Christopher Marquis

Associate Professor of Business Administration (Leave of Absence)

Unit: Organizational Behavior

Contact:

(617) 496-4614

Send Email

Chris Marquis is an Associate Professor in the Organizational Behavior unit at the Harvard Business School and is affiliated with the HBS Social Enterprise Initiative and Harvard University Hauser Center for Non-Profit Organizations.  He teaches the MBA elective Social Entrepreneurship in the Business Sector and a doctoral course on Organizational Theory. He has previously taught Leadership and Organizational Behavior (LEAD) in the required MBA curriculum, and in a number of executive education programs.

Professor Marquis' current research is focused on how business can have a positive impact on society and in particular how historical processes and community relations have shaped firms' and entrepreneurs' social strategies and activities. He is currently pursuing several streams of research. The first seeks to assess how organizations can be designed to maximize both business and social value. Questions that drive his inquires include: How can companies grow in reach and profit, while staying true to a social mission and maintaining their quality of services or products? And, should social entrepreneurs focus their efforts on leading change of the broader system in which they operate, or should they focus on achieving impact within the existing system? The second explores how environmental sustainability initiatives have developed in China. This research investigates questions such as: What are the implications of transitioning to greener technology when government and business are structurally intertwined? These research projects build on Marquis' earlier work that analyzed how firm behavior is shaped by broader contexts such as embeddedness in geographic communities and how environmental conditions during founding periods leave a lasting imprint on organizations. In particular, Marquis' prior research examined the effects of these processes in the contexts of community-based social networks and the evolution of the US banking industry.

Marquis' research has won a number of national awards including the 2006 William H. Newman Award for best dissertation across the entire the Academy of Management, the 2006 Louis R. Pondy award for best dissertation in organizational theory from the Academy of Management, the 2003 James D. Thompson Award for best graduate student paper from the American Sociological Association and the 2005 State Farm Doctoral Dissertation Award. He was a finalist for the 2010 Aspen Institute Faculty Pioneer Award, a runner-up in the Academy of Management's Best Published Paper in Organization and Management Theory in 2009 and a finalist in the 2004 INFORMS/Organization Science Dissertation Proposal Competition. He has published in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, American Sociological ReviewOrganization Science, and Strategic Management Journal as well as a number of edited collections. He is a member of the editorial boards of Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Science and Strategic Organization. 



Marquis received a BA in History from Notre Dame, MA in History and MBA in Finance from Pitt, and MA and PhD in Sociology from Michigan. Prior to his academic career, he worked for 6 years in the financial services industry, most recently as Vice President and Technology Manager for a business unit of Bank One Corporation (now J.P. Morgan Chase).

Featured Work

Publications

Books

Journal Articles

  1. Can an 'Ethical' Bank Support Guns and Fracking?

    A case study is presented on business ethics and bank management. The situation facing the president of a community bank established to operate as a green business and to consider ethical issues of bank loans when it is considering an application for a large commercial loan by a firearms industry company in its community is examined.

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Juan Almandoz. "Can an 'Ethical' Bank Support Guns and Fracking?" R1404L. Harvard Business Review 92, no. 4 (April 2014): 123–127. View Details
  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in China: Symbol or Substance?

    This study focuses on how and why firms strategically respond to government signals regarding appropriate corporate activity. We integrate institutional theory and research on corporate political strategy to develop a political dependence model that explains (a) how different types of dependency on the government lead firms to issue corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and (b) how the risk of governmental monitoring affects the extent to which CSR reports are symbolic or substantive. First, we examine how firm characteristics reflecting dependence on the government—including private versus state ownership, executives serving on political councils, political legacy, and financial resources—affect the likelihood of firms issuing CSR reports. Second, we focus on the symbolic nature of CSR reporting and how variance in the risk of government monitoring through channels such as bureaucratic embeddedness and local government institutional development influences the extent to which CSR communications are symbolically decoupled from substantive CSR activities. Our database includes all CSR reports issued by the approximately 1,600 publicly listed Chinese firms between 2006 and 2009. Our hypotheses are generally supported. The political perspective we develop contributes to organizational theory by showing (a) the importance of government signaling as a mechanism of political influence, (b) how different types of dependency on the government expose firms to different types of legitimacy pressures, and (c) that firms face a decoupling risk that leads them to be more likely to enact substantive actions in situations where they are likely to be monitored.

    Keywords: institutional theory; political strategy; Non-market Strategy; emerging markets; China; corporate social responsibility; Corporate Disclosure; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Emerging Markets; Government and Politics; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Cuili Qian. "Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in China: Symbol or Substance?" Organization Science 25, no. 1 (January–February 2014): 127–148. View Details
  3. Imprinting: Toward A Multilevel Theory

    The concept of imprinting has attracted considerable interest in numerous fields—including organizational ecology, institutional theory, network analysis, and career research—and has been applied at several levels of analysis, from the industry to the individual. This article offers a critical review of this rich yet disparate literature and guides research toward a multilevel theory of imprinting. We start with a definition that captures the general features of imprinting across levels of analysis but is precise enough to remain distinct from seemingly similar concepts, such as path dependence and cohort effects. We then provide a framework to order and unite the splintered field of imprinting research at different levels of analysis. In doing so, we identify economic, technological, institutional, and individual influences that lead to imprints at the level of (a) organizational collectives, (b) single organizations, (c) organizational building blocks, and (d) individuals. Building on this framework, we develop a general model that points to major avenues for future research and charts new directions toward a multilevel theory of imprinting. This theory provides a distinct lens for organizational research that takes history seriously.

    Keywords: History; Situation or Environment; Research; Organizations; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Andras Tilcsik. "Imprinting: Toward A Multilevel Theory." Academy of Management Annals 7, no. 1 (2013): 193–243. View Details
  4. Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities

    Geographic communities have been shown to affect organizations through their enduring features, but less attention has been given to communities as sites of human-made and natural events that occasionally disrupt the lives of organizations. We develop a social-normative perspective to unpack how and why major events within communities affect organizations. To test this framework, we examine how different types of mega-events (the Olympics, the Super Bowl, political conventions) and natural disasters (such as floods and hurricanes) affected the philanthropic spending of locally headquartered Fortune 1000 firms between 1980 and 2006. Results show that philanthropic spending fluctuated dramatically as mega-events generally led to a punctuated increase in otherwise relatively stable patterns of giving by local corporations. The impact of natural disasters depended on the severity of damage: while major disasters had a negative effect, smaller-scale disasters had a positive impact. Firms' philanthropic history and communities' inter-corporate network cohesion moderated some of these effects. This study extends institutional and community literatures by illuminating the geographic distribution of punctuating events as a central mechanism for community influences on organizations; sheds new light on the temporal dynamics of both endogenous and exogenous punctuating events; and provides more nuanced understanding of corporate-community relations.

    Keywords: geographic communities; punctuated equilibrium; corporate social responsibility; institutional theory; Natural Disasters; Situation or Environment; Balance and Stability; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Community Relations; Giving and Philanthropy; United States;

    Citation:

    Tilcsik, Andras, and Christopher Marquis. "Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities." Administrative Science Quarterly 58, no. 1 (March 2013): 111–148. View Details
  5. China's Quest to Adopt Electric Vehicles

    The Chinese government's effort to create an electric vehicle industry is a bold experiment in local and system-level innovation. It also provides a window into understanding the promise and peril of economic development policies, both for China and for the rest of the world.

    Keywords: Technological Innovation; Development Economics; Emerging Markets; Green Technology Industry; Auto Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Hongyu Zhang, and Lixuan Zhou. "China's Quest to Adopt Electric Vehicles." Stanford Social Innovation Review 11, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 52–57. View Details
  6. Golfing Alone? Corporations, Elites and Nonprofit Growth in 100 American Communities

    We examine the link between corporations and community by showing how corporate density interacts with the local social and cultural infrastructure to affect the growth and decline of the number of local nonprofits between 1987 and 2002. We focus on two sub-populations of nonprofits in 100 American cities: elite-oriented cultural and educational institutions and social welfare-oriented organizations. We find that corporate density enhances the growth of both types of nonprofits, as does location in the Northeast U.S. and being a long-established business community, but corporate density is especially potent for the growth of elite-oriented nonprofits--but not social welfare nonprofits--when local networks and cultural norms support elite mobilization. We conclude that despite globalizing trends, the local geographic community continues to be an important unit of analysis for unpacking multi-sector organizational processes among corporations and nonprofits.

