Michel Anteby

Associate Professor of Business Administration (Leave of Absence)

Unit: Organizational Behavior


(617) 496-3756

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Michel Anteby is an Associate Professor in the Organizational Behavior area at the Harvard Business School and a visiting Associate Professor at the Yale School of Management for the 2014-15 academic year. He teaches in the School's MBA, doctoral, and executive programs, most recently the second-year MBA elective "Managing Human Capital" course, the doctoral "Design of Field Research Methods" course, and in the executive “Leading Change and Corporate Renewal” and “Talent Management” programs.

His research looks at how individuals relate to their work, their occupations, and the organizations they belong to. He examines more specifically how the practices people engage in at work help them sustain their chosen cultures or identities. In doing so, his research contributes to a better understanding of how these cultures and identities come to be and manifest themselves. Of particular interest to him are issues of moral cultures and identities. This explains why he tends to study socially disapproved behaviors, such as factory workers’ illegal use of company property and the commerce in human cadavers for medical education or research. Field settings for these and other inquiries have included aeronautics factory workshop, airport security teams, higher education, and whole-body donation programs.

He is the author of Manufacturing Morals: The Values of Silence in Business School Education (University of Chicago Press, 2013) and Moral Gray Zones: Side-Productions, Identity, and Regulation in an Aeronautic Plant (Princeton University Press, 2008). His work has appeared, for instance, in the Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, Ethnography, Organization Science, Social Science & Medicine, and Sociologie du Travail. He serves on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Organization Science.

Michel earned a joint Ph.D. in management from New York Universit and in sociology from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS, Paris). He holds a MA in economics from the Sorbonne and a MPA from Harvard. He grew up in France, previously worked as a consultant (focusing on labor issues), and remains affiliated as a Research Fellow with the Centre de Sociologie des Organisations in Paris. He also serves on the Massachusetts Commission on LGBTQ Youth to ensure that school cultures allow all youth to thrive.

For more details, please visit: www.michelanteby.net

Featured Work



  1. Manufacturing Morals: The Values of Silence in Business School Education

    Michel Anteby

    Corporate accountability is never far from the front page and Harvard Business School trains many future business leaders. But how does HBS formally and informally ensure its members embrace proper business standards? Relying on his faculty experience, Michel Anteby takes readers inside the School to draw vivid parallels between the socialization of faculty and of students.

    In an era when many organizations are focused on principles of responsibility, HBS has long tried to promote better business standards. Anteby's rich account reveals the surprising role of silence in HBS's process of codifying morals and values. As he describes, specifics are often left unspoken; for example, teaching notes given to faculty provide much guidance on how to teach but are largely silent on what to teach. Manufacturing Morals demonstrates how faculty and students are exposed to a system that operates on open-ended directives that require significant decision-making on the part of those involved, with little overt guidance from the hierarchy. Anteby suggests that this model—which tolerates moral complexity—is perhaps one of the few that can adapt and endure over time.

    Manufacturing Morals is a perceptive must-read for anyone looking for insight into the moral decision-making of today's business leaders and those influenced by or working for them.

    Keywords: Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Business Education; Higher Education; Education; Education Industry; United States;


    Anteby, Michel. Manufacturing Morals: The Values of Silence in Business School Education. University of Chicago Press, 2013. View Details
  2. Moral Gray Zones: Side Productions, Identity, and Regulation in an Aeronautic Plant

    Michel Anteby

    Anyone who has been employed by an organization knows not every official workplace regulation must be followed. When management consistently overlooks such breaches, spaces emerge in which both workers and supervisors engage in officially prohibited, yet tolerated practices--gray zones. When discovered, these transgressions often provoke disapproval; when company materials are diverted in the process, these breaches are quickly labeled theft. Yet, why do gray zones persist and why are they unlikely to disappear? In 'Moral Gray Zones,' Michel Anteby shows how these spaces function as regulating mechanisms within workplaces, fashioning workers' identity and self-esteem while allowing management to maintain control. The book provides a unique window into gray zones through its in-depth look at the manufacture and exchange of illegal goods called homers, tolerated in a French aeronautic plant. Homers such as toys for kids, cutlery for the kitchen, or lamps for homes, are made on company time with company materials for a worker's own purpose and use. Anteby relies on observations at retirees' homes, archival data, interviews, and surveys to understand how plant workers and managers make sense of this tacit practice. He argues that when patrolled, gray zones like the production of homers offer workplaces balanced opportunities for supervision as well as expression. Cautioning against the hasty judgment that gray zone practices are simply wrong, 'Moral Gray Zones' contributes to a deeper understanding of the culture, group dynamics, and deviance found in organizations.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Moral Sensibility; Governance Controls; Production; Organizational Culture; Practice; France;


