Article | Academy of Management Perspectives | November 2013

Organizational Ambidexterity: Past, Present and Future

by Charles A. O'Reilly III and Michael Tushman


Organizational ambidexterity refers to the ability of an organization to both explore and exploit—to compete in mature technologies and markets where efficiency, control, and incremental improvement are prized and to also compete in new technologies and markets where flexibility, autonomy, and experimentation are needed. In the past 15 years there has been an explosion of interest and research on this topic. We briefly review the current state of the research, highlighting what we know and don't know about the topic. We close with a point of view on promising areas for ongoing research.

Keywords: Organizational ambidexterity; organization design; innovation; leadership; Leadership; Organizational Design; Innovation and Invention;


O'Reilly, Charles A., III, and Michael Tushman. "Organizational Ambidexterity: Past, Present and Future." Academy of Management Perspectives 27, no. 4 (November 2013): 324–338.