Herman B. Leonard

Eliot I. Snider and Family Professor of Business Administration

Unit: General Management

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Herman B. ("Dutch") Leonard is Eliot I. Snider and Family Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School and the George F. Baker, Jr. Professor of Public Sector Management at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. In addition, he serves as co-chair of the HBS Social Enterprise Initiative. He teaches extensively in executive programs at the Business School and the Kennedy School and around the world in the areas of general organizational strategy, governance, performance management, crisis management and leadership, and corporate social responsibility. His work on leadership focuses on innovation, creativity, effective decision-making, and advocacy and persuasion. His current work in leadership and management is focused on the relationship between governance, accountability, and performance, and emphasizes the use of performance management as a tool for enhancing accountability. He has also worked and taught extensively in the area of crisis management and on issues related to corporate social responsibility. He is the co-author of Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business (2011), co-editor of Managing Crises (2009), the author of Checks Unbalanced: The Quiet Side of Public Spending (1984), of By Choice or By Chance: Tracking the Values in Massachusetts Public Spending (1992), and (annually from 1993 through 1999) of The Federal Budget and the States (an annual report on the geographic distribution of federal spending and taxation).

Professor Leonard is a member of the Board of Directors of Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, a 1,000,000-member Massachusetts HMO and a former director of the Hitachi Foundation and of the ACLU of Massachusetts. He was for a decade a member of the board of directors of the Massachusetts Health and Educational Facilities Authority and of CIVIC Investments, and was a member of the Massachusetts Commission on Performance Enhancement. He has been a financial advisor to the Connecticut Governor's Office of Policy and Management, to the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, and to the Central Artery-Third Harbor Tunnel Project. Professor Leonard was a member of the Governor's Council on Economic Policy for the State of Alaska, of the Governor's Advisory Council on Infrastructure in Massachusetts, and of the U.S. Senate Budget Committee's Private Sector Advisory Committee on Infrastructure. He served as chairman of the Massachusetts Governor's Task Force on Tuition Prepayment Plans, on the National Academy of Sciences Committees on National Urban Policy and on the Superconducting Supercollider, and on the New York City Comptroller's Debt Management Advisory Committee. In addition to his academic studies and teaching, he has been chief financial officer and chief executive officer of a human services agency and has served as a director of public, non-profit, and private sector organizations.

Featured Work

Publications

Books

  1. Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business

    The spread of capitalism worldwide has made people wealthier than ever before. But capitalism's future is far from assured. The global financial meltdown of 2008 nearly triggered another Great Depression, economies in Europe are still teetering, and powerful forces-income inequality, resource depletion, and mass migrations from poor to rich countries, to name just a few-pose serious threats to continued prosperity. How can the future of capitalism be secured? And who should spearhead the effort? Many observers point to government. But in 'Capitalism at Risk,' the authors argue otherwise. While they agree that governments must play a role, they maintain that businesses should lead the way. Indeed, for enterprising companies, the current threats to market capitalism present vital opportunities. Drawing on discussions with business leaders around the world, the authors argue that companies must stop seeing themselves as bystanders and instead develop innovative business strategies that address the disruptors, produce profitable growth, and strengthen institutions at the community, national, and international levels.

    Keywords: business and society; Economic Growth; Economic Systems; Financial Crisis; Leading Change; Growth and Development Strategy; Business and Community Relations; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., Herman B. Leonard, and Lynn S. Paine. Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business. Harvard Business Review Press, 2011. (Published in Chinese as "Qi ye zai jing ji zhong de jue se," Beijing: China Machine Press, 2012.) View Details
  2. Managing Crises: Responses to Large-Scale Emergencies

    This casebook provides an organized treatment of the major challenges associated with managing large scale disaster events, including discussion of systematic methods of organizing disaster response, preparing in advance for disaster situations, and distinguishing between routine emergency events and true crisis emergency events.

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Planning; Natural Disasters;

    Citation:

    Howitt, Arnold M., and Herman B. Leonard, eds. Managing Crises: Responses to Large-Scale Emergencies. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009. View Details
  3. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector

    "Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector provides an excellent overview of the many tools available to the entrepreneur to advance his or her mission, and it discusses many of the problems that organizations and their managers encounter at different points of a growth process."
    -NONPROFIT AND VOLUNTARY SECTOR QUARTERLY

     Written for students and practitioners, this unique text, with Harvard cases, provides detailed analysis and frameworks for achieving maximum impact through social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector enables readers to attain an in depth understanding of the distinctive characteristics of the social enterprise context and organizations. The authors offer tools to develop the knowledge to pursue social entrepreneurship more strategically and achieve mission impact more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Society;

    Citation:

    Wei-Skillern, Jane, James Austin, Herman Leonard, and Howard Stevenson. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector. Sage Publications, 2007. View Details
  4. Checks Unbalanced: The Quiet Side of Public Spending

    Keywords: Spending; Balance and Stability;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. Checks Unbalanced: The Quiet Side of Public Spending. Basic Books, 1986. View Details
  5. Discrimination in Rural Housing

    Keywords: Housing; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Janet K. Marantz, and Karl E. Case. Discrimination in Rural Housing. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1976. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Boston Marathon Bombing Response

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Boston Marathon Bombing Response." Crisis Response Journal 8, no. 4 (2013): 18–21. View Details
  2. The Medical Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Several factors combined in the aftermath of the bombings to facilitate the delivery of medical care. The authors highlight 10 elements of the emergency medical response that saved dozens of lives in Boston.

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "The Medical Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings." ICSS Journal 1, no. 2 (June 2013): 74–77. View Details
  3. An Incident Management System for Japan?

    Substantial political will and bureaucratic skill are needed to implement a national incident management framework in Japan, but change could be on the way.

    Citation:

    Howitt, Arnold M., Haruo Hayashi, Hiromi Akiyama, David W. Giles, and Dutch Leonard. "An Incident Management System for Japan?" Crisis Response Journal 9, no. 1 (2013): 17–19. View Details
  4. Leadership Lessons from the Chilean Mine Rescue

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes—to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging—leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

    Keywords: Leadership; Crisis Management; Learning; Mining; Mining Industry; Chile;

    Citation:

    Rashid, Faaiza, Amy C. Edmondson, and Herman B. Leonard. "Leadership Lessons from the Chilean Mine Rescue." Harvard Business Review 91, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2013): 113–119. View Details
  5. Working Together in Crises

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Dutch", and Arnold M. Howitt. "Working Together in Crises." Crisis Response Journal 7, no. 4 (2012): 50–51. View Details
  6. Capitalism's New Agenda: Do Wall Street Protesters Have a Point?

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., Herman B. Leonard, and Lynn S. Paine. "Capitalism's New Agenda: Do Wall Street Protesters Have a Point?" HBS Alumni Bulletin (March 2012). View Details
  7. Preparing in Advance for Disaster Recovery

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Douglas Ahlers, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Preparing in Advance for Disaster Recovery." Global-is-Asian, no. 12 (October–December 2011): 40–41. View Details
  8. Global Capitalism at Risk: What Are You Doing About It?

