Francesca Gino

Professor of Business Administration

Unit: Negotiation, Organizations & Markets

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(617) 495-0875

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Francesca Gino is a professor of business administration in the Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit at Harvard Business School. She is also formally affiliated with the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School and with the Mind, Brain, Behavior Initiative at Harvard.

She teaches Decision Making and Negotiation in the MBA elective curriculum and in Executive Education programs at the School. She also co-teaches a PhD course on Behavioral Approaches to Decision Making and a PhD course on Experimental Methods.

Her research focuses on judgment and decision-making, negotiation, ethics, motivation, productivity, and creativity. Her work has been published in academic journals in both psychology and management including the Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, Cognition, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Management Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Organization Science, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Strategic Management Journal, and Psychological Science, as well as in numerous book chapters and practitioner outlets.

Her studies have been featured in The Economist, The New York Times, Newsweek, Scientific American, Psychology Today, and The Wall Street Journal, and her work has been discussed on National Public Radio and CBS Radio. She has earned research awards from the National Science Foundation and the Academy of Management, including the 2013 Cummings Scholarly Achievement Award from the Academy of Management Organizational Behavior Division.

In addition to teaching, she advises firms and not-for-profit organizations in the areas of negotiation, decision-making, and organizational behavior.

Before joining the Harvard Business School faculty, she taught at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Kenan-Flagler Business School and at the Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University. Prior to her Carnegie Mellon appointment, she spent two years at HBS as a postdoctoral fellow, lecturer, and senior researcher. A native of Italy, she holds a Ph.D. in economics and management from the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies in Pisa. She is a magna cum laude graduate of the University of Trento.

Personal Website: http://www.francescagino.com/

Featured Work

Publications

Books

  1. Sidetracked: Why Our Decisions Get Derailed and How We Can Stick to the Plan

    You may not realize it but simple, irrelevant factors can have profound consequences on your decisions and behavior, often diverting you from your original plans and desires. Sidetracked will help you identify and avoid these influences so the decisions you make do stick—and you finally reach your intended goals. In this book, I explore inconsistent decisions played out in a wide range of circumstances—from our roles as consumers and employees (what we buy, how we manage others) to the choices that we make more broadly as human beings (who we date, how we deal with friendships). From my research, we see when a mismatch is most likely to occur between what we want and what we end up doing. What factors are likely to sway our decisions in directions we did not initially consider? And what can we do to correct for the subtle influences that derail our decisions? The answers to these and similar questions will help you negotiate similar factors when faced with them in the real world.

    Keywords: decision making; decision-making; judgment; ethics; Decisions; Strategy; Behavior; Ethics; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca. Sidetracked: Why Our Decisions Get Derailed and How We Can Stick to the Plan. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013. View Details

Journal Articles

  1. Prosocial Norms in the Classroom: The Role of Self-regulation in Following Norms of Giving

    Children who are prosocial in elementary school tend to have higher academic achievement and experience greater acceptance by their peers in adolescence. Despite this positive influence on educational outcomes, it is still unclear why some children are more prosocial than others in school. The current study investigates a possible link between following a prosocial norm and self-regulation. We tested 433 children between 6 and 13 years of age in two variations of the Dictator Game. Children were asked what they should or would give in the game and then played an actual DG. We show that most children hold a common norm for sharing resources, but that some children fail to follow that norm in the actual game. The gap between norm and behavior was correlated with self-regulation skills on a parent-report individual differences measure. Specifically, we show that failure to follow the norm is significantly related to the ability to plan and follow through on a goal and not related to impulsivity, suggesting that some children are poorer at holding the norm in mind and following through on enacting it. We discuss the implications of these results for education and programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL).

    Citation:

    Blake, P. R., M. Piovesan, N. Montinari, F. Werneken, and F. Gino. "Prosocial Norms in the Classroom: The Role of Self-regulation in Following Norms of Giving." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (in press). (2014.) View Details
  2. Self-serving Justifications: Doing Wrong and Feeling Moral

    Unethical behavior by "ordinary" people poses significant societal and personal challenges. We present a novel framework centered on the role of self-serving justification to build upon and advance the rapidly expanding research on intentional unethical behavior of people who value their morality highly. We propose that self-serving justifications emerging before and after people engage in intentional ethical violations mitigate the threat to the moral self, enabling them to do wrong while feeling moral. Pre-violation justifications lessen the anticipated threat to the moral self by redefining questionable behaviors as excusable. Post-violation justifications alleviate the experienced threat to the moral self by compensations that balance or lessen violations. We highlight the psychological mechanisms that prompt people to do wrong and feel moral, and suggest future research directions regarding the temporal dimension of self-serving justifications of ethical misconduct.

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives; Moral Sensibility;

    Citation:

    Shalvi, S., F. Gino, R. Barkan, and S. Ayal. "Self-serving Justifications: Doing Wrong and Feeling Moral." Current Directions in Psychological Science (in press). (2014.) View Details
  3. Guilt Enhances the Sense of Control and Drives Risky Judgments

    The present studies investigate the hypothesis that guilt influences risk-taking by enhancing one's sense of control. Across multiple inductions of guilt, we demonstrate that experimentally induced guilt enhances optimism about risks for the self (Study 1), preferences for gambles versus guaranteed payoffs (Studies 2, 4, and 6), and the likelihood that one will engage in risk-taking behaviors (Study 5). In addition, we demonstrate that guilt enhances the sense of control over uncontrollable events, an illusory control (Studies 3, 4, and 5), and found that a model with illusory control as a mediator is consistent with the data (Studies 5 and 6). We also found that a model with feelings of guilt as a mediator, but not generalized negative affect, fits the data (Study 4). Finally, we examined the relative explanatory power of different appraisals and found that appraisals of illusory control best explain the influence of guilt on risk-taking (Study 6). These results provide the first empirical demonstration of the influence of guilt on sense of control and risk-taking, extend previous theorizing on guilt, and more generally contribute to our understanding of how specific emotions influence cognition and behavior.

    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty; Behavior; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Kouchaki, M., C. Oveis, and F. Gino. "Guilt Enhances the Sense of Control and Drives Risky Judgments." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (in press). View Details
  4. Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence

    Although individuals can derive substantial benefits from exchanging information and ideas, many individuals are reluctant to seek advice from others. We find that people are reticent to seek advice for fear of appearing incompetent. This fear, however, is misplaced. We demonstrate that individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent than those who do not seek advice. This effect is moderated by task difficulty, advisor egocentrism, and advisor expertise. Individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent when the task is difficult than when it is easy, when people seek advice from them personally than when they seek advice from others, and when people seek advice from experts than from non-experts or not at all.

    Keywords: Behavior; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., F. Gino, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: Seeking Advice Boosts Perceptions of Competence." Management Science (forthcoming). View Details
  5. The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty

    To create social ties to support their professional or personal goals, people actively engage in instrumental networking. Drawing from moral psychology research, we posit that this intentional behavior has unintended consequences for an individual's morality. Unlike personal networking in pursuit of emotional support or friendship, and unlike social ties that emerge spontaneously, instrumental networking in pursuit of professional goals can impinge on an individual's moral purity—a psychological state that results from viewing the self as clean from a moral standpoint—and thus make an individual feel dirty. We theorize that such feelings of dirtiness decrease the frequency of instrumental networking and, as a result, work performance. We also examine sources of variability in networking-induced feelings of dirtiness by proposing that the amount of power people have when they engage in instrumental networking influences how dirty this networking makes them feel. Three laboratory experiments and a survey study of lawyers in a large North American law firm provide support for our predictions. We call for a new direction in network research that investigates how network-related behaviors associated with building social capital influence individuals' psychological experiences and work outcomes.

    Keywords: Networking; Morality; Dirtiness; Power; Networks; Moral Sensibility; Identity; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Casciaro, Tiziana, Francesca Gino, and Maryam Kouchaki. "The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty." Administrative Science Quarterly (forthcoming). View Details
  6. A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we use a "time capsule" paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity-provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we find that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences compared to rediscovering extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer to rediscover those moments in the future. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten.

    Keywords: History; Information Management; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Zhang, Ting, Tami Kim, Alison Wood Brooks, Francesca Gino, and Michael I. Norton. "A 'Present' for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery." Psychological Science 25, no. 10 (2014): 1851–1860. View Details
  7. Evil Genius? How Dishonesty Can Lead to Greater Creativity

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: they both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Creativity; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and S. Wiltermuth. "Evil Genius? How Dishonesty Can Lead to Greater Creativity." Psychological Science 25, no. 4 (April 2014): 973–981. View Details
  8. Rainmakers: Why Bad Weather Means Good Productivity

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through four studies: (1) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan; (2) two studies from an online labor market in the United States; (3) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad rather than good weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

    Keywords: weather; productivity; opportunity cost; distractions; Weather and Climate Change; Performance Productivity; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Lee, Jooa Julia, Francesca Gino, and Bradley R. Staats. "Rainmakers: Why Bad Weather Means Good Productivity." Journal of Applied Psychology 99, no. 3 (May 2014): 504–513. View Details
  9. The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Nonconformity

    We examine how people react to nonconforming behaviors, such as entering a luxury boutique wearing gym clothes rather than an elegant outfit or wearing red sneakers in a professional setting. Nonconforming behaviors, as costly and visible signals, can act as a particular form of conspicuous consumption and lead to positive inferences of status and competence in the eyes of others. A series of studies demonstrates that people confer higher status and competence to nonconforming rather than conforming individuals. These positive inferences derived from signals of nonconformity are mediated by perceived autonomy and moderated by individual differences in need for uniqueness in the observers. We identify boundary conditions and demonstrate that the positive inferences disappear when the observer is unfamiliar with the environment, when the nonconforming behavior is depicted as unintentional, and in the absence of expected norms and shared standards of formal conduct.

