Scott A. Snook

MBA Class of 1958 Senior Lecturer of Business Administration

Unit: Organizational Behavior

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Scott Snook is currently the MBA Class of 1958 Senior Lecturer of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

He graduated with honors from West Point earning the Royal Society of Arts Award for the most outstanding overall cadet in his class.  Following graduaiton, he was commissioned in the US Army Corps of Engineers where he served with distinction in various command and staff positions for over 22 years, earning the rank of Colonel before retiring in 2002. He has led soldiers in combat. Among his military decorations are the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, Purple Heart, and Master Parachutist badge. He has an MBA from the Harvard Business School, where he graduated with High Distinction as a Baker Scholar. Dr. Snook earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in Organizational Behavior winning the Sage-Louis Pondy Best Dissertation Award from the Academy of Management for his study of the Friendly Fire Shootdown in Northern Iraq. Until July of 2002, Colonel Snook served as an Academy Professor in the Behavioral Sciences and Leadership Department at the United States Military Academy. He also directed West Point's Center for Leadership and Organizations Research as well as its joint Master's Program in Leader Development. He is the primary author of West Point's Cadet Leader Development System - the Academy's philosophy on how to develop leaders of character for the Nation.  Professor Snook's book, Friendly Fire was selected by the Academy of Management to receive the 2002 Terry Award as the most influential book on managerial thinking published during the past two years. He has also co-authored a book that explores the role of "common sense" in leadership titled, Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life, available from Cambridge University Press (2000).  He most recently co-edited The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being available from SAGE Publications (2011). Professor Snook has shared his leadership insights in formal executive education programs at Harvard and with numerous corporate audiences around the world.

Professor Snook's research and consulting activities have been in the areas of leadership, leader development, change management, organizational systems and failure, and culture. He currently lives in Concord, Massachusetts with his wife Kathleen and their five children.

Publications

Books

  1. The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being

    The last 25 years have witnessed an explosion in the field of leadership education. This volume brings together leading international scholars across disciplines to chronicle the current state of leadership education and establish a solid foundation on which to grow the field. It encourages leadership educators to explore and communicate more clearly the theoretical underpinnings and conceptual assumptions on which their approaches are based. It provides a forum for the discussion of current issues and challenges in the field and examines the above objectives within the broader perspective of rapid changes in technology, organizational structure, and diversity.

    Keywords: Change; Business Education; Leadership; Goals and Objectives; Management Style; Organizational Structure; Perspective; Diversification; Technology;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Nitin Nohria, and Rakesh Khurana, eds. The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2012. View Details
  2. Cadet Leader Development System

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Leadership; System;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. Cadet Leader Development System. West Point, NY: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002. (booklet.) View Details
  3. Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life

    Keywords: Experience and Expertise;

    Citation:

    Sternberg, Robert J., George B. Forsythe, Jennifer Hedlund, Joseph A. Horvath, Richard K. Wagner, Wendy M. Williams, Scott A. Snook, and Elena L. Grigorenko. Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000. View Details
  4. Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks Over Northern Iraq

    Keywords: War; United States; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks Over Northern Iraq. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. (Winner of George R. Terry Book Award Granted annually to the book judged to have made the most outstanding contribution to the advancement of management knowledge presented by Academy of Management.) View Details

Journal Articles

  1. From Purpose to Impact: Figure Out Your Passion and Put It to Work

    We offer opinions on leadership. A need is seen for executives to have a strong belief in the purpose of their lives as individuals and within an organization to be effective leaders and to accomplish their personal goals. Executives are urged to examine their lives to discover major themes, interests, and values, using that examination to create a short statement of individual purpose which is then used to create a plan for using that purpose to create an impact on their organizations and the leader's own self-actualization.