    Anteby, Michel. Moral Gray Zones: Side Productions, Identity, and Regulation in an Aeronautic Plant. Princeton University Press, 2008. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Concealable Stigma and Occupational Segregation: Toward a Theory of Gay and Lesbian Occupations

    Andras Tilcsik, Michel Anteby and Carly R. Knight

    Numerous scholars have noted the disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian workers in certain occupations, but systematic explanations for this type of occupational segregation remain elusive. Drawing on the literatures on concealable stigma and stigma management, we develop a theoretical framework predicting that gay men and lesbians will concentrate in occupations that provide a high degree of task independence or require a high level of social perceptiveness, or both. Using several distinct measures of sexual orientation, and controlling for potential confounds, we find support for these predictions across two nationally representative surveys in the United States. Consistent with prior research, lesbian and gay workers are more likely than heterosexual workers to cross gender lines in occupations, but even after controlling for this tendency, we show that common to both lesbians and gay men is a propensity to concentrate in those lines of work that are associated with relatively high levels of task independence or social perceptiveness, or both. This study points to a more comprehensive theory of occupational segregation on the basis of minority sexual orientation and holds implications for the literatures on stigma, occupations, and labor markets.

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Jobs and Positions; Gender Characteristics; United States;


    Tilcsik, Andras, Michel Anteby, and Carly R. Knight. "Concealable Stigma and Occupational Segregation: Toward a Theory of Gay and Lesbian Occupations." Administrative Science Quarterly (forthcoming): 1–36. View Details
  2. The Shifting Landscape of LGBT Organizational Research

    Michel Anteby and Caitlin Anderson

    Over the past generation, sexual minorities—particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) persons—have gained increased visibility in the public arena. Yet organizational research has lagged behind in recognizing and studying this category of organizational members. This article offers a critical review of this growing body of research. More specifically, we identify and discuss four dominant scholarly frames that have informed LGBT organizational research from the late nineteenth century to date. The frames include a "medical abnormality," "deviant social role," "collective identity," and "social distinctiveness" view of sexual minorities. We argue that these frames have profoundly shaped the scope and range of organizational scholarship devoted to sexual minorities by showing that scholars using such contrasted frames have been drawn to very different research questions with respect to sexual minorities. We document and discuss the main and contrasted questions asked within each of these frames and show how they have both enabled and constrained LGBT organizational research. We conclude by calling not only for more attention to the frames organizational scholars adopt when studying sexual minorities, but also for more research on both minority and majority sexual orientations in organizations.

    Keywords: Research; Organizations; Gender Characteristics; Diversity Characteristics;


    Anteby, Michel, and Caitlin Anderson. "The Shifting Landscape of LGBT Organizational Research." Research in Organizational Behavior 34 (2014): 3–25. View Details
  3. Who Donates Their Bodies to Science? The Combined Role of Gender and Migration Status Among California Whole-body Donors

    Asad L. Asad, Michel Anteby and Filiz Garip

    The number of human cadavers available for medical research and training, as well as organ transplantation, is limited. Researchers disagree about how to increase the number of whole-body bequeathals, citing a shortage of donations from the one group perceived as most likely to donate from attitudinal survey data—educated white males over 65. This focus on survey data, however, suffers from two main limitations: First, it reveals little about individuals' actual registration or donation behavior. Second, past studies' reliance on average survey measures may have concealed variation within the donor population. To address these shortcomings, we employ cluster analysis on all whole-body donors' data from the Universities of California at Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Two donor groups emerge from the analyses: One is made of slightly younger, educated, married individuals, an overwhelming portion of whom are U.S. born and have U.S.–born parents, while the second includes mostly older, separated women with some college education, a relatively higher share of whom are foreign born and have foreign-born parents. Our results demonstrate the presence of additional donor groups within and beyond the group of educated and elderly white males previously assumed to be most likely to donate. More broadly, our results suggest how the intersectional nature of donors' demographics, in particular, gender and migration status, shapes the configuration of the donor pool, signaling new ways to possibly increase donations.