    Keywords: consumer behavior; marketing; Marketing; Consumer Behavior;

    Citation:

    Bellezza, Silvia, Francesca Gino, and Anat Keinan. "The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Nonconformity." Journal of Consumer Research 41, no. 1 (June 2014): 35–54. View Details
  10. Time, Money, and Morality

    Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be present in much unethical behavior thereby suggesting that money itself may corrupt. This research examines a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects—by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in our daily lives. Across four experiments, we examine whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time versus money primes in discouraging or promoting dishonesty are discussed.

    Keywords: Money; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and C. Mogilner. "Time, Money, and Morality." Psychological Science 25, no. 2 (February 2014): 414–421. View Details
  11. The Cheater's High: The Unexpected Affective Benefits of Unethical Behavior

    Many theories of moral behavior assume that unethical behavior triggers negative affect. In this paper, we challenge this assumption and demonstrate that unethical behavior can trigger positive affect, which we term a "cheater's high." Across six studies, we find that even though individuals predict they will feel guilty and have increased levels of negative affect after engaging in unethical behavior (Studies 1a and 1b), individuals who cheat on different problem-solving tasks consistently experience more positive affect than those who do not (Studies 2–5). We find that this heightened positive affect does not depend on self-selection (Studies 3 and 4) and it is not due to the accrual of undeserved financial rewards (Study 4). Cheating is associated with feelings of self-satisfaction, and the boost in positive affect from cheating persists even when prospects for self-deception about unethical behavior are reduced (Study 5). Our results have important implications for models of ethical decision making, moral behavior, and self-regulatory theory.

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Satisfaction; Decision Making;

    Citation:

    Ruedy, N. E., C. Moore, F. Gino, and M. Schweitzer. "The Cheater's High: The Unexpected Affective Benefits of Unethical Behavior." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 105, no. 4 (October 2013): 531–548. View Details
  12. Inflated Applicants: Attribution Errors in Performance Evaluation by Professionals

    When explaining others' behaviors, achievements, and failures, it is common for people to attribute too much influence to disposition and too little influence to structural and situational factors. We examine whether this tendency leads even experienced professionals to make systematic mistakes in their selection decisions, favoring alumni from academic institutions with high grade distributions and employees from forgiving business environments. We find that candidates benefiting from favorable situations are more likely to be admitted and promoted than their equivalently skilled peers. The results suggest that decision-makers take high nominal performance as evidence of high ability and do not discount it by the ease with which it was achieved. These results clarify our understanding of the correspondence bias using evidence from both archival studies and experiments with experienced professionals. We discuss implications for both admissions and personnel selection practices.

    Keywords: evaluations; correspondence bias; selection decisions; attribution; Prejudice and Bias; Selection and Staffing; Decision Choices and Conditions; Performance Evaluation; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Swift, S. A., D. Moore, Z. Sharek, and F. Gino. "Inflated Applicants: Attribution Errors in Performance Evaluation by Professionals." e69258. PLoS ONE 8, no. 7 (July 2013). View Details
  13. The Burden of Guilt: Heavy Backpacks, Light Snacks, and Enhanced Morality

    Drawing on the embodied simulation account of emotional information processing, we argue that the physical experience of weight is associated with the emotional experience of guilt and thus that weight intensifies the experience of guilt. Across four studies, we found that participants who wore a heavy backpack experienced higher levels of guilt as compared to those who wore a light backpack. Additionally, wearing a heavy backpack affected participants' behavior. Specifically, it led them to be more likely to choose healthy snacks over guilt-inducing ones and boring tasks over fun ones. It also led participants to cheat less. Importantly, self-reported guilt mediated the effect of wearing a heavy backpack on these behaviors. Our studies also examined the mechanism behind these effects and demonstrated that participants processed guilty stimuli more fluently when experiencing physical weight.

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Nutrition; Emotions; Weight;

    Citation:

    Kouchaki, M., F. Gino, and A. Jami. "The Burden of Guilt: Heavy Backpacks, Light Snacks, and Enhanced Morality." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 1 (February 2014): 414–424. View Details
  14. Rituals Enhance Consumption

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances the enjoyment of ensuing consumption—an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that ritual behaviors, compared to a no-ritual condition, made chocolate more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption like ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing rituals oneself enhanced consumption more than merely watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Last, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance consumption enjoyment due to the greater involvement they prompt in the experience.

    Keywords: Practice; Satisfaction; Consumer Behavior;

    Citation:

    Vohs, J., Y. Wang, F. Gino, and M. I. Norton. "Rituals Enhance Consumption." Psychological Science 24, no. 9 (September 2013): 1714–1721. View Details
  15. Rituals Alleviate Grieving for Loved Ones, Lovers, and Lotteries

    Three experiments explored the impact of mourning rituals after losses—of loved ones, lovers, and lotteries—on mitigating grief. Participants who were directed to reflect on past rituals or who were assigned to complete novel rituals after experiencing losses reported lower levels of grief. Increased feelings of control after rituals mediated the link between use of rituals and reduced grief after losses, and the benefits of rituals accrued not only to individuals who professed a belief in rituals' effectiveness but also those who did not. Although the specific rituals in which people engage after losses vary widely by culture and religion—and among our participants—our results suggest a common psychological mechanism underlying their effectiveness: regained feelings of control.

    Keywords: Loss; Practice; Emotions;

    Citation:

    Norton, Michael I., and Francesca Gino. "Rituals Alleviate Grieving for Loved Ones, Lovers, and Lotteries." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 1 (February 2014): 266–272. View Details
  16. Breaking Them In or Revealing Their Best? Reframing Socialization Around Newcomer Self-expression

    Socialization theory has focused on enculturating new employees such that they develop pride in their new organization and internalize its values. Drawing on authenticity research, we propose that the initial stage of socialization leads to more effective employment relationships when it instead primarily encourages newcomers to express their personal identities. In a field experiment carried out in a large business process outsourcing company, we found that initial socialization focused on personal identity (emphasizing newcomers' authentic best selves) led to greater customer satisfaction and employee retention after six months as compared to (a) socialization that focused on organizational identity (emphasizing the pride to be gained from organizational affiliation) and (b) the organization's traditional approach, which focused primarily on skills training. To confirm causation and explore the mechanisms underlying the effects, we replicated the results in a laboratory experiment. We found that individuals working temporarily as part of a research team were more engaged and satisfied with their work, performed their tasks more effectively, and were more likely to return to work when initial socialization focused on personal identity as compared to a focus on organizational identity or a control condition. In addition, authentic self-expression mediated these relationships. We call for a new direction in socialization theory that examines how both organizations and employees benefit by emphasizing newcomers' authentic best selves.

    Keywords: Socialization; Authenticity; Self-Expression; identity; best self; outsourcing; Employee Retention; Organizational Culture; Retention; Identity; Customer Satisfaction;

    Citation:

    Cable, Daniel M., Francesca Gino, and Brad Staats. "Breaking Them In or Revealing Their Best? Reframing Socialization Around Newcomer Self-expression." Administrative Science Quarterly 58, no. 1 (March 2013): 1–36. View Details
  17. When Power Makes Others Speechless: The Negative Impact of Leader Power on Team Performance

    We examine the impact of subjective power on leadership behavior and demonstrate that the psychological effect of power on leaders spills over to impact team effectiveness. Specifically, drawing from the approach/inhibition theory of power, power-devaluation theory, and organizational research on the antecedents of employee voice, we argue that a leader's experience of heightened power produces verbal dominance, which reduces perceptions of leader openness and team open communication. Consequently, there is a negative effect of leader power on team performance. Three studies find consistent support for this argument. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    Keywords: Power; leadership; Team Performance; Groups and Teams; Performance; Leadership Style; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Tost, Leigh Plunkett, Francesca Gino, and Richard P. Larrick. "When Power Makes Others Speechless: The Negative Impact of Leader Power on Team Performance." Academy of Management Journal 56, no. 5 (October 2013): 1465–1486. View Details
  18. The Microwork Solution: A New Approach to Outsourcing Can Support Economic Development—and Add to Your Bottom Line

    What's the best way to lift people out of poverty? The social entrepreneurs in the new "impact sourcing" industry believe the answer is providing work, not aid. Their organizations hire people at the bottom of the pyramid to perform digital tasks such as transcribing audio files and editing product databases. Essentially, they do business process outsourcing that also boosts economic development. Samasource, a San Francisco–based nonprofit, is one of the leaders in this new field. It has developed a model that addresses the challenges that impact sourcing faces: inexperienced workers; customers who make decisions on price, not social impact; and the cost of building the necessary IT infrastructure. One way Samasource overcomes hurdles is by teaming up with local entrepreneurs. The local partners run the service centers and cover the $25,000 needed to set each one up, and Samasource helps them win customers like LinkedIn and Google, prep and scope projects, hire and train staff , and measure success. Samasource's model is especially attractive because it has achieved big results with a small staff . Though it has only 30 employees, the nonprofit has created 16 centers that have paid more than $2 million to 3,000-plus employees.