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Craig, Nick, and Scott Snook. "From Purpose to Impact: Figure Out Your Passion and Put It to Work." Harvard Business Review 92, no. 5 (May 2014): 105–111. View Details
  2. Identity Work in Business Schools: From Don Quixote, to Dons and Divas

    Keywords: Identity; Business Education;

    Citation:

    Khurana, Rakesh, and Scott A. Snook. "Identity Work in Business Schools: From Don Quixote, to Dons and Divas." Special Anniversary Issue Journal of Management Inquiry 20, no. 4 (December 2011): 358–361. (Commentary on The Scholar's Quest, an essay by James March.) View Details
  3. Big Five Personality Factors, Hardiness, and Social Judgment as Predictors of Leader Performance

    Keywords: Judgments; Leadership; Performance; Society;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Paul T. Bartone, Jarie Eid, Bjorn Helge Johnsen, and Jon Christian Laberg. "Big Five Personality Factors, Hardiness, and Social Judgment as Predictors of Leader Performance." Leadership & Organization Development Journal 30, no. 6 (2009): 498–521. (Winner of Emerald Literati Network Outstanding Paper Award presented by Emerald Group Publishing.) View Details
  4. Love and Fear and the Modern Boss

    Keywords: Management;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. "Love and Fear and the Modern Boss." Special Issue on HBS Centennial. Harvard Business Review 86, no. 1 (January 2008). View Details
  5. Psychosocial Development and Leader Performance of Military Officer Cadets

    Efforts to educate and develop future military officers aim to produce highly competent, ethical and effective leaders to serve the nation. But while there is general agreement about desired outcomes, the underlying developmental processes associated with these outcomes are not well understood. How do we grow such leaders? This paper reports on a longitudinal study of West Point college students over four years, addressing three questions: (1) do military officer-cadets grow or change in their basic level of psychosocial development [Kegan, R. (1982). The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]; (2) is the level of psychosocial development related to performance as leaders; and (3) do activities in high school predict later psychosocial development? Two groups of cadets were studied from their freshman or sophomore year to their senior year at the academy. Results show significant positive developmental growth over time for 47% of study participants, with most of this growth occurring from sophomore to senior year. Furthermore, psychosocial development predicts several peer, subordinate and supervisor ratings of cadet performance as leaders during the upper-class (junior and senior) years, a time when cadets take on substantial leadership roles. In addition, early performance ratings by high school teachers, as well as active participation in high school extracurricular activities both predict psychosocial development levels for freshman and sophomores. These findings lend support to Kegan's theoretical model and suggest that greater attention be paid to these basic processes of human psychosocial development that can influence leader performance in important ways.

    Keywords: Forecasting and Prediction; Leadership Development; Performance Evaluation; Personal Development and Career; Social Psychology;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, and Paul T. Bartone. "Psychosocial Development and Leader Performance of Military Officer Cadets." Leadership Quarterly 18, no. 5 (October 2007): 490–504. View Details
  6. Comments on Glenn Hubbard's Business, Knowledge, and Global Growth

    Keywords: Business Ventures; Information; Knowledge; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, and Rakesh Khurana. "Comments on Glenn Hubbard's Business, Knowledge, and Global Growth." Capitalism and Society 1, no. 3 (2006). View Details
  7. Identity Development During the College Years: Findings From the West Point Longitudinal Study

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Education; Identity; Information;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Philip Lewis, Paul Bartone, Forsythe B. Forsythe, Craig Bullis, and Patrick Sweeney. "Identity Development During the College Years: Findings From the West Point Longitudinal Study." Journal of College Student Development 46, no. 4 (July–August 2005). View Details
  8. Be, Know, Do: Forming Character the West Point Way

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Be, Know, Do: Forming Character the West Point Way." Compass 1, no. 2 (spring 2004): 16–19. View Details
  9. Review of Leading with Purpose: The New Corporate Realities, by Richard R. Ellsworth

    Keywords: Leadership; Mission and Purpose; Business Ventures;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Review of Leading with Purpose: The New Corporate Realities, by Richard R. Ellsworth." Academy of Management Review 28, no. 4 (October 2003): 675–677. View Details
  10. Identifying and Assessing Tacit Knowledge: Understanding the Practical Intelligence of Military Leaders

    Keywords: Knowledge; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Jennifer Hedlund, George B. Forsythe, Joseph A. Horvath, Wendy M. Williams, and Robert J. Sternberg. "Identifying and Assessing Tacit Knowledge: Understanding the Practical Intelligence of Military Leaders." Leadership Quarterly 14, no. 2 (April 2003): 117–140. View Details
  11. Cognitive and Personality Predictors of Leader Performance in West Point Cadets

    Keywords: Cognition and Thinking; Identity; Leadership; Performance;