    Keywords: altruism; donations; body; whole-body; clinical anatomy; Medical Specialties; California;


    Asad, Asad L., Michel Anteby, and Filiz Garip. "Who Donates Their Bodies to Science? The Combined Role of Gender and Migration Status Among California Whole-body Donors." Social Science & Medicine 106 (April 2014): 53–58. View Details
  4. In Search of the Self at Work: Young Adults' Experiences of a Dual Identity Organization

    Michel Anteby and Amy Wrzesniewski

    Purpose: Multiple forces that shape the identities of adolescents and young adults also influence their subsequent career choices. Early work experiences are key among these forces. Recognizing this, youth service programs have emerged worldwide with the hope of shaping participants' future trajectories through boosting future engagement in civically oriented activities and work. Despite these goals, past research on these programs' impact has yielded mixed outcomes. Our goal is to understand why this might be the case. Design/Methodology/Approach: We rely on interview, archival, and longitudinal survey data to examine young adults' experiences of a European youth service program. Findings: A core feature of youth service programs, namely their dual identity of helping others (i.e., service beneficiaries) and helping oneself (i.e., participants), might partly explain the mixed outcomes. We find that participants focus on one of the organization's identities largely to the exclusion of the other, creating a dynamic in which their interactions with members who focus on the other identity create challenges and dominate their program experience, to the detriment of a focus on the organization and its goals. This suggests that a previously overlooked feature of youth service programs (their dual identity) might prove both a blessing for attracting many diverse members and a curse for achieving desired outcomes. Originality/Value: More broadly, our results suggest that dual identity organizations might attract members focused on a select identity but fail to imbue them with a blended identity; thus, limiting the extent to which such organizations can truly "re-direct" future career choices.

    Keywords: organizational identity; Socialization; youth; youth service programs; identity; Europe;


    Anteby, Michel, and Amy Wrzesniewski. "In Search of the Self at Work: Young Adults' Experiences of a Dual Identity Organization." Research in the Sociology of Work 25 (2014): 13–50. View Details
  5. Relaxing the Taboo on Telling Our Own Stories: Upholding Professional Distance and Personal Involvement

    Michel Anteby

    Scholars studying organizations are typically discouraged from telling, in print, their own stories. The expression "telling our own stories" is used as a proxy for field research projects that, in their written form, explicitly rely on a scholar's personal involvement in a field. (By personal involvement in a field, I mean a scholar's engagement in a set of mental activities that connect her to a field.) The assumption is that personal involvement is antithetical to maintaining professional distance. In this paper, I argue that the taboo against telling our own stories stems in part from an epistemological misunderstanding. Learning from the field entails upholding both distance and involvement; the two dimensions should not be conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum. Moreover, I suggest that the taboo has become too extreme and stifles our collective capacity to generate new insights. To make this argument, I start by discussing the general taboo against telling one's own stories. Second, I focus on the rationale set forth to justify not only the taboo but also its limitations. Third, I examine what distance entails and how involvement, far from lessening distance, creates opportunities for generating potentially strong theoretical insight. Fourth, I showcase several areas of theoretical development that might benefit from revisiting the taboo. I conclude by reviewing key practical implications of such a shift for our profession and by arguing that organizational scholarship could gain a great deal from relaxing the taboo.

    Keywords: fieldwork; research practiced; distance; involvement; taboo; Practice; Ethics; Education Industry;


    Anteby, Michel. "Relaxing the Taboo on Telling Our Own Stories: Upholding Professional Distance and Personal Involvement." Organization Science 24, no. 4 (July–August 2013): 1277–1290. View Details
  6. Collective Memory Meets Organizational Identity: Remembering to Forget in a Firm's Rhetorical History

    Michel Anteby and Virag Molnar

    Much organizational identity research has grappled with the question of identity emergence or change. Yet the question of identity endurance is equally puzzling. Relying primarily on the analysis of 309 internal bulletins produced at a French aeronautics firm over almost fifty years, we theorize a link between collective memory and organizational identity endurance. More specifically, we show how forgetting in a firm's ongoing rhetorical history-here, the bulletins' repeated omission of contradictory elements in the firm's past (i.e., structural omission) or attempts to neutralize them with valued identity cues (i.e., preemptive neutralization)-sustains its identity. Thus knowing "who we are" might depend in part on repeatedly remembering to forget "who we were not."

    Keywords: Organizations; Identity; History; Aerospace Industry; France;


    Anteby, Michel, and Virag Molnar. "Collective Memory Meets Organizational Identity: Remembering to Forget in a Firm's Rhetorical History." Academy of Management Journal 55, no. 3 (June 2012): 515–540. View Details
  7. Individuals' Decision to Co-Donate or Donate Alone: An Archival Study of Married Whole Body Donors in Hawaii

    Michel Anteby, Filiz Garip, Paul V. Martorana and Scott Lozanoff

    Background: Human cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation.

    Methods and Findings: We reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School's whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals' characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002). Moreover, registrants' main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors' occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences.

    Conclusions: Efforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors' marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations.