    Keywords: outsourcing; Job Cuts and Outsourcing; Nonprofit Organizations; Partners and Partnerships; Development Economics; Social Entrepreneurship; Welfare or Wellbeing; Cooperation; San Francisco;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Bradely R. Staats. "The Microwork Solution: A New Approach to Outsourcing Can Support Economic Development—and Add to Your Bottom Line." Harvard Business Review 90, no. 12 (December 2012): 92–96. View Details
  19. Ethically Adrift: How Others Pull Our Moral Compass from True North, and How we Can Fix It

    This chapter is about the social nature of morality. Using the metaphor of the moral compass to describe individuals' inner sense of right and wrong, we offer a framework to help us understand social reasons why our moral compass can come under others' control, leading even good people to cross ethical boundaries. Departing from prior work focusing on the role of individuals' cognitive limitations in explaining unethical behavior, we focus on the socio-psychological processes that function as triggers of moral neglect, moral justification and immoral action, and their impact on moral behavior. In addition, our framework discusses organizational factors that exacerbate the detrimental effects of each trigger. We conclude by discussing implications and recommendations for organizational scholars to take a more integrative approach to developing and evaluating theory about unethical behavior.

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives; Moral Sensibility; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Moore, C., and F. Gino. "Ethically Adrift: How Others Pull Our Moral Compass from True North, and How we Can Fix It." Research in Organizational Behavior 33 (2013): 53–77. View Details
  20. Children Develop a Veil of Fairness

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least two distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly towards others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1-2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly towards others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good or bad prize to themselves and another participant by either unilaterally deciding who would get each prize or by using a fair procedure—flipping a coin in private. Older children were much more likely to flip the coin than younger children, yet were just as likely as younger children to assign themselves the good prize by reporting winning the coin flip more than chance would dictate. Overall, the results of these experiments suggest that as children grow older they become increasingly concerned with appearing fair to others, which may explain some of their increased tendency to behave fairly.

    Keywords: fairness; inequity aversion; reputation; social signaling; social cognitive development; Communication Intention and Meaning; Fairness; Age; Reputation; Growth and Development; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Shaw, Alex, Natalia Montinari, Marco Piovesan, Kristina Olson, Francesca Gino, and Michael I. Norton. "Children Develop a Veil of Fairness." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 1 (February 2014): 363–375. View Details
  21. Learning from My Successes and from Others' Failures: Evidence from Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

    Learning from past experience is central to an organization's adaptation and survival. A key dimension of prior experience is whether an outcome was successful or unsuccessful. While empirical studies have investigated the effects of success and failure in organizational learning, to date the phenomenon has received little attention at the individual level. Drawing on attribution theory in psychology, we investigate how individuals learn from their own past experiences with both failure and success and from the experiences of others. For our empirical analyses, we use ten years of data from 71 cardiothoracic surgeons who completed over 6,500 procedures using a new technology for cardiac surgery. We find that individuals learn more from their own successes than from their own failures but learn more from the failures of others than from others' successes. We also find that individuals' prior successes and others' failures can help individuals overcome their inability to learn from their own failures. Together, these findings offer both theoretical and practical insights into how individuals learn directly from their prior experience and indirectly from the experiences of others.

    Keywords: failure; healthcare; health care; learning; quality; knowledge work; attribution theory; Quality; Success; Medical Specialties; Health Care and Treatment; Failure; Learning; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    KC, D., B. Staats, and F. Gino. "Learning from My Successes and from Others' Failures: Evidence from Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery." Management Science 59, no. 11 (November 2013): 2435–2449. View Details
  22. Self-serving Altruism? The Lure of Unethical Actions That Benefit Others

    In three experiments, we propose and find that individuals cheat more when others can benefit from their cheating and when the number of beneficiaries of wrongdoing increases. Our results indicate that people use moral flexibility to justify their self-interested actions when such actions benefit others in addition to the self. Namely, our findings suggest that when people's dishonesty would benefit others, they are more likely to view dishonesty as morally acceptable and thus feel less guilty about benefiting from cheating. We discuss the implications of these results for collaborations in the social realm.

    Keywords: ethics; Cheating; Morality; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Decision Choices and Conditions; Attitudes;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., S. Ayal, and D. Ariely. "Self-serving Altruism? The Lure of Unethical Actions That Benefit Others." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 93 (September 2013): 285–292. View Details
  23. License to Cheat: Voluntary Regulation and Ethical Behavior

    While monitoring and regulation can be used to combat socially costly unethical conduct, their intended targets are often able to avoid regulation or hide their behavior. This surrenders at least part of the effectiveness of regulatory policies to firms' and individuals' decisions to voluntarily submit to regulation. We study individuals' decisions to avoid monitoring or regulation and thus enhance their ability to engage in unethical conduct. We conduct a laboratory experiment in which participants engage in a competitive task and can decide between having the opportunity to misreport their performance or having their performance verified by an external monitor. To study the effect of social factors on the willingness to be subject to monitoring, we vary whether participants make this decision simultaneously with others or sequentially as well as whether the decision is private or public. Our results show that the opportunity to avoid being submitted to regulation produces more unethical conduct than situations in which regulation is either exogenously imposed or entirely absent.

    Keywords: ethical behavior; ethics; dishonesty; regulation; selection; Social Norms; Behavior; Ethics; Societal Protocols;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., E. Krupka, and R. Weber. "License to Cheat: Voluntary Regulation and Ethical Behavior." Management Science 59, no. 10 (October 2013): 2187–2203. View Details
  24. 'I'll Have One of Each': How Separating Rewards into (Meaningless) Categories Increases Motivation

    We propose that separating rewards into categories can increase motivation, even when those categories are meaningless. Across six experiments, people were more motivated to obtain one reward from one category and another reward from another category than they were to obtain two rewards from a pool that included all items from either reward category. As a result, they worked longer when potential rewards for their work were separated into meaningless categories. This categorization effect persisted regardless of whether the rewards were presented using a gain or loss frame. Using both moderation and mediation analyses, we found that categorizing rewards had these positive effects on motivation by increasing the degree to which people felt they would "miss out" if they did not obtain the second reward. We discuss implications for research on motivation and incentives.

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and S. Wiltermuth. "'I'll Have One of Each': How Separating Rewards into (Meaningless) Categories Increases Motivation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 104, no. 1 (January 2013): 1–13. View Details
  25. Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End

    Many written forms required by businesses and governments rely on honest reporting. Proof of honest intent is typically provided through signature at the end of the document, e.g., tax returns or insurance policy forms. Still, people sometimes cheat to advance their financial self-interests—at great costs to society. We test an easy-to-implement method to discourage dishonesty: signing at the beginning rather than at the end of a self-report, thereby reversing the order of the current practice. Using lab and field experiments, we find that signing before rather than after the opportunity to cheat makes ethics salient when it is needed most and significantly reduces dishonesty.

    Keywords: nudge; Morality; honesty; self-report; policy-making; Ethics; Corporate Disclosure; Reports; Policy;

    Citation:

    Shu, L., N. Mazar, F. Gino, D. Ariely, and M. Bazerman. "Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 38 (September 18, 2012): 15197–15200. View Details
  26. Specialization and Variety in Repetitive Tasks: Evidence from a Japanese Bank

    Sustaining operational productivity in the completion of repetitive tasks is critical to many organizations' success. Yet research points to two different work-design-related strategies for accomplishing this goal: specialization to capture the benefits of repetition and variety (i.e., working on different tasks) to keep workers motivated and provide them opportunities to learn. In this paper, we investigate how these two strategies may bring different productivity benefits over time. For our empirical analyses, we use two-and-a-half years of transaction data from a Japanese bank's home loan application-processing line. We find that over the course of a single day, specialization, as compared to variety, is related to improved worker productivity. However, when we examine workers' experience across a number of days, we find that variety helps improve worker productivity. Additionally, we show that part of this benefit results from workers' cumulative experience with changeovers. Our results highlight the need for organizations to transform specialization and variety into mutually reinforcing strategies rather than treating them as mutually exclusive. Overall, our paper identifies new ways to improve operational performance through the effective allocation of work.

