| American Psychologist
Beyond Talent: John Irving and the Passionate Craft of Creativity
Although laypeople and creativity theorists often make the assumption that individual creativity depends primarily on talent, there is considerable evidence that hard work and intrinsic motivation-which can be supported or undermined by the social environment-also play central roles. In this article, the author uses the thoughts and work of the novelist John Irving to illustrate the prominence of nontalent components in the componential model of creativity.
Motivation and Incentives;
Situation or Environment;