Data from a recent consumer survey offers some insight for the decision maker to contemplate, as does the school's recent appearance on the cover of Forbes' magazine as the number one undergraduate institution in the nation. Numerous stakeholders, tradition, the competitive environment and resource constraints all factor into the decision making process.

    Keywords: Surveys; Resource Allocation; Brands and Branding; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Competitive Strategy; Education Industry; United States;


    Keinan, Anat. "The U.S. Military Academy at West Point." Harvard Business School Case 512-012, August 2011. (Revised November 2011.) View Details
  14. Communispace

    Anat Keinan

    Communispace is the market leader in creating and managing private, brand-focused online communities for major corporate clients. These communities have provided its clients with insights into how consumers view their brands, with quick feedback on potential marketing decisions, and with a sounding board for new product ideas. Now, a potential client has asked Communispace to build and manage an online community for the sole purpose of fostering word-of-mouth for a new brand it was launching. Should Communispace take on this assignment?

    Keywords: Customer Focus and Relationships; Brands and Branding; Product Launch; Network Effects; Social and Collaborative Networks; Online Technology; Communications Industry; Media and Broadcasting Industry;


    Keinan, Anat. "Communispace." Harvard Business School Case 510-018, November 2009. (Revised January 2010.) View Details
  15. Understanding Brands

    Anat Keinan and Jill Avery

    For many firms, the brands associated with their products and/or services are their most valuable assets, and, hence, much management attention is given to designing, communicating, nurturing, and protecting them. This note is designed to provide an understanding of brand management strategies firms use to build, sustain, and leverage their brands.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Marketing Strategy; Value;


    Keinan, Anat, and Jill Avery. "Understanding Brands." Harvard Business School Module Note 509-041, November 2008. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Robin Hood is Alive: The Perceived Morality and Social Acceptance of Pirated Products and Counterfeits Usage

    Hannah Chang, Anat Keinan and Donald Lehmann

    Keywords: Intellectual Property; Moral Sensibility; Societal Protocols; Attitudes; Crime and Corruption;


    Chang, Hannah, Anat Keinan, and Donald Lehmann. "Robin Hood is Alive: The Perceived Morality and Social Acceptance of Pirated Products and Counterfeits Usage." January 2008. View Details
      1. Won the 2011 Robert Ferber Award from the Journal of Consumer Research for the best interdisciplinary dissertation article for “Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences” (April 2011).

      2. Research selected in 2014 for the JCR Research Curation on “Meaningful Choice.”

      3. Finalist for the 2014 Best Article Award for a Journal of Consumer Research article published in 2011 for "The Underdog Effect: The Marketing of Disadvantage and Determination Through Brand Biography" (with Neeru Paharia, Jill Avery, and Juliet B. Schor).

      4. Finalist for the 2014 Best Article Award for a Journal of Consumer Research article published in 2011 for "Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences" (with Ran Kivetz).

      5. Selected for the Marketing Science Institute's 2013 Young Scholar Program. The biennial MSI Young Scholar Program brings together some of the most promising scholars in marketing and closely related fields.

      6. Finalist for the 2009 Wyss Award for Excellence in Doctoral Student Mentoring.

      7. Finalist for the 2009 Best Article Award for a Journal of Consumer Research article published in 2006 for "Repenting Hyperopia: An Analysis of Self-Control Regrets" (with Ran Kivetz).

      8. PhD awarded with distinction, Columbia University, 2007.

      9. Research on Hyperopia selected as one of the best ideas of 2006 in The New York Times 6th Annual Year in Ideas Issue.

      10. Research selected in 2015 for the JCR Research Curation on “Products as Signals.”

      11. Ranked by the American Marketing Association as one of the Top 50 most productive Scholars in the premier marketing journals in the past 5 years (2010-2014).