    Keywords: learning; motivation; productivity; specialization; variety; work fragmentation; Boundaries; Performance Productivity; Organizations; Research; Strategy; Motivation and Incentives; Opportunities; Market Transactions; Resource Allocation; Performance; Goals and Objectives; Learning;

    Citation:

    Staats, B., and F. Gino. "Specialization and Variety in Repetitive Tasks: Evidence from a Japanese Bank." Management Science 58, no. 6 (June 2012): 1141–1159. View Details
  27. Dynamically Integrating Knowledge in Teams: A Resource-based View of Team Performance

    In knowledge-based environments, teams must develop a systematic approach to integrating knowledge resources throughout the course of projects in order to perform effectively. Yet, many teams fail to do so. Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm, we examine how teams can develop a knowledge-integration capability to dynamically integrate members' resources into higher performance. We distinguish among three sets of resources: relational, experiential, and structural and propose that they differentially influence a team's knowledge-integration capability. We test our theoretical framework using data on knowledge workers in professional services and discuss implications for research and practice.

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Projects; Performance Effectiveness; Knowledge Sharing; Employees; Theory; Framework; Management Practices and Processes; Research;

    Citation:

    Gardner, H. K., F. Gino, and B. Staats. "Dynamically Integrating Knowledge in Teams: A Resource-based View of Team Performance." Academy of Management Journal 55, no. 4 (August 2012). View Details
  28. The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance: Implications for the Strategic Compensation of Employees

    Keywords: Cost; Compensation and Benefits; Motivation and Incentives; Strategy; Employees;

    Citation:

    Larkin, Ian, L. Pierce, and F. Gino. "The Psychological Costs of Pay-for-Performance: Implications for the Strategic Compensation of Employees." Strategic Management Journal 33, no. 10 (October, 2012): 1194–1214. View Details
  29. Paradoxical Frames and Creative Sparks: Enhancing Individual Creativity through Conflict and Integration

    Keywords: Creativity; Conflict and Resolution; Integration;

    Citation:

    Miron-Spektor, E., F. Gino, and L. Argote. "Paradoxical Frames and Creative Sparks: Enhancing Individual Creativity through Conflict and Integration." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 116, no. 2 (November 2011). View Details
  30. Sweeping Dishonesty under the Rug: How Unethical Actions Lead to Forgetting of Moral Rules

    Dishonest behavior can have various psychological outcomes. We examine whether one consequence could be the forgetting of moral rules. In four experiments, participants were given the opportunity to behave dishonestly, and thus earn undeserved money, by over-reporting their performance on an ability-based task. Before the task, they were exposed to moral rules (i.e., an honor code). Those who cheated were more likely to forget the moral rules after behaving dishonestly, even though they were equally likely to remember morally irrelevant information (Experiment 1). Furthermore, people showed moral forgetting only after cheating could be enacted but not before cheating (Experiment 2), despite monetary incentives to recall the rules accurately (Experiment 3). Finally, moral forgetting appears to result from decreased access to moral rules after cheating (Experiment 4).

    Keywords: dishonesty; ethics; moral codes; moral forgetting; Unethical Behavior; Behavior; Ethics; Research;

    Citation:

    Shu, Lisa L., and Francesca Gino. "Sweeping Dishonesty under the Rug: How Unethical Actions Lead to Forgetting of Moral Rules." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 6 (June 2012): 1164–1177. View Details
  31. The Pursuit of Power Corrupts: How Investing in Outside Options Motivates Opportunism in Relationships

    Across three laboratory studies, this paper illustrates how a common strategic decision aimed at increasing one's own power—investing in outside options—can lead to opportunistic behavior in exchange relationships. We show that the extent to which individuals have invested in creating outside options increases the likelihood that they will exploit their current exchange partners, even after controlling for the leverage provided by the outside options. Our results demonstrate that having previously sunk investments in an outside option leads to a heightened sense of entitlement, even when the outside option has been foregone. In turn, feelings of entitlement result in higher aspirations for what is to be gained in the current relationship, and these aspirations fuel opportunism. Finally, we show that other parties may fail to anticipate these effects, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation.

    Keywords: Crime and Corruption; Motivation and Incentives; Opportunities; Relationships;

    Citation:

    Malhotra, D., and F. Gino. "The Pursuit of Power Corrupts: How Investing in Outside Options Motivates Opportunism in Relationships." Special Issue on "Social Psychological Perspectives on Power and Hierarchy". Administrative Science Quarterly 56, no. 4 (December 2011): 559–592. View Details
  32. Memory Lane and Morality: How Childhood Memories Promote Prosocial Behavior

    Four experiments demonstrated that recalling memories from one's own childhood lead people to experience feelings of moral purity and to behave prosocially. In Experiment 1, participants instructed to recall memories from their childhood were more likely to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants in a control condition, and this effect was mediated by self-reported feelings of moral purity. In Experiment 2, the same manipulation increased the amount of money participants donated to a good cause, and self-reported feelings of moral purity mediated this relationship. In Experiment 3, participants who recalled childhood memories judged the ethically-questionable behavior of others more harshly, suggesting that childhood memories lead to altruistic punishment. Finally, in Experiment 4, compared to a control condition, both positively-valenced and negatively-valenced childhood memories led to higher empathic concern for a person in need, which, in turn increased intentions to help.

    Keywords: Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Research; Emotions; Relationships; Judgments;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and S. Desai. "Memory Lane and Morality: How Childhood Memories Promote Prosocial Behavior." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 102, no. 4 (April 2012): 743–758. View Details
  33. The Pot Calling the Kettle Black: Distancing Response to Ethical Dissonance

    Six studies demonstrate the "pot calling the kettle black" phenomenon whereby people are guilty of the very fault they identify in others. Recalling an undeniable ethical failure, people experience ethical dissonance between their moral values and their behavioral misconduct. Our findings indicate that to reduce ethical dissonance, individuals use a double-distancing mechanism. Using an overcompensating ethical code, they judge others more harshly and present themselves as more virtuous and ethical (Studies 1, 2, 3). We show this mechanism is exclusive for ethical dissonance and is not triggered by salience of ethicality (Study 4), general sense of personal failure, or ethically neutral cognitive dissonance (Study 5). Finally, it is characterized by some boundary conditions (Study 6). We discuss the theoretical contribution of this work to research on moral regulation and ethical behavior.

    Keywords: ethical dissonance; cognitive dissonance; moral judgment; impression management; Unethical Behavior; Values and Beliefs; Moral Sensibility; Cognition and Thinking; Research; Behavior; Judgments;

    Citation:

    Barkan, R., S. Ayal, F. Gino, and D. Ariely. "The Pot Calling the Kettle Black: Distancing Response to Ethical Dissonance." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141, no. 4 (November 2012): 757–773. View Details
  34. Vicarious Dishonesty: When Psychological Closeness Creates Distance from One's Moral Compass

    In four studies employing multiple manipulations of psychological closeness, we found that feeling connected to another individual who engages in selfish or dishonest behavior leads people to vicariously justify the actions of this individual and to behave more selfishly and less ethically themselves. We also establish the mechanism explaining this effect: when participants felt psychologically close to someone who had behaved selfishly, they were more likely to consider the behavior to be less shame worthy and also less unethical, and these judgments led them to act more unethically themselves. These vicarious effects were moderated by whether the miscreant was identified with a photograph and by the type of behavior. Psychological closeness also produced both vicarious generosity and selfishness, depending on the behavior of the person to whom participants felt psychologically close. Finally, we found that psychological closeness led to greater moral disengagement. These findings suggest an irony of psychological closeness: it can create distance from one's own moral compass.

    Keywords: Behavior; Relationships; Ethics; Research;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and A. Galinsky. "Vicarious Dishonesty: When Psychological Closeness Creates Distance from One's Moral Compass." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 119, no. 1 (September 2012): 15–26. View Details
  35. Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty

    Early research and teaching on ethics focused on either a moral development perspective or philosophical approaches, and used a normative approach by focusing on the question of how people should act when resolving ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we briefly describe the traditional approach to ethics and then present a (biased) review on the behavioral approach to ethics. We define behavioral ethics as the study of systematic and predictable ways in which individuals make ethical decisions and judge the ethical decisions of others that are at odds with intuition and the benefits of the broader society. By focusing on a descriptive rather than a normative approach to ethics, behavioral ethics is better suited than traditional approaches to address the increasing demand from society for a deeper understanding of what causes even good people to cross ethical boundaries.

    Keywords: ethical decision making; corruption; Unethical Behavior; behavioral decision research; Behavior; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Bazerman, Max, and Francesca Gino. "Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty." Annual Review of Law and Social Science 8 (December 2012): 85–104. View Details
  36. Daily Horizons: Evidence of Narrow Bracketing in Judgments from 9,000 MBA Admission Interviews

    Many professionals, from auditors and lawyers, to clinical psychologists and journal editors, divide a continuous flow of judgments into subsets. College admissions interviewers, for instance, evaluate but a handful of applicants a day. We conjectured that in such situations, individuals engage in narrow bracketing, assessing each subset in isolation, and as a consequence avoid deviating much—for any given subset—from the expected overall distribution of judgments. For instance, an interviewer who has already highly recommended three applicants on a given day may be reluctant to do so for a fourth applicant. Data from over 9,000 MBA interviews supported this prediction. Auxiliary analyses suggest that contrast effects and non-random scheduling of interviews are unlikely alternative explanations.