    Market capitalism, a system that has proven to be a remarkable engine of wealth creation, is poised for a breakdown. That sounds dire, and it is. Increasing income inequality, migration, weaknesses in the global financial system, environmental degradation, and inadequate government and international institutions are just a few of the forces that threaten to disrupt global market capitalism in the decades ahead. In conversations with business leaders around the world, the authors found that virtually all of them shared a deep concern for the sustainability of the market system, but their beliefs about how to respond varied widely. Some said that changing their behavior would be unnecessary or even inappropriate. Others were unsure how to deal with issues seldom thought to be the responsibility of individual firms. The authors call for business to be both innovator and activist in protecting and strengthening market capitalism. Instead of seeing themselves as narrowly self-interested players in a system that is overseen by others, business leaders must spearhead entrepreneurial activity on a massive scale-devising strategies that provide employment for the billions now outside the system, inventing business models that make better use of scarce resources, and creating institutional arrangements for coordinating and governing neglected and dysfunctional aspects of market capitalism.

    Keywords: Disruption; Economic Systems; Globalization; Corporate Governance; Markets; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., Herman B. Leonard, and Lynn S. Paine. "Global Capitalism at Risk: What Are You Doing About It?" Harvard Business Review 89, no. 9 (September 2011). View Details
  9. Organising Response to Extreme Emergencies: The Victorian Bushfires of 2009

    How can people and organisations best respond to emergency events that are significantly beyond the boundaries of what they had generally anticipated, expected, prepared for-or even imagined? What forms of organisations are likely to be best able to cope with such events-and what procedures and practices will aid in their ability to do so? Obviously, extreme events-events that are in scope or scale or type beyond the range of our ordinary experience and expectations-by definition will occur only relatively rarely (and very rarely to any given emergency organisation). Nonetheless, when they do occur they tend to be of defining importance to the people and institutions that are thrust into them and that must find their way through them. September 11, 2001 in Manhattan and at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia; the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004; Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005; major earthquakes like the ones in Pakistan in 2005, Wenchuan in 2008, Haiti in 2010, Chile in 2010, and Christchurch in 2010-these and other catastrophic events catapult people and response agencies into a new, unfamiliar, and largely unexplored dimension.

    Keywords: Organizations; Management Practices and Processes; Natural Disasters; Crisis Management; Boundaries; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Organising Response to Extreme Emergencies: The Victorian Bushfires of 2009." Australian Journal of Public Administration 69, no. 4 (December 2010). View Details
  10. The Strategic Balance of Disaster Risk Management

    Keywords: Strategy; Balance and Stability; Risk Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "The Strategic Balance of Disaster Risk Management." Administration Reform 16, no. 8 (2010): 27–29. View Details
  11. Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?

    What happens when small iconic socially oriented businesses are acquired by large corporations? Such mergers create significant opportunities for creating both business value and substantially expanded social value, but they also pose unusually difficult challenges because the merging entities are often strikingly different in philosophy and operating styles as well as in scale. This article examines three examples—Ben and Jerry's acquisition by Unilever, Stonyfield Farm by Groupe Danone, and Tom's of Maine by Colgate—to ascertain what is distinctive about the merger process and to analyze the elements critical to success. The article offers suggestions on how other companies considering similar arrangements might best manage the process of courtship, developing agreements, and executing effectively within the newly merged entities.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Management Style; Agreements and Arrangements; Social Enterprise; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?" California Management Review 51, no. 1 (fall 2008): 77–102. View Details
  12. Routine or Crisis: The Search for Excellence

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Dutch", and Arnold M. Howitt. "Routine or Crisis: The Search for Excellence." Crisis Response Journal (June 2008). View Details
  13. Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response

    Keywords: Performance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response." Chinese Emergency Management 1 (2007): 34–37. View Details
  14. In the Eye of the Storm

    Keywords: Natural Disasters;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "In the Eye of the Storm." Threshold (September 2006). View Details
  15. Katrina and the Core Challenges of Disaster Response

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; Problems and Challenges; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Howitt, Arnold M., and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "Katrina and the Core Challenges of Disaster Response." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 30, no. 1 (winter 2006): 215–221. View Details
  16. Beyond Katrina: Improving Disaster Response Capabilities

    Keywords: Natural Disasters;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Arnold M. Howitt. "Beyond Katrina: Improving Disaster Response Capabilities." Crisis Response Journal (June and September 2006). View Details
  17. Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy and Boards of Directors

    Keywords: Strategy; Governance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and V. Kasturi Rangan. "Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy and Boards of Directors." Directors & Boards 3, no. 4 (First Quarter, winter 2006). View Details
  18. A Command System for All Agencies?

    Keywords: System; Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold Howitt. "A Command System for All Agencies?" Crisis Response Journal 1, no. 2 (June 2005): 40–42. View Details
  19. Accountability in Hong Kong: Transiting from Colony to Democracy

    Keywords: Change; Government and Politics; Hong Kong;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Thomas Axworthy. "Accountability in Hong Kong: Transiting from Colony to Democracy." Canada in Asia (January 2005). View Details
  20. In the Heat of the Moment

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold Howitt. "In the Heat of the Moment." Compass 2, no. 1 (fall 2004): 18–23. View Details
  21. Shadows in Time: The Perils of Intergenerational Transfers

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Shadows in Time: The Perils of Intergenerational Transfers." Generational Journal (1988). View Details
  22. The Derivation of the Bayesian Ramsey Pricing Rule

    Keywords: Price; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and William B. Tye. "The Derivation of the Bayesian Ramsey Pricing Rule." Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 20, no. 1 (February 1986). View Details
  23. Financial Risk and the Burdens of Contracts

    Keywords: Finance; Risk and Uncertainty; Contracts;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard Zeckhauser. "Financial Risk and the Burdens of Contracts." American Economic Review 75, no. 2 (May 1985). View Details
  24. Measuring and Reporting the Financial Condition of Public Organizations

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Finance; Organizations;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Measuring and Reporting the Financial Condition of Public Organizations." Research in Governmental and Non-Profit Accounting 1 (1985). View Details
  25. On the Problems of Applying Ramsey Pricing to the Railroad Industry with Uncertain Demand Elasticities

    Keywords: Problems and Challenges; Price; Risk and Uncertainty; Rail Industry;

    Citation:

    Tye, William B., and Dutch Leonard. "On the Problems of Applying Ramsey Pricing to the Railroad Industry with Uncertain Demand Elasticities." Transportation Research Part A: General 17, no. 6 (November 1983). View Details
  26. Elicitation of Honest Preferences for the Assignment of Individuals to Positions

    Keywords: Jobs and Positions; Selection and Staffing;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Elicitation of Honest Preferences for the Assignment of Individuals to Positions." Journal of Political Economy 91, no. 3 (June 1983): 461–479. View Details
  27. The Fragility of Econometric Reporting

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Leamer, Edward, and Dutch Leonard. "The Fragility of Econometric Reporting." Review of Economics and Statistics 65, no. 2 (May 1983). View Details
  28. Cost-Benefit Analysis Defended

