Case | HBS Case Collection | January 2013 (Revised December 2013)

Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google

by John Deighton and Leora Kornfeld


Four businesses had, by 2012, grown to dominate the infrastructure that all firms rely on to reach online customers. Will the balance of power among the four persist, will one take command at the expense of the other three, or are all four more vulnerable than they seem to outside forces? What are the implications for the pace at which consumers go online? Amara's Law claims that we tend to overestimate change in the short run, and underestimate it in the long run.

Keywords: Online Technology; Internet; Competitive Advantage; Infrastructure; Mobile Technology; Growth and Development; Service Industry; Retail Industry; United States;


Deighton, John, and Leora Kornfeld. "Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google." Harvard Business School Case 513-060, January 2013. (Revised December 2013.) (request a courtesy copy.)