    Keywords: Judgments; Forecasting and Prediction; Research;

    Citation:

    Simonsohn, U., and F. Gino. "Daily Horizons: Evidence of Narrow Bracketing in Judgments from 9,000 MBA Admission Interviews." Psychological Science 24, no. 2 (February 2013): 219–224. View Details
  37. The Dark Side of Creativity: Original Thinkers Can Be More Dishonest

    Creativity is a common aspiration for individuals, organizations, and societies. Here, however, we test whether creativity increases dishonesty. We propose that a creative personality and a creative mindset promote individuals' ability to justify their behavior, which, in turn, leads to unethical behavior. In 5 studies, we show that participants with creative personalities tended to cheat more than less creative individuals and that dispositional creativity is a better predictor of unethical behavior than intelligence (Experiment 1). In addition, we find that participants who were primed to think creatively were more likely to behave dishonestly than those in a control condition (Experiment 2) and that greater ability to justify their dishonest behavior explained the link between creativity and increased dishonesty (Experiments 3 and 4). Finally, we demonstrate that dispositional creativity moderates the influence of temporarily priming creativity on dishonest behavior (Experiment 5). The results provide evidence for an association between creativity and dishonesty, thus highlighting a dark side of creativity.

    Keywords: Creativity; Ethics;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and D. Ariely. "The Dark Side of Creativity: Original Thinkers Can Be More Dishonest." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 3 (March 2012): 445–459. View Details
  38. Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice

    Across eight experiments, we describe the influence of anxiety on advice seeking and advice taking. We find that anxious individuals are more likely to seek and rely on advice than are those in a neutral emotional state (Experiment 1), but this pattern of results does not generalize to other negatively-valenced emotions (Experiment 2). The relationships between anxiety and advice seeking and anxiety and advice taking are mediated by self-confidence; anxiety lowers self-confidence, which increases advice seeking and reliance upon advice (Experiment 3). Though anxiety also impairs information processing, impaired information processing does not mediate the relationship between anxiety and advice taking (Experiment 4). Finally, we find that anxious individuals fail to discriminate between good and bad advice (Experiment 5a-c), and between advice from advisors with and without a conflict of interest (Experiment 6).

    Keywords: Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., A.W. Brooks, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Anxiety, Advice, and the Ability to Discern: Feeling Anxious Motivates Individuals to Seek and Use Advice." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 3 (March 2012): 497–512. View Details
  39. Power, Competitiveness, and Advice Taking: Why the Powerful Don't Listen

    Four experiments test the prediction that feelings of power lead individuals to discount advice received from both experts and novices. Experiment 1 documents a negative relationship between subjective feelings of power and use of advice. Experiments 2 and 3 further show that individuals experiencing neutral and low levels of power weigh advice from experts and experienced advisors more heavily than advice from novices, but individuals experiencing high levels of power discount both novice and expert advice. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that this tendency of individuals experiencing high levels of power to discount advice from experts and novices equally is mediated by feelings of competitiveness (Experiment 3) and confidence (Experiments 3 and 4). Finally, Experiment 4 shows that inducing high power individuals to feel cooperative with their advisors can mitigate this tendency, leading them to weigh expert advice more heavily than advice from novices. Theoretical and practical contributions are discussed.

    Keywords: advice taking; Power; expertise; confidence; competitive mindset; Competition;

    Citation:

    Tost, L. P., F. Gino, and R. Larrick. "Power, Competitiveness, and Advice Taking: Why the Powerful Don't Listen." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 117, no. 1 (2012): 53–65. View Details
  40. Bringing Ethics into Focus: How Regulatory Focus and Risk Preferences Influence (Un)ethical Behavior

    Keywords: Ethics; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Risk and Uncertainty;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and Joshua D. Margolis. "Bringing Ethics into Focus: How Regulatory Focus and Risk Preferences Influence (Un)ethical Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 115, no. 2 (July 2011): 145–156. View Details
  41. Unable to Resist Temptation: How Self-control Depletion Promotes Unethical Behavior

    Keywords: Ethics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., M. Schweitzer, N. Mead, and D. Ariely. "Unable to Resist Temptation: How Self-control Depletion Promotes Unethical Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 115, no. 2 (July 2011): 191–203. View Details
  42. Why Leaders Don't Learn from Success

    We argue that for a variety of psychological reasons, it is often much harder for leaders and organizations to learn from success than to learn from failure. Success creates three kinds of traps that often impede deep learning. The first is attribution error or the tendency to see superior performance as rooted in one's actions rather than other factors (such as luck). The second is that success feeds overconfidence bias, which can then blind leaders to potential future problems and opportunities for innovation. The third is a tendency to fail to probe the root causes of success. Whereas post-mortems after failure are becoming a norm in many organizations, such soul searching rarely occurs after success. This causes leaders and their organizations to miss opportunities to develop deep causal knowledge that can lead to greater long-term improvements. We suggest a number of concrete actions leaders can take to help themselves and their organizations avoid the success-breeds-failure trap.

    Keywords: Learning; Innovation and Management; Leadership; Failure; Success; Performance Evaluation; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Gary P. Pisano. "Why Leaders Don't Learn from Success." Harvard Business Review 89, no. 4 (April 2011): 68–74. View Details
  43. Temporal View of the Costs and Benefits of Self-Deception

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time.

    Keywords: Cases; Opportunities; Performance Improvement; Social Psychology; Fairness; Cost vs Benefits; Cost; Forecasting and Prediction; Performance Expectations;

    Citation:

    Chance, Zoe, Michael I. Norton, Francesca Gino, and Dan Ariely. "Temporal View of the Costs and Benefits of Self-Deception." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (2011): 15655–15659. View Details
  44. The Hidden Advantages of Quiet Bosses

    The article discusses research that identified situations where introverts are more apt to be effective leaders than extroverts. Although it is generally accepted that extroverts make the best leaders, the authors found that introverts can be better in unpredictable, changing environments where workers are proactive about sharing their ideas.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Leadership; Management Style; Groups and Teams; Personal Characteristics;

    Citation:

    Grant, A. M., F. Gino, and D. A. Hoffman. "The Hidden Advantages of Quiet Bosses." Harvard Business Review 88, no. 12 (December 2010). View Details
  45. Lying to Level the Playing Field: Why People May Dishonestly Help or Hurt Others to Create Equity

    Keywords: Ethics;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and L. Pierce. "Lying to Level the Playing Field: Why People May Dishonestly Help or Hurt Others to Create Equity." Special Issue on Regulating Ethical Failures: Insights from Psychology. Journal of Business Ethics 95, no. 1 (September 2010): 89–103. View Details
  46. Correspondence Bias in Performance Evaluation: Why Grade Inflation Works

    Keywords: Prejudice and Bias; Performance Evaluation; Inflation and Deflation;

    Citation:

    Moore, D. A., S. A. Swift, Z. S. Sharek, and F. Gino. "Correspondence Bias in Performance Evaluation: Why Grade Inflation Works." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 36, no. 6 (June 2010): 843–852. View Details
  47. Nameless + Harmless = Blameless: When Seemingly Irrelevant Factors Influence Judgment of (Un)ethical Behavior

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Lisa L. Shu, and Max Bazerman. "Nameless + Harmless = Blameless: When Seemingly Irrelevant Factors Influence Judgment of (Un)ethical Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 111, no. 2 (March 2010): 93–101. View Details
  48. First, Get Your Feet Wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Activity

    Keywords: Learning; Groups and Teams;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., L. Argote, E. Miron-Spektor, and G. Todorova. "First, Get Your Feet Wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Activity." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 111, no. 2 (March 2010): 93–101. View Details
  49. The Counterfeit Self: The Deceptive Costs of Faking It

    Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experiments, participants wore purportedly fake or authentically branded sunglasses. Those wearing fake sunglasses cheated more across multiple tasks than did participants wearing authentic sunglasses, both when they believed they had a preference for counterfeits (Experiment 1a) and when they were randomly assigned to wear them (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 shows that the effects of wearing counterfeit sunglasses extend beyond the self, influencing judgments of other people's unethical behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the feelings of inauthenticity that wearing fake products engenders-what we term the counterfeit self-mediate the impact of counterfeits on unethical behavior. Finally, we show that people do not predict the impact of counterfeits on ethicality; thus, the costs of counterfeits are deceptive.

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Brands and Branding; Product; Behavior; Personal Characteristics;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Michael I. Norton, and Dan Ariely. "The Counterfeit Self: The Deceptive Costs of Faking It." Psychological Science 21 (2010): 712–720. View Details
  50. When Misconduct Goes Unnoticed: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior

    Four laboratory studies show that people are more likely to accept others' unethical behavior when ethical degradation occurs slowly rather than in one abrupt shift. Participants served in the role of watchdogs charged with catching instances of cheating. The watchdogs in our studies were less likely to criticize the actions of others when their behavior eroded gradually, over time, rather than in one abrupt shift. We refer to this phenomenon as the slippery-slope effect. Our studies also demonstrate that at least part of this effect can be attributed to implicit biases that result in a failure to notice ethical erosion when it occurs slowly. Broadly, our studies provide evidence as to when and why people accept cheating by others and examine the conditions under which the slippery-slope effect occurs.