    Citation:

    Bartone, Paul T., Scott A. Snook, and Trueman R. Tremble Jr. "Cognitive and Personality Predictors of Leader Performance in West Point Cadets." Military Psychology 14, no. 4 (October 2002): 321–338. View Details

Book Chapters

  1. Teaching Leadership: Advancing the Field

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Teaching;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Nitin Nohria, and Rakesh Khurana. "Teaching Leadership: Advancing the Field." Chap. 1 in The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being, edited by Scott Snook, Nitin Nohria, and Rakesh Khurana. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2011. View Details
  2. Identity-Based Leader Development

    Despite the wealth of managerial and scholarly attention paid to leadership development, only recently has a new perspective emerged that explicitly links leadership and identity. Research and theorizing on leadership development have yet to specify the processes that account for identity transformations in role transitions. This paper proposes a new, identity-based model of leader development that focuses attention on the key transitions that shape leaders' careers, specifying processes and moderating conditions for identity transformation. Implications for designing experiences and training that take identity processes into account are drawn.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Identity; Transition; Transformation; Perspective; Managerial Roles; Business Processes; Personal Development and Career;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Herminia Ibarra, and Laura Ramo. "Identity-Based Leader Development." Chap. 22 in Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice, edited by Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana, 657–678. Harvard Business Press, 2010. View Details
  3. The End of the Great Man

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Rakesh Khurana. "The End of the Great Man." In The Essential Bennis, edited by Warren Bennis, 138–159. Jossey-Bass, 2009. View Details
  4. The Price of Progress: Structually Induced Inaction

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Outcome or Result;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, and Jeffrey C. Connor. "The Price of Progress: Structually Induced Inaction." Chap. 10 in Organization at the Limit: Lessons from the Columbia Disaster, edited by M. Farjoun and W. Starbuck, 178–201. Blackwell Publishing, 2005. View Details
  5. Developing 'Leaders of Character': Lessons from West Point

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Trust;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, and Rakesh Khurana. "Developing 'Leaders of Character': Lessons from West Point." In Leadership and Governance from the Inside Out, edited by Robert Gandossy and Jeffrey Sonnenfeld. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. View Details
  6. Making Sense of Officership: Developing a Professional Identity for 21st Century Army Officers

    Keywords: Leadership; Identity;

    Citation:

    Forsythe, George B., Scott Snook, Philip Lewis, and Paul T. Bartone. "Making Sense of Officership: Developing a Professional Identity for 21st Century Army Officers." Chap. 24 in The Future of the Army Profession, edited by Lloyd J. Matthews, 357–378. McGraw-Hill, 2002. View Details

Cases and Teaching Materials

  1. Coach Hurley at St. Anthony High School

    Coach Bob Hurley of St. Anthony High School is one of the winningest coaches in the history of high school basketball. At age 65, he has won more than 1,000 games and 25 New Jersey State Championships. His players come from the toughest streets in the country and yet all but 3 have gone on to college. As head coach, he earns less than $10,000 a year; his circa 1917 school building doesn't even have a gym. And yet, for almost 40 years he has turned down all offers to leave a small, aging, Catholic school in Jersey City, NJ. This is a biographical case about a tough-love leader who epitomizes what it means to be authentic. It was written for a course on authentic leadership development to highlight the origins and potential of deep self-knowledge and passion. Class discussion focuses on the tensions between extrinsic and intrinsic motivations and the role that this plays in our lives.

    Keywords: leadership; leadership development; Authentic Leadership Development; Authenticity; Sports; coaching; Leadership; Leadership Style; Leadership Development; Groups and Teams; Sports Industry; Education Industry; New Jersey;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Bradley Lawrence. "Coach Hurley at St. Anthony High School." Harvard Business School Case 413-091, March 2013. View Details
  2. Scotty Smiley

    U.S. Army Lieutenant Scotty Smiley faces the biggest challenge of his young life. What will he do after learning that the wounds he received from a car bomb in Iraq have left him permanently blinded? On April 6, 2005, Lieutenant Scotty Smiley was grievously wounded by a suicide bomber while leading his infantry platoon during a combat patrol in Iraq. This is a biographical case that outlines who Scotty was prior to this incident and asks readers to consider the following fundamental question: What does this tragic event mean for who he is and how he will lead his life? And by extension, what role do life crucibles play in helping to shape who we are and how we lead?