    Keywords: Decisions; Health Care and Treatment; Personal Characteristics; Giving and Philanthropy; Health Industry; Hawaii;


    Anteby, Michel, Filiz Garip, Paul V. Martorana, and Scott Lozanoff. "Individuals' Decision to Co-Donate or Donate Alone: An Archival Study of Married Whole Body Donors in Hawaii." PLoS ONE 7, no. 8 (2012). (e42673. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042673.) View Details
  8. Markets, Morals, and Practices of Trade: Jurisdictional Disputes in the U.S. Commerce in Cadavers

    Michel Anteby

    This study examines the U.S. commerce in human cadavers for medical education and research to explore variation in legitimacy in trades involving similar goods. It draws on archival, interview, and observational data mainly from New York state to analyze market participants' efforts to legitimize commerce and resolve a jurisdictional dispute. Building on literature on professions, the study shows that how goods are traded, not only what is traded, proves integral to constructing legitimacy, thus suggesting a practice-based view of moral markets. The professionals, including a group of "gatekeepers," construct a narrative distinction between their own commerce and an implicitly less moral alternative and geographically insulate their trades from the broader commerce, creating in effect two circuits. Yet the professionals also promote specific practices of trade within their circuit to help them distinguish their own pursuit from an alternative course of action. The study's findings shed light on the micro-foundations of market legitimization and on the role of morals in sustaining professional jurisdictions.

    Keywords: Education; Goods and Commodities; Trade; Lawfulness; Moral Sensibility; Market Participation; Management Practices and Processes; New York (state, US);


    Anteby, Michel. "Markets, Morals, and Practices of Trade: Jurisdictional Disputes in the U.S. Commerce in Cadavers." Administrative Science Quarterly 55, no. 4 (December 2010): 606–638. View Details
  9. The Circulation of Ideas across Academic Communities: When Locals Re-import Exported Ideas

    Julie Battilana, Michel Anteby and M. Sengul

    The circulation of ideas across academic communities is central to academic pursuits and has attracted much past scholarly attention. As North American-based scholars with European ties, we decided to examine the impact of Organization Studies in North American academia with the objective of understanding what, if anything, makes some Organization Studies articles more likely to have impact in North America than others. To set the stage for better understanding the role of Organization Studies in this academic community, we first present the key characteristics of North American academia. Second, relying on archival data spanning the first 29 years of Organization Studies (1980 to 2008, inclusive), we identify an apparent dynamic of select reimportation of exported ideas. Put otherwise, top North American journals tend to reimport ideas authored (and exported) by select North American scholars in Organizations Studies. Third, we discuss the implications of this process on the field of organization studies and on the circulation of ideas across academic communities.

    Keywords: Knowledge Dissemination; Organizational Structure; Learning; Archives; Civil Society or Community; North and Central America; Europe;


    Battilana, Julie, Michel Anteby, and M. Sengul. "The Circulation of Ideas across Academic Communities: When Locals Re-import Exported Ideas." Organization Studies 31, no. 6 (June 2010): 695–713. View Details
  10. Identity Incentives as an Engaging Form of Control: Revisiting Leniencies in an Aeronautic Plant

    Michel Anteby

    Research has long shown that organizations shape members' identities. However, the possibility that these identities might also be desired and that members might benefit from this process has only recently been explored. In a qualitative study of a French aeronautic plant, I demonstrate how an implicitly negotiated leniency between management and workers around the use of company materials and tools, on company time, to produce artifacts for personal use, enhances workers' identities. This leniency applies to a select subset of workers and enhances their desired occupational identity. This practice produces an engaging form of control that relies on management's selective allocation of identity incentives. These findings document a previously overlooked type of control: one reliant on desired identities that engage rather than constrain. Desired identities, specifically previously enacted ones, constitute potent incentives for inducing efforts or actions.

    Keywords: Governance Controls; Employee Relationship Management; Organizational Culture; Identity; Motivation and Incentives; Aerospace Industry; France;


    Anteby, Michel. "Identity Incentives as an Engaging Form of Control: Revisiting Leniencies in an Aeronautic Plant." Organization Science 19, no. 2 (March–April 2008): 202–220. View Details
  11. Entrepreneurial Ventures and Whole-body Donations: A Regional Perspective from the United States

    Michel Anteby and Mikell Hyman

    Human cadavers are crucial to medical science. While the debate on how to secure sufficient cadavers has focused primarily on donors' behaviors, procuring organizations' roles in increasing donations remain less explored. The United States offers a unique setting in which to examine this question since entrepreneurial ventures supplying cadavers for medical science have recently emerged alongside traditional academic-housed programs, raising both hopes and fears about their impact on whole-body donations.