    Keywords: Business and Community Relations; Civil Society or Community; Business Model; For-Profit Firms; Business Growth and Maturation; Profit; Local Range; Welfare or Wellbeing; Business Processes; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Trends; Management Practices and Processes; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Gerald F. Davis, and Mary Ann Glynn. "Golfing Alone? Corporations, Elites and Nonprofit Growth in 100 American Communities." Organization Science 24, no. 1 (January–February 2013): 39–57. (Read a summary of the article in Stanford Social Innovation Review.) View Details
  7. Who Is Governing Whom? Executives, Governance, and the Structure of Generosity in Large U.S. Firms

    We examine how organizational structure influences strategies over which corporate leaders have significant discretion. Corporate philanthropy is our setting to study how a differentiated structural element—the corporate foundation—constrains the influence of individual senior managers and directors on corporate strategy. Our analysis of Fortune 500 firms from 1996 to 2006 shows that leader characteristics at both the senior management and director levels affect corporate philanthropic contributions. We also find that organizational structure constrains the philanthropic influence of board members but not of senior managers, a result that is contrary to what existing theory would predict. We discuss how these findings advance understanding of how organizational structure and corporate leadership interact and of how organizations can more effectively realize the strategic value of corporate social responsibility activities.

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Giving and Philanthropy; Leadership; Governing and Advisory Boards; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Matthew Lee. "Who Is Governing Whom? Executives, Governance, and the Structure of Generosity in Large U.S. Firms." Strategic Management Journal 34, no. 4 (April 2013): 483–497. (Earlier version distributed as Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 11-121.) View Details
  8. How Much Is Sweat Equity Worth?

    The article presents a case study of a business decision related to the valuing of sweat equity in a start-up business. One man starts a premium vodka business, bringing in his cousin at an early stage, but with no initial discussion of the eventual split of equity or managerial control between the two. The article offers each man's case for his ownership stake in a narrative style, and then presents various views of how and what they should decide.

    Keywords: Valuation; Ownership Stake; Business Startups;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Joshua D. Margolis. "How Much Is Sweat Equity Worth?" R1212X. Harvard Business Review 90, no. 12 (December 2012). View Details
  9. State Activism and the Hidden Incentives Behind Bank Acquisitions

    A number of studies have shown that, as a result of the ambiguity of U.S. legal mandates, organizations have considerable latitude in how they comply with regulations. In this paper, we address how the different agendas of the federal and state governments increase ambiguities in state-firm relations and how states are interested actors in creating opportunities for firms to navigate the federal legislation. We analyze the institutional forces behind bank acquisitions within and across state lines in order to illuminate the ways that U.S. states take advantage of federal ambiguity and are able to shape corporate practices to their benefit. We specifically examine how patterns of bank acquisitions are shaped by the crucial relationship between the federal Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and a little understood provision in the federal tax code that is implemented at the state level, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC). The relationship is complex because, while the federal government uses the CRA to control bank acquisition activity, states promote use of the LIHTC, through which banks can address federal CRA concerns, and thereby promote bank acquisitions in their jurisdictions. Thus, our findings suggest that the implementation of social legislation at one level in a federal regulatory system undermines the mechanisms of social legislation at another level. We use archival research and in-depth interviews to examine the interaction between these institutional processes and formulate hypotheses that predict the ways in which bank acquisitions are constrained by banks' CRA ratings and the way states in turn help banks overcome their CRA constraints. Quantitative analyses of all bank acquisitions in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000 largely support these hypotheses.

    Keywords: Organizations; Opportunities; Government Legislation; Acquisition; Forecasting and Prediction; Banks and Banking; Motivation and Incentives; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Management Practices and Processes; Research; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Doug Guthrie, and Juan Almandoz. "State Activism and the Hidden Incentives Behind Bank Acquisitions." Social Science Research 41 (January 2012): 130–145. View Details
  10. Regulatory Uncertainty and Corporate Responses to Environmental Protection in China

    We develop a framework to analyze the closing gap between regulation and enforcement of environmental protection in China and present a number of resulting implications for doing business there. We identify three major dimensions that characterize change in regulatory systems generally: priorities and incentives, bureaucratic alignment, and transparency and monitoring. Using these dimensions, we first unpack the mechanisms that characterized China's prior period, during which enforcement of environmental protection was decoupled from regulation. These mechanisms include (a) the intense emphasis on economic growth leading to misaligned incentives and regulatory competition across regions, (b) fragmented bureaucratic organization, and (c) lack of transparency and monitoring, all of which undermined enforcement. Then we show how, in each of these dimensions, regulation and enforcement are becoming realigned or recoupled over time. We show how this results from (a) a change in national development strategy to focus more on sustainable development and a harmonious society, (b) reorganization of the bureaucracy, and (c) an increase in monitoring by both the government and the general public. Correspondingly, we advance managerial implications that stem from these recent changes, illustrated by recent MNC and Chinese domestic firm successes. To address changes in policies and incentives, firms should align with governmental signals and embrace environmental innovation. Regarding bureaucratic alignment, firms should avoid regulatory shopping and integrate local and global standards. Finally, to address transparency and monitoring issues, firms should be transparent and compete on reputation. We conclude with a more general discussion of the contributions of our framework to understanding managerial practice in emerging-market regulatory contexts.

    Keywords: Framework; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Law Enforcement; Growth and Development Strategy; Emerging Markets; Business Ventures; Alignment; Risk and Uncertainty; Natural Environment; Motivation and Incentives; Management Practices and Processes; Competitive Strategy; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Jianjun Zhang, and Yanhua Zhou. "Regulatory Uncertainty and Corporate Responses to Environmental Protection in China." California Management Review 54, no. 1 (Fall 2011): 39–63. View Details
  11. Acquisitions as Exaptation: The Legacy of Founding Institutions in the U.S. Commercial Banking Industry

    This study focuses on the imprinting of institutional environments, particularly how founding institutions impact intra-organizational capabilities and how such imprints may have different external manifestations in subsequent historical eras. We introduce the concept of exaptation to organizational theory, identifying an important process whereby the historical origin of a capability differs from its current usefulness. Three founding conditions-branching policy, modernization, and political culture-influenced banks' development of capabilities to manage dispersed branches, and these capabilities subsequently led to variation in banks' propensity to engage in acquisitions. Results highlight that founding institutions have a persistent, and sometimes unexpected, impact on organizations' strategies.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Commercial Banking; Organizations; Theory; Policy; Government and Politics; Management Practices and Processes; Strategy; Competency and Skills; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Zhi Huang. "Acquisitions as Exaptation: The Legacy of Founding Institutions in the U.S. Commercial Banking Industry." Academy of Management Journal 53, no. 6 (December 2010): 1441–1473. View Details
  12. Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Enduring Influence of Local Communities on Organizations

    We develop an institutionally oriented theory of how and why local communities continue to matter for organizations in a global age. Since globalization has taken center stage in both practitioner and academic circles, research has shifted away from understanding effects of local factors. Our approach runs counter to the idea that globalization is a homogeneity-producing process, and to the view that society is moving from particularism to universalism. We argue that with globalization, not only has the local remained important, but in many ways local particularities have become more visible and salient. We unpack the market, regulative, social, and cultural mechanisms that result in this enduring community influence while reviewing classic and contemporary research from organizational theory, sociology, and economics that have focused on geographic influences on organizations. In this paper, our aim is to redirect theoretical and empirical attention back to understanding the determinants and importance of local influences. We suggest that because organizations are simultaneously embedded in geographic communities and organizational fields, by accounting for both of these areas, researchers will better understand isomorphism and change dynamics.