    Keywords: Government Administration; Leadership Development; Leadership Style; Personal Characteristics; Customization and Personalization; Personal Development and Career; Work-Life Balance; Performance Capacity; Planning; Employment Industry; United States; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Doug Crandall. "Scotty Smiley." Harvard Business School Case 412-058, September 2011. (Revised October 2011.) View Details
  3. Children's Hospital Boston (A)

    Five year old Matty died at Children's Hospital Boston as a result of elective neurosurgery to "cure" his epilepsy. The organizational system, not the surgery, had failed. During post-operative recovery, he experienced a prolonged seizure that resulted in his death. Confused leadership, organizational differentiation, structurally induced silence, and organizational mis-alignment contributed to the death. How could this happen in such a world class medical facility?

    Keywords: Health Care and Treatment; Leadership; Managerial Roles; Organizational Structure; Management Systems; Management Teams; Health Industry;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Jeffrey C. Connor. "Children's Hospital Boston (A)." Harvard Business School Case 411-041, November 2010. View Details
  4. Leadership Development at Goldman Sachs (TN)

    Keywords: Leadership; Growth and Development; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, and Scott A. Snook. "Leadership Development at Goldman Sachs (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 407-080, May 2007. (Revised April 2010.) View Details
  5. Leader(ship) Development

    Designed for use in the first year of an MBA program, can be included within a core course on leadership or used more broadly to orient students to their upcoming experience while in school. Offers a series of robust conceptual models to help students frame their leader(ship) development experiences while in a business school. How we frame our experiences has a significant impact on how we ultimately "have" our experiences, as well as what we make of them. Drawing broadly from educational, human development, and leadership training literature, as well as a recent longitudinal study of MBA students, speaks directly to business school students in their own language in an attempt to help them make the most out of their experiences while in school. For faculty, can be used as a background resource for understanding how MBA students experience their time in school and for grasping a broad review of the leadership development literature as it applies to MBA programs. Commonly asked questions explored include: Are leaders born or made? When we talk about "leader(ship) development," exactly what is it that is developing? How do leaders develop? To address these fundamental questions, integrates colorful student quotes with primary source insights from the major thought leaders in the field of leadership development. Also offers a series of "developmental propositions" to increase the likelihood that students will get the most out of their developmental journeys.

    Keywords: Leadership Development; Framework; Business Education; Education Industry;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. "Leader(ship) Development." Harvard Business School Case 408-064, October 2007. (Revised June 2008.) View Details
  6. Friendly Fire (TN)

    Keywords: War;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. "Friendly Fire (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 408-078, November 2007. View Details
  7. Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (TN)

    Keywords: Education;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Steven Shafer. "Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 408-065, October 2007. View Details
  8. Leadership Development at Goldman Sachs

    In November 1999, 11 of Goldman Sachs' finest gathered to put the final touches on a revolutionary leadership development plan. Following Goldman's explosive growth during the 1990s and its eventual IPO in 1999, a diverse group of leaders from across the firm were selected to "assess the future training and development needs of Goldman Sachs, with a particular focus on the need for a more systematic and effective approach to developing managing directors." After six months of brainstorming, holding discussions with Goldman Sachs colleagues, interviewing experts, and benchmarking best practices, it was finally time to present their findings to the management committee. The briefing contained an integrated leader development plan with concrete recommendations on how to resolve several critical design issues, including: location, faculty, content, format, method, target audience, governance, and sponsorship. No one sitting on the management committee had relied on a formal leadership program to reach the top. How skeptical might they be? How do you convince hard-nosed bankers to leave their desks and invest precious time focusing on what many perceived as "soft" issues?