    To assess their potential impact, an archival survey of voluntary, in-state whole-body donors to two programs procuring in the same U.S. state was conducted. The programs' specimen recipients were also analyzed. One program is academic-housed and the other is an entrepreneurial venture. Both offered equal levels of financial support to donating parties. Eighty donations and 120 specimen shipping invoices from 2005 were analyzed in each program. Donations to the two programs did not significantly differ in terms of donors' sex, marital status, maximum educational level, and estimated hourly wage. The entrepreneurial venture's donors were, however, significantly younger, more likely to be from a minority group, and more likely to have died from cancer. For-profit organizations, continuing medical training organizations, and medical device companies were more likely recipients of the entrepreneurial venture's specimens. Non-profit and academic organizations were more likely recipients of the academic-housed program's specimens.

    These findings suggest that although the programs procured from a somewhat similar pool of donors, they also complemented one another. The entrepreneurial program procured donations that the academic-housed program often did not attract. Specimen recipients' distinct demands partly explain these procurement behaviors. Thus, organizational efforts to meet demands seem to shape the supply. Examining organizations alongside donors might provide new answers to secure donations.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Behavior; Programs; Nonprofit Organizations; Business Ventures; Health Testing and Trials; Demand and Consumers; Supply Chain; For-Profit Firms; Organizations; Training; United States;


    Anteby, Michel, and Mikell Hyman. "Entrepreneurial Ventures and Whole-body Donations: A Regional Perspective from the United States." Social Science & Medicine 66, no. 4 (2008): 963–969. View Details
  12. Talking Tainted Topics: Insights and Ideas on Researching Socially Disapproved Organizational Behavior

    Tammy MacLean, Michel Anteby, Bryant Hudson and Jenny W. Rudolph


    MacLean, Tammy, Michel Anteby, Bryant Hudson, and Jenny W. Rudolph. "Talking Tainted Topics: Insights and Ideas on Researching Socially Disapproved Organizational Behavior." Journal of Management Inquiry 15, no. 1 (March 2006): 59–68. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Leading by Leveraging Workers' Occupational Identities

    Michel Anteby

    This note helps instructors teach about the role of occupational identities in driving efforts and action. It ties together several cases and an exercise that can be taught in leadership/organizational behavior/human resources classes.

    Keywords: leadership; organizational behavior; identity; work; occupations; Leadership; Identity; Jobs and Positions;


    Anteby, Michel. "Leading by Leveraging Workers' Occupational Identities." Harvard Business School Module Note 413-098, March 2013. View Details
  2. Automating the Paris Subway (TN) (A) & (B)

    Michel Anteby and Ayn Cavicchi

    In 2001, the head of the Paris Subway reflected on how to transform Line 1 into a driverless line without triggering a social conflict. After the shock of the 2000 Notre Dame de Lorette subway accident, in which a train derailed and caused 25 injuries in a Paris subway station, the state-owned Paris subway operator Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) decided to adopt new security measures and considered the opportunity to automate the oldest and the busiest line of the network. The Head of the Paris Subway, Serge Lagrange, believed that automating Line 1 would improve security as well as performance. However, the automation would bring about the downsizing of 219 drivers' positions. Lagrange had to figure out how to get the RATP employees on board, particularly drivers and trade unions. How could he convince them of the necessity to automate Line 1? How could he prevent the potentially major social conflict that might result from downsizing the drivers' positions?

    Keywords: Labor relations; Unions; organizational behavior; Change; Transportation Industry; France;


    Anteby, Michel, and Ayn Cavicchi. "Automating the Paris Subway (TN) (A) & (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 413-093, March 2013. View Details
  3. 'Made in India': Human Capital at the Base of the Pyramid (TN)

    Michel Anteby, Felicia Khan and John Ng

    This teaching note, used in conjunction with excerpts from the 2010 documentary film "Made in India" (directed and produced by Rebecca Haimowitz and Vaishali Sinha) provides students with an opportunity to explore what constitutes human capital and the moral issues involved with managing human capital at the base of the pyramid. By the 'base of the pyramid' we are primarily referring to the poorest 4 billion people on earth as compared to the 'top of the pyramid,' which refers to the top 2.5 billion consumers in developed economies. Our definition also includes, however, poor individuals in developed economies. While many human capital discussions in business school settings deal with higher echelons of the labor market, this case introduces a "view from below" or what human capital might look like at the base of the pyramid. The film focuses on a contract surrogacy case. In the process of viewing the film, students can examine the moral dilemmas faced by participants in the surrogacy contract and gain insight into managing human capital in a global economy, but also in their own settings. To preview this product, please log in as an educator at http://hbsp.harvard.edu/

    Keywords: Human Capital; India; United States;


    Anteby, Michel, Felicia Khan, and John Ng. "'Made in India': Human Capital at the Base of the Pyramid (TN)." Harvard Business School Course Overview Note 413-092, January 2013. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  4. Automating the Paris Subway (A)