    Keywords: Ethics; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Max Bazerman. "When Misconduct Goes Unnoticed: The Acceptability of Gradual Erosion in Others' Unethical Behavior." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45, no. 4 (July 2009): 708–719. View Details
  51. Toward a Theory of Behavioral Operations

    Human beings are critical to the functioning of the vast majority of operating systems, influencing both the way these systems work and how they perform. Yet most formal analytical models of operations assume that the people who participate in operating systems are fully rational or at least can be induced to behave rationally. Many other disciplines, including economics, finance, and marketing, have successfully incorporated departures from this rationality assumption into their models and theories. In this paper, we argue that operations management scholars should do the same. We highlight initial studies that have adopted a "behavioral operations perspective" and explore the theoretical and practical implications of incorporating behavioral and cognitive factors into models of operations. Specifically, we address three questions: 1) What is a behavioral perspective on operations? 2) What might be the intellectual added value of such a perspective? 3) What are the basic elements of behavioral operations research?

    Keywords: Management Systems; Operations; Mathematical Methods; Behavior; Cognition and Thinking; Perspective; Theory;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Gary P. Pisano. "Toward a Theory of Behavioral Operations." Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 10, no. 4 (fall 2008): 676–691. View Details
  52. Is Yours a Learning Organization?

    This article includes a one-page preview that quickly summarizes the key ideas and provides an overview of how the concepts work in practice along with suggestions for further reading. An organization with a strong learning culture faces the unpredictable deftly. However, a concrete method for understanding precisely how an institution learns and for identifying specific steps to help it learn better has remained elusive. A new survey instrument from professors Garvin and Edmondson of Harvard Business School and assistant professor Gino of Carnegie Mellon University allows you to ground your efforts in becoming a learning organization. The tool's conceptual foundation is what the authors call the three building blocks of a learning organization. The first, a supportive learning environment, comprises psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas, and time for reflection. The second, concrete learning processes and practices, includes experimentation, information collection and analysis, and education and training. These two complementary elements are fortified by the final building block: leadership that reinforces learning. The survey instrument enables a granular examination of all these particulars, scores each of them, and provides a framework for detailed, comparative analysis. You can make comparisons within and among your institution's functional areas, between your organization and others, and against benchmarks that the authors have derived from their surveys of hundreds of executives in many industries. After discussing how to use their tool, the authors share the insights they acquired as they developed it. Above all, they emphasize the importance of dialogue and diagnosis as you nurture your company and its processes with the aim of becoming a learning organization. The authors' goal--and the purpose of their tool--is to help you paint an honest picture of your firm's learning culture and of the leaders who set its tone.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Learning; Surveys; Leading Change; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Organizational Culture;

    Citation:

    Garvin, David A., Amy C. Edmondson, and Francesca Gino. "Is Yours a Learning Organization?" Harvard Business Review 86, no. 3 (March 2008). View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Ethical Discrepancy: Changing Our Attitudes to Resolve Moral Dissonance

    Keywords: Ethics; Attitudes; Change;

    Citation:

    Shu, L. L., F. Gino, and M. H. Bazerman. "Ethical Discrepancy: Changing Our Attitudes to Resolve Moral Dissonance." In Behavioral Business Ethics: Shaping an Emerging Field, edited by D. De Cremer and A.E. Tenbrunsel. Organization and Management Series. Routledge, 2011. View Details
  2. Honest Rationales for Dishonest Behavior

    Keywords: Ethics; Attitudes; Motivation and Incentives; Behavior;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., and S., Ayal. "Honest Rationales for Dishonest Behavior." In The Social Psychology of Morality: Exploring the Causes of Good and Evil, edited by M. Mikulincer and P.R. Shaver. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2011. View Details
  3. See No Evil: Why We Fail to Notice Unethical Behavior

    It is common for people to be more critical of others' ethical choices than of their own. This chapter explores those remarkable circumstances in which people see no evil in others' unethical behavior. Specifically, we explore 1) the motivated tendency to overlook the unethical behavior of others when we recognize the unethical behavior would harm us; 2) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior unless it is clear, immediate, and direct; 3) the tendency to ignore unethical behavior when ethicality erodes slowly over time; and 4) the tendency to assess unethical behaviors only after the unethical behavior has resulted in a bad outcome, but not during the decision process.

    Keywords: Decision Choices and Conditions; Ethics; Moral Sensibility; Behavior; Motivation and Incentives;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Don A. Moore, and M. H. Bazerman. "See No Evil: Why We Fail to Notice Unethical Behavior." Chap. 10 in Social Decision Making: Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments, edited by R. M. Kramer, A. E. Tenbrunsel, and M. H. Bazerman, 241–263. Routledge, 2009. View Details
  4. When and Why Prior Task Experience Foster Team Creativity

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise; Groups and Teams; Creativity;

    Citation:

    Gino, F., G. Todorova, E. Miron-Spektor, and L. Argote. "When and Why Prior Task Experience Foster Team Creativity." In Research on Managing Groups and Teams: Creativity in Groups, 87–110. Emerald Group Publishing, 2009. View Details

Working Papers

  1. Dangerous Expectations: Breaking Rules to Resolve Cognitive Dissonance

    When entering task performance contexts we generally have expectations about both the task and how well we will perform on it. When those expectations go unmet, we experience psychological discomfort (cognitive dissonance), which we are then motivated to resolve. Prior research on expectancy disconfirmation in task performance contexts has focused on the dysfunctional consequences of disconfirming low performance expectations (i.e., stereotype threat). In this paper we focus on the dysfunctional consequences of disconfirming high performance expectations. In three studies, we find that individuals are more likely to break rules if they have been led to expect that achieving high levels of performance will be easy rather than difficult, even if breaking rules means behaving unethically. We show that this willingness to break rules is not due to differences in legitimate performance as a function of how easy people expect the task to be, or whether their expectations are set explicitly (by referring to others' performance) or implicitly (as implied by their own prior performance). Instead, using a misattribution paradigm, we show that cognitive dissonance triggered by unmet expectations drives our effects.

    Keywords: Rule breaking; Unethical Behavior; Expectancy Disconfirmation; cognitive dissonance; Misattribution; Behavior; Ethics; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Moore, Celia, S. Wiley Wakeman, and Francesca Gino. "Dangerous Expectations: Breaking Rules to Resolve Cognitive Dissonance." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 15-012, August 2014. View Details
  2. Does 'Could' Lead to Good? Toward a Theory of Moral Insight

    We introduce the construct of moral insight and study how it can be elicited when people face ethical dilemmas—challenging decisions that feature tradeoffs between competing and seemingly incompatible values. Moral insight consists of discovering solutions that move beyond selecting one conflicting ethical option over another. Moral insight encompasses both a cognitive process and a discernible output: it involves the realization that an ethical dilemma might be addressed other than by conceding one set of moral imperatives to meet another, and it involves the generation of solutions that allow competing objectives to be met. Across four studies, we find that moral insight is generated when individuals are prompted to consider the question "What could I do?" in place of their intuitive approach of considering "What should I do?" Together, these studies point toward a theory of moral insight and important practical implications.

    Keywords: Moral insight; Ethical dilemma; Could mindset; creativity; Divergent thinking; Moral Sensibility; Creativity; Decision Choices and Conditions;

    Citation:

    Zhang, Ting, Francesca Gino, and Joshua Margolis. "Does 'Could' Lead to Good? Toward a Theory of Moral Insight." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-118, June 2014. View Details
  3. Handshaking Promotes Cooperative Dealmaking

    Humans use subtle sources of information—like nonverbal behavior—to determine whether to act cooperatively or antagonistically when they negotiate. Handshakes are particularly consequential nonverbal gestures in negotiations because people feel comfortable initiating negotiations with them and believe they signal cooperation (Study 1). We show that handshakes increase cooperative behaviors, affecting outcomes for integrative and distributive negotiations. In two studies with MBA students, pairs who shook hands before integrative negotiations obtained higher joint outcomes (Studies 2a and 2b). Pairs randomly assigned to shake hands were more likely to openly reveal their preferences on trade-off issues, which improved joint outcomes (Study 3). In a fourth study using a distributive negotiation, pairs of executives assigned to shake hands were less likely to lie about their preferences and crafted agreements that split the bargaining zone more equally. Together, these studies show that handshaking promotes the adoption of cooperative strategies and influences negotiation outcomes.

    Keywords: Negotiation Tactics; Cooperation; Societal Protocols;

    Citation:

    Schroeder, Juliana, Jane Risen, Francesca Gino, and Michael I. Norton. "Handshaking Promotes Cooperative Dealmaking." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-117, May 2014. View Details
  4. The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty

    To create social ties to support their professional or personal goals, people actively engage in instrumental networking. Drawing from moral psychology research, we posit that this intentional behavior has unintended consequences for an individual's morality. Unlike personal networking in pursuit of emotional support or friendship, and unlike social ties that emerge spontaneously, instrumental networking in pursuit of professional goals can impinge on an individual's moral purity—a psychological state that results from viewing the self as clean from a moral standpoint—and make an individual feel dirty. We theorize that such feelings of dirtiness decrease the frequency of instrumental networking and, as a result, work performance. We also examine sources of variability in networking-induced feelings of dirtiness by proposing that the amount of power people have when they engage in instrumental networking influences how dirty this networking makes them feel. Three laboratory experiments and a survey study of lawyers in a large North American law firm provide support for our predictions. We call for a new direction in network research that investigates how network-related behaviors associated with building social capital influence individuals' psychological experiences and work outcomes.