    Keywords: Globalized Firms and Management; Business and Community Relations; Local Range; Civil Society or Community; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Julie Battilana. "Acting Globally but Thinking Locally? The Enduring Influence of Local Communities on Organizations." Research in Organizational Behavior 29 (2009): 283–302. View Details
  13. The Contingent Nature of Public Policy and the Growth of U.S. Commercial Banking

    That public policy affects organizational behaviors is well accepted, but less explored is how these effects may depend on other external environmental factors. We investigate how policy is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to understand the growth of commercial banking in the United States, 1896-1978. We highlight a trade-off for banks between centralized and dispersed growth strategies and show that which strategy prevails depends on how policy enabling branching interacts with technological, economic, and cultural environments. Our findings contribute to understanding the contingent effects of policy on organizations and on the growth of large corporations in the twentieth century.

    Keywords: Policy; Organizational Culture; Strategy; Commercial Banking; Growth and Development Strategy; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Zhi Huang. "The Contingent Nature of Public Policy and the Growth of U.S. Commercial Banking." Academy of Management Journal 52, no. 6 (2009): 1222–1246. (Runner-up, Academy of Management's Best Published Paper in Organization and Management Theory in 2009. Earlier version distributed as Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 09-025.) View Details
  14. Vive La Resistance: Competing Logics and the Consolidation of U.S. Community Banking

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Competition; Consolidation; Banking Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Michael Lounsbury. "Vive La Resistance: Competing Logics and the Consolidation of U.S. Community Banking." Academy of Management Journal 50, no. 4 (August 2007): 799–820. View Details
  15. Community Isomorphism and Corporate Social Action

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Civil Society or Community;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Mary Ann Glynn, and Gerald F. Davis. "Community Isomorphism and Corporate Social Action." Academy of Management Review 32, no. 3 (July 2007): 925–945. (Read an interview about this paper in HBS Working Knowledge.) View Details
  16. Egocentric, Sociocentric, or Dyadic? Identifying the Appropriate Level of Analysis in the Study of Organizational Networks

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Theory; Organizations; Networks;

    Citation:

    Mizruchi, Mark S., and Christopher Marquis. "Egocentric, Sociocentric, or Dyadic? Identifying the Appropriate Level of Analysis in the Study of Organizational Networks." Social Networks 28, no. 3 (July 2006): 187–208. View Details
  17. Understanding Mechanisms in Organizational Research

    Keywords: Organizations; Research;

    Citation:

    Anderson, Peter J., Ruth Blatt, Marlys K. Christianson, Adam M. Grant, Christopher Marquis, Eric J. Newman, Scott Sonenshein, and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe. "Understanding Mechanisms in Organizational Research." Journal of Management Inquiry 15, no. 2 (June 2006): 102–113. View Details
  18. The Conditional Nature of Embeddedness: Borrowing by Large U.S. Firms, 1973-1994

    Keywords: Borrowing and Debt; United States;

    Citation:

    Mizruchi, Mark S., Linda Brewster Stearns, and Christopher Marquis. "The Conditional Nature of Embeddedness: Borrowing by Large U.S. Firms, 1973-1994." American Sociological Review 71, no. 2 (April 2006): 406–409. View Details
  19. Historical Environments, Coordination and Consolidation in the U.S. Banking Industry, 1896-2001

    Keywords: Business History; Consolidation; Banks and Banking; Banking Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher. "Historical Environments, Coordination and Consolidation in the U.S. Banking Industry, 1896-2001." Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings (2006). (full version.) View Details
  20. The Pressure of the Past: Network Imprinting in Intercorporate Communities

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher. "The Pressure of the Past: Network Imprinting in Intercorporate Communities." Administrative Science Quarterly (December 2003): 655–689. (

    Winner of James D. Thompson Award For an outstanding graduate student paper on organizations, occupations, and work presented by American Sociological Association​

    .) View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Community as an Institutional Order and a Type of Organizing

    Keywords: Civil Society or Community; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Michael Lounsbury, and Royston Greenwood. "Community as an Institutional Order and a Type of Organizing." Introduction to Communities and Organizations. Vol. 33, edited by Christopher Marquis, Michael Lounsbury, and Royston Greenwood. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. View Details
  2. Explaining the Loss of Community: Competing Logics and Institutional Change in the U.S. Banking Industry

    Keywords: Banks and Banking; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Conflict and Resolution; Banking Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Zhi Huang, and Juan Almandoz. "Explaining the Loss of Community: Competing Logics and Institutional Change in the U.S. Banking Industry." In Communities and Organizations. Vol. 33, edited by Christopher Marquis, Michael Lounsbury, and Royston Greenwood. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. View Details
  3. How Institutional Norms and Individual Preferences Legitimate Organizational Names

    Keywords: Organizational Culture; Personal Characteristics; Perspective; Attitudes; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Glynn, Mary Ann, and Christopher Marquis. "How Institutional Norms and Individual Preferences Legitimate Organizational Names." In Artifacts and Organizations, edited by Anat Rafaeli and Michael Pratt, 223–239. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006. View Details
  4. The Globalization of Stock Markets and Convergence in Corporate Governance

    Keywords: Globalized Markets and Industries; Financial Markets; Corporate Governance; Financial Services Industry; Information Technology Industry;

    Citation:

    Davis, Gerald F., and Christopher Marquis. "The Globalization of Stock Markets and Convergence in Corporate Governance." In Economic Sociology of Capitalism, edited by Victor Nee and Richard Swedberg. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. View Details
  5. When Good Names Go Bad: Organizational Illegitimacy, and the Dotcom Collapse

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Failure; Web Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Glynn, Mary Ann, and Christopher Marquis. "When Good Names Go Bad: Organizational Illegitimacy, and the Dotcom Collapse." In Legitimacy Processes in Organizations. Vol. 22, edited by Cathryn Johnson, 147–170. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Elsevier Science, 2004. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Finance and Social Responsibility in the Informal Economy: Institutional Voids, Globalization and Microfinance Institutions

    We examine the heterogeneous effects of globalization on the interest rate setting by microfinance institutions (MFIs) around the world. We consider MFIs as a mechanism to overcome the institutional void of credit for small entrepreneurs in developing and emerging economies. Using a large global panel of MFIs from 119 countries, we find that social globalization that embraces egalitarian institutions on average reduces MFIs’ interest rates. In contrast, economic globalization that embraces neoliberal institutions on average increases MFIs’ interest rates. Moreover, the proportions of female borrowers and of poorer borrowers negatively moderate the relationship between social globalization and MFI interest rate, and positively moderate the relationship between economic globalization and MFI interest rate. This paper contributes to understanding how globalization processes can both ameliorate and exacerbate challenges of institutional voids in emerging and developing economies.

    Keywords: Institutional voids; microfinance institutions; economic globalization; social globalization;

    Citation:

    Liang, Hao, Christopher Marquis, and Sunny Li Sun. "Finance and Social Responsibility in the Informal Economy: Institutional Voids, Globalization and Microfinance Institutions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-029, October 2014. View Details
  2. Institutional Strategies in Emerging Markets

    We review and integrate a wide range of literature that has examined the strategies by which organizations navigate institutionally diverse settings and capture rents outside of the marketplace. We synthesize this body of research under the umbrella term institutional strategies, which we define as the comprehensive set of plans and actions directed at strategically leveraging and shaping the socio-political and cultural institutions within an organization's external environment. Our review of institutional strategies is focused on emerging market contexts, settings that are characterized by weak capital market and regulatory infrastructures and fast-paced turbulent change. Under such challenging conditions, strategies aimed at shaping the institutional environment may be especially critical to an organization's performance and long-term survival. Our review reveals that organizations engage in three specific and identifiable sets of institutional strategies, which we term: relational, infrastructure-building, and socio-cultural bridging. We conclude by highlighting fruitful avenues for cross-disciplinary dialogue in the hope of promoting future research on emerging markets and defining the next frontier of institutional theory in organizational analysis.

