The Psychology of Everyday Work Life
This multi-year research program has identified specific daily events in organizations that influence the perceptions, emotions, motivation, and, ultimately, performance of individuals and teams expected to produce creative outcomes. The longitudinal data collection tracked a number of projects in which creativity was both possible and desirable. Project teams involved in the development of new products, services, or business initiatives were drawn from companies in the chemicals, high-technology, and consumer products industries. Data collection involved daily event-reporting by team members; daily self-ratings of their perceptions, emotions, and motivation; longer periodic motivation and work environment questionnaires; interviews; and independent assessments of creativity and other performance outcomes. All potentially relevant events--including individual work progress, intrateam interactions, project supervision, higher-level management behavior, interaction between teams and other organizational units, and extraorganizational events--were examined to identify specific events and contexts that foster or inhibit positive psychological experiences at work and the timely production of innovative outcomes. The research program's findings have been reported in both management publications and scholarly journals, and provide the basis for a number of teaching cases on entrepreneurial behavior within organizations. A book for business practitioners, The Progress Principle, summarizes the findings to date and their practical application.