    Michel Anteby, Elena Corsi and Emilie Billaud

    In 2001, the head of the Paris Subway reflected on how to transform Line 1 into a driverless line without triggering a social conflict. After the shock of the 2000 Notre Dame de Lorette subway accident, in which a train derailed and caused 25 injuries in a Paris subway station, the state-owned Paris subway operator Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) decided to adopt new security measures and considered the opportunity to automate the oldest and the busiest line of the network. The Head of the Paris Subway, Serge Lagrange, believed that automating Line 1 would improve security as well as performance. However, the automation would bring about the downsizing of 219 drivers' positions. Lagrange had to figure out how to get the RATP employees on board, particularly drivers and trade unions. How could he convince them of the necessity to automate Line 1? How could he prevent the potentially major social conflict that might result from downsizing the drivers' positions?

    Keywords: Change Management; Technological Innovation; Rail Transportation; Labor Unions; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Conflict Management; Rail Industry; Transportation Industry; Paris;


    Anteby, Michel, Elena Corsi, and Emilie Billaud. "Automating the Paris Subway (A)." Harvard Business School Case 413-061, September 2012. (Revised May 2013.) View Details
  5. The Freelancers Union (A)

    Michel Anteby and Erin McFee

    Sara Horowitz faces a major strategic decision. Founder and CEO of the Freelancers Union, Horowitz has worked tirelessly to operationalize her new mutualist ideals, which comprise collective strength, independence, and shared protections. In 2008, she plans to move the organization into the health insurance industry in an effort to support a multi-generational outlook for the well-being of the union's members. Over the past 17 years, she has worked to create a culture of innovative thinking and member-oriented service. Horowitz sees a more active role in managing the health care of members as the logical next step. As objections from member representatives mount, she and her team must decide how to proceed.

    Keywords: Labor Unions;


    Anteby, Michel, and Erin McFee. "The Freelancers Union (A)." Harvard Business School Case 412-056, November 2011. (Revised May 2013.) View Details
  6. The Redgrove Axial Workshop

    Michel Anteby and Mikell Hyman

    Marc Fontaine, a new manager at a global manufacturing concern, is on a fast-track to a senior managerial position. One morning, in a storage room, he discovers some ornamental artifacts made with the same materials used for official production. He suspects workers have been making these items with company materials. At that moment, a worker enters the room to fetch a tool. Fontaine asks him what is going on with these items, but the worker claims ignorance and quickly leaves. Fontaine is meeting his boss and the plant director that afternoon. What should he do? Say something? Pretend nothing happened? This case deals with group dynamics, informal behaviors, and ethics at work.

    Keywords: Ethics; Managerial Roles; Production; Groups and Teams; Behavior;


    Anteby, Michel, and Mikell Hyman. "The Redgrove Axial Workshop." Harvard Business School Case 409-034, August 2008. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  7. Mina O'Reilly at Logan Airport's TSA

    Michel Anteby and Erin McFee

    Mina O'Reilly, an officer at Logan Airport's Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in Boston, must discipline an employee responsible for a security breach that resulted in a 45-minute terminal closure during peak hours, a potential threat to traveler safety, and travel delays across the U.S. O'Reilly considers the impact of her decision on a shifting labor force: the growing divide between those employees deeply committed to the mission and those joining to simply find a job. The senior TSA staff and airlines are calling for accountability, but the person responsible for the breach is a passionate and valued employee who has been with TSA since its formation. As her shift approaches, O'Reilly must decide whether or not she can clock in as usual.

    Keywords: Corporate Accountability; Employee Relationship Management; Organizational Culture; Air Transportation; Air Transportation Industry; Boston;


    Anteby, Michel, and Erin McFee. "Mina O'Reilly at Logan Airport's TSA." Harvard Business School Case 409-116, June 2009. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  8. ProPublica

    Michel Anteby, Philippe Bertreau and Charlotte Newman

    Stephen Engelberg, ProPublica's managing editor, entered the organization's newsroom located in lower Manhattan on September 16, 2008. He knew a historical financial debacle was happening at his doorstep, yet none of his journalists were covering that beat. It would take much effort to get up to speed on the story. Uncovering what caused the recent turmoil in financial markets and Lehman's failure would require skills, knowledge of financial services, and connections within the industry. ProPublica had been created only a year earlier as an independent, non-profit newsroom focused on investigative journalism. It was now fully staffed with close to 30 members, including journalists who had joined partly because of the promise of editorial latitude they were offered. As Engelberg weighed his various options, he knew all the major U.S. newsrooms were heading full speed to allocate resources covering the developing debacle. ProPublica needed to live up to the public's expectations. Should he assign the story to one of his journalists and, if so, whom? Alternatively, should he hire new talent? In that case who would be a good fit? Moreover, how might this impact ProPublica's model and culture?