    Keywords: Initial Public Offering; Leadership Development; Growth and Development Strategy; Management Skills; Organizational Design; Planning;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, Scott A. Snook, and David Lane. "Leadership Development at Goldman Sachs." Harvard Business School Case 406-002, November 2005. (Revised March 2007.) View Details
  9. The Pine Street Initiative at Goldman Sachs

    Almost five years had passed since Goldman Sachs launched its innovative leadership development initiative called Pine Street. Focused primarily on developing Goldman's most senior managers, Pine Street had evolved significantly since its inception in November of 1999. Looking forward, there were a number of challenges. How would Pine Street remain valued in a culture where what you did yesterday doesn't matter much? The question every day is "What will you do for me today?" Early in May 2005, members of the Pine Street Board of Directors gathered for their quarterly meeting to address the dimensions of this challenge: First, its curriculum had to maintain the interest of an increasingly demanding internal clientele. Second, program content had to keep pace with the constantly changing requirements of a rapidly shifting competitive and regulator landscape. Third, Pine Street itself had to pursue creative ways of renewing its structure and people without compromising either its mission or its unique culture. Fourth, Pine Street had to retain the continued support of Goldman Sachs' senior leadership. Finally, as program offerings grew, so did fundamental questions of identity: After five years of evolutionary growth, what did the Pine Street brand mean to Goldman Sachs?

    Keywords: Executive Education; Personal Development and Career; Leadership Development; Business Education; Financial Services Industry;

    Citation:

    Groysberg, Boris, Scott A. Snook, and David Lane. "The Pine Street Initiative at Goldman Sachs." Harvard Business School Case 407-053, November 2006. View Details
  10. Coach Knight: The Will to Win and Coach K: A Matter of the Heart (TN)

    Keywords: Sports; Competitive Strategy;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. "Coach Knight: The Will to Win and Coach K: A Matter of the Heart (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 406-103, April 2006. View Details
  11. Coach K: A Matter of the Heart

    Successful college basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski faces the decision whether to accept a lucrative offer to coach a professional basketball team or continue to coach at Duke University. Provides a context for discussing various styles of power, influence, and persuasion in the context of his coaching career.

    Keywords: Power and Influence; Strategic Planning; Decisions; Personal Development and Career; Interpersonal Communication; Management Teams; Goals and Objectives; Decision Choices and Conditions; Sports Industry; North Carolina;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Leslie A. Perlow, and Brian DeLacey. "Coach K: A Matter of the Heart." Harvard Business School Case 406-044, August 2005. (Revised December 2005.) View Details
  12. Coach Knight: The Will to Win

    Successful college basketball coach Bob Knight was fired from his long-time role as basketball coach at Indiana University and hired in the same role at Texas Tech. Considers these events in the context of his long career and provides a context for discussing various styles of power, influence, and persuasion in his leadership role as coach and educator.

    Keywords: Resignation and Termination; Selection and Staffing; Leadership Style; Situation or Environment; Power and Influence; Sports; Indiana; Texas;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Leslie A. Perlow, and Brian DeLacey. "Coach Knight: The Will to Win." Harvard Business School Case 406-043, August 2005. (Revised December 2005.) View Details
  13. Army Crew Team, The (TN)

    Teaching Note to (9-403-131).

    Keywords: Sports; Sports Industry;

    Citation:

    Polzer, Jeffrey T., and Scott A. Snook. "Army Crew Team, The (TN)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 404-117, June 2004. (Revised March 2005.) View Details
  14. Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (A)

    Major Steckleson is facing his toughest challenge yet. As an experienced observer-controller at the U.S. Army's National Training Center, Steckleson is responsible for helping leaders of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Squadron learn from a deadly mistake in simulated combat by facilitating the unit's After Action Review (AAR). AARs are structured conversations about recent experience designed to help units learn from both mistakes and successes.

    Keywords: Organizations; Learning; Training; Spoken Communication; Groups and Teams; United States;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Robert Kaderavek, and Jeremy Schneider. "Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (A)." Harvard Business School Case 404-089, January 2004. (Revised August 2004.) View Details
  15. Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (C): Role for CPT Flip Finnegan

    Role play exercise for Captain Flip Finnegan. Teaching Purpose: To role-play to further understanding of the protagonist's emotions.

    Keywords: Emotions;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Robert Kaderavek, and Jeremy Schneider. "Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (C): Role for CPT Flip Finnegan." Harvard Business School Exercise 404-133, April 2004. (Revised August 2004.) View Details
  16. Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (B): Role for 2LT Hank Smith

    Role play exercise for 2nd Lieutenant Hank Smith. Teaching Purpose: To role-play to further understanding of the protagonist's emotions.