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard Zeckhauser. "Cost-Benefit Analysis Defended." QQ: Report from the Center for Philosophy and Public Policy 3, no. 3 (1983). View Details
  29. Public Insurance Provision and Non-Market Failures

    Keywords: Insurance; Failure;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard Zeckhauser. "Public Insurance Provision and Non-Market Failures." Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 8 (1983). View Details
  30. Federal Credit and the Shadow Budget

    Keywords: Budgets and Budgeting; Credit;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Elisabeth H. Rhyne. "Federal Credit and the Shadow Budget." Public Interest (1981). View Details
  31. The Distribution of Fiscal Burdens and Benefits

    Keywords: Finance; Distribution;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Richard A. Musgrave, and Karl E. Case. "The Distribution of Fiscal Burdens and Benefits." Public Finance Quarterly 2 (1974). View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Amnesty, Enforcement, and Tax Policy

    Keywords: Taxation; Policy; Law Enforcement;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard J. Zeckhauser. "Amnesty, Enforcement, and Tax Policy." In Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 1, edited by Lawrence Summers, 55–85. NBER and MIT Press Journals, 1987. View Details
  2. Paying for College After 2000: What Can We Do for the Access-Endangered?

    Keywords: Personal Finance; Spending; Higher Education;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Paying for College After 2000: What Can We Do for the Access-Endangered?" College Board Review (1989). View Details
  3. Pursuing Public Value: Frameworks for Strategic Analysis and Action

    Features Harvard Kennedy School scholars who focus diverse conceptual lenses on a single high-stakes management task—enhancing port security across the United States. This title considers the challenge of driving change in a complex system involving hundreds of private organizations and scores of government agencies with their operations intertwined.

    Keywords: Leading Change; National Security; Complexity; Performance Improvement; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Mark H. Moore. "Pursuing Public Value: Frameworks for Strategic Analysis and Action." Chap. 5 in Ports in a Storm: Public Management in a Turbulent World, edited by John D. Donahue and Mark H. Moore, 84–115. Innovative Governance in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2012. View Details
  4. Leading in Crises: Observations on the Political and Decision-Making Dimensions of Response

    Emergency response organizations, as we have argued in earlier writing, must deal with both "routine emergencies" (dangerous events, perhaps extremely severe, that are routine because they can be anticipated and prepared for) and "true crises" (which, because of significant novelty, cannot be dealt with exclusively by pre-determined emergency plans and capabilities). These types of emergencies therefore require emergency response organizations to adopt very different leadership strategies if they are effectively to cope with the differential demands of these events. In this paper, we develop further ideas about leadership under crisis conditions, concentrating on the political leadership and decision making functions that are thrust to the center of concern during such crisis events.

    Keywords: Strategy; Leadership; Decision Choices and Conditions; Crisis Management; Government and Politics;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Arnold M. Howitt. "Leading in Crises: Observations on the Political and Decision-Making Dimensions of Response." Chap. 3 in Mega-Crises: Understanding the Prospects, Nature, Characteristics and the Effects of Cataclysmic Events, edited by Ira Helsloot, Arjen Boin, and Louise K. Comfort, 25–37. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 2012. View Details
  5. Advance Recovery and the Development of Resilient Organizations and Societies

    Societies face a wide array of significant hazards-ranging from the possibility of natural disasters to industrial accidents to large-scale terrorist incidents.

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; Society; Organizations; Growth and Development; National Security; Safety;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Advance Recovery and the Development of Resilient Organizations and Societies." In Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery, edited by Simon Woodward. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Re, Centre for Global Dialogue, 2010. View Details
  6. Understanding and Coping with the Increasing Risk of System-Level Accidents

    The world has seen a number of recent events in which major systems came to a standstill, not from one cause alone but from the interaction of a combination of causes. System-level accidents occur when anomalies or errors in different parts of an interconnected system negatively reinforce one another, spiraling up out of control until they eventually drive the system outside of its sustainable boundaries, resulting in system "collapse." Systems with multiple components that are tightly linked to one another are prone to such events. Increasingly, our industrial, commercial, and social systems are coming to have the characteristics that predict system-level accidents-in some cases, driven by consistent economic forces that cause tighter interconnections to form within existing systems-and there seems to be a rising frequency of such events. Since we inhabit an increasingly tightly interconnected global collection of such systems, finding ways to reduce and to manage systemic risk is an important priority.

    Keywords: Economics; Globalization; Risk Management; Boundaries; System Shocks;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Understanding and Coping with the Increasing Risk of System-Level Accidents." In Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery, edited by Simon Woodward. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Re, Centre for Global Dialogue, 2010. View Details
  7. Acting in Time Against Disasters: A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; Risk Management; Time Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Arnold M. Howitt. "Acting in Time Against Disasters: A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework." Chap. 2 in Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response, edited by Howard Kunreuther and Michael Useem, 18–41. Wharton School Publishing, 2009. View Details
  8. Measuring Performance

    Keywords: Performance Productivity; Measurement and Metrics;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Measuring Performance." In Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector, by Jane Wei-Skillern, James Austin, Herman Leonard, and Howard Stevenson. Sage Publications, 2007. View Details
  9. When is Doing Business with the Poor Good - For the Poor? A Household and National Income Accounting Approach

    Keywords: Poverty; Welfare or Wellbeing; Accounting;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "When is Doing Business with the Poor Good - For the Poor? A Household and National Income Accounting Approach." In Business Solutions for the Global Poor: Creating Social and Economic Value, edited by V. Kasturi Rangan, John A. Quelch, Gustavo Herrero, and Brooke Barton. John Wiley & Sons, 2007. View Details
  10. Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; Crisis Management; Performance Efficiency;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response." In Communicable Crises: Prevention, Response, and Recovery in the Global Arena, edited by Deborah E. Gibbons. Information Age Publishing (IAP), 2007. View Details
  11. Social Entrepreneurship: It's for Corporations, Too

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Ezequiel Reficco, Jane Wei-Skillern, and James E. Austin. "Social Entrepreneurship: It's for Corporations, Too." Chap. 8 in Social Entrepreneurship, edited by Johanna Mair, Jeffrey Robinson, and Kai Hockerts. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. View Details
  12. Corporate Social Entrepreneurship: A New Vision for CSR

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Dutch Leonard, Ezequiel Reficco, and Jane Wei-Skillern. "Corporate Social Entrepreneurship: A New Vision for CSR." In The Accountable Corporation. Vol. 2, edited by Marc J. Epstein and Kirk O. Hanson. Praeger, 2005. View Details
  13. Leadership in Crisis Situations

    Keywords: Leadership; Crisis Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Leadership in Crisis Situations." In The Encyclopedia of Leadership, edited by James MacGregor Burns, George R. Goethals, and Georgia J. Sorenson. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing, 2004. View Details
  14. The Role of Policy Analysis and Evaluation

    Keywords: Policy;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "The Role of Policy Analysis and Evaluation." In Ecole Nationale d'Administration: L'impact de l'evaluation sur des Decisions Publiques., 1992. View Details
  15. Learning About Learning from Data: The Work of Edward Leamer