    Keywords: Employee Relationship Management; Leadership; Leading Change; Resource Allocation; Organizational Culture; Motivation and Incentives; Journalism and News Industry; Publishing Industry; New York (city, NY);


    Anteby, Michel, Philippe Bertreau, and Charlotte Newman. "ProPublica." Harvard Business School Case 410-140, June 2010. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  9. ProPublica (TN)

    Michel Anteby and Ryan Johnson

    Teaching Note for #410-140.

    Keywords: Markets; Finance; Competency and Skills; Knowledge; Nonprofit Organizations; Resource Allocation; Decision Choices and Conditions; Journalism and News Industry;


    Anteby, Michel, and Ryan Johnson. "ProPublica (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-086, March 2011. (Revised January 2013.) View Details
  10. Michael Fernandes at Nicholas Piramal

    Michel Anteby and Nitin Nohria

    Michael Fernandes, the Director of Custom Manufacturing Operations at the pharmaceutical company Nicholas Piramal India Limited (NPIL), schedules a meeting with three of his reports, whose interpersonal conflicts with one another are causing his business development function to falter. He struggles to know how to handle these conflicts and bring the three into a productive working collaboration. Fernandes is in charge of incorporating NPIL's new acquisitions in Canada and the United Kingdom to market NPIL globally. His three direct reports are each involved in different aspects of NPIL-the Canadian operations, the British operations, and the global business development-and the case explores the team dynamics among them. Unless Fernandes can resolve the conflicts, the integration of the acquisitions is in jeopardy.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Management Skills; Groups and Teams; Conflict Management; Cooperation; Pharmaceutical Industry; India; United Kingdom; Canada;


    Anteby, Michel, and Nitin Nohria. "Michael Fernandes at Nicholas Piramal." Harvard Business School Case 408-001, September 2007. (Revised December 2008.) View Details
  11. Marie Trellu-Kane at Unis-Cite

    Michel Anteby, Julie Battilana and Anne-Claire Pache

    Marie Trellu-Kane is trying to decide how Unis-Cite should respond to French President Jacques Chirac's announcement in 2005 of a new national voluntary civil service program. Since 1994, Trellu-Kane and her co-founders had been creating and overseeing a civil service program called Unis-Cite, in which youth, particularly from the disadvantaged immigrant population, volunteered nine months of their time to work on community projects. Based in Paris, France, Unis-Cite had begun to expand to other areas. With the announcement that the government would provide funding to mobilize thousands of youth volunteers, Trellu-Kane needed to decide how Unis-Cite would proceed.

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Organizational Design; Business and Community Relations; Business and Government Relations; Social Enterprise; Paris;


    Anteby, Michel, Julie Battilana, and Anne-Claire Pache. "Marie Trellu-Kane at Unis-Cite." Harvard Business School Case 407-106, June 2007. (Revised December 2008.) View Details
  12. Analyzing Work Groups

    Linda A. Hill and Michel Anteby

    Work groups are the building blocks of organizations. They are found in all areas of an organization, from research and development to customer service, and at all levels, from the executive suite to the factory floor. Some are incredibly successful, while others are dismal failures. Team work is hard work, and all too often groups do not live up to their potential. Provides a framework for analyzing work groups so that group leaders and members can identify actions that will enhance their effectiveness. Helps provide insight into the factors most profoundly shaping the development, dynamics, and effectiveness of task-performing groups and, in particular, group culture, its antecedents, and consequences. To illustrate how the framework is used, it looks at and analyzes an actual work group: the new product team of the Merit Corporation. Examines the impact of leadership style on group culture and outcomes and describes how one leader's individual style can affect the way teams operate and perform.

    Keywords: Framework; Leadership Style; Service Operations; Organizational Culture; Performance Effectiveness; Groups and Teams; Research and Development; Behavior;


    Hill, Linda A., and Michel Anteby. "Analyzing Work Groups." Harvard Business School Background Note 407-032, August 2006. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. The Rise of the Freelance Class: A New Constituency of Workers Building a Social Safety Net

    Sara Horowitz, Stephanie Buchanan, Monica Alexandris, Michel Anteby, Naomi Rothman, Stefanie Syman and Leyla Vural

    Keywords: Labor;


    Horowitz, Sara, Stephanie Buchanan, Monica Alexandris, Michel Anteby, Naomi Rothman, Stefanie Syman, and Leyla Vural. "The Rise of the Freelance Class: A New Constituency of Workers Building a Social Safety Net." Report, Working Today, Brooklyn, NY, 2005. View Details


