Article | Information Economics and Policy | March 2012

Advertising Disclosures: Measuring Labeling Alternatives in Internet Search Engines

by Benjamin Edelman and Duncan S. Gilchrist

Abstract

In an online experiment, we measure users' interactions with search engines, both in standard configurations and in modified versions with clearer labels identifying search engine advertisements. In particular, for a random subset of users, we change "Sponsored links" or "Ads" labels to instead read "Paid Advertisements." Relative to users receiving the "Sponsored link" or "Ad" labels, users receiving the "Paid Advertisement" label click 25% and 27% fewer advertisements, respectively. Users seeing "Paid Advertisement" labels also correctly report that they click fewer advertisements, controlling for the number of advertisements they actually click. Results are most pronounced for commercial searches and for vulnerable users with low education and little online experience.

Keywords: Corporate Disclosure; Online Advertising; Measurement and Metrics; Internet; Search Technology; Education; Labels;

Citation:

Edelman, Benjamin, and Duncan S. Gilchrist. "Advertising Disclosures: Measuring Labeling Alternatives in Internet Search Engines." Information Economics and Policy 24, no. 1 (March 2012): 75–89.