    Keywords: Learning; Data and Data Sets;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Learning About Learning from Data: The Work of Edward Leamer." In New Horizons in Economic Thought, edited by Keith E. Maskus. Aldershot, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1992. View Details
  16. Financing Sub-National Government Expenditures: Perspectives from the United States Experience

    Keywords: Government and Politics; Cost; Local Range; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Financing Sub-National Government Expenditures: Perspectives from the United States Experience." In Will Decentralization Succeed? National, Regional, and Local Development in Multi-Party Democracies, edited by Robert P. Beschel Jr. and Kerry S. McNamara. Taubman Center for State and Local Government, 1991. View Details
  17. Why Massachusetts Struggles

    Keywords: Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Why Massachusetts Struggles." In Massachusetts Business Yearbook., 1991. View Details
  18. With Open Ears: Listening and the Art of Discussion Learning

    Keywords: Learning; Interpersonal Communication;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "With Open Ears: Listening and the Art of Discussion Learning." In Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership, edited by David A. Garvin, C. R. Christensen, and A. Sweet. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991. View Details
  19. Private Time: The Political Economy of Private Prison Finance

    Keywords: Private Sector; Law Enforcement; Corporate Finance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Private Time: The Political Economy of Private Prison Finance." In Private Prisons and the Public Interest, edited by Douglas McDonald. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. View Details
  20. In God We Trust: The Political Economy of the Social Security Reserves

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "In God We Trust: The Political Economy of the Social Security Reserves." In Social Security's Looming Surpluses: Prospects and Implications, edited by Carolyn L. Weaver. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1990. View Details
  21. Investing in the Defense Workforce: The Debt and Structure of Military Pensions

    Keywords: Human Capital; Compensation and Benefits; Borrowing and Debt; Sovereign Finance; National Security;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Investing in the Defense Workforce: The Debt and Structure of Military Pensions." In Public Sector Payrolls, edited by David A. Wise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. View Details
  22. Promise Them Anything: The Incentive Structures of Local Public Pension Plans

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Public Sector; Government and Politics; Local Range; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Promise Them Anything: The Incentive Structures of Local Public Pension Plans." In Public Sector Payrolls, edited by David A. Wise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. View Details
  23. The Federal Civil Service Retirement System

    Keywords: Compensation and Benefits; Retirement; Government and Politics; Public Sector;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "The Federal Civil Service Retirement System." In Pensions, Labor and Individual Choice, edited by David A. Wise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. View Details
  24. Cost-Benefit Analysis Applied to Risks: Its Philosophy and Legitimacy

    Keywords: Cost vs Benefits; Risk and Uncertainty; Risk Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard Zeckhauser. "Cost-Benefit Analysis Applied to Risks: Its Philosophy and Legitimacy." In Values at Risk, edited by Douglas MacLean. Totowa, NJ: Roman & Allanheld, 1985. View Details
  25. Taxation and the Poor

    Keywords: Taxation; Poverty;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Helen F. Ladd. "Taxation and the Poor." In The State and the Poor in the 1980s, edited by Manuel Carballo and Mary Jo Bane. Boston: Auburn House, 1984. View Details
  26. Matrix-Weighted Averages: Computation and Presentation

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Matrix-Weighted Averages: Computation and Presentation." In Proceedings of the Eleventh Symposium on the Interface of Computers and Statistics, edited by Ronald A. Gallant and Thomas Michael Gerig. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, Institute of Statistics, 1978. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?

    What happens when small iconic socially-oriented businesses are acquired by large corporations? Such mergers create significant opportunities for creating both business value and substantially expanded social value, but also pose unusually difficult challenges because the merging entities are often strikingly different in philosophy and operating styles as well as in scale. We examine three examples -- Ben and Jerry's acquisition by Unilever, Stonyfield Farm by Groupe Danone, and Tom's of Maine by Colgate -- to ascertain what is distinctive about the merger process and to analyze the elements critical to success. We develop suggestions about how other companies considering similar arrangements might best manage the process of courtship, developing agreements, and executing effectively within the newly merged entities.

    Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Management Style; Agreements and Arrangements; Social Enterprise; Social Issues;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., and Herman B. Leonard. "Can the Virtuous Mouse and the Wealthy Elephant Live Happily Ever After?" Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 09-047, September 2008. View Details
  2. The Future of Social Enterprise

    The Future of Social Enterprise considers the confluence of forces that is shaping the field of social enterprise, changing the way that funders, practitioners, scholars, and organizations measure performance. We trace a growing pool of potential funding sources to solve social problems, much of it stemming from an intergenerational transfer of wealth and new wealth from financial and high-tech entrepreneurs. We examine how these organizations can best access the untapped resources by demonstrating mission performance and then propose three potential scenarios for how this sector might evolve:

    Consolidation: In this scenario, funding will keep growing in a gradual, linear fashion and organizations will compete for resources by demonstrating performance. The sector will consolidate, with some efficient organizations gaining scale, some merging and then growing, and some failing to achieve either scale or efficiency and eventually shutting down.

    Entrepreneurial: In a more optimistic future, existing and new enterprises will apply strategies to achieve and demonstrate performance, improving efficiency and effectiveness and attracting new funding sources. More organizations will enter a reformed, competitive field of social change with new entrepreneurial models, established traditional organizations, and innovative funding strategies fueling widespread success.

    Expressive: Rather than focusing exclusively on performance, funders and organizations may view their investment as an expressive civic activity. As much value is placed on participating in a cause as on employing concrete measures of impact or efficiency. In this scenario, funding will flow as social entrepreneurs experiment with new models based on a range of individual priorities and relationships.

    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Investment; Giving and Philanthropy; Performance Effectiveness; Social Enterprise; Consolidation; Value;

    Citation:

    Rangan, V. Kasturi, Herman B. Leonard, and Susan McDonald. "The Future of Social Enterprise." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-103, June 2008. View Details
  3. Recovery in Aceh: Towards A Strategy of Emergence

    Citation:

    Curran, Daniel, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "Recovery in Aceh: Towards A Strategy of Emergence." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-082, May 2005. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  4. Social Enterprise Series No. 31--Corporate Social Entrepreneurship: A New Vision of CSR

    Citation:

    Austin, James, Herman Leonard, Ezequiel Reficco, and Jane Wei-Skillern. "Social Enterprise Series No. 31--Corporate Social Entrepreneurship: A New Vision of CSR." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-021, October 2004. View Details
  5. Variations in Costs of Living Across States

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica E Friar. "Variations in Costs of Living Across States." Taubman Center Working Paper, February 1998. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (C)

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, James Honan, and Kerry Herman. "Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 313-100, February 2013. View Details
  2. Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (B)

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, James Honan, and Kerry Herman. "Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 313-099, February 2013. View Details
  3. Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (A)

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, James Honan, and Kerry Herman. "Boston University: Managing Reputation and Risk (A)." Harvard Business School Case 313-087, February 2013. View Details
  4. Frameworks for Dialogue and Research about Social Impact Investing

    Social Impact Investment is a rapidly expanding field, but terminology in the field is poorly defined and imprecise. This note suggests frameworks that help to clarify important dimensions of SII projects, distinguishing and clarifying key differences in approaches to social impact investments undertaken by different organizations and funders.

