| Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery
Beyond Magic Bullets: True Innovation in Health Care
The molecular medicine revolution—based on advances in fields such as genomics and network modeling in the decade since the human genome sequence was completed—has changed the way we think about, study, and approach the development of novel therapies. However, these advances in knowledge have so far not been reflected in substantial medical progress in many areas. The problem is not due to a lack of resources or incentives, but a model of innovation that too often fragments efforts by treatment modality (drugs, devices, diagnostics, and clinical treatment). We may improve individual technologies of health care, but fail to provide integrated solutions. In this paper, we argue that innovation in health care needs to go "beyond the pill" and systematically integrate combinations of treatments. We discuss the implications of this approach for organizational and business models in the pharmaceutical industry.