    Keywords: Strategy; Organizations; Emerging Markets;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Mia Raynard. "Institutional Strategies in Emerging Markets." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-013, September 2014. View Details
  3. Speaking of Corporate Social Responsibility

    We argue that the language spoken by corporate decision makers influences their firms' social responsibility and sustainability practices. Linguists suggest that obligatory future-time-reference (FTR) in a language reduces the psychological importance of the future. Prior research has shown that speakers of strong FTR languages (such as English, French, and Spanish) exhibit less future-oriented behavior (Chen, 2013). Yet, research has not established how this mechanism may affect the future-oriented activities of corporations. We theorize that companies with strong-FTR languages as their official/working language would have less of a future orientation and so perform worse in future-oriented activities such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) compared to those in weak-FTR language environments. Examining thousands of global companies across 59 countries from 1999 to 2011, we find support for our theory and further that the negative association between FTR and CSR performance is weaker for firms that have greater exposure to diverse global languages as a result of (a) being headquartered in countries with a higher degree of globalization, (b) having a higher degree of internationalization, and (c) having a CEO with more international experience. Our results suggest that language use by corporations is a key cultural variable that is a strong predictor of CSR and sustainability.

    Keywords: language; Future-Time-Reference; Categories; culture; corporate social responsibility; sustainability; Communication; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Liang, Hao, Christopher Marquis, Luc Renneboog, and Sunny Li Sun. "Speaking of Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-082, March 2014. View Details
  4. Imprinting: Toward A Multilevel Theory

    The concept of imprinting has attracted considerable interest in numerous fields—including organizational ecology, institutional theory, network analysis, and career research—and has been applied at several levels of analysis, from the industry to the individual. This article offers a critical review of this rich yet disparate literature and guides research toward a multilevel theory of imprinting. We start with a definition that captures the general features of imprinting across levels of analysis but is precise enough to remain distinct from seemingly similar concepts, such as path dependence and cohort effects. We then provide a framework to order and unite the splintered field of imprinting research at different levels of analysis. In doing so, we identify economic, technological, institutional, and individual influences that lead to imprints at the level of (a) organizational collectives, (b) single organizations, (c) organizational building blocks, and (d) individuals. Building on this framework, we develop a general model that points to major avenues for future research and charts new directions toward a multilevel theory of imprinting. This theory provides a distinct lens for organizational research that takes history seriously.

    Keywords: History; Situation or Environment; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Andras Tilcsik. "Imprinting: Toward A Multilevel Theory." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-061, January 2013. (Forthcoming in Academy of Management Annals.) View Details
  5. Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities

    This article focuses on geographic communities as fields in which human-made and natural events occasionally disrupt the lives of organizations. We develop an institutional perspective to unpack how and why major events within communities affect organizations in the context of corporate philanthropy. To test this framework, we examine how different types of mega-events (the Olympics, the Super Bowl, political conventions) and natural disasters (such as floods and hurricanes) affected the philanthropic spending of locally headquartered Fortune 1000 firms between 1980 and 2006. Results show that philanthropic spending fluctuated dramatically as mega-events generally led to a punctuated increase in otherwise relatively stable patterns of giving by local corporations. The impact of natural disasters depended on the severity of damage: while major disasters had a negative effect, smaller-scale disasters had a positive impact. Firms' philanthropic history and communities' intercorporate network cohesion moderated some of these effects. This study extends the institutional and community literatures by illuminating the geographic distribution of punctuating events as a central mechanism for community influences on organizations, shedding new light on the temporal dynamics of both endogenous and exogenous punctuating events and providing a more nuanced understanding of corporate-community relations.

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; Situation or Environment; Balance and Stability; Organizations; Business and Community Relations; Giving and Philanthropy; United States;

    Citation:

    Tilcsik, Andras, and Christopher Marquis. "Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-060, January 2013. (Forthcoming: Administrative Science Quarterly, 58 (March), 2013.) View Details
  6. Scrutiny, Norms, and Selective Disclosure: A Global Study of Greenwashing

    Under increased pressure to report environmental impacts, some firms selectively disclose relatively benign impacts, creating an impression of transparency while masking their true performance. We identify key company- and country-level factors that, by intensifying scrutiny on firms and diffusing global norms to their headquarters' countries, limit firms' use of selective disclosure. We test our hypotheses using a novel panel dataset of 4,750 public companies across many industries and headquartered in 45 countries during 2004–2007. Results show that firms that are more environmentally damaging, particularly those in countries where they are more exposed to scrutiny and global norms, are less likely to engage in selective disclosure. We discuss contributions to the literature that spans institutional theory and strategic management and to the literature on information disclosure.

    Keywords: disclosure strategy; disclosure; environmental performance; environmental strategy; environment; symbolic; reporting; Integrated Corporate Reporting; Globalization; Corporate Accountability; Corporate Disclosure; Governance Compliance; Management Practices and Processes; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Business and Government Relations; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Michael W. Toffel. "Scrutiny, Norms, and Selective Disclosure: A Global Study of Greenwashing." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 11-115, May 2011. (Revised April 2014. Formerly titled "When Do Firms Greenwash? Corporate Visibility, Civil Society Scrutiny, and Environmental Disclosure.") View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc.: Taking on Seasonal Starvation in Latin America

    A company with a strong commitment toward corporate social responsibility since its founding days, Green Mountain faced an ethical decision point in 2007 as new information from the field uncovered a chronic dire problem facing coffee communities—seasonal starvation. Company leaders are driven to re-assess their social impact and address this widespread problem while aligning their efforts with their broader, rapidly expanding business of selling coffee.

    Keywords: Fair Trade; coffee; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Food and Beverage Industry; Consumer Products Industry; Latin America; Central America; Mexico; Guatemala; Nicaragua;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Zoe Yang. "Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc.: Taking on Seasonal Starvation in Latin America." Harvard Business School Case 414-065, April 2014. View Details
  2. Anglo American: Implementing a 'Social Way' for Global Mining

    The mining giant Anglo American attempts to differentiate itself through its social performance, yet public expectations are still growing. Maintaining a "social license" to operate was increasingly challenging and critical to business success.

    The case considers Anglo American's options to stay in front of these trends. How can the protagonist promote greater professionalization of social performance inside the organization, and greater integration with business decisions?

    The organization was also under pressure to increase social investments as part of the company's social license. Could significantly more value—for the company, host governments, and local communities—be created by leveraging the company's core operations, such as increasing the amount of goods and services purchased from local suppliers?

    Keywords: Global Mining; Localization; socioeconomic issues; procurement; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Supply Chain Management; Globalization; Reputation; Emerging Markets; Mining Industry; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, David Plumb, Tom Blathwayt, and Zoe Yang. "Anglo American: Implementing a 'Social Way' for Global Mining." Harvard Business School Case 414-063, January 2014. View Details
  3. Fei Cheng Wu Rao

    As Fei Cheng Wu Rao, China's most popular entertainment program, enters its fourth year, company leaders grapple with questions of how to keep the show fresh and reach new markets. In particular, the show is poised to expand to Africa, yet there are significant questions about how to tailor a program designed to capture the attention of a unique demographic within China to new cultural contexts.

    Keywords: China; globalization; entertainment; media; TV; Media; Television Entertainment; Media and Broadcasting Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Zoe Yang, and Juelin Yin. "Fei Cheng Wu Rao." Harvard Business School Case 414-056, February 2014. View Details
  4. New Resource Bank: In Pursuit of Green (TN)

    This case involves the founding and early life of a new bank enterprise in San Francisco with a commitment to the cause of sustainability. It illustrates the opportunities and challenges of banking on values and of specifying and making explicit the practical implications of such commitment.

    Keywords: business and society; entrepreneurial management; growth strategy; leadership; social enterprise; Banking Industry; San Francisco;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Juan Almandoz. "New Resource Bank: In Pursuit of Green (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 413-114, April 2013. View Details
  5. Building a Community at Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation

    Over the past decade, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC) had developed a unique set of benefits and cultural amenities for its employees, including a beautiful residential campus, known as the Living Quarters (LQ), and an award winning international school from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade that by 2012 enrolled over 2,000 students. These amenities allowed the company to attract and retain high-quality employees at modest pay; however, the company had recently experienced some financial difficulties, a shrinking number of new available living spaces, and questions about how relevant it was for a semiconductor firm to be operating a school. Thus, these benefits now presented significant dilemmas for the SMIC management team, including how the company can justify the costs of these benefits to investors in the face of the company's other financial challenges.