    Keywords: entrepreneurship; development stage enterprises; entrepreneurial management; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial finance; financial instruments; performance measurement; balanced scorecard; Investment Funds; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Research; Framework; Entrepreneurship; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Dutch". "Frameworks for Dialogue and Research about Social Impact Investing." Harvard Business School Technical Note 312-091, May 2012. View Details
  5. Global Economic Prospect: A précis

    Citation:

    Bower, Joseph L., Lynn S. Paine, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "Global Economic Prospect: A précis." Harvard Business School Background Note 312-074, November 2011. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  6. The 2010 Chilean Mining Rescue (A)

    On August 5, 2010, 700,000 tons of some of the hardest rock in the world caved in Chile's century-old San José mine. The collapse buried 33 miners at a depth almost twice the height of the Empire State Building-over 600 meters (2000 feet) below ground. Never had a recovery been attempted at such depths, let alone in the face of challenges like those posed by the San José mine: unstable terrain, rock so hard it defied ordinary drill bits, severely limited time, and the potentially immobilizing fear that plagued the buried miners. Could the trapped miners and rescue workers mobilize before air and resources were depleted? The case describes the ensuing efforts that draw the resources of countless people and multiple organizations in Chile and around the world.

    Keywords: Mining; Chile;

    Citation:

    Edmondson, Amy C., Faaiza Rashid, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "The 2010 Chilean Mining Rescue (A)." Harvard Business School Case 612-046, November 2011. (Revised May 2012.) View Details
  7. The 2010 Chilean Mining Rescue (B)

    Keywords: Mining Industry; Chile;

    Citation:

    Edmondson, Amy, Faaiza Rashid, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. "The 2010 Chilean Mining Rescue (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 612-047, November 2011. (Revised February 2012.) View Details
  8. Utilis: Designing, Producing, and Selling Rapid Deployment Shelters for a Troubled World

    How can a company that supplies disaster response and humanitarian agencies best handle the intrinsically unpredictable and highly volatile demand for its products? Utilis is a French supplier of rapid-deploy high-end tent solutions for civilian and military uses (such as camps and field hospitals). In 13 years it developed from a start-up garage business into a successful firm of global reach and reputation. In 2010 its founder and CEO Philippe Pr vost must decide the product and market strategy for the next phase of development allowing the company to remain competitive in terms of price and cutting edge products. Should they outsource some of their production to Eastern Europe? Market their products to new customers like non-governmental organizations? Diversify into new shelter product areas? So far their small size and nimbleness had allowed the company to thrive -- but would their deeper penetration into the market of disaster and emergency response (where contracts were smaller and peaks and troughs in demand larger) still be compatible with their business model?

    Keywords: Business Model; Growth and Development Strategy; Demand and Consumers; Strategic Planning; Natural Disasters; Competitive Strategy; Consumer Products Industry; Industrial Products Industry; France;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Daniela Beyersdorfer, and Simon Harrow. "Utilis: Designing, Producing, and Selling Rapid Deployment Shelters for a Troubled World." Harvard Business School Case 311-096, February 2011. (Revised May 2011.) View Details
  9. Grand Circle Travel: Where Risk Comes with the Territory

    A worldwide travel company is intrinsically exposed to risks of natural and man-made disasters. How do you organize a business for success when it must on a nearly daily basis cope with hazards ranging from minor mishaps to large-scale catastrophes? Alan and Harriet Lewis have built a successful travel company based on their idea of "extreme competitive advantage" -- and one of their core skills has to be quick and effective response when the travelers on one of their trips are exposed to flood, famine, pestilence, disease, earthquakes, tsunamis, terrorism, and other hazards yet to be discovered. What is the best way to organize so as to be able to respond quickly, reliably, flexibly, and adaptively when troubles arise?

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Risk and Uncertainty; Safety; Transportation; Organizational Design; Decision Choices and Conditions; Organizational Structure; Mission and Purpose; Competitive Advantage; Travel Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Grand Circle Travel: Where Risk Comes with the Territory." Harvard Business School Case 311-105, March 2011. View Details
  10. The Tzu Chi Foundation's China Relief Mission

    Tzu Chi is one of the largest charities in Taiwan, and one of the swiftest and most effective relief organizations internationally. Rooted in the value of compassion, the organization has many unusual operating features -- including having no long term plan. This case explores the basic operating approach of the organization and invites students to explain the overall effectiveness and success of the organization and its surprising success (as a faith-based, Taiwanese, direct-relief organization -- all of which are more or less anathema to the Chinese government) in securing an operating license in China.

    Keywords: Leadership; Crisis Management; Service Delivery; Mission and Purpose; Religion; Natural Disasters; Nonprofit Organizations; Welfare or Wellbeing; China; Taiwan;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and YiKwan Chu. "The Tzu Chi Foundation's China Relief Mission." Harvard Business School Case 311-015, November 2010. (Revised January 2011.) View Details
  11. Roshan: Light at the end of the tunnel in Afghanistan

    Roshan is a highly successful telecommunications company founded by the Aga Khan fund for economic development in Afghanistan during an ongoing civil conflict. Company leaders must now decide financial and market strategy for the next phase of development of the company. Should they sell the company—and reinvest the proceeds in another socially oriented venture? Continue to operate and expand the company? Expand to other neighboring countries?

    Keywords: Developing Countries and Economies; Financial Strategy; Growth and Development Strategy; Marketing Strategy; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; War; Telecommunications Industry; Afghanistan;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Qahir Dhanani. "Roshan: Light at the end of the tunnel in Afghanistan." Harvard Business School Case 310-041, October 2009. (Revised July 2010.) View Details
  12. Absolute Return for Kids

    Absolute Return for Kids [ARK] is a charity with strong financial support-what are the constraints on its growth and impact? ARK seeks to transform the lives of children who are victims of abuse, disability, illness, and poverty. As one of the 50 largest fundraising charities in the United Kingdom, the organization's trustees wrestle with how to meet the needs of this vast and most vulnerable population through program expansion and delivery in Eastern Europe, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. How can the organization replicate its existing successful programs faster, both within and existing new countries? How can it best identify new areas into which ARK should expand over the near term and further down the road-and recognize the ones that would overstretch ARK's organizational capacity and risk failing to maintain the highest quality of delivery?

    Keywords: Growth and Development Strategy; Performance Capacity; Quality; Nonprofit Organizations; Expansion; South Africa; Europe; United Kingdom;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Absolute Return for Kids." Harvard Business School Case 309-036, August 2008. (Revised December 2009.) View Details
  13. The Home Depot: Leadership in Crisis Management

    Examines the challenges The Home Depot faced in the aftermath of natural disasters such as Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Andrew. By providing 40,000 to 50,000 items sold by knowledgeable associates, The Home Depot became a destination place for customers in need of anything from shovels to a new kitchen sink or supplies to use in recovering from a hurricane or flood. Disasters are thus both a source of disruption to the company's operations and a source of additional demand for its products and services. How, then, should The Home Depot organize itself in advance of disaster events?