    Keywords: Communication; Leadership; Groups and Teams; Performance Evaluation;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Robert Kaderavek, and Jeremy Schneider. "Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (B): Role for 2LT Hank Smith." Harvard Business School Exercise 404-134, April 2004. (Revised August 2004.) View Details
  17. Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (D): Role for LTC Hanson

    Role play exercise for LTC Hanson. Teaching Purpose: To role-play to further understanding of the protagonist's emotions.

    Keywords: Emotions;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Robert Kaderavek, and Jeremy Schneider. "Major Steckleson at the National Training Center (D): Role for LTC Hanson." Harvard Business School Exercise 404-135, April 2004. (Revised August 2004.) View Details
  18. Friendly Fire

    On April 14, 1994, two U.S. Air Force F-15 fighters accidentally shot down two U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopters over Northern Iraq, killing all 26 peacekeepers onboard. Describes the initial investigation and response to this accident and raises questions about the role of human behavior in the accident. Told through the eyes of three of the main participants--Captain Eric Wickson, Lieutenant Ricky Wilson, and Brigadier General Jeffrey Scott Pilkington.

    Keywords: Leadership Style; Management Skills; Behavior; Spoken Communication; United States; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., Leslie J. Freeman, L. Jeffrey Norwalk, and Bridget Gurtler. "Friendly Fire." Harvard Business School Case 404-083, January 2004. (Revised June 2004.) View Details
  19. Army Crew Team, The

    The coach of the varsity Army crew team at West Point assembled his top eight rowers into the first crew team and the second tier of rowers into the second team using objective data on individual performance. As the second boat continually beat the first boat in races, the coach attempted to discern the team dynamics causing these aberrant results. By using very clean, objective performance data, the case makes clear that a team can be more (or less) than the sum of its individual parts, but allows students to analyze the factors that make this true.

    Keywords: Groups and Teams; Performance; New York (state, US);

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A., and Jeffrey T. Polzer. "Army Crew Team, The." Harvard Business School Case 403-131, January 2003. (Revised March 2004.) View Details
  20. DISC (A) (Abridged)

    Follows the development and implementation of fundamental organizational change in a large government bureaucracy. The case is set in the Defense Industrial Supply Center (DISC) and follows two senior leaders as they grapple with issues of fundamental change in a rapidly evolving defense establishment from 1992 through 1995.

    Keywords: Government Administration; Organizational Change and Adaptation; Restructuring; Transformation; Decision Choices and Conditions; National Security; Leadership Style;

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (A) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 496-029, October 1995. View Details
  21. DISC (A-1) (Abridged)

    Supplements the (A)(Abridged) case.

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (A-1) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Supplement 496-030, October 1995. View Details
  22. DISC (B) (Abridged)

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (B) (Abridged)." Harvard Business School Case 496-031, October 1995. View Details
  23. DISK (A)

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISK (A)." Harvard Business School Case 496-032, October 1995. View Details
  24. DISC (A-1)

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (A-1)." Harvard Business School Supplement 496-033, October 1995. View Details
  25. DISC (B)

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (B)." Harvard Business School Case 496-034, October 1995. View Details
  26. DISC (C)

    Citation:

    Nohria, Nitin, and Scott A. Snook. "DISC (C)." Harvard Business School Supplement 496-035, October 1995. View Details

Presentations

  1. Leading in Difficult Times

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading in Difficult Times." , Quito, Ecuador, April 01, 2012. View Details
  2. Leading Complex Organizations

    Keywords: Organizations; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading Complex Organizations." Paper presented at the Risky Business Conference, Boston, MA, November 01, 2011. View Details
  3. Values Based Leadership

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Values Based Leadership." Paper presented at the Boston Leadership Summit, Boston, MA, October 01, 2011. View Details
  4. Values & Leadership Education

    Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Leadership; Education;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Values & Leadership Education." Paper presented at the HBS Global Leadership Forum, Boston, MA, June 2011. (Co-chaired conference with Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana.) View Details
  5. Leading Under Conditions of Uncertainty

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading Under Conditions of Uncertainty." Paper presented at the Interdisciplinary Center, Hertseliyah, CEO Forum, Herzliya, Israel, May 1, 2011. View Details
  6. Leading in a VUCCA World