    Keywords: Networking; Morality; Dirtiness; Power; Networks; Moral Sensibility; Personal Development and Career; Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Casciaro, Tiziana, Francesca Gino, and Maryam Kouchaki. "The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-108, April 2014. View Details
  5. 'My Bad!' How Internal Attribution and Ambiguity of Responsibility Affect Learning from Failure

    Learning in organizations is a key determinant of individual and organizational success, and one valuable source of this learning is prior failure. Previous research finds that although individuals can learn from failed experiences, they do not always do so. To explain why this is true, we explore how individuals process failed experiences as a potential source of learning. Drawing on attribution theory, we conceptualize the differential impact that internal (self-focused) and external (factors outside of one's control) attributions after failure may have on individuals' learning and identify a key factor that shapes whether individuals attribute failure internally or externally, namely perceived ambiguity of responsibility. We hypothesize that when perceived ambiguity of responsibility is low rather than high, individuals will be more likely to attribute their failure internally and in turn devote more effort to learning and improving. We test our hypotheses using data collected in field and laboratory settings. This multi-method approach supports our theoretical model and permits us to gain further insight into how learning from failure occurs for individuals in work organizations.

    Keywords: Attitudes; Failure; Learning;

    Citation:

    Myers, Christopher G., Bradley R. Staats, and Francesca Gino. "'My Bad!' How Internal Attribution and Ambiguity of Responsibility Affect Learning from Failure." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-104, April 2014. View Details
  6. Learning by Thinking: How Reflection Aids Performance

    Research on learning has primarily focused on the role of doing (experience) in fostering progress over time. In this paper, we propose that one of the critical components of learning is reflection, or the intentional attempt to synthesize, abstract, and articulate the key lessons taught by experience. Drawing on dual-process theory, we focus on the reflective dimension of the learning process and propose that learning can be augmented by deliberately focusing on thinking about what one has been doing. We test the resulting dual-process learning model experimentally, using a mixed-method design that combines two laboratory experiments with a field experiment conducted in a large business process outsourcing company in India. We find a performance differential when comparing learning-by-doing alone to learning-by-doing coupled with reflection. Further, we hypothesize and find that the effect of reflection on learning is mediated by greater perceived self-efficacy. Together, our results shed light on the role of reflection as a powerful mechanism behind learning.

    Keywords: learning by thinking; reflection; knowledge creation; learning; self-efficacy; Perception; Performance; Learning; Knowledge; Cognition and Thinking; India;

    Citation:

    Di Stefano, Giada, Francesca Gino, Gary Pisano, and Bradley Staats. "Learning by Thinking: How Reflection Aids Performance." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 14-093, March 2014. View Details
  7. Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: The Surprising Benefits of Advice Seeking

    Although individuals can derive substantial benefits from exchanging information and ideas, many individuals are reluctant to seek advice from others. We find that people are reticent to seek advice for fear of appearing incompetent. This fear, however, is misplaced. We demonstrate that individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent than those who do not. This effect is moderated by task difficulty and advisor ego. Individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent when the task is difficult than when it is easy, and when people seek advice from them personally than when they seek advice from others.

    Keywords: Behavior; Cognition and Thinking;

    Citation:

    Brooks, A.W., F. Gino, and M.E. Schweitzer. "Smart People Ask for (My) Advice: The Surprising Benefits of Advice Seeking." Working Paper, July 2013. View Details
  8. Off the Hook? Mistaken Expectations of Leniency in the Punishment of Transgressions

    This paper combines experimental and field data to examine how those with the responsibility to enforce rules may penalize transgressors more harshly when they are faced with a conflicting motivation to be lenient. Specifically, we test how transgressors are punished when it is their birthday: a day when social norms dictate people should be treated preferentially. We first establish that individuals expect leniency on their birthday. We then show that, compared to other days, transgressors are in fact penalized more severely for transgressing rules when it is their birthday, both by law enforcement (using more than 134,000 arrest records for drunk driving in Washington State) and by participants with responsibility to enforce rules in an experimental lab setting. We also show that this effect is driven by psychological reactance. We discuss both the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

    Keywords: bias; discrimination; ethics; leniency; transgressions; punishment; Prejudice and Bias; Behavior; Ethics; Societal Protocols;

    Citation:

    Moore, Celia, Lamar Pierce, and Francesca Gino. "Off the Hook? Mistaken Expectations of Leniency in the Punishment of Transgressions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-101, June 2013. (Revised October 2013, January 2014.) View Details
  9. No harm, No Foul: The Outcome Bias in Ethical Judgments

    We present six studies demonstrating that outcome information biases ethical judgments of others' ethically-questionable behaviors. In particular, we show that the same behaviors produce more ethical condemnation when they happen to produce bad rather than good outcomes, even if the outcomes are determined by chance. Our studies show that individuals judge behaviors as less ethical, more blameworthy, and punish them more harshly, when such behaviors led to undesirable consequences, even if they saw those behaviors as acceptable before they knew its consequences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a rational, analytic mindset can override the effects of one's intuitions in ethical judgments. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.

    Keywords: Judgments; Ethics; Outcome or Result; Behavior; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Don A. Moore, and Max H. Bazerman. "No harm, No Foul: The Outcome Bias in Ethical Judgments." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 08-080, February 2008. (Revised July 2008, April 2009.) View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. The Morning Star Company: Self-Management at Work

    Morning Star, a collection of affiliated companies, had grown steadily since 1970 when Chris Rufer, president and founder, started the business hauling tomatoes to processing plants in a truck. The company's main products continued to be tomato-based, including a 40% share in the tomato paste and diced tomato market in 2013. Different from traditional manufacturing companies, Morning Star relied on self-management to execute the work in any part of the organization. The company was built on individual freedom, with the expectation that employees would take responsibility for holding their peers accountable and address performance failures directly.

    The case explores how the company can establish a compensation model that fairly compensates employees for their performance and provides a broad incentive to hold others accountable, while being consistent with self-management. This case includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Business or Company Management; Motivation and Incentives; Working Conditions; Plant-Based Agribusiness; Food; Management Practices and Processes; Compensation and Benefits; Manufacturing Industry; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Bradley R. Staats. "The Morning Star Company: Self-Management at Work." Harvard Business School Case 914-013, September 2013. (Revised January 2014.) View Details
  2. Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water

    This case examines negotiations between a company and government over natural resources. The Fijian government proposed a substantial increase in its water extraction tax that would only apply to large extractors, and thus to FIJI Water and not to its competitors. FIJI Water responded by calling the increase "discriminatory" and threatening to shut down its operations, but in the end its negotiations resulted in its agreeing to pay the tax increase.

    Keywords: Negotiation; Business and Government Relations; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Distribution Industry; Fiji;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, Michael W. Toffel, and Stephanie van Sice. "Fiji versus FIJI: Negotiating Over Water." Harvard Business School Case 912-030, March 2012. (Revised August 2014.) View Details
  3. Samasource: Give Work, Not Aid

    Samasource sought to use work, not aid, for economic development. The company secured contracts for digital services from large companies in the United States and Europe, divided the work up into small pieces (called microwork) and then sent it to delivery centers in developing regions of the world for completion through a web-based interface. Different from traditional business process outsourcing companies, Samasource relied on a marginalized population of workers to execute the work. The case explores how the company can grow its capability to help individuals around the globe through the provision of digital work.

    Keywords: Development Economics; Growth and Development Strategy; Social Enterprise;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Bradley R. Staats. "Samasource: Give Work, Not Aid." Harvard Business School Case 912-011, December 2011. (Revised June 2012.) View Details
  4. The Future of BioPasteur

    The purpose of this exercise is to let students experience a few biases that can be deleterious to strategic decision-making. In particular, students are induced to fall into a confirmatory trap, and to experience other biases such as anchoring and sampling bias. Although the exercise can be performed individually, it is a better vehicle to explore how some team-level dynamics and structural choices can either increase or reduce the probability of falling into such biases. The exercise creates a situation that mirrors the one leading to the Challenger disaster.