    Keywords: Disruption; Customer Focus and Relationships; Leadership; Crisis Management; Logistics; Natural Disasters; Retail Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "The Home Depot: Leadership in Crisis Management." Harvard Business School Case 309-055, March 2009. View Details
  14. Digital Divide Data: A Social Enterprise in Action

    Keywords: Social Enterprise; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Wendy Smith. "Digital Divide Data: A Social Enterprise in Action." Harvard Business School Case 307-106, May 2007. (Revised May 2008.) View Details
  15. Opportunity International: Measurement and Mission (TN)

    Keywords: Measurement and Metrics; Mission and Purpose; Opportunities;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Srikant M. Datar, Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Opportunity International: Measurement and Mission (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 308-031, September 2007. View Details
  16. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (TN)

    Keywords: Health; Social Marketing;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Melissa Tritter. "National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 307-103, June 2007. View Details
  17. AARP Foundation (A)

    AARP Foundation--a leading non-profit corporation--must create a new "Dashboard" performance measurement tool to track the effectiveness of its new strategic plan.

    Keywords: Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Performance Effectiveness; Performance Evaluation; Strategic Planning; Nonprofit Organizations; Welfare or Wellbeing; Business Strategy;

    Citation:

    Datar, Srikant M., Herman B. Leonard, Marc J. Epstein, and Thomas Goodwin. "AARP Foundation (A)." Harvard Business School Case 107-051, June 2007. View Details
  18. AARP Foundation (B)

    Keywords: Non-Governmental Organizations; Nonprofit Organizations;

    Citation:

    Datar, Srikant M., Herman B. Leonard, Marc J. Epstein, and Thomas Goodwin. "AARP Foundation (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 107-052, June 2007. View Details
  19. Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (TN) (A), (B) and (C)

    Keywords: Performance; Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (TN) (A), (B) and (C)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 307-127, June 2007. View Details
  20. Strategy, Leadership, and Performance Management in the Social Enterprise Sector - FSS

    Keywords: Social Enterprise; Nonprofit Organizations; Strategy; Leadership; Performance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B. "Strategy, Leadership, and Performance Management in the Social Enterprise Sector - FSS." Harvard Business School Class Lecture 307-105, March 2007. View Details
  21. Opportunity International: Measurement and Mission

    After a "first career" in business, HBS graduate Christopher Crane becomes CEO of a worldwide microfinance network. The organization's twin challenges are: 1) developing metrics to give it an accurate picture of its situation and impacts, and 2) generating rapid growth. Students learn how non-financial metrics are integral to Opportunity International's mission but are difficult to define and measure; tailored metrics are necessary for demonstrating success to donors and for strategic planning. Also, the organization is committed to helping as many people out of poverty as quickly as possible, but donations and repayments are not enough to fuel rapid growth; other financial tools are needed. Explores the challenges of measuring non-financial success and considers the trade-offs of continuing as a non-profit versus converting to a for-profit entity. Students will gain skills relevant to growing an organization that is mission-driven but financially constrained, and that has a complex array of international stakeholders.

    Keywords: Microfinance; Measurement and Metrics; Problems and Challenges; Growth and Development Strategy; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Business Model; Nonprofit Organizations; Giving and Philanthropy; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Opportunity International: Measurement and Mission." Harvard Business School Case 307-067, December 2006. (Revised February 2007.) View Details
  22. Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (A)

    Dana Hall is a private all-girls school in New England facing a crisis in its mission. As social norms shift away from single-sex education, the school's enrollment is falling and deficits are becoming the norm. At the same time, the modern vision for girls' education requires an even greater investment in science and sports--at a time when Dana Hall's resources are lower than ever before. Can the school stay true to its mission? How will it find the funding? Through the story of Blair Jenkins, head of school, this case examines the difficult mission and funding decisions facing many nonprofit organizations.

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Financing and Loans; Nonprofit Organizations; Mission and Purpose; Strategic Planning; Education Industry; England;

    Citation:

    McFarlan, F. Warren, Herman B. Leonard, and Melissa Tritter. "Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (A)." Harvard Business School Case 306-090, June 2006. (Revised January 2007.) View Details
  23. Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (B)

    Citation:

    McFarlan, F. Warren, Herman B. Leonard, and Melissa Tritter. "Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-100, June 2006. (Revised January 2007.) View Details
  24. Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (C)

    Citation:

    McFarlan, F. Warren, Herman B. Leonard, and Melissa Tritter. "Dana Hall: Funding a Mission (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-106, June 2006. (Revised January 2007.) View Details
  25. Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (A)

    As a child, Al Fuller had seen his working-class, African-American neighborhood disintegrate as factory jobs moved away. He resolved to help inner-city communities do better when he grew up. Some years later, as an accomplished university graduate with several years manufacturing experience, he embarked on a scheme to take over and revitalize first one, then another, corrugated box plant. These plants were plagued by inefficiency, poor quality control, and tense labor relations. Using his understanding of inner-city life, Fuller employed discipline-based strategies to empower his employees and turn the failing plants into engines of community revitalization.

    Keywords: Business and Community Relations; Corporate Entrepreneurship; Social Issues; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Strategy; Management Style; Pulp and Paper Industry; Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Orson Watson. "Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (A)." Harvard Business School Case 307-064, October 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  26. Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (B)

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Orson Watson. "Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 307-065, October 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  27. Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (C)

    Keywords: Manufacturing Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., and Orson Watson. "Integrated Packaging Corporation: Struggling to Do the Right Thing (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 307-066, October 2006. (Revised November 2006.) View Details
  28. Timberland: Commerce and Justice (TN)

    Keywords: Apparel and Accessories Industry;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Herman B. Leonard, and James Quinn. "Timberland: Commerce and Justice (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 306-089, February 2006. View Details
  29. Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (B)

    Keywords: Sports; Diversity Characteristics; Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-048, October 2005. (Revised January 2006.) View Details
  30. Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (A)

    The prestigious Augusta National Golf Club's secret membership is widely believed to exclude women. When feminist advocate Martha Burk receives a mysterious list of "members," she must decide how best to use this information in her efforts to crack the glass ceiling. Burk, of the National Council of Women's Organizations (NCWO), battles Hootie Johnson, of the Augusta National Golf Club (ANGC). Both organizations make strategic use of the media to influence stakeholder groups, and each tries to put its own frame on the debate. The NCWO sees the issue as a statement by affiliated corporations of how (little) they value women, whereas the ANGC sees it as attack on a private club's right to freedom of association. The controversy brings up a host of issues that are important for corporations in dealing with NGOs, partnerships, and corporate values.