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading in a VUCCA World." Paper presented at the Children's Hospital, Boston, Senior Physicians Leader Development Program, Boston, MA, February 2011. View Details
  7. Imagining the Future of Leadership

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Imagining the Future of Leadership." Paper presented at the HBS Global Leadership Forum, Boston, MA, June 2010. View Details
  8. Leading in Difficult Times

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading in Difficult Times." Paper presented at the Harvard Business Review Latin America Leaders Symposium, Mexico City, Mexico, November 25, 2009. View Details
  9. Leading under Ambiguity

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading under Ambiguity." National Health Service (Great Britain), Blackpool, England, October 16, 2009. View Details
  10. Leading under Crossed Fire

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading under Crossed Fire." , Santiago, Chile, June 26, 2009. View Details
  11. How Can Leadership Be Taught?

    Keywords: Leadership; Teaching;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "How Can Leadership Be Taught?" Paper presented at the HBS Global Leadership Forum, June 2009. View Details
  12. Adult Development and Leadership Development

    Keywords: Growth and Development; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Adult Development and Leadership Development." Paper presented at the Developing Leaders: Challenges to Concepts, Practices and Research Symposium, Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires (INSEAD), Fontainebleau, France, December 3–9, 2009. View Details
  13. Advancing Leadership: Theory and Practice

    Keywords: Leadership; Theory; Practice;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Advancing Leadership: Theory and Practice." Paper presented at the HBS Centennial Colloquium, Boston, MA, June 2008. View Details
  14. Professional Identity Development

    Keywords: Identity; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott, Barney Forsythe, and Phil Lewis. "Professional Identity Development." Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, IL, September 1, 2007. View Details
  15. What Good is Leadership? New Insights from Viewing Leadership from a Positive Organizational Scholarship Perspective

    Keywords: Leadership; Organizations; Education;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "What Good is Leadership? New Insights from Viewing Leadership from a Positive Organizational Scholarship Perspective." Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 01, 2007. (Professional Development Workshop.) View Details
  16. Teaching Leadership

    Keywords: Teaching; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Teaching Leadership." Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, August 01, 2007. (Professional Development Workshop.) View Details
  17. Grading and Feedback at HBS: A Developmental Perspective

    Keywords: Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Grading and Feedback at HBS: A Developmental Perspective." Paper presented at the HBS Faculty Colloquium on Teaching and Learning, Boston, MA, October 01, 2006. View Details
  18. Leader Development at HBS

    Keywords: Leadership; Growth and Development;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leader Development at HBS." Paper presented at the Harvard Business School Alumni Reunion, New York City, September 01, 2006. View Details
  19. A Different Way of Thinking about Leading

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "A Different Way of Thinking about Leading." Paper presented at the University of Bath School of Management, Seminar in Leadership, Change and Performance in Organisational Settings, Bath, UK, August 01, 2005. View Details
  20. State of the Embassy

    Keywords: Government and Politics;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "State of the Embassy." Outbrief to Ambassador Zalmay Khalizad, United States Embassy (Iraq), Baghdad, Iraq, July 01, 2005. (Outbrief to Ambassador Zalmay Khalizad.) View Details
  21. Rethinking Baghdad: Options for the New Abassador

    Keywords: Government and Politics; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Rethinking Baghdad: Options for the New Abassador." Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, April 1, 2005. View Details
  22. Managing the Unexpected: Assuring High Performance in an Age of Complexity

    Keywords: Performance; Management; Complexity;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Managing the Unexpected: Assuring High Performance in an Age of Complexity." Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center, Jacksonville, FL, February 1, 2005. View Details
  23. A Different Way of Thinking about Leading and Change

    Keywords: Leadership; Change;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "A Different Way of Thinking about Leading and Change." Paper presented at the Tufts Leadership Seminar, Cambridge, MA, February 01, 2005. View Details
  24. The Price of Progress: Structurally-induced Inaction

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "The Price of Progress: Structurally-induced Inaction." , New York City, October 01, 2004. View Details
  25. The Lessons of Jurassic Park or How to Lead Recess

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "The Lessons of Jurassic Park or How to Lead Recess." Edinburgh, Scotland, City Council, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 1, 2004. View Details
  26. Practical Drift in Complex Organizations