    Keywords: Interpersonal Communication; Decision Choices and Conditions; Outcome or Result; Groups and Teams; Prejudice and Bias; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Gavetti, Giovanni, and Francesca Gino. "The Future of BioPasteur." Harvard Business School Exercise 711-508, March 2011. (Revised April 2011.) View Details
  5. The Future of BioPasteur -- Supplement

    The purpose of this exercise is to let students experience a few biases that can be deleterious to strategic decision-making. In particular, students are induced to fall into a confirmatory trap, and to experience other biases such as anchoring and sampling bias. Although the exercise can be performed individually, it is a better vehicle to explore how some team-level dynamics and structural choices can either increase or reduce the probability of falling into such biases. The exercise creates a situation that mirrors the one leading to the Challenger disaster.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Problems and Challenges; Prejudice and Bias;

    Citation:

    Gavetti, Giovanni, and Francesca Gino. "The Future of BioPasteur -- Supplement." Harvard Business School Supplement 711-509, March 2011. View Details
  6. BioPasteur: Instructions for the group discussion

    The purpose of this exercise is to let students experience a few biases that can be deleterious to strategic decision-making. In particular, students are induced to fall into a confirmatory trap, and to experience other biases such as anchoring and sampling bias. Although the exercise can be performed individually, it is a better vehicle to explore how some team-level dynamics and structural choices can either increase or reduce the probability of falling into such biases. The exercise creates a situation that mirrors the one leading to the Challenger disaster.

    Keywords: Decision Making; Groups and Teams; Prejudice and Bias; Strategy;

    Citation:

    Gavetti, Giovanni, and Francesca Gino. "BioPasteur: Instructions for the group discussion." Harvard Business School Supplement 711-510, March 2011. View Details
  7. Ducati Corse

    Ducati Corse, the racing arm of Ducati Motorcycles, has entered the Moto GP circuit with a completely new bike. This bike was designed and tested using a great deal of information technology. After a very successful initial season, the Ducati Moto GP team sees performance deteriorate significantly. Team technical director Fillipo Preziosi must decide what changes, if any, to make in the current approach to designing, improving, and racing motorcycles. Includes color exhibits.

    Keywords: Design; Business Strategy; Product Marketing; Information Technology; Performance Improvement; Change Management; Research and Development; Motorcycle Industry; Italy;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Andrew P. McAfee. "Ducati Corse." Harvard Business School Case 605-091, June 2005. (Revised August 2006.) View Details
  8. Ducati Corse: The Making of a Grand Prix Motorcycle

    Examines the product development strategy and processes of the Ducati motorcycle racing team during the 2003-2004 Grand Prix seasons. Invites discussion of appropriate design and development strategies to facilitate learning across product generations. Specifically, examines the trade-offs inherent in an "integral" vs. "modular" approach to product design and the impact on learning. Also enables students to explore the behavioral aspects of development strategy and, in particular, the impact of initial success on perceptions of competence and risk taking.

    Keywords: Design; Business Strategy; Product Marketing; Knowledge Use and Leverage; Motorcycle Industry; Italy;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Gary P. Pisano. "Ducati Corse: The Making of a Grand Prix Motorcycle." Harvard Business School Case 605-090, June 2005. (Revised June 2006.) View Details
  9. Teradyne Corporation: The Jaguar Project

    Teradyne, a leading manufacturer of semiconductor test equipment, embarked on a multiyear effort to improve its product development capabilities and to implement more formalized project management approaches. Examines the development of a new-generation tester that involved significant hardware and software design. For this, the company decided to implement new approaches to project management and project teams. Invites discussion of the effectiveness of these approaches and the general lessons for the management of product development.

    Keywords: Projects; Management; Product Development; Hardware; Software; Groups and Teams; Business or Company Management; Research and Development; Problems and Challenges; Semiconductor Industry; United States;

    Citation:

    Gino, Francesca, and Gary P. Pisano. "Teradyne Corporation: The Jaguar Project." Harvard Business School Case 606-042, September 2005. (Revised May 2006.) View Details
  10. The Whitesides Lab

    A significant part of the long-term economic growth in developed economies depends on the translation of scientific research into new products and processes. Focuses on the front end of this value creation stream. The laboratory of George Whitesides has a 30-year history of outstanding chemistry research as reflected by the quality and quantity of journal papers, paper citations, successful graduates, breakthrough ideas and concepts, and new companies. Details the research philosophy and processes for selecting research problems and forming teams. Whitesides guides students to choose challenging research topics rather than safe, incremental research, and problems that require interdisciplinary teams. Allows discussion of: the principles for operating a creative and productive lab; the role of the leader in creating the infrastructure and systems for discovery and learning; the issues of resource allocation and the appurtenant wasted effort as researchers seek academic research support; and the scale and scope limits for highly successful labs. Also discusses applying the Whitesides lab principles and processes to nonscience organizations and teams.

    Keywords: Research; Performance Productivity; Economic Growth; Infrastructure; Creativity; Groups and Teams; Value Creation; Factories, Labs, and Plants; Leadership; Resource Allocation;

    Citation:

    Bowen, H. Kent, and Francesca Gino. "The Whitesides Lab." Harvard Business School Case 606-064, March 2006. View Details

    Research Summary

  1. Current Research

    Why do we often fail to stick to our plans in our personal and professional decisions? How can we foster creativity in the workplace? What motivates employees? What's the secret to good group dynamics and high levels of team performance? In what ways are our judgments and evaluation of others inaccurate? Why are unethical practices so widespread in the workplace and in society more broadly? What weaknesses can in actuality be a point of strength in negotiation?

    These questions cover a wide range of problems and issues that both individuals and organizations commonly face. Although different, these questions share something in common: answering them requires a deep understanding of human behavior and judgment. In my research, I use theories from psychology and behavioral decision research to find answers to these and related questions.

    Judgment, Decision Making and Negotiation
    The human mind is capable of remarkable accomplishments, but it also can be swayed in the wrong direction, predictably and by seemingly irrelevant factors. My research probes imperfections of human judgment and decision-making and traces their consequences for individual, group, and organizational outcomes. My work in this area attempts to improve our understanding of the predictable failures of the human mind and fill the gaps in our knowledge of the ways in which human judgments, decisions, and behavior can be improved, or at least nudged in the right direction. One of the areas I explored is advice taking. Advice taking requires people to weigh their own opinions and judgments against those of others. Before making an important decision - such as choosing an investment, launching a product, or selecting members for a new team - people often consult others for their opinions. Once they receive the advice, do they use it wisely? Over the years, my research on this topic has identified when and why people overweight bad advice, and when and why they discount good recommendations (e.g., Gino, 2006, 2008; Gino & Moore, 2007; Gino & Schweitzer, 2008).

    Morality, Ethics and Prosocial Behavior
    My work on ethical decision making and the psychology of moral judgment illustrates how even small factors can turn us away from our moral self. When and why do ordinary people cross ethical boundaries? And how can they routinely engage in dishonest acts without feeling guilty about their behavior? Do people cross ethical boundaries only for their own benefit?  My research addresses these questions in various contexts, using both laboratory and field data. The basic premise of this line of work is that even good people regularly engage in behavior that violates their own ethical principles, either because they do not realize they are behaving dishonestly (e.g., Gino & Bazerman, 2009), because they can't resist the temptation to act unethically (e.g., Mead, Baumeister, Gino, Schweitzer, & Ariely, 2009; Gino, Schweitzer, Mead, & Ariely, 2011) or because they find effective ways to overlook or rationalize their choices (e.g., Shu, Gino, & Bazerman, 2011). Healthy work and social environments depend on the ability of leaders and employees alike to spread ethical norms and values, while reducing the attractiveness of unethical misconduct. Studying how managers and their organizations can best accomplish this goal is an important realm for my research in the years to come.

    Motivation, Productivity, and Creativity
    My work in this area investigates how motivation and performance at the individual and group level can be boosted, and how people often misjudge the beneficial effects of performance-enhancing factors. For instance, one of my projects in this area examines the effects of learning from different types of experience and mental models on creativity, at both the individual (Miron-Spektor, Gino, & Argote, 2009) and group level (Gino, Argote, Miron-Spektor, & Todorova, 2010; Gino, Todorova, Miron-Spektor, & Argote, 2009). Some of this research has distinguished between the influence of prior experience with the task and prior experience with other members, a distinction that seems to have important consequences not only for creativity but also for performance and learning (Garvin, Edmondson, & Gino, 2008).

    1. One of three finalists for the 2014 George R. Terry Book Award from the Academy of Management for Sidetracked: Why Our Decisions Get Derailed and How We Can Stick to the Plan (Harvard Business Review Press, 2013).

    2. Winner of the 2014 Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior Award from the Academy of Management’s Organizational Behavior Division for "Breaking Them In or Revealing Their Best? Reframing Socialization Around Newcomer Self-expression" with Daniel Cable and Brad Staats (Administrative Science Quarterly, March 2013).

    3. Winner of the 2014 Giovane Promessa (‘Promising Youth’) Award, given annually by the General Consulate of Italy in recognition of outstanding achievements of a young professional under 40 with the potential of having an impact.

    4. Selected as a 2013-2014 ADVANCE Distinguished Woman Scholar by The Smith School at University of Maryland and the National Science Foundation ADVANCE Program for Inclusive Excellence.

    5. Finalist (one of three) for the 2014 Scholarly Achievement Award from the Human Resource Division of the Academy of Management.

    6. Received Honorable Mention for the 2013 Robert B. Cialdini Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology for “Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End” with Lisa Shu, Nina Mazar, Dan Ariely, and Max Bazerman (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012).

    7. Winner of the 2013 Cummings Scholarly Achievement Award from the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management.