    Keywords: Partners and Partnerships; Attitudes; Decision Making; Problems and Challenges; Business and Stakeholder Relations; Gender Characteristics; Non-Governmental Organizations; Communication Strategy; Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (A)." Harvard Business School Case 306-029, October 2005. (Revised January 2006.) View Details
  31. Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (C)

    Keywords: Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "Augusta National Golf Club Controversy, The (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-050, October 2005. (Revised January 2006.) View Details
  32. The Augusta National Golf Club Controversy (TN) (A), (B) and (C)

    Keywords: Sports; Diversity Characteristics; Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Melissa Tritter. "The Augusta National Golf Club Controversy (TN) (A), (B) and (C)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 306-060, January 2006. View Details
  33. Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (C)

    Keywords: Performance; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Laura Winig. "Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-056, November 2005. View Details
  34. Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (B)

    Keywords: Performance; Entertainment and Recreation Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Laura Winig. "Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (B)." Harvard Business School Supplement 306-055, November 2005. View Details
  35. Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (A)

    KaBOOM!, a successful playground-building social enterprise funded through corporate partnerships, wants to develop a performance measurement system that will enable the organization to expand its impact substantially. The board of directors and management are trying to develop a performance-oriented approach that will inform their strategy and allow them to manage operations efficiently and effectively as they grow--and, possibly, shift their emphasis to growth. What operational and impact data should they collect? How should they design a system of measures that will inform them without either drowning them in data or constraining their opportunities for growth? Can they develop a single system that will be useful to the board of directors and management--and support strategy development without inviting micromanagement?

    Keywords: Governing and Advisory Boards; Growth and Development Strategy; Social Enterprise; Performance Evaluation; Management Systems; Design; Construction Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Herman B., Marc J. Epstein, and Laura Winig. "Playgrounds and Performance: Results Management at KaBOOM! (A)." Harvard Business School Case 306-031, November 2005. View Details
  36. Timberland: Commerce and Justice

    When Jeffrey Swartz became the third generation in his family to lead the Timberland Co., he pursued a strategy in which commerce and justice were "inextricably linked." Community involvement, environmental management, and global labor standards became not addenda to the commercial strategy, but integral parts of it. Spanning more than 10 years of Swartz's innovative leadership, this case presents a well-developed, value-centric business in which management faces two emerging challenges: how to measure the impact of its social justice activities and how to export its values-based strategy abroad. Focuses on strategic management of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program. The development of Timberland's innovative commerce and justice strategy sheds light on ways in which strategic alignment can provide energy, synergy, and resources critical to developing a successful CSR program within a for-profit company.

    Keywords: Business Model; For-Profit Firms; Innovation and Invention; Leadership Development; Corporate Social Responsibility and Impact; Programs; Opportunities; Alignment; Business Strategy; Value;

    Citation:

    Austin, James E., Herman B. Leonard, and James Quinn. "Timberland: Commerce and Justice." Harvard Business School Case 305-002, July 2004. (Revised December 2004.) View Details
  37. The Forest Service and Transitional Fires

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold Howitt. "The Forest Service and Transitional Fires." 2004. View Details
  38. First Night 2004

    Keywords: Crisis Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "First Night 2004." 2002. (crisis management.) View Details
  39. David Ellwood's First Senior Staff Meeting

    Keywords: Conferences; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "David Ellwood's First Senior Staff Meeting." 2000. (strategy, analysis and advocacy.) View Details
  40. The CendralExpo Export Processing Zone Project (A) and (B)

    Keywords: Trade; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "The CendralExpo Export Processing Zone Project (A) and (B)." 1998. (organizational strategy and advocacy.) View Details
  41. The Situation at Warehouse 7

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Buildings and Facilities;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "The Situation at Warehouse 7." Simulation and Teaching Note. 1998. (crisis management simulation exercise.) View Details
  42. The Situation at Research Lab 26X

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Buildings and Facilities;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "The Situation at Research Lab 26X." Simulation and Teaching Note. 1995. (crisis management simulation exercise.) View Details
  43. South Africa Civil Service Simulation Exercise

    Keywords: Government Administration; Emerging Markets; South Africa;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "South Africa Civil Service Simulation Exercise." Simulation and Teaching Note. 1995. (computer modeling and policy analysis and advocacy exercise.) View Details
  44. NEO 2394 Karensky

    Keywords: Risk Management; Crisis Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "NEO 2394 Karensky." Simulation and Teaching Note. 1994. (risk analysis crisis management simulation exercise.) View Details
  45. Rock Harbor Workshop 1970 and 1990

    Keywords: Financial Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Rock Harbor Workshop 1970 and 1990." 1990. (financial management.) View Details
  46. Town of Holden Health Insurance Procurement

    Keywords: Health; Local Range; Insurance; Financial Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Town of Holden Health Insurance Procurement." 1981. (financial management.) View Details

Presentations

  1. Political Control and Operational Command: Building a Balanced Disaster Control System

    Keywords: Government and Politics; Operations;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Political Control and Operational Command: Building a Balanced Disaster Control System." Lecture at the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, United States Senate, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, March 22, 2006. View Details
  2. Katrina as Prelude: Preparing for and Responding to Katrina-Class Disturbances in the United States

    Keywords: Natural Disasters; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Katrina as Prelude: Preparing for and Responding to Katrina-Class Disturbances in the United States." U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, United States Senate, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, March 8, 2006. View Details
  3. Four Divergent Challenges of Performance Management

    Keywords: Performance; Management; Problems and Challenges;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Four Divergent Challenges of Performance Management." Paper presented at the Kennedy School Executive Session on Performance Management, June 01, 2000. View Details
  4. Motivation, Learning, and Performance Management

    Keywords: Performance; Management; Learning; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Motivation, Learning, and Performance Management." Paper presented at the Kennedy School Executive Session on Performance Management, June 01, 2000. View Details
  5. What is Public Finance?

    Keywords: Finance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "What is Public Finance?" In Teaching Public Management: Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess Materials and Strategies. Paper presented at the Boston University School of Management Public Policy and Management Program for Case and Course Development, January 1, 1984. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Preliminary Thoughts and Observation on the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Preliminary Thoughts and Observation on the Boston Marathon Bombings." 2013. View Details
  2. Sudden Conflict: The Clash of Cultures at the Heart of Crisis Management

    Keywords: Crisis Management; Conflict and Resolution;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Arnold M. Howitt. "Sudden Conflict: The Clash of Cultures at the Heart of Crisis Management." July 2004. View Details
  3. Firefighting and Fire Size: A Dimensional Analysis

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Firefighting and Fire Size: A Dimensional Analysis." April 2004. View Details
  4. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 2003

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Elizabeth Keating. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 2003." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Cambridge, MA, January 2004. (in progress.) View Details
  5. A Short Note on Public Sector Strategy Building

    Keywords: Public Sector; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "A Short Note on Public Sector Strategy Building." September 2001. View Details
  6. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1999

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Jay H. Walder. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1999." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 2000. View Details
  7. Taxes and Retirement in the State of Maine

    Keywords: Taxation; Retirement; Maine;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and John D. Donahue. "Taxes and Retirement in the State of Maine." October 1999. (Report to the Libra Foundation.) View Details
  8. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1998

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Jay H. Walder, and Jose A. Acevedo. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1998." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1999. View Details
  9. National Park Bonds: A Patch or A Panacea?: A Report on Meeting the Financial Needs of Our National Parks

    Keywords: Bonds; Sovereign Finance; Environmental Sustainability;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Henry Lee, Jay H. Walder, Peter Zimmerman, and Wendy Vanasselt. "National Park Bonds: A Patch or A Panacea?: A Report on Meeting the Financial Needs of Our National Parks." Report, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, January 1998. View Details
  10. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1997