    Keywords: Organizational Structure; Complexity;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Practical Drift in Complex Organizations." Paper presented at the Harvard University Social Psychology Research Workshop, Cambridge, MA, April 27, 2004. View Details
  27. A Different Way of Thinking about Leading and Change

    Keywords: Leadership; Change;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "A Different Way of Thinking about Leading and Change." Paper presented at the Ernst and Young Minority Leadership Conference, Dallas, TX, November 01, 2003. View Details
  28. Competence and Character

    Keywords: Competency and Skills;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Competence and Character." Paper presented at the National Association of Black Accountants Annual Convention, Boston, MA, July 01, 2003. View Details
  29. Friendly Fire and National Security

    Keywords: National Security;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Friendly Fire and National Security." United States National Security Agency, Washington, DC, July 1, 2003. View Details
  30. Leading in Complex National Security Environments

    Keywords: Leadership; National Security;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading in Complex National Security Environments." Paper presented at the Center for International Security and Cooperation Seminar, Palo Alto, CA, June 01, 2003. View Details
  31. Friendly Fire Over Northern Iraq

    Keywords: War; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Friendly Fire Over Northern Iraq." Paper presented at the Senior Executive Workshop, Boston, MA, September 08, 2002. View Details
  32. The Seduction of Command and Control

    Keywords: Power and Influence;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott A. "The Seduction of Command and Control." Paper presented at the Wharton Leadership Conference, Wharton School, Philadelphia, PA, June 06, 2002. View Details
  33. Leading Complex Organizations

    Keywords: Organizations; Complexity; Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leading Complex Organizations." Paper presented at the Director of Central Intelligence Agency's Leadership Seminar, Williamsburg, VA, February 02, 2002. View Details
  34. Friendly Fire

    Keywords: War;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Friendly Fire." Paper presented at the Senior Executive Staff, Leadership Development Seminar, Washington, DC, January 02, 2002. View Details
  35. Practical Drift in Medicine

    Keywords: Health;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Practical Drift in Medicine." Paper presented at the Hasting Center Project on Patient Safety, Garrison, NY, January 02, 2002. View Details
  36. Leadership Under Fire

    Keywords: Leadership;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Leadership Under Fire." Paper presented at the Leadership ... Program (Harvard Business School Executive Education), Boston, MA, January 1, 2002. View Details

Other Publications and Materials

  1. Practical Drift: The Friendly Fire Shootdown Over Northern Iraq

    Keywords: Behavior; Practice; Iraq;

    Citation:

    Snook, Scott. "Practical Drift: The Friendly Fire Shootdown Over Northern Iraq." Ph.D. diss., Harvard Business School, 1996. (Winner of Sage-Louis Pondy Best Dissertation Paper Award Recognizes the best student authored paper based on a dissertation presented by Academy of Management.) View Details

    Research Summary

  1. My broad research interests include leadership, leader development, leading change, and organizational failures. However, my current focus for the past several years has been around LEADER DEVELOPMENT: How do leaders develop? How can we assist in the development of leaders? In the past, I've conducted longitudinal research around a multitude of potential leadership variables over time and explored a series of potential paths from tacit knowledge to transformational leadership theory. As part of my broader work to develop/refine a theory of leader development, I have recently focused my attention on specific developmental experiences that seem to facilitate the development of leaders. This is largely qualitative research. I'm also attempting to identify potential natural experiments within these stories that may control for some of the more fundamental variables in my theory.

      Awards & Honors

    1. Emerald Literati Network Outstanding Paper Award: Won a 2010 Emerald Literati Network Award for Excellence for an Outstanding Paper in Leadership & Organization Development Journal for "Big Five Personality Factors, Hardiness, and Social Judgment as Predictors of Leader Performance" with Paul T. Bartone, Jarle Eid, Bjorn Helge Johnsen, and Jon Christian Laberg (2009).

    2. Sage-Louis Pondy Best Dissertation Paper Award: Winner of the Sage-Louis Pondy Best Dissertation Award in 1996 from the Academy of Management for "Practical Drift: The Friendly Fire Shootdown Over Northern Iraq" (Harvard Business School, 1996).

    3. George R. Terry Book Award: Winner of the 2002 George R. Terry Book Award from the Academy of Management for Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks Over Northern Iraq (Princeton University Press, 2000).