    Keywords: Culture and Community; Semiconductor Industry; Shanghai; China; Beijing;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Zucheng Zhou, Mo Chen, and Heng Fan. "Building a Community at Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation." Harvard Business School Case 413-083, November 2012. View Details
  6. First Green Bank: Bringing Bloom to Desert Landscapes

    First Green Bank is a bank start-up in the midst of the financial crisis which aims to promote sustainability while making money as a bank. The case presents an ethical dilemma as it considers a loan to an arms manufacturer.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Financial Crisis; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Business and Community Relations; Environmental Sustainability; Ethics; Banking Industry; United States; Florida;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Juan Almandoz. "First Green Bank: Bringing Bloom to Desert Landscapes." Harvard Business School Case 413-073, March 2013. View Details
  7. Warby Parker: Vision of a 'Good' Fashion Brand

    In its third year of existence and poised to double its workforce, Warby Parker attributed its success to an innovative approach in the eyewear industry and to the company culture that supported it. With a mission combining social and business goals, the company had articulated a stakeholder-centric model that benefited consumers through high-quality, fashionable, and affordable eyewear: the global community by donating, through sustainable channels, one pair of glasses per every pair sold; employees through a fun culture and inspiring work; and the environment, by becoming carbon neutral. The case covers the decisions that Warby Parker must make at the beginning of its third year of existence as a consequence of growth and in order to avoid losing momentum. Some of the challenges that Warby Parker faced were maintaining the company culture, finding adequate partners to preserve the quality of the "Buy a Pair, Give a Pair" program, and devising an integrated online and offline marketing strategy that fit the brand personality.

    Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; business and society; social responsiblity; organizational behavior; Social Entrepreneurship; Growth Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Brands and Branding; Organizational Culture; Marketing Strategy; Innovation and Invention; Apparel and Accessories Industry; Health Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Laura Velez Villa. "Warby Parker: Vision of a 'Good' Fashion Brand." Harvard Business School Case 413-051, July 2012. (Revised September 2012.) View Details
  8. Managing Stakeholders with Corporate Social Responsibility

    This note articulates the ways in which strong stakeholder-company relationships developed through corporate social responsibility initiatives and other types of social strategies deliver bottom line benefits. The analysis follows stakeholder logic models connecting the impact of CSR initiatives on a stakeholder group (employees, customers, investors, government, the community, and suppliers) and its effect on company revenues, costs, and market value.

    Keywords: business and society; social responsibility; stakeholder management; government and business; philanthropy; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Giving and Philanthropy; Revenue;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Laura Velez Villa. "Managing Stakeholders with Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business School Course Overview Note 412-121, May 2012. View Details
  9. Driving Sustainability at Bloomberg L.P. (TN)

    Teaching Note for 411025.

    Keywords: Performance; Employees; Innovation and Invention; Environmental Sustainability; Social Issues; Governance; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Daniel Buenza, Fabrizio Ferraro, and Bobbi Thomason. "Driving Sustainability at Bloomberg L.P. (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-068, November 2010. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  10. PNC Financial: Grow Up Great (A)

    In 2003, PNC Financial focused its corporate citizenship and philanthropic resources on a ten-year, $100 million investment in early childhood education called PNC Grow Up Great. The case tracks the origination of Grow Up Great, how it was developed and implemented within PNC, and some of the key challenges and successes of the program during its first 5 years of operation. Key elements of the case are the process by which PNC decided to focus on Grow Up Great as its signature program, and how the program was designed to provide extensive volunteering opportunities for employees. The case also explores how PNC leadership has engaged in extensive advocacy on the issue of early childhood education. The branding and marketing issues associated with Grow Up Great and how it fits in PNC's organizational structure are also highlighted in the case.

    Keywords: Early Childhood Education; Giving and Philanthropy; Leadership; Brands and Branding; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Structure; Business and Community Relations;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Alison Comings. "PNC Financial: Grow Up Great (A)." Harvard Business School Case 409-108, March 2009. (Revised March 2012.) View Details
  11. PNC Financial: Grow Up Great (TN) (A) and (B)

    Teaching Note for [409108].

    Keywords: Investment; Problems and Challenges; Opportunities; Leadership; Early Childhood Education; Brands and Branding; Organizational Structure; Success; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Bobbi Thomason. "PNC Financial: Grow Up Great (TN) (A) and (B)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-120, March 2010. (Revised March 2012.) View Details
  12. New Resource Bank: In Pursuit of Green

    New Resource Bank was founded in San Francisco in 2006 with a mission focused on environmental sustainability. The case illustrates the opportunities and challenges of banking on values and the challenges of organizations defining a social and environmental commitment. The case also highlights the tension and potential synergies between social mission and shareholder value in the context of the crisis of 2008, the taken-for-granted expectations and norms arising from a commercial bank charter, and the distinct perspectives of bank regulators, founders, investors, and other stakeholders of the newly founded bank.

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Strategy; Business and Government Relations; Banking Industry; San Francisco;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Juan Almandoz. "New Resource Bank: In Pursuit of Green." Harvard Business School Case 412-060, September 2011. (Revised May 2013.) View Details
  13. Chairman Zhang and Broad Group: Growth Dilemmas

    Zhang Yue, founder and chairman of Broad Group, had developed a series of innovative products aimed at solving China's environmental problems. Broad Group's products, services, and management were guided by values that prioritized morals, responsibility, environmental protection, and energy conservation over company growth and profit. Zhang's current focus was Broad Sustainable Building (BSB), a unique prefabricated building technology that was significantly more environmentally friendly than traditional building methods, as well as much less expensive. In order to obtain the capital and talent that BSB's development required, Zhang realized he may need to publicly list the company, despite publicly saying he never would do so. Would scaling the new businesses result in compromises to the mission and values that guided the company? If so, was the overall environmental impact from the new building technology worth the cost?

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Strategy; Environmental Sustainability; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Nancy Hua Dai, and Lynn Yin. "Chairman Zhang and Broad Group: Growth Dilemmas." Harvard Business School Case 412-095, December 2011. (Revised December 2012.) View Details
  14. Social Innovation at salesforce.com

    Salesforce.com recently implemented an innovative social enterprise business model whereby the Salesforce.com Foundation funds its operations and grant budget by selling discounted salesforce.com software licenses to nonprofits and education clients. The case recounts the development and initial stages of this project and the tradeoffs inherent in mixing social and business goals. Furthermore, as background the case also provides detail on Salesforce's 1-1-1 business model, whereby the company contributes one percent of product, one percent of equity, and one percent of employee hours back to the communities it serves.

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business Model; Information Technology; Leading Change; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Marley C. Kornreich, and Bobbi Thomason. "Social Innovation at salesforce.com." Harvard Business School Case 412-049, August 2011. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  15. VeeV on the Rocks?

    Three pressing challenges (equity split, extent of commitment to social responsibility, and product discoloration) confront VeeV, the world's first alcoholic beverage infused with acai berries. Brothers Courtney and Carter Reum founded VeeV in 2007 and the firm has experienced rapid growth since then. The case documents the backgrounds of the young founders, details the launch and early phase of the company, and presents three challenges the founders must address: how to split the equity of the new company, how far to go in their efforts to be a "green" and socially responsible brand, and an unexpected potential product quality issue.

    Keywords: Quality; Food; Business Growth and Maturation; Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Entrepreneurship; Business Startups; Equity; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Margolis, Joshua D., Christopher Marquis, and Laura Winig. "VeeV on the Rocks?" Harvard Business School Case 410-006, July 2009. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  16. The Dannon Company: Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility (A)

    At the end of 2009, The Dannon Company was considering pro actively communicating its CSR efforts to consumers. With the strong connection between Dannon's production of health foods and its commitment to health and nutrition-based CSR activities, communicating these activities to consumers could enhance the company's success, but risked tainting its deeply ingrained CSR as a marketing ploy. Dannon wanted to maintain its holistic approach to social responsibility and commitment to social values. Dannon's CSR focused on three areas: Nutrition and Health, People and Nature. The case follows the perspectives of various stakeholders within the organization, including members of the Marketing, Human Resources and Corporate Affairs departments. Some of the specific questions examined are: Should we communicate Dannon's CSR activities? What would be the best means to do so? Should it be a corporate or brand level campaign? How would the parent company, Danone, respond? Can CSR remain sincere when being leveraged for PR purposes?

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Nutrition; Marketing Communications; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Risk and Uncertainty; Natural Environment; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Pooja Mehta Shah, Amanda Elizabeth Tolleson, and Bobbi Thomason. "The Dannon Company: Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility (A)." Harvard Business School Case 410-121, April 2010. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  17. Driving Sustainability at Bloomberg L.P.

    Describes the addition of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance indicators to the Bloomberg terminal. The initiative grew out of Bloomberg's broader sustainability initiatives and is an example of how committed employees can create positive social change within organizations. Issues highlighted in the case for discussion include the following: How can committed employees implement an innovative sustainability initiative within a large corporation? How can ESG data be more strategic for both Bloomberg and investors? And finally, how should the ESG data industry be structured, and what impact does ESG data have on the future institutionalization of sustainability?

    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Knowledge Dissemination; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Culture; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Environmental Sustainability; Publishing Industry; New York (city, NY);

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Daniel Beunza, Fabrizio Ferraro, and Bobbi Thomason. "Driving Sustainability at Bloomberg L.P." Harvard Business School Case 411-025, August 2010. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  18. B Lab: Building a New Sector of the Economy

    The founders of B Lab are on a mission to create a new sector of the economy and are specifically focused on a three objectives: 1) building a community of Certified B Corporations (B=Benefit) that legally expand their corporate responsibilities to include consideration of diverse stakeholder interests; 2) advancing the public policies necessary to create a new corporate form called a Benefit Corporation; and 3) creating an investment rating system to help drive institutional investment to the emerging asset class of "impact investments." The case considers the challenges associated with achieving each of these objectives, let alone all three at the same time. Is B Lab's tripartite strategy its secret sauce or its albatross?

    Keywords: Economic Sectors; Social Entrepreneurship; Investment; Policy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Government Relations; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Social Enterprise; Value Creation;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Andrew David Klaber, and Bobbi Thomason. "B Lab: Building a New Sector of the Economy." Harvard Business School Case 411-047, September 2010. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  19. The Dannon Company: Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility (B)

    Details Dannon's decision to initiate a cause marketing program focused on breast cancer to directly compete with Yoplait.

    Keywords: Marketing; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Bobbi Thomason. "The Dannon Company: Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 412-047, August 2011. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  20. Global Business School Network

    The mission of the Global Business School Network (GBSN) is to strengthen business education for the developing world. The organization was transitioning out of its startup phase and wants to shift its focus from capacity building activities driven by the organization to empowering the network to carry out GBSN's mission. The case asks, what is the best way to accomplish this objective?

    Keywords: Mission and Purpose; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Strategy; Business Education; Development Economics; Globalization; Global Strategy; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Rwitwika Bhattacharya. "Global Business School Network." Harvard Business School Case 412-044, August 2011. (Revised September 2011.) View Details
  21. sweetriot 2.0

    In the fall of 2010, Sarah Endline, CEO and Founder of sweetriot, an organic chocolate company, was deciding the best way to grow her organic chocolate company, while keeping her chocolate physically and conceptually on the shelf. She wanted to grow the offerings and profits of her company, while maintaining its social mission and unique flair. The case tracks the origins of sweetriot from Sarah's formative early career experiences, to the company's launch and beyond as Sarah prepares future products, establishes production channels, and seeks future funding. Sarah was not content to just be a small New York City candy company. Her goal was for sweetriot to be the number one natural chocolate company in the world and to thus be a vehicle to drive change globally. How can she meet that objective while also keeping the company true to its social roots?

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Profit; Business Strategy; Business Growth and Maturation; Social Enterprise; Growth and Development Strategy; Experience and Expertise; Economic Growth; Organizational Culture; Mission and Purpose; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Food and Beverage Industry; New York (state, US);

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Donna Khalife, and Bobbi Thomason. "sweetriot 2.0." Harvard Business School Case 412-007, June 2011. (Revised April 2014.) View Details
  22. China Environment Fund: Doing Well by Doing Good

    In early 2010, cleantech investment pioneer Tsing Capital was planning for the China Environment Fund IV and considering how to maintain its commitment to social and environmental practices. Tsing Capital embraced its philosophy of "Doing Well by Doing Good" and developed a proprietary system to manage social & environmental functions throughout the investment process. Some of the specific questions examined in the case are: with a more diversified investor base, how could the firm balance the different expectations of investors and continue to achieve "Doing Well by Doing Good"? Despite the increasing importance of social & environmental practices, they also had a cost for the firm and its portfolio companies. How could the firm most effectively motivate its portfolio companies to actively integrate social & environmental practices with their strategies?

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business Strategy; Balance and Stability; Environmental Sustainability; Weather and Climate Change; Energy Conservation; Business Organization; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Venture Capital; Financial Services Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Nancy Dai. "China Environment Fund: Doing Well by Doing Good." Harvard Business School Case 410-142, June 2010. (Revised July 2011.) View Details
  23. VeeV on the Rocks? (TN)

    Teaching Note for 410006.

    Keywords: Quality; Ownership Stake; Growth and Development; Problems and Challenges; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Brands and Branding; Food and Beverage Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Joshua D. Margolis, and Bobbi Thomason. "VeeV on the Rocks? (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-076, December 2010. View Details
  24. Western Union: Our World, Our Family®

    In 2006, Western Union spun-off from its former parent, First Data Corporation, and began the process of defining itself as a stand-alone organization. Part of that effort was the creation of a strategic corporate social responsibility program called Our World, Our Family. The case tracks Western Union's earlier CSR initiatives and how they resulted in the creation Our World, Our Family. Key elements of the case focus on understanding the Western Union business model focused on financial remittances, and how its corporate citizenship efforts bring value to the company by satisfying the diverse needs of Western Union's stakeholders.

    Keywords: Business Model; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Programs; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Alignment; Value;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher. "Western Union: Our World, Our Family®." Harvard Business School Case 410-050, September 2009. (Revised December 2010.) View Details
  25. B Lab: Building a New Sector of the Economy (TN)

    Teaching Note for 411047.

    Keywords: Change; Problems and Challenges; Welfare or Wellbeing; Value; Emerging Markets; Management Practices and Processes; Balance and Stability; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Bobbi Thomason. "B Lab: Building a New Sector of the Economy (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-073, November 2010. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  26. Whole Foods: Balancing Social Mission and Growth (TN)

    Teaching Note for 410023.

    Keywords: Food; Growth and Development; Mergers and Acquisitions; Mission and Purpose; Supply Chain; Business Model; Growth and Development Strategy; Integration; Management Practices and Processes; Labor Unions; Food and Beverage Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Bobbi Thomason. "Whole Foods: Balancing Social Mission and Growth (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 411-057, October 2010. View Details
  27. State Grid: Corporate Social Responsibility

    In October 2009, State Grid, the largest utility company in the world, and a pioneer and leader in CSR practices in China, was planning its 2009 CSR Report and long-term CSR implementation. Some of the specific challenges faced at the time include: How could the company balance the different stakeholder expectations and respond to their concerns in a clear and concise way? To what extent should the company reference international standards in its CSR reporting? How could it change the mindsets of 1.5 million employees across diverse geographies to help them abide by CSR principles and management policies on a daily basis? Finally, how could State Grid improve its stakeholder management to establish mutual trust with stakeholders so that they would see State Grid as a responsible company?

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Management Systems; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Corporate Accountability; Behavior; Change Management; Global Range; Employees; Utilities Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Nancy Dai, Dongning Yang, and Hong Wu. "State Grid: Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business School Case 410-141, June 2010. (Revised August 2010.) View Details
  28. Mekong Capital: Building a Culture of Leadership in Vietnam

    Mekong Capital, a private equity firm specializing in investing in Vietnam, had grown dramatically since its inception in 2002 and faced numerous organizational issues in 2007. There was a shortage of qualified middle managers, an overall lack of leadership, and a culture of making excuses for performance shortfalls. These issues not only plagued Mekong, but also the portfolio companies that they took positions in. The case recounts how the founder and managing partner of Mekong undertook a process to profoundly change the culture, leadership, and accountability within the company to try to transform it so that its people would align and come together as a team, holding themselves responsible to deliver results and committed to the long-term future.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Leading Change; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Culture; Performance Improvement; Groups and Teams; Alignment; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Vinay Ganti, Kevin Smith, and Doug Guthrie. "Mekong Capital: Building a Culture of Leadership in Vietnam." Harvard Business School Case 411-023, July 2010. View Details
  29. Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement

    Analyzes the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and employee engagement, including CSR effects on employee commitment and motivation, new skills and training, and motivation. Also discusses best practices in employee engagement through CSR.

    Keywords: Competency and Skills; Training; Employees; Retention; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Culture; Practice; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Bobbi Thomason, and Jennifer Tydlaska. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement." Harvard Business School Course Overview Note 410-138, June 2010. (Revised April 2014.) View Details
  30. IBM: The Corporate Service Corps

    Describes the conception, development, and implementation of the Corporate Services Corps (CSC), an international community service assignment for high-potential IBM employees. The year 2008 was the pilot year of the CSC program, and 100 of IBM's best global employees were deployed to work for local partners, frequently non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in locations such as Ghana, Tanzania, Romania, Philippines, and Vietnam. The case provides data for students to assess the first year of operation and recommend what changes IBM should make to the program moving forward. Also considered is how the CSC fits into IBM's broader corporate citizenship portfolio and IBM's globalization strategy.

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Global Strategy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Mission and Purpose; Organizational Structure; Partners and Partnerships; Non-Governmental Organizations;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Rosabeth M. Kanter. "IBM: The Corporate Service Corps." Harvard Business School Case 409-106, March 2009. (Revised July 2010.) View Details
  31. Goldman Sachs: The 10,000 Women Initiative

    Describes the conception, development, and implementation of Goldman Sachs' five-year, $100 million philanthropic initiative to provide practical business and management education to 10,000 women around the globe. The initiative recently celebrated its first anniversary, and over 1,200 women were either enrolled in, or graduated from, sponsored certificate programs. The case addressees some key strategic decisions facing the firm as they rollout the program over the coming years. These include how to organize the network of schools that deliver the educational services, how to determine the best outside partners to provide additional services for the women entrepreneurs, how to best assess the impact of the program, and finally the extent to which the initiative provides contributions to the long-term strategy of the firm.

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business Education; Gender Characteristics; Giving and Philanthropy; Financial Services Industry; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Cathy Ross. "Goldman Sachs: The 10,000 Women Initiative." Harvard Business School Case 509-042, June 2009. (Revised July 2010.) View Details
  32. IBM: The Corporate Service Corps (TN)

    Teaching Note for [409106].

    Keywords: Service Operations; Employees; Partners and Partnerships; Non-Governmental Organizations; Developing Countries and Economies; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Programs; Global Strategy; Computer Industry; Information Technology Industry; Ghana; Tanzania; Romania; Philippines; Viet Nam;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Alison Comings, and Bobbi Thomason. "IBM: The Corporate Service Corps (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-131, April 2010. View Details
  33. Swire Beverages: Implementing CSR in China

    Teaching Note for [410021].

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Community Relations; Health; Organizational Design; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Business Strategy; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Safety; Natural Environment; Brands and Branding; Interests; Partners and Partnerships; Food and Beverage Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Alison Comings, and Bobbi Thomason. "Swire Beverages: Implementing CSR in China." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-129, April 2010. View Details
  34. Goldman Sachs: The 10,000 Women Initiative (TN)

    Teaching Note for [509042].

    Keywords: Programs; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Gender Characteristics; Networks; Strategy; Partners and Partnerships; Entrepreneurship; Business Education; Giving and Philanthropy; Banking Industry; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Bobbi Thomason. "Goldman Sachs: The 10,000 Women Initiative (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-119, March 2010. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  35. Burt's Bees: Balancing Growth and Sustainability (Multimedia)

    The case examines sustainability initiatives at Burt's Bees, with video segments that detail the company's history, leadership, and implementation of ambitious 2020 sustainability goals. The company traces its roots to 1984, when Roxanne Quinby and Burt Schavitz teamed up selling beeswax candles at craft fairs, and today offers a range of natural skin, hair care, and bath products. The case is set at a crossroads for Burt's Bees, two years after its acquisition by the Clorox Company. Despite moving miles and decades away from its roots in rural Maine. Burt's wants to remain true to the morals and mission that inspired its humble founders. Key elements of the company's culture include a commitment to natural products and a belief in sustainable, earth-friendly practices. But an important question remains: can Burt's Bees continue to be a leader in social environmental innovation, while also sharpening its focus on growth and profitability as a part of a public company with fiduciary responsibility to its shareholders? The case highlights the fundamental tension for companies and their leaders to deliver on the "Triple Bottom Line" of environmental, social and financial performance. First, it examines Burt's Bees' sustainability journey, and in particular the important element of CSR, as essentially a non market strategy; committed companies can set industry standards to corporate acquisitions and how Burt's can continue to pursue its social and environmental endeavors while growing as its own unit and within the larger parent company, Clorox.

    Keywords: Balance and Stability; Leadership; Problems and Challenges; Business or Company Management; Growth Management; Organizational Culture; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Mergers and Acquisitions; Social Enterprise; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher. "Burt's Bees: Balancing Growth and Sustainability (Multimedia)." Harvard Business School Video Case 410-704, February 2010. View Details
  36. Western Union: Our World, Our Family® (TN)

    Teaching Note for [410050].

    Keywords: Business Model; Financial Management; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Diversity Characteristics; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Bobbi Thomason. "Western Union: Our World, Our Family® (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-080, January 2010. (Revised March 2013.) View Details
  37. Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility

    Having bought Shaklee Corporation from Yamanouchi, Roger Barnett, its owner and CEO, wrestled with the question of how to grow the company and its reputation for environmental sustainability. In addition to preserving the "network marketing" nature of its sales channel (because it creates jobs and entrepreneurs), Barnett wished to take the business model to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

    Keywords: Business Model; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing Channels; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Environmental Sustainability; Reputation;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, V. Kasturi Rangan, and Alison Comings. "Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business School Case 509-031, October 2008. (Revised October 2009.) View Details
  38. Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility (TN)

    Teaching Note for [509031].

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and V. Kasturi Rangan. "Shaklee Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 509-061, April 2009. (Revised September 2009.) View Details
  39. Swire Beverages: Implementing CSR in China

    Swire Beverage, the largest Coca-Cola bottler in China, recently created a corporate social responsibility (CSR) organization to oversee environmental, community, health and safety initiatives at the companies' nine bottling plants in China. The case considers organizational design decisions in setting up the committee to oversee the diverse CSR initiatives that occurred in the dispersed plant locations, and the ongoing work to better connect CSR activities to Swire Beverage's brand and business strategy. Furthermore, the Swire Beverage CSR team needed to balance the interests of important stakeholders such as the Coca-Cola company, and corporate parent John Swire and Sons. Finally, the case also illustrates some of the key challenges of implementing CSR programs in China, particularly the difficulty of finding suitable NGO partners.

    Keywords: Brands and Branding; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Design; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Partners and Partnerships; Non-Governmental Organizations; Food and Beverage Industry; China;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, G.A. Donovan, and YiKwan Chu. "Swire Beverages: Implementing CSR in China." Harvard Business School Case 410-021, August 2009. (Revised August 2009.) View Details
  40. SK Telecom: Pursuing Happiness through Corporate Social Responsibility

    Since 2006, SK Telecom has worked to develop strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs that are aligned with its business operations and corporate mission. The case tracks the original assessment process the company went through and successive organizational design efforts to align its CSR strategy and implementation architecture. In 2009, the company is going through reorganization, and the protagonist is considering how well the existing structure of SK Telecom's CSR efforts supports its strategy. The key dilemma he is faced with is whether to change the design of the CSR organization, or perhaps revise the CSR strategy to better match the existing organizational architecture.

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Organizational Design; Organizational Structure; Corporate Strategy; Telecommunications Industry; South Korea;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Kwang Y. Ryu, Philip H. Mirvis, and Bobbi Thomason. "SK Telecom: Pursuing Happiness through Corporate Social Responsibility." Harvard Business School Case 410-042, August 2009. View Details
  41. The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis (TN)

    Teaching Note for [408003].

    Keywords: Nonprofit Organizations; Research; Health Care and Treatment; Medical Specialties; Financing and Loans; Leadership; Strategy; Problems and Challenges; Health Testing and Trials; Miami;

    Citation:

    Kaplan, Robert Steven, Christopher Marquis, and Ben Creo. "The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 410-005, July 2009. View Details
  42. The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis

    Marc Buoniconti is the co-founder of the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, a nonprofit medical research organization. The project was founded in 1985 by Marc and his father Nick, a former Hall of Fame football player, when Marc suffered a spinal cord injury. In 2007, Marc was still confined to a wheelchair, but the Miami project had developed into the world's largest spinal cord injury research and treatment center. It had 250 employees, operated from a $37 million state of the art facility located on the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine campus, and had raised in excess of $275 million since its inception. However, there was still no cure for spinal cord injury, and many of the project's supporters were becoming anxious for a substantial clinical breakthrough. Fundraising was always a concern, particularly as government spending on research was declining. Marc and his father were keenly aware of the challenge of maintaining the enthusiasm and financial backing of the Miami Project's supporters. Yet they needed to avoid over-promising regarding the likelihood of potential breakthroughs, which required painstaking research and stringent clinical trials. The leadership also questioned whether the mission should remain focused on spinal cord injury, or whether it should broaden to include brain trauma and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Case provides an opportunity to discuss the challenges of non-profit management, medical research and to debate appropriate strategy for the Miami Project in 2007.

    Keywords: Investment; Giving and Philanthropy; Health Testing and Trials; Leadership; Growth and Development Strategy; Mission and Purpose; Research and Development; Nonprofit Organizations; Health Industry; Miami;

    Citation:

    Kaplan, Robert Steven, Christopher Marquis, and Brent Kazan. "The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis." Harvard Business School Case 408-003, June 2008. (Revised July 2008.) View Details
  43. Joel Klein and Leadership in the NYC Public Schools

    Reviews the work of the New York City School Chancellor Joel Klein and his attempt to create a Leadership Academy in order to better train principals to lead New York City public schools. Assesses what leadership skills and strategies are necessary for Klein to create a new cohort of effective site-based leaders for New York City Public Schools and further, what methodology Klein and the Leadership Academy establish to accomplish this task. The key question involves Klein's attempt to assess whether an institution dedicated to training better administrators can serve as the key component of a larger effort to improve the performance of the New York City public school system; on a more micro basis is the question of whether the Leadership Academy itself and its program to train principals has been effective in the context of the larger problems the school system faces. If so, will the principals trained be able to be successfully integrated and effectively utilized as organizational elements capable of leading site efforts necessary to improve New York City public school system performance?

    Keywords: Education; Training; Leadership Development; Management Skills; Organizational Design; Performance Improvement; Education Industry; New York (city, NY);

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Doug Guthrie, Richard Arum, and Abby Larson. "Joel Klein and Leadership in the NYC Public Schools." Harvard Business School Case 407-065, June 2007. (Revised January 2008.) View Details
  44. Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki and the 2004 Athens Olympic Games (B)

    Keywords: Sports; Sports Industry; Greece;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Doug Guthrie, and Yannis Katsarakis. "Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki and the 2004 Athens Olympic Games (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 407-051, October 2006. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  45. Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki and the 2004 Athens Olympic Games (A)

    Gianna Angelopoulous-Daskalaki led the bidding organization that secured the 2004 Olympics for Athens and then later the preparations for those Games. Tracks her leadership style and how she and her team won the bid. After substantial planning problems threatened to cost Greece the Olympics, Angelopoulos was asked to take over the preparations, with only 4 of the 7 years remaining. Ends with the question of what she needs to consider in making the decision to take over the Games' preparations, what role she should play, and where she should start.

    Keywords: Leadership Style; Bids and Bidding; Planning; Social Enterprise; Sports; Public Administration Industry;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, Doug Guthrie, and Yannis Katsarakis. "Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki and the 2004 Athens Olympic Games (A)." Harvard Business School Case 407-050, October 2006. (Revised November 2007.) View Details
  46. Congruence Model Tutorial

    Utilizes Beer & Tushman's SMA: Microelectronic Products Division (A) case to explore O'Reilly and Tushman's congruence model. Participants learn about the model through a series of video presentations and become familar with the problems facing SMA through an interactive caselet. They then are given the chance to test their facility with the congruence model by answering a series of questions in which they diagnose the problem of, and prescribe treatment for, SMA.

    Keywords: Business Offices; Presentations; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Marquis, Christopher, and Alison Comings. Congruence Model Tutorial. Harvard Business School Tutorial 407-703, June 2007. View Details
  47. Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (A)

    Tracks of the first 6 months of a recent MBA grad, Tim Keller, at Katzenbach Partners, a boutique consulting firm focused on organizational change and strategy. Covers how Keller initially struggles with his assignment and ends with a question of whether or not he should attend a meeting that he was not invited to, where more senior consultants plan to implement the system dynamics tool that he was responsible for creating--on a Sunday when he had a major personal engagement.

    Keywords: Management; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Personal Development and Career; Work-Life Balance; Projects; Situation or Environment; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, Christopher Marquis, and Ayesha Kanji. "Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (A)." Harvard Business School Case 407-037, September 2006. (Revised April 2007.) View Details
  48. Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (B)

    Supplements the (A) case. The (B) case presents the final outcome of the events. Reveals how Keller is able to turn around perceptions about him and forge relationships with key decision makers. Includes reflections and lessons learned from all parties and Keller's actual 2005 year-end and self evaluations on the project.

    Keywords: Projects; Management; Leadership; Organizations; Situation or Environment; Competition; Rank and Position; Attitudes; Motivation and Incentives; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, Christopher Marquis, and Ayesha Kanji. "Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 407-038, September 2006. (Revised April 2007.) View Details
  49. Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (C)

    Supplements the (A) case. The (C) case includes Keller's actual 2006 mid-year and self evaluations.

    Keywords: Projects; Management; Leadership; Organizations; Situation or Environment; Competition; Rank and Position; Attitudes; Motivation and Incentives; Performance Evaluation; Consulting Industry;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, Christopher Marquis, and Ayesha Kanji. "Tim Keller at Katzenbach Partners LLC (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 407-039, September 2006. (Revised April 2007.) View Details

    Research Summary

    1. Runner-up for the Best Published Paper in Organization and Management Theory from the Academy of Management in 2009 for “The Contingent Nature of Public Policy and the Growth of U.S. Commercial Banking” (Academy of Management Journal, 2009) with Zhi Huang.

    2. Won the 2006 William H. Newman award for outstanding paper based on a recent dissertation for “Historical Environments, Coordination and Consolidation in the U.S. Banking Industry, 1896-2001” (Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management, 2006).

    3. Won the 2006 Louis R. Pondy award for “Historical Environments, Coordination and Consolidation in the U.S. Banking Industry, 1896-2001” (Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management, 2006).

    4. Received a State Farm Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Award in 2004.

    5. Selected as a finalist in the 2004 INFORMS/Organization Science Dissertation Proposal Competition.

    6. Winner of the 2003 James D. Thompson Award presented by American Sociological Association for "The Pressure of the Past: Network Imprinting in Intercorporate Communities" (Administrative Science Quarterly, December 2003).