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Jay H. Walder. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1997." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1998. View Details
  11. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1996

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Jay H. Walder. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1996." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1997. View Details
  12. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1995

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Monica E. Friar, and Jay H. Walder. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1995." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1996. View Details
  13. State Poverty Rates Adjusted by Variations in Costs of Living Across States

    Keywords: Wealth and Poverty;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica E. Friar. "State Poverty Rates Adjusted by Variations in Costs of Living Across States." January 1995. View Details
  14. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1994

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica E. Friar. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1994." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1995. View Details
  15. The Value Choices in State and Local Spending: A Workbook

    Keywords: Spending; Local Range; Cost vs Benefits;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica Friar. "The Value Choices in State and Local Spending: A Workbook." Council of Governors' Policy Advisors, Washington, D.C., January 1994. View Details
  16. The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1993

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Budgets and Budgeting; Government and Politics; United States;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica E. Friar. "The Federal Budget and the States: Fiscal Year 1993." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Washington, D.C., January 1994. View Details
  17. Values in Transition: The Choices Embodied in State and Local Spending

    Keywords: Decision Making; Spending; Government and Politics;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Monica E. Friar. "Values in Transition: The Choices Embodied in State and Local Spending." Taubman Center for State and Local Government, Boston, MA, January 1992. View Details
  18. By Choice or By Chance? Tracking the Values in Massachusetts' Public Spending

    Keywords: Spending; Public Sector; Value; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "By Choice or By Chance? Tracking the Values in Massachusetts' Public Spending." Pioneer Institute, January 1992. View Details
  19. Good Ideas: What Makes for Quality in Innovation?

    Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Quality;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Good Ideas: What Makes for Quality in Innovation?" John F. Kennedy School of Government, January 1988. (Innovation Project.) View Details
  20. Re-Establishing the Regulatory Bargain in the Electric Utility Industry

    Keywords: Governance Controls; Utilities Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Joseph P. Kalt, and Henry Lee. "Re-Establishing the Regulatory Bargain in the Electric Utility Industry." Boston Edison Review Panel, January 1987. View Details
  21. Opening the Window: Needs Analysis and Long Term Effort to Pay for College

    Keywords: Higher Education; Human Needs; Cost;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Opening the Window: Needs Analysis and Long Term Effort to Pay for College." College Board, January 1987. View Details
  22. Block Grants and the Accountability of Capital Spending

    Keywords: Sovereign Finance; Capital; Spending;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Howard L. Frant. "Block Grants and the Accountability of Capital Spending." U.S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration, January 1986. View Details
  23. Legitimizing Risk Management for Toxic Chemicals

    Keywords: Risk Management; Chemicals; Pollution and Pollutants; Chemical Industry;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard Zeckhauser. "Legitimizing Risk Management for Toxic Chemicals." Interdepartmental Committee on Toxic Chemicals (Canada), Canada, March 1984. View Details
  24. Creative Financing of New York City Projects

    Keywords: Financing and Loans; Urban Scope; New York (city, NY);

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Creative Financing of New York City Projects." New York, Office of Economic Development, New York, January 1984. View Details
  25. Theory S and Theory T

    Keywords: Theory;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Theory S and Theory T." National Academy of Public Administration, January 1984. (project on public management.) View Details
  26. Theory S and Theory T, and Financial Management

    Keywords: Theory; Financial Management;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Theory S and Theory T, and Financial Management." National Academy of Public Administration, January 1984. (project on public management.) View Details
  27. Federal and State Infrastructure Banking: Political and Institutional Issues

    Keywords: Government and Politics; Infrastructure; Sovereign Finance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, and Richard P. Nathan. "Federal and State Infrastructure Banking: Political and Institutional Issues." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, November 1983. View Details
  28. Services from Public Capital: The Outlook for Boston's Physical Infrastructure

    Keywords: Capital; Infrastructure; Public Ownership; Urban Scope; Boston;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Arnold Howitt, Helen F. Ladd, and Ann B. Weeks. "Services from Public Capital: The Outlook for Boston's Physical Infrastructure." Harvard-MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies, Cambridge, MA, January 1983. View Details
  29. Financing the Cleanup of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites

    Keywords: Pollution and Pollutants; Environmental Sustainability; Finance;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Henry Lee, and Susan Bender. "Financing the Cleanup of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 1982. View Details
  30. Housing Regulation in Cambridge: Its Goals and Effects

    Keywords: Housing; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Housing Regulation in Cambridge: Its Goals and Effects." Cambridge Chamber of Commerce, January 1981. View Details
  31. Condominium Conversion in Massachusetts: An Evaluation of its Benefits and Costs

    Keywords: Housing; Cost vs Benefits; Massachusetts;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, J.F. Kain, and K.E. Case. "Condominium Conversion in Massachusetts: An Evaluation of its Benefits and Costs." January 1980. View Details
  32. Inference in Partially Identified Models

    Keywords: Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Inference in Partially Identified Models." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1979. View Details
  33. Baseline Analysis of the Urban Homesteading Program

    Keywords: Housing; Programs; Urban Scope;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Baseline Analysis of the Urban Homesteading Program." Urban Systems Research & Engineering, Cambridge, MA, January 1978. (co-author.) View Details
  34. Simulation of the Market Effects of Housing Allowance

    Keywords: Housing; Markets; Mathematical Methods;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch, Gregory K. Ingram, and Robert Schafer. "Simulation of the Market Effects of Housing Allowance." National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, January 1976. View Details
  35. Barriers to Equal Opportunity in Rural Housing Markets

    Keywords: Housing; Equality and Inequality; Rural Scope;

    Citation:

    Leonard, Dutch. "Barriers to Equal Opportunity in Rural Housing Markets." Urban Systems Research & Engineering, Cambridge, MA, January 1976. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Crisis Management

    This project examines the special challenges of leadership in crisis situations and the associated challenges of leadership in preparing in advance for the possibility of crises to come. It includes both physical life safety crises (natural disasters, industrial accidents, and terrorism) and reputational crises (scandals, embezzlement, stock fraud, and so on). What behaviors and organizational structures perform best when crises strike? And what can leaders do in advance to create the structures and conditions that make high performance more likely in the event of a future crisis? This project includes work on designing organizational structures that are most likely to be able to handle both the technical challenges of crisis action and the political challenges that are likely to arise as well.
  2. Governance, Accountability, and Performance for Social Enterprise

    This project examines the relationship between governance structures, accountability relationships, and performance outcomes for social enterprises. Most previous work in this area has examined these topics separately, or in pairs; the purpose of this project is to explore the appropriate linkages and relationships among the three. The working hypothesis is that more carefully designed integration of systems of governance, accountability, and performance will improve all three.
  3. Business Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility

    This project focuses on how business leaders can be most effective at creating better social outcomes and vibrant, successful businesses at the same time. What forms of leadership -- and in what venues (in the community, in the corporation, in politics, ...) -- turn out to be most effective at creating business value and social value simultaneously?