    1. Managing Human Capital: Keeping Hope Alive in Organizations (Not offered 2013-2014)

      by Michel Anteby

      Managing Human Capital has been specifically designed to teach practical skills for the general manager who seeks to manage both other people and his or her own career with optimal effectiveness. Any and all students who believe they will need to effectively manage other people to produce superior business results should take this course. In the Managing Others' Human Capital (MOHC) segment, during the first part of the semester, we will cover best practices in the design of recruiting, performance-evaluation, and compensation systems; how to develop people, manage workforce reductions, and have difficult conversations; and how to manage corporate culture and change. In the Managing Your Own Human Capital (MYHC) segment, students will learn how to develop as a professional, navigate the transition to general manager, and evaluate career transitions and choices strategically.

      The management of human capital has the potential to be the source of competitive advantage in high-performance organizations. Due to rapidly changing demographics, technologies, mergers, alliances, and increased global competition, the processes of managing human capital are becoming more central to effective organization practices and outcomes. It is obvious that companies that want to succeed need excellent people. But companies need cultures and systems in which individuals can use their talents. More importantly, general managers must be aware of their own assumptions about people and why individuals come to work. While virtually all leaders in organizations say they are committed to their people, many do not apply this belief.

      The course takes the point of view of the general manager (not just the human resource practitioner) attempting to leverage the human capital of an organization in ways that create not only revenues, profits, and growth, but also create a unique place to work and employees and customers who are apostles of the enterprise (Heskett, Schlesinger, and Sasser, 1997). We want future general managers to be clear about how people are motivated, and how managers’ assumptions drive the kind of processes, structures and strategies they create. The desired outcome is to have students’ assumptions questioned, and to create high expectations of self and others not only within the class but also within the organizations students will join after Harvard Business School.

      This course is based on four themes: (1) as the general manager, how do you think about leveraging your people in strategic and systematic ways; (2) what specifically needs to transpire in order to act on those beliefs, assumptions, policies, and levers to achieve competitive advantage in talent management; (3) what are the specific skills required for a general manager to operate those levers to achieve the desired results; and (4) as the professional and/or general manager, how should you think about managing your own human capital?

      The course is integrative in that it builds on material addressed in the first-year courses Strategy, Economics, Organizations and Markets, and Leadership and Organizational Behavior. It is more practice-based than LEAD, highlighting how to create and adjust basic levers in the organization. Our protagonists will provide additional insights during class visits. 

      See Fall 2012 Syllabus at left. 

    2. Design of Field Research Methods (DFRM)

      by Michel Anteby

      Field research involves collecting original data (qualitative and/or quantitative) in field sites. This course combines informal lecture and discussion with practical exercises to build specific skills for conducting field research in organizations. Readings include books and papers about research methodology and articles that provide exemplars of field research. Specific topics covered include: the role of theory in field research, variance versus process models, collecting and analyzing different kinds of data (observation, interview, survey), levels of analysis, construct development and validity, blending qualitative and quantitative data (in a paper, a study, or a career), and writing up field research for publication.

      A core aim of the course is to help students develop intuition about the contingent relationship between the nature of the research question and the field research methods used to answer it as a foundation for conducting original field research. Field research is presented as a learning process in which researchers are engaged in a dialogue initially with the phenomena they study and later with a specific audience for their ideas. Course requirements are designed to suit your interests and current stage of research involvement, with the ultimate purpose of advancing your particular research agenda. (See “Requirements” below.)  Previous course work in research methods is a prerequisite. Although it is not a focus of this course, students will be expected to understand basic principles of statistical analysis as a foundation for engaging in discussions about effective field research. This is a limited enrollment course. If this course is not part of your required curriculum, explain in an email to Lara Zimmerman (lzimmerman@hbs.edu) your motivation to enroll.

      Module I of the course is a two-week introductory module on the nature of grounded and inductive theory building and how this kind of research differs from traditional deductive research methods.  Module II focuses on collecting field data and Module III on analyzing them.  Module IV concerns writing and reviewing field research for publication in refereed journals. 

      See Spring 2014 Syllabus at left. 

      01 Feb 2014
      22 Jan 2014
      Stanford Social Innovation Review
      10 Dec 2013
      National (Abu Dhabi, UAE)
      01 Nov 2013
      ASA Section Newsletter
      29 Sep 2013
      France Culture
      05 Sep 2013
      Times Higher Education
      28 Apr 2013
      Times of India
      01 Mar 2013
      Crain’s Chicago Business
      10 Aug 2012
      Financial Times
      15 Feb 2